Chapter 458-20 WAC

Last Update: 4/30/19

EXCISE TAX RULES

WAC Sections

458-20-100Informal administrative reviews.
458-20-10001Adjudicative proceedings—Brief adjudicative proceedings—Certificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) revocation.
458-20-10002Adjudicative proceedings—Formal adjudicative proceedings—Log export enforcement actions pursuant to chapter 240-15 WAC—Orders to county officials issued to pursuant to RCW 84.08.120 and 84.41.120—Converted brief adjudicative proceedings.
458-20-10003Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to suspension, nonrenewal, and nonissuance of licenses to sell spirits.
458-20-10004Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to assessments and warrants for unpaid fees issued under chapter 59.30 RCW for manufactured and mobile home communities.
458-20-101Tax registration and tax reporting.
458-20-102Reseller permits.
458-20-10201Application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits.
458-20-10202Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to reseller permits.
458-20-102AResale certificates.
458-20-103Time and place of sale.
458-20-104Small business tax relief based on income of business.
458-20-105Employees distinguished from persons engaging in and operating a business.
458-20-106Casual or isolated sales—Business reorganizations.
458-20-107Requirement to separately state sales tax—Advertised prices including sales tax.
458-20-108Selling price—Credit card service fees, foreign currency, discounts, patronage dividends.
458-20-109Finance charges, carrying charges, interest, penalties.
458-20-110Delivery charges.
458-20-111Advances and reimbursements.
458-20-112Value of products.
458-20-113Ingredients or components, chemicals used in processing new articles for sale.
458-20-115Sales of packing materials and containers.
458-20-116Sales and/or use of labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material.
458-20-117Sales and/or use of dunnage.
458-20-118Sale or rental of real estate, license to use real estate.
458-20-119Sales by caterers and food service contractors.
458-20-120Sales of ice.
458-20-121Sales of heat or steam—Including production by cogeneration.
458-20-124Restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns and similar businesses.
458-20-12401Special stadium sales and use tax.
458-20-126Sales of motor vehicle fuel, special fuel, and nonpolluting fuel.
458-20-127Sales of newspapers, magazines and periodicals.
458-20-128Real estate brokers and salesmen.
458-20-129Gasoline service stations.
458-20-131Gambling activities.
458-20-132Automobile dealers/demonstrator and executive vehicles.
458-20-133Frozen food lockers.
458-20-134Commercial or industrial use.
458-20-135Extracting natural products.
458-20-13501Timber harvest operations.
458-20-136Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating.
458-20-13601Manufacturers and processors for hire—Sales and use tax exemptions for machinery and equipment.
458-20-138Personal services rendered to others.
458-20-139Trade shops—Printing plate makers, typesetters, and trade binderies.
458-20-140Photofinishers and photographers.
458-20-141Duplicating activities and mailing bureaus.
458-20-142Photographic equipment and supplies.
458-20-143Printers and publishers of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals.
458-20-144Printing industry.
458-20-145Local sales and use tax.
458-20-146National and state banks, mutual savings banks, savings and loan associations and other financial institutions.
458-20-14601Financial institutions—Income apportionment.
458-20-148Barber and beauty shops.
458-20-150Optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians.
458-20-151Dentists, audiologists, and other health care providers—Dental laboratories and dental technicians.
458-20-153Funeral establishments.
458-20-154Cemeteries, crematories, columbaria.
458-20-15501Taxation of computer systems and hardware.
458-20-15502Taxation of computer software.
458-20-15503Digital products.
458-20-156Abstract, title insurance and escrow businesses.
458-20-158Florists and nurserymen.
458-20-159Consignees, bailees, factors, agents and auctioneers.
458-20-160Agricultural commission agents.
458-20-162Stockbrokers and security houses.
458-20-163Insurance companies, including surety companies, fraternal benefit societies, fraternal fire insurance associations, beneficiary corporations or societies and Washington state health insurance pool.
458-20-164Insurance producers, adjusters—Title insurance agents—Surplus line brokers.
458-20-165Laundry, dry cleaning, linen and uniform supply, and self-service and coin-operated laundry services.
458-20-166Hotels, motels, boarding houses, rooming houses, resorts, hostels, trailer camps, short-term rentals and similar lodging businesses.
458-20-167Educational institutions, school districts, student organizations, and private schools.
458-20-168Hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, adult family homes and similar health care facilities.
458-20-169Nonprofit organizations.
458-20-170Constructing and repairing of new or existing buildings or other structures upon real property.
458-20-17001Government contracting—Construction, installations, or improvements to government real property.
458-20-171Building, repairing or improving streets, roads, etc., which are owned by a municipal corporation or political subdivision of the state or by the United States and which are used primarily for foot or vehicular traffic.
458-20-172Clearing land, moving earth, cleaning, fumigating, razing or moving existing buildings, and janitorial services.
458-20-173Installing, cleaning, repairing or otherwise altering or improving personal property of consumers.
458-20-174Sales of motor vehicles, trailers, and parts to motor carriers operating in interstate or foreign commerce.
