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PDFWAC 51-50-0602

Section 602Construction classification.

Table 602
Fire-resistance Rating Requirements for Exterior Walls Based on Fire Separation Distancea,d,g
Fire Separation Distance = X (feet)
Type of Construction
Occupancy Group He
Occupancy Group F-1, M, S-1f
Occupancy Group A, B, E, F-2, I, Ri,
S-2, Uh
X < 5b
All
3
2
1
5 ≤ X < 10
IA, IVA
3
2
1
 
Others
2
1
 
10 ≤ X < 30
IA, IB, IVA, IVB
2
1
1c
 
IIB, VB
1
0
0
 
Others
1
1
1c
X ≥ 30
All
0
0
0
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
 
a
Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601.
 
b
See Section 706.1.1 for party walls.
 
c
Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating.
 
d
The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior wall and the story in which the wall is located.
 
e
For special requirements for Group H occupancies, see Section 415.6.
 
f
For special requirements for Group S aircraft hangars, see Section 412.3.1.
 
g
Where Table 705.8 permits nonbearing exterior walls with unlimited area of unprotected openings, the required fire-resistance rating for the exterior walls is 0 hours.
 
h
For a building containing only a Group U occupancy private garage or carport, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating where the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1523 mm) or greater.
 
i
For a Group R-3 building of Type II-B or Type V-B construction, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating where the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1523 mm) or greater.
602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction is that type of construction in which the building elements are mass timber or noncombustible materials and have fire-resistance ratings in accordance with Table 601. Mass timber elements shall meet the fire-resistance rating requirements of this section based on either the fire-resistance rating of the noncombustible protection, the mass timber, or a combination of both and shall be determined in accordance with Section 703.2 or 703.3. The minimum dimensions and permitted materials for building elements shall comply with the provisions of this section including Section 2304.11. Mass timber elements of Types IV-A, IV-B and IV-C construction shall be protected with noncombustible protection applied directly to the mass timber in accordance with Sections 602.4.1 through 602.4.3. The time assigned to the noncombustible protection shall be determined in accordance with Section 703.8 and comply with 722.7.
Cross-laminated timber shall be labeled as conforming to ANSI/APA PRG 320 as referenced in Section 2303.1.4.
Exterior load-bearing walls and nonload-bearing walls shall be mass timber construction, or shall be of noncombustible construction.
EXCEPTION:
Exterior load-bearing walls and nonload-bearing walls of Type IV-HT Construction in accordance with Section 602.4.4.
The interior building elements, including nonload-bearing walls and partitions, shall be of mass timber construction or of noncombustible construction.
EXCEPTION:
Interior building elements and nonload-bearing walls and partitions of Type IV-HT Construction in accordance with Section 602.4.4.
Combustible concealed spaces are not permitted except as otherwise indicated in Sections 602.4.1 through 602.4.4. Combustible stud spaces within light frame walls of Type IV-HT construction shall not be considered concealed spaces, but shall comply with Section 718.
In buildings of Type IV-A, IV-B, and IV-C, construction with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department access, up to and including 12 stories or 180 feet above grade plane, mass timber interior exit and elevator hoistway enclosures shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2. In buildings greater than 12 stories or 180 feet above grade plane, interior exit and elevator hoistway enclosures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.
602.4.1 Type IV-A. Building elements in Type IV-A construction shall be protected in accordance with Sections 602.4.1.1 through 602.4.1.6. The required fire-resistance rating of noncombustible elements and protected mass timber elements shall be determined in accordance with Section 703.2 or Section 703.3.