458-20-17401Use tax liability for motor vehicles, trailers, and parts used by motor carriers operating in interstate or foreign commerce.
458-20-175Persons engaged in the business of operating as a private or common carrier by air, rail or water in interstate or foreign commerce.
458-20-176Commercial deep sea fishing—Commercial passenger fishing—Diesel fuel.
458-20-177Sales of motor vehicles, campers, and trailers to nonresident consumers.
458-20-178Use tax and the use of tangible personal property.
458-20-17802Collection of use tax by county auditors and department of licensing—Measure of tax.
458-20-17803Use tax on promotional material.
458-20-179Public utility tax.
458-20-17902Brokered natural gas—Use tax.
458-20-180Motor carriers.
458-20-181Vessels, including log patrols, tugs and barges, operating upon waters in the state of Washington.
458-20-182Warehouse businesses.
458-20-183Recreational services and activities.
458-20-185Tax on tobacco products.
458-20-186Tax on cigarettes.
458-20-187Tax responsibility of vending machine owners and operators.
458-20-18801Medical substances, devices, and supplies for humans—Drugs prescribed for human use—Medically prescribed oxygen—Prosthetic devices—Mobility enhancing equipment—Durable medical equipment.
458-20-189Sales to and by the state of Washington and municipal corporations, including counties, cities, towns, school districts, and fire districts.
458-20-190Sales to and by the United States and certain entities created by the United States—Doing business on federal reservations—Sales to foreign governments.
458-20-192Indians—Indian country.
458-20-193Interstate sales of tangible personal property.
458-20-19301Multiple activities tax credits.
458-20-193CImports and exports—Sales of goods from or to persons in foreign countries.
458-20-193DTransportation, communication, public utility activities, or other services in interstate or foreign commerce.
458-20-194Doing business inside and outside the state.
458-20-19401Minimum nexus thresholds for apportionable activities and selling activities.
458-20-19402Single factor receipts apportionment—Generally.
458-20-19403Apportionable royalty receipts attribution.
458-20-19404Financial institutions—Income apportionment.
458-20-19404AFinancial institutions—Income apportionment.
458-20-195Taxes, deductibility.
458-20-196Bad debts.
458-20-197When tax liability arises.
458-20-198Installment sales, method of reporting.
458-20-199Accounting methods.
458-20-200Leased departments.
458-20-201Interdepartmental charges.
458-20-202Pool purchases.
458-20-203Corporations, Massachusetts trusts.
458-20-204Outdoor advertising and advertising display services.
458-20-205Sales of utility services by building companies.
458-20-207Legal, arbitration, and mediation services.
458-20-208Exemptions for wholesale sales of new motor vehicles between new car dealers and for accommodation sales.
458-20-209Farming for hire and horticultural services performed for farmers.
458-20-210Sales of tangible personal property for farming—Sales of agricultural products by farmers.
458-20-211Leases or rentals of tangible personal property, bailments.
458-20-214Cooperative marketing associations and independent dealers acting as agents of others with respect to the sale of fruit and produce.
458-20-216Successors, quitting business.
458-20-217Lien for taxes.
458-20-21701Enhanced collection tools.
458-20-218Advertising agencies.
458-20-221Collection of use tax by retailers and selling agents.
458-20-222Veterinarians.
458-20-223Persons performing contracts on the basis of time and material, or cost-plus-fixed-fee.
458-20-224Service and other business activities.
458-20-226Landscape and horticultural services.
458-20-227Subscriber television services.
458-20-228Returns, payments, penalties, extensions, interest, stays of collection.
458-20-22801Tax reporting frequency.
458-20-22802Electronic filing and payment.
458-20-229Refunds.
458-20-230Statutory limitations on assessments.
458-20-233Tax liability of medical and hospital service bureaus and associations and similar health care organizations.
458-20-235Effect of rate changes on prior contracts and sales agreements.
458-20-236Baseball clubs and other sport organizations.
458-20-238Sales of watercraft to nonresidents—Use of watercraft in Washington by nonresidents.
458-20-239Sales to nonresidents of farm machinery or implements, and related services.
458-20-240Manufacturer's new employee tax credits—Applications filed after June 30, 2010.
458-20-24001Sales and use tax deferral—Manufacturing and research/development activities in high unemployment counties—Applications filed after June 30, 2010.
458-20-24001ASales and use tax deferral—Manufacturing and research/development activities in rural counties—Applications filed prior to July 1, 2010.
458-20-24003Tax incentives for high technology businesses.
458-20-240AManufacturer's new employee tax credits—Applications filed prior to July 1, 2010.
458-20-241Radio and television broadcasting.
458-20-242APollution control exemption and/or credits for single purpose facilities added to existing production plants to meet pollution control requirements and which are separately identifiable equipment principally for pollution control.
458-20-242BPollution control exemption and/or credits for dual purpose facilities which are constructed to meet pollution control requirements and which achieve pollution control in the process of production of the plant's products.
458-20-243Litter tax.
458-20-244Food and food ingredients.
458-20-245Taxation of competitive telephone service, telecommunications service, and ancillary service.
458-20-246Sales to or through a direct seller's representative.
458-20-247Trade-ins, selling price, sellers' tax measures.
458-20-248Sales of precious metal bullion and monetized bullion.
458-20-249Artistic or cultural organizations.
458-20-250Solid waste collection tax.
458-20-251Sewerage collection and other related activities.
458-20-252Hazardous substance tax.
458-20-254Recordkeeping.
458-20-255Carbonated beverage syrup tax.
458-20-256Trade shows, conventions and seminars.
458-20-257Tangible personal property warranties and service contracts.
458-20-258Travel agents and tour operators.
458-20-260Oil spill response and administration tax.
458-20-261Commute trip reduction incentives.
458-20-262Retail sales and use tax exemptions for agricultural employee housing.
458-20-263Exemptions from retail sales and use taxes for qualifying electric generating systems using renewable energy sources.
458-20-264National Uniform Tobacco Settlement.
458-20-265Sales and use tax exemption—Airplane maintenance repair stations.
458-20-267Annual tax performance reports for certain tax preferences.
458-20-267AAnnual reports for certain tax preferences.
458-20-268Annual surveys for certain tax preferences.
458-20-269Waiver of public disclosure of certain new tax preferences.
458-20-270Telephone program excise tax rates.
458-20-272Tire fee—Studded tire fee—Core deposits or credits.
458-20-274Staffing services.
458-20-277Certified service providers—Compensation.
458-20-27701Model 2 volunteer sellers—Compensation.
458-20-27702Taxpayer relief—Sourcing compliance—One thousand dollar credit and certified service provider compensation for small businesses.
458-20-278Returned goods, defective goods—Motor vehicle lemon law.
458-20-279Clean alternative fuel vehicles and high gas mileage vehicles.
GENERAL RULE: TAX AVOIDANCE
458-20-280Introduction.
458-20-28001Construction joint ventures and similar arrangements described in RCW 82.32.655 (3)(a).
458-20-28002Disguised income arrangements described in RCW 82.32.655 (3)(b).
458-20-28003Sales and use tax avoidance arrangements described in RCW 82.32.655 (3)(c).
458-20-281Petroleum product tax.
DISPOSITION OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS TITLE
458-20-10101Business licensing service—Total fee payable—Handling of fees. [Statutory Authority: 2013 c 4, 2011 c 298, RCW 19.02.030 and 19.02.075. WSR 13-17-048, § 458-20-10101, filed 8/13/13, effective 10/1/13. Statutory Authority: 2011 c 298 and RCW 19.02.075. WSR 12-04-060, amended and recodified as § 458-20-10101, filed 1/30/12, effective 3/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.02.030(3). WSR 10-13-039, § 308-300-160, filed 6/8/10, effective 7/9/10; Order 476-DOL, § 308-300-160, filed 12/30/77.] Repealed by WSR 14-08-010, filed 3/20/14, effective 4/20/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).
458-20-114Nonbusiness income—Bona fide initiation fees, dues, contributions, tuition fees and endowment funds. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 86-02-039 (Order ET 85-8), § 458-20-114, filed 12/31/85; WSR 84-08-012 (Order 84-1), § 458-20-114, filed 3/27/84; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-114 (Rule 114), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 95-22-099, filed 11/1/95, effective 12/2/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-122Sales of feed, seed, fertilizer, spray materials, and other tangible personal property for farm use. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 94-07-049, § 458-20-122, filed 3/10/94, effective 4/10/94; WSR 86-21-085 (Order ET 86-18), § 458-20-122, filed 10/17/86; WSR 86-09-058 (Order ET 86-7), § 458-20-122, filed 4/17/86; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-122 (Rule 122), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 03-18-024, filed 8/25/03, effective 9/25/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2), 82.32.300, and 34.05.230. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-210.
458-20-123Public and lending libraries. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-123, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-123 (Rule 123), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-167 and 458-20-189.
458-20-125Miscellaneous sales for farm use. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-125, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-125 (Rule 125), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 94-07-051, filed 3/10/94, effective 4/10/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-130Sales of real property, standing timber, minerals, natural resources. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 87-19-007 (Order ET 87-5), § 458-20-130, filed 9/8/87; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-130, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-130 (Rule 130), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 00-22-034, filed 10/25/00, effective 11/25/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-137Articles manufactured and installed. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-137, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-137 (Rule 137), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 98-01-111, filed 12/18/97, effective 1/18/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-147Public stenographers. [Order ET 73-1, § 458-20-147, filed 11/2/73; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-147 (Rule 147), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-138 and 458-20-224.
458-20-149Jewelry repair shops. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-149 (Rule 149), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 93-03-005, filed 1/8/93, effective 2/8/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-152Shoe repairmen and shoe shiners. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-152 (Rule 152), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-173.
458-20-155Information and computer services. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 85-20-012 (Order ET 85-4), § 458-20-155, filed 9/20/85; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-155 (Rule 155), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 13-06-015, filed 2/25/13, effective 3/28/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.200 and 82.01.060.