602.4.1.1 Exterior protection. The outside face of exterior walls of mass timber construction shall be protected with noncombustible protection with a minimum assigned time of 40 minutes as determined in Section 722.7.1. All components of the exterior wall covering, shall be of noncombustible material except water resistive barriers having a peak heat release rate of less than 150 kW/m2, a total heat release of less than 20 MJ/m2 and an effective heat of combustion of less than 18 MJ/kg as determined in accordance with ASTM E1354 and having a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less as determined in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. The ASTM E1354 test shall be conducted on specimens at the thickness intended for use, in the horizontal orientation and at an incident radiant heat flux of 50 kW/m2.
602.4.1.2 Interior protection. Interior faces of all mass timber elements, including the inside faces of exterior mass timber walls and mass timber roofs, shall be protected with materials complying with Section 703.5.
602.4.1.2.1 Protection time. Noncombustible protection shall contribute a time equal to or greater than times assigned in Table 722.7.1(1), but not less than 80 minutes. The use of materials and their respective protection contributions listed in Table 722.7.1(2), shall be permitted to be used for compliance with Section 722.7.1.
602.4.1.3 Floors. The floor assembly shall contain a noncombustible material not less than 1 inch in thickness above the mass timber. Floor finishes in accordance with Section 804 shall be permitted on top of the noncombustible material. The underside of floor assemblies shall be protected in accordance with 602.4.1.2.
602.4.1.4 Roofs. The interior surfaces of roof assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2. Roof coverings in accordance with Chapter 15 shall be permitted on the outside surface of the roof assembly.
602.4.1.5 Concealed spaces. Concealed spaces shall not contain combustibles other than electrical, mechanical, fire protection, or plumbing materials and equipment permitted in plenums in accordance with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code, and shall comply with all applicable provisions of Section 718. Combustible construction forming concealed spaces shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2.
602.4.1.6 Shafts. Shafts shall be permitted in accordance with Sections 713 and 718. Both the shaft side and room side of mass timber elements shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2.
602.4.2 Type IV-B. Building elements in Type IV-B construction shall be protected in accordance with Sections 602.4.2.1 through 602.4.2.6. The required fire-resistance rating of noncombustible elements or mass timber elements shall be determined in accordance with Section 703.2 or 703.3.
602.4.2.1 Exterior protection. The outside face of exterior walls of mass timber construction shall be protected with noncombustible protection with a minimum assigned time of 40 minutes as determined in Section 722.7.1. All components of the exterior wall covering shall be of noncombustible material except water resistive barriers having a peak heat release rate of less than 150 kW/m2, a total heat release of less than 20 MJ/m2 and an effective heat of combustion of less than 18 MJ/kg as determined in accordance with ASTM E1354, and having a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less as determined in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. The ASTM E1354 test shall be conducted on specimens at the thickness intended for use, in the horizontal orientation and at an incident radiant heat flux of 50 kW/m2.
602.4.2.2 Interior protection. Interior faces of all mass timber elements, including the inside face of exterior mass timber walls and mass timber roofs, shall be protected, as required by this section, with materials complying with Section 703.5.
602.4.2.2.1 Protection time. Noncombustible protection shall contribute a time equal to or greater than times assigned in Table 722.7.1(1), but not less than 80 minutes. The use of materials and their respective protection contributions listed in Table 722.7.1(2), shall be permitted to be used for compliance with Section 722.7.1.
602.4.2.2.2 Protected area. All interior faces of all mass timber elements shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.2.2.1, including the inside face of exterior mass timber walls and mass timber roofs.
EXCEPTION:
Unprotected portions of mass timber ceilings and walls complying with Section 602.4.2.2.4 and the following:
 