458-20-157Producers of poultry and hatching eggs. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 86-21-085 (Order ET 86-18), § 458-20-157, filed 10/17/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 78-07-045 (Order ET 78-4), § 458-20-157, filed 6/27/78; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-157 (Rule 157), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 99-08-005, filed 3/25/99, effective 4/25/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-161Persons buying or producing wheat, oats, dry peas, corn, barley, dry beans, lentils and triticale and making sales thereof. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-161, filed 3/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 78-07-045 (Order ET 78-4), § 458-20-161, filed 6/27/78; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-161 (Rule 161), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 00-22-035, filed 10/25/00, effective 11/25/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-17901Public utility tax—Energy conservation and cogeneration deductions. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 93-07-066, § 458-20-17901, filed 3/17/93, effective 4/17/93; WSR 86-01-077 (Order 85-7), § 458-20-17901, filed 12/18/85.] Repealed by WSR 13-14-121, filed 7/3/13, effective 8/3/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2) and chapter 82.16 RCW. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-179.
458-20-184Tax on conveyances repealed. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 87-19-007 (Order ET 87-5), § 458-20-184, filed 9/8/87; WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-184, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-184 (Rule 184), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 97-21-022, filed 10/7/97, effective 11/7/97. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-18601Wholesale and retail cigarette vendor licenses. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 95-07-068, § 458-20-18601, filed 3/14/95, effective 4/14/95; WSR 92-06-081, § 458-20-18601, filed 3/4/92, effective 4/4/92.] Repealed by WSR 05-02-035, filed 12/30/04, effective 1/30/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.24.235, 82.32.300, and 82.01.060(1).
458-20-188Slot machines, pinball machines and other mechanical devices wherein an element of skill or of chance involves a pay-out to the player. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-188 (Rule 188), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by Order ET 73-1, filed 11/2/73. See chapter 218, Laws of 1973 1st ex. sess. for taxability of persons operating the machines or devices previously covered by this rule. See WAC 458-20-187.
458-20-191Federal reservations. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-191, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 75-1, § 458-20-191, filed 5/2/75; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-191 (Rule 191), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 05-03-002, filed 1/5/05, effective 2/5/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(1), and 34.05.230. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-190.
458-20-193ASales of goods originating in Washington to persons in other states. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-193A, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-193A (Rule 193 Part A), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 91-24-020, filed 11/22/91, effective 1/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-193.
458-20-193BSales of goods originating in other states to persons in Washington. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 89-06-015 (Order 89-3), § 458-20-193B, filed 2/23/89; WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-193B, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 74-1, § 458-20-193B, filed 5/7/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-193B (Rule 193 Part B), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 91-24-020, filed 11/22/91, effective 1/1/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-193.
458-20-19405CPI-U adjustments to minimum nexus thresholds for apportionable activities. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.04.067, 82.32.300, and 82.01.060(2). WSR 13-22-044, § 458-20-19405, filed 10/31/13, effective 12/1/13.] Repealed by WSR 15-04-004, filed 1/22/15, effective 2/22/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2) and RCW 82.04.067, 82.04.460, and 82.04.462.
458-20-206Use tax, fuel oil, oil products, other extracted products. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-206, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-206 (Rule 206), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 99-08-005, filed 3/25/99, effective 4/25/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-212Insurance adjusters. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-212 (Rule 212), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 12-11-006, filed 5/3/12, effective 6/3/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).
458-20-213Oil company bulk station agents. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-213 (Rule 213), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 00-22-034, filed 10/25/00, effective 11/25/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-215Auditing out-of-state business. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-215, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-215 (Rule 215), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-254.
458-20-219Patronage dividends of cooperative associations, not deductible. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-219, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-219 (Rule 219), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-220Painting, paper hanging, and sign painting. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-220 (Rule 220), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 92-23-021, filed 11/10/92, effective 12/11/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. Later promulgation, see WAC 458-20-170, 458-20-17001, 458-20-171 and 458-20-173.
458-20-225Pattern makers. [Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-225 (Rule 225), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 99-08-005, filed 3/25/99, effective 4/25/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-231Tax on internal distribution. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 99-02-055, § 458-20-231, filed 1/5/99, effective 2/5/99; WSR 90-23-020, § 458-20-231, filed 11/14/90, effective 12/15/90; WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-231, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-231 (Rule 231), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 03-09-062, filed 4/14/03, effective 5/15/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).
458-20-232Sales of intoxicating liquor. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-232, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 73-1, § 458-20-232, filed 11/2/73; Order ET 71-1, § 458-20-232, filed 7/22/71; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-232 (Rule 232), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 96-21-142, filed 10/23/96, effective 11/23/96. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 34.05.354.
458-20-234Business tax on flour millers, manufacturers of soybean or sunflower oil. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-08-026 (Order ET 83-1), § 458-20-234, filed 3/30/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-234 (Rule 234), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 00-22-035, filed 10/25/00, effective 11/25/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-237Retail sales tax collection schedules. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-05-038, § 458-20-237, filed 2/13/91, effective 3/16/91; WSR 83-09-028 (Order ET 83-2), § 458-20-237, filed 4/15/83; WSR 82-16-061 (Order ET 82-7), § 458-20-237, filed 7/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.08.060. WSR 82-06-020 (Order 82-1), § 458-20-237, filed 2/24/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.08.060 and 82.14.070. WSR 81-01-099 (Order 80-5), § 458-20-237, filed 12/23/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.08.060, 82.14.070 and 82.32.300. WSR 79-06-036 (Order ET 79-1), § 458-20-237, filed 5/17/79, effective 7/1/79; Order ET 76-2, § 458-20-237, filed 5/19/76; Order ET 72-3, § 458-20-237, filed 11/30/72; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-237 (Rule 237), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.] Repealed by WSR 00-22-034, filed 10/25/00, effective 11/25/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-24002Sales and use tax deferral—New manufacturing and research/development facilities. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-070, § 458-20-24002, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 88-17-047 (Order 88-5), § 458-20-24002, filed 8/16/88; WSR 87-19-007 (Order ET 87-5), § 458-20-24002, filed 9/8/87; WSR 86-14-019 (Order ET 86-13), § 458-20-24002, filed 6/24/86; WSR 85-21-013 (Order ET 85-5), § 458-20-24002, filed 10/7/85.] Repealed by WSR 10-23-057, filed 11/10/10, effective 12/11/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).
458-20-242Pollution control exemption and/or credits. (Rule 242) [Recodified as § 458-20-242A and 458-20-242B.]
458-20-253Mobile homes and mobile home park fee. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 89-21-002, § 458-20-253, filed 10/5/89, effective 11/5/89; WSR 89-01-033 (Order 88-8), § 458-20-253, filed 12/13/88.] Repealed by WSR 98-01-111, filed 12/18/97, effective 1/18/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-259Small timber harvesters—Business and occupation tax exemption. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 98-16-107, § 458-20-259, filed 8/5/98, effective 9/5/98; WSR 90-17-007, § 458-20-259, filed 8/3/90, effective 9/3/90.] Repealed by WSR 01-15-072, filed 7/17/01, effective 8/17/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300.
458-20-273Renewable energy system cost recovery. [Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-273, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060, 82.16.110, 82.16.120, and 82.16.130. WSR 14-03-081, § 458-20-273, filed 1/15/14, effective 2/15/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060. WSR 10-17-004, § 458-20-273, filed 8/5/10, effective 9/5/10; WSR 06-16-097, § 458-20-273, filed 7/31/06, effective 8/31/06.] Repealed by WSR 19-02-057, filed 12/27/18, effective 1/27/19. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2).
458-20-99999Appendix—The Buck Act. Repealed by WSR 05-03-002, filed 1/5/05, effective 2/5/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(1), and 34.05.230.


458-20-100
Informal administrative reviews.

(1) Introduction. RCW 82.01.060(4) requires that the department "provide by general regulations for an adequate system of departmental review of the actions of the department or of its officers and employees in the assessment or collection of taxes." RCW 82.32.160 allows taxpayers to petition for correction of taxes, interest, or penalties assessed by the department. RCW 82.32.170 allows taxpayers to petition for a determination as to whether a refund request was properly denied. Under authority of these statutes, the department provides an informal, nonadversarial administrative review of these actions. The department will make such determination and resolve matters as may appear to the department to be just and lawful under its statutory authority. The department's administrative review is designed to be an expeditious and less costly means of review as compared to the costs of an independent review by the board of tax appeals (BTA) or a refund action in superior court.
Before requesting review, taxpayers are encouraged to request a supervisor's conference when they disagree with an action proposed by the department. Taxpayers should make their request for the conference with the division of the department that proposes to issue an assessment or take some other action in dispute. Supervisor's conferences can frequently resolve issues prior to the informal administrative review explained in this rule.
(a) Departmental actions subject to informal administrative review under this rule. Actions subject to the department's informal administrative review include, but are not limited to:
(i) An assessment of tax, interest, or penalties;
(ii) The denial of a refund, credit, or deferral request;
(iii) The issuance of a balance due notice or a notice of delinquent taxes, including a notice of collection action; and
(iv) The issuance of an adverse ruling on future liability from the taxpayer information and education (TI&E) section.
(b) Departmental actions subject to formal administrative appeal. The informal review provided under this rule should be distinguished from a formal administrative appeal subject to the Administrative Procedure Act (chapter 34.05 RCW). A person may submit a formal administrative appeal of certain actions by the department. Refer to the following rules for information regarding the actions for which the department conducts formal administrative appeal proceedings:
(i) WAC 458-20-10001 for information regarding an appeal of:
• A revocation of a certificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) under RCW 82.32.215;
(ii) WAC 458-20-10002 for information regarding an appeal of:
• Log export enforcement actions pursuant to chapter 240-15 WAC; or
• Orders to county officials issued under RCW 84.08.120 and 84.41.120;
(iii) WAC 458-20-10003 for information regarding an appeal of:
• A departmental request to the liquor and cannabis board to suspend, not renew, or not issue a spirits license as defined in RCW 66.24.010 (3)(c);
(iv) WAC 458-20-10004 for information regarding an appeal of the assessment of:
• The one-time business license application fee or annual renewal application fee in RCW 59.30.050 (3)(a);
• The annual registration assessment fee in RCW 59.30.050 (3)(b); or
• The delinquency fee in RCW 59.30.050(4);
(v) WAC 458-20-10202 for information regarding an appeal of:
• Matters relating to the denial or revocation of reseller permits; or
(vi) WAC 458-20-273 for information regarding an appeal of:
• The denial or revocation of a renewable energy system certification; or
• The denial or revocation of a manufacturer's certification of a solar inverter, solar module, wind generator blade, or stirling converter qualifying as made in Washington state.