1. Unprotected portions of mass timber ceilings, including attached beams, shall be permitted and shall be limited to an area equal to 20% of the floor area in any dwelling unit or fire area; or
 
2. Unprotected portions of mass timber walls, including attached columns, shall be permitted and shall be limited to an area equal to 40% of the floor area in any dwelling unit or fire area; or
 
3. Unprotected portions of both walls and ceilings of mass timber, including attached columns and beams, in any dwelling unit or fire area shall be permitted in accordance with Section 602.4.2.2.3.
 
4. Mass timber columns and beams which are not an integral portion of walls or ceilings, respectively, shall be permitted to be unprotected without restriction of either aggregate area or separation from one another.
602.4.2.2.3 Mixed unprotected areas. In each dwelling unit or fire area, where both portions of ceilings and portions of walls are unprotected, the total allowable unprotected area shall be determined in accordance with Equation 6-1.
(Equation 6-1)
(Utc/Uac) + (Utw/Uaw) ≤ 1
where:
 
Utc
=
Total unprotected mass timber ceiling areas;
 
Uac
=
Allowable unprotected mass timber ceiling area conforming to Section 602.4.2.2.2, Exception 1;
 
Utw
=
Total unprotected mass timber wall areas;
 
Uaw
=
Allowable unprotected mass timber wall area conforming to Section 602.4.2.2.2, Exception 2.
602.4.2.2.4 Separation distance between unprotected mass timber elements. In each dwelling unit or fire area, unprotected portions of mass timber walls and ceilings shall be not less than 15 feet from unprotected portions of other walls and ceilings, measured horizontally along the ceiling and from other unprotected portions of walls measured horizontally along the floor.
602.4.2.3 Floors. The floor assembly shall contain a noncombustible material not less than 1 inch in thickness above the mass timber. Floor finishes in accordance with Section 804 shall be permitted on top of the noncombustible material. The underside of floor assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2.
602.4.2.4 Roofs. The interior surfaces of roof assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.2.2 except, in nonoccupiable spaces, they shall be treated as a concealed space with no portion left unprotected. Roof coverings in accordance with Chapter 15 shall be permitted on the outside surface of the roof assembly.
602.4.2.5 Concealed spaces. Concealed spaces shall not contain combustibles other than electrical, mechanical, fire protection, or plumbing materials and equipment permitted in plenums in accordance with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code, and shall comply with all applicable provisions of Section 718. Combustible construction forming concealed spaces shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2.
602.4.2.6 Shafts. Shafts shall be permitted in accordance with Sections 713 and 718. Both the shaft side and room side of mass timber elements shall be protected in accordance with Section 602.4.1.2.
602.4.3 Type IV-C. Building elements in Type IV-C construction shall be protected in accordance with Sections 602.4.3.1 through 602.4.3.6. The required fire-resistance rating of building elements shall be determined in accordance with Sections 703.2 or 703.3.
602.4.3.1 Exterior protection. The exterior side of walls of combustible construction shall be protected with noncombustible protection with a minimum assigned time of 40 minutes as determined in Section 722.7.1. All components of the exterior wall covering, shall be of noncombustible material except water resistive barriers having a peak heat release rate of less than 150 kW/m2, a total heat release of less than 20 MJ/m2 and an effective heat of combustion of less than 18 MJ/kg as determined in accordance with ASTM E1354 and having a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less as determined in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. The ASTM E1354 test shall be conducted on specimens at the thickness intended for use, in the horizontal orientation and at an incident radiant heat flux of 50 kW/m2.
602.4.3.2 Interior protection. Mass timber elements are permitted to be unprotected.
602.4.3.3 Floors. Floor finishes in accordance with Section 804 shall be permitted on top of the floor construction.
602.4.3.4 Roofs. Roof coverings in accordance with Chapter 15 shall be permitted on the outside surface of the roof assembly.
602.4.3.5 Concealed spaces. Concealed spaces shall not contain combustibles other than electrical, mechanical, fire protection, or plumbing materials and equipment permitted in plenums in accordance with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code, and shall comply with all applicable provisions of Section 718. Combustible construction forming concealed spaces shall be protected with noncombustible protection with a minimum assigned time of 40 minutes as determined in Section 722.7.1.
602.4.3.6 Shafts. Shafts shall be permitted in accordance with Sections 713 and 718. Shafts and elevator hoistway and interior exit stairway enclosures shall be protected with noncombustible protection with a minimum assigned time of 40 minutes as determined in Section 722.7.1, on both the inside of the shaft and the outside of the shaft.
602.4.4 Type IV-HT. Type IV-HT construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of solid wood, laminated heavy timber or structural composite lumber (SCL), without concealed spaces. The minimum dimensions for permitted materials including solid timber, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber (SCL) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) and details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provisions of this section and Section 2304.11. Exterior walls complying with Section 602.4.4.1 or 602.4.4.2 shall be permitted. Interior walls and partitions not less than 1 hour fire-resistance rating or heavy timber conforming with Section 2304.11.2.2 shall be permitted.
602.4.4.1 Fire-retardant-treated wood in exterior walls. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing and sheathing complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior wall assemblies not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness with a 2-hour rating or less.
602.4.4.2 Cross-laminated timber in exterior walls. Cross-laminated timber complying with Section 2303.1.4 shall be permitted within exterior wall assemblies not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness with a 2-hour rating or less, provided the exterior surface of the cross-laminated timber is protected by one of the following:
1. Fire-retardant-treated wood sheathing complying with Section 2303.2 and not less than 15/32 inch (12 mm) thick;
2. Gypsum board not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick; or
3. A noncombustible material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27.031 and 19.27.074. WSR 20-21-021, § 51-50-0602, filed 10/9/20, effective 11/9/20; WSR 20-01-090, § 51-50-0602, filed 12/12/19, effective 7/1/20; WSR 19-02-038, § 51-50-0602, filed 12/26/18, effective 7/1/19.]
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