(2) How are informal reviews started? A taxpayer starts a review of a departmental action by filing a written petition. A petition must be sent to one of the following:
DORARHDadmin@dor.wa.gov
or
Administrative Review and Hearings Division
Washington State Department of Revenue
6400 Linderson Way S.W.
P.O. Box 47460
Olympia, Washington 98504-7460
or
(a) Information required in a petition. A form petition is available on the department's web site at http://dor.wa.gov or upon request from the administrative review and hearings division. Taxpayers may use the form petition or prepare one of their own. The taxpayer or its authorized representative must sign the petition, which must contain the following information:
(i) The taxpayer's name, address, registration/UBI number, telephone number, fax number, email address, and contact person;
(ii) If represented, the representative's name, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address;
(iii) Identifying information from the assessment notice, balance due notice, or other document related to the action being reviewed;
(iv) The amount of tax, interest, or penalties in controversy, and the time period at issue, however, if, in the case of a denied refund request, the amount of interest or penalties is not known, the amount of the tax in controversy;
(v) The type of review requested (see subsection (4) of this rule);
(vi) Whether the taxpayer requests an in-person hearing in Olympia or Seattle, a telephone hearing, or no hearing; and
(vii) A description of each issue or area of dispute and an explanation why each issue or area of dispute should be resolved as the taxpayer requests. To the extent known or available, a taxpayer should cite applicable statutes, rules, other public guidance issued by the department, and case law that support the taxpayer's position. The taxpayer should also submit with the petition documents supporting the taxpayer's position, including:
• Contracts and invoices previously requested and not provided; or
• Documents not previously provided that the taxpayer believes substantiate the taxpayer's claims.
(b) Incomplete petition. If a petition does not provide the required information identified in subsection (2)(a) of this rule, the department will notify the taxpayer in writing that the petition is incomplete and not accepted for review. The notice will provide a period of time for the taxpayer to provide the required petition information. If the requested information is timely provided, the petition will be treated as timely filed and accepted for review.
(c) Authorization required for taxpayer's representative. If a taxpayer is represented, the taxpayer must have on file with the department a confidential tax information authorization (CTIA) for that representative. Without a CTIA on file, the department cannot share confidential taxpayer information with the representative.
(3) To be timely, when must a petition be filed or an extension requested? A taxpayer must file a petition with the department within thirty days after the date the departmental action has occurred.
(a) The department may grant an extension of time to file a petition if the taxpayer's request is made within the thirty-day filing period. Requests for extensions must be in writing. A petition or request for extension is timely if it is postmarked or received within the thirty-day period.
Requests must be in writing to either the email or mailing address noted in subsection (2) of this rule.
(b) The department will not grant an extension of time to file a petition for review of a denied refund that would exceed the time limits in WAC 458-20-229 (Refunds). As explained in WAC 458-20-229, a request for a refund of taxes paid must be filed within four years after the close of the calendar year in which the taxes were paid.
(c) The department will notify taxpayers in writing when a petition is rejected as not timely.
(4) What are the different types of informal reviews? The agency conducts four different types of informal reviews.
(a) Mainstream review. This is the most common type of review. A review is treated as a mainstream review unless it fits within (b) through (d) of this subsection.
(b) Small claims review. When the tax at issue in the review is twenty-five thousand dollars or less and the total amount of the tax plus penalties and interest at issue is fifty thousand dollars or less, the review will normally be assigned as a small claims review, unless the complexity of the issues requires assignment to another category.
The department will issue an abbreviated written determination in a small claims review. This determination is the final action of the department.
(c) Executive level review.
(i) If a review involves an issue of first impression (one for which no agency precedent has been established) or an issue that has industry-wide significance or impact, a taxpayer may request that the review be considered at the executive level. The request must specify the reasons why an executive level review is appropriate. The department will grant or deny the request and will notify the taxpayer of that decision in writing. If granted, the director or the director's designee and a tax review officer will conduct an executive level hearing. The department, on its own initiative, may also choose to consider a review at the executive level.
(ii) Following the executive level hearing, the department will issue a proposed determination, which becomes final thirty days from the date of issuance unless the taxpayer files an objection to the proposed determination within that thirty-day period. Objections must specify mistakes in law or fact contained in the proposed determination, and should also provide legal authority as to why those mistakes necessitate a change to the proposed determination. Unless an extension is granted, objections must be postmarked or received by the department within thirty days from the date the proposed determination was issued. The department will issue the final determination, which may or may not reflect changes based on the objections. Although rare, the tax review officer and the director's designee, in consultation with the director, may grant a second executive level hearing on the objections. The determination in an executive level review is the final action of the department.
(d) Tax rulings issued by TI&E section. Review of a tax ruling is limited to the documents and records reviewed by TI&E and any written statements included with the petition. This review is limited to correcting an error that occurred in the course of the tax ruling process. A written determination will be issued following review of all timely submissions without a hearing. The determination is the final decision of the department. It is not eligible for reconsideration and not appealable to the board of tax appeals under RCW 82.03.130 (1)(a) or 82.03.190.
(5) The review process. The department will acknowledge receipt of the petition and identify the tax review officer assigned to the review.
(a) Role and responsibility of tax review officers. Tax review officers are attorneys trained in the interpretation of the Revenue Act, public guidance issued by the department, and precedents established by prior rulings and court decisions. The department's tax review officers are employed by the department to determine whether the appropriate departmental procedures and interpretations of law have been correctly applied to the issue(s). They are responsible for providing a departmental (not independent) review. This responsibility includes additional research about the taxpayer's activities related to the tax issue under review when necessary.
(b) Scheduling. The department will notify the taxpayer or taxpayer's representative of the time and place for the review hearing, if any, and establish timelines for the submission of additional documents and written arguments. Before a submission date has passed, the taxpayer may request an extension, which the tax review officer may grant at the tax review officer's discretion. If a taxpayer fails to comply with a scheduling letter or any extension, the tax review officer may dismiss the petition or decline to consider arguments or documents submitted after the scheduled timelines. A tax review officer may also contact the taxpayer to clarify or narrow issues or request more information as needed for the orderly resolution of the case.
(c) Taxpayer requests to provide additional materials. If a taxpayer asks to submit additional documents or written arguments after the deadlines established in the scheduling letter, or any extension thereof, the taxpayer must explain why they could not have been submitted in a timely manner. The tax review officer has the discretion to allow late submissions by the taxpayer. If additional documents or written argument is allowed by the tax review officer after the hearing, they must be submitted within thirty days of the hearing. The tax review officer has the discretion to allow additional time for submitting additional documents or further fact-finding, including scheduling an additional hearing, as necessary in a particular case.
(d) Informal review hearings. The hearing is an opportunity to discuss the documents and arguments submitted and to clarify the reasons why the taxpayer believes it is entitled to receive the requested relief. No record is made of the hearing. The hearing is not open to the general public. Any person attending the hearing is not placed under oath. The tax review officer has the discretion to decide the case without a hearing if legal or factual issues are not in dispute, or the taxpayer fails to appear at a scheduled hearing or otherwise fails to respond to inquiries from the department. The taxpayer may appear personally or may be represented by an attorney, accountant, or any other authorized person. All hearings before a tax review officer are conducted informally and in a nonadversarial manner.
(e) Issuing a determination. Following the hearing, if any, and review of all materials, the department will issue a determination consistent with the applicable statutes, rules, other public guidance issued by the department, case law, and department precedents. The tax review officer will notify the taxpayer of this decision in writing.
(f) Additional information or research identified by the department. The tax review officer may identify additional facts or novel legal arguments not previously communicated to the taxpayer. In this event, the tax review officer will provide the taxpayer with an opportunity to respond.
(g) Determination is final decision by the department. The determination is the final decision of the department and is binding upon the taxpayer unless a petition for reconsideration is timely filed by the taxpayer and accepted by the department. All determinations issued by the department, except those issued for a review of a TI&E tax ruling (subsection (4)(d) of this rule), are appealable to the board of tax appeals (BTA) or, alternatively, the Thurston County superior court. See subsections (8) and (9) of this rule for additional information.
(6) Request for reconsideration. If a taxpayer believes that an error has been made in a mainstream determination, the taxpayer may, within thirty days of the issuance of the determination, petition in writing for reconsideration of the decision. Only determinations issued from mainstream reviews are subject to reconsideration. The request for reconsideration must specify mistakes in law or fact contained in the determination and should also provide legal authority as to why those mistakes necessitate the reconsideration of the determination. Any new documents and explanations must be included with the petition.
The department may grant or deny the request for reconsideration. If the request is denied, the department will send to the taxpayer written notice of the denial and the reason for the denial. The denial is then the final action of the department. If the request is granted, although rare, the tax review officer may hold a reconsideration hearing or a determination may be issued without a hearing. A reconsideration determination is the final action of the department.
A taxpayer may request an executive level reconsideration when the determination decided an issue of first impression or an issue that has industry-wide impact or significance. The request for executive reconsideration must also specify the reasons why executive level review is appropriate. Any new documents and explanations must be included with the petition. The department will grant or deny the request and will notify the taxpayer of that decision in writing.
(7) Settlements. At any time during the department's review process, the taxpayer or the department may propose to compromise the matter by settlement. A taxpayer interested in proposing settlement of a dispute must submit a written offer to the department to the address noted in subsection (2) of this rule. The taxpayer or its authorized representative must sign the offer. A settlement offer may be made with the review petition or at any time during the review process. All documents needed to evaluate the offer must be submitted with the offer.
(a) When will the department consider an offer? Settlement may be appropriate when:
(i) The issue is nonrecurring. An issue is nonrecurring when the law has changed so future periods are treated differently than the periods under appeal; or the taxpayer's position or business activity has changed so that in future periods the issue under consideration is changed or does not exist; or the taxpayer agrees to a prospective change;
(ii) A conflict exists between precedents, such as statutes, rules, other public guidance issued by the department, or specific written instructions to the taxpayer;
(iii) A strict application of the law would have unduly harsh consequences which may be only relieved by an equitable doctrine; or
(iv) There is uncertainty of the outcome if the matter were presented to a court.
(b) When will the department not consider an offer? Settlement is not appropriate when:
(i) The same issue raised by the taxpayer is being litigated by the department;
(ii) The taxpayer presents issues that have no basis upon which relief for the taxpayer can be granted or given. Settlement will not be considered if the taxpayer's offer of settlement is simply to eliminate the inconvenience or cost of further negotiation or litigation, and is not based upon the merits of the case;
(iii) The taxpayer's only argument is that a statute is unconstitutional; or
(iv) The taxpayer's only argument is financial hardship. If a taxpayer claims financial hardship, the tax review officer may refer the matter to the department's compliance division.
(c) The closing agreement. If the taxpayer and the department reach agreement, a settlement is concluded by a closing agreement signed by both the department and the taxpayer as provided by RCW 82.32.350. A closing agreement is binding on both parties as provided in RCW 82.32.360. A closing agreement has no precedential value.
(8) Appeals to board of tax appeals. A taxpayer may appeal a denial of a petition for correction of an assessment under RCW 82.32.160 or a denial of a petition for refund under RCW 82.32.170 to the board of tax appeals. The BTA also has jurisdiction to hear appeals taken from department decisions rendered under RCW 82.34.110 (relating to pollution control facilities tax exemptions and credits) and RCW 82.49.060 (relating to watercraft excise tax). The BTA does not have jurisdiction to hear appeals from determinations involving rulings of future tax liability issued by TI&E. See RCW 82.03.130 (1)(a) and 82.03.190. A taxpayer filing an appeal with the BTA must pay the tax by the due date, unless arrangements are made with the department for a stay of collection under RCW 82.32.200. See WAC 458-20-228 (Returns, remittances, penalties, extensions, interest, stay of collection).
(9) Thurston County superior court. A taxpayer may also pay the tax in dispute and petition for a refund in Thurston County superior court. The taxpayer must comply with the requirements of RCW 82.32.180.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 17-08-002, § 458-20-100, filed 3/22/17, effective 4/22/17; WSR 16-06-013, § 458-20-100, filed 2/18/16, effective 4/1/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060 (2) and (4). WSR 05-20-036, § 458-20-100, filed 9/29/05, effective 11/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 90-24-049, § 458-20-100, filed 11/30/90, effective 1/1/91; WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-100, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 75-1, § 458-20-100, filed 5/2/75; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-100 (Rule 100), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-10001
Adjudicative proceedingsBrief adjudicative proceedingsCertificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) revocation.

(1) Introduction. The department of revenue (department) has adopted the procedure for brief adjudicative proceedings provided in RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494, except for RCW 34.05.491(5), for actions involving revocation of a certificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) pursuant to RCW 82.32.215. This rule explains the procedure for these brief adjudicative proceedings. This rule does not apply to the following:
• Adjudicative proceedings under WAC 458-20-10002, which addresses converted brief adjudicative proceedings and formal adjudicative proceedings relating to log export enforcements;
• Nonadjudicative proceedings under RCW 82.32.160 and 82.32.170, and WAC 458-20-100;
• Enforcement proceedings under RCW 82.24.550 and 82.26.220; and
• Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters relating to the revocation of reseller permits under WAC 458-20-102.
The department has not adopted RCW 34.05.491(5), which provides that a request for administrative review is deemed to have been denied if the agency does not make a disposition of the matter within twenty days after the request is submitted.
(2) Brief adjudicative proceedings - Procedure. The following procedure applies to the department's brief adjudicative proceedings for actions involving revocation of a certificate of registration, unless the matter is converted to a formal proceeding as provided in subsection (8) of this rule.
(a) Notice. The department will set the time and place of the hearing. Written notice shall be served upon the taxpayer(s) at least seven days before the date of the hearing. Service is to be made pursuant to subsection (5)(a) of this rule. The notice must include:
(i) The names and addresses of each taxpayer to whom the proceedings apply and, if known, the names and addresses of the taxpayer's representative(s), if any;
(ii) The mailing address and the telephone number of the person or office designated to represent the department in the proceeding;
(iii) The official file or other reference number and the name of the proceeding;
(iv) The name, official title, mailing address and telephone number of the presiding officer, if known;
(v) A statement of the time, place and nature of the proceeding;
(vi) A statement of the legal authority and jurisdiction under which the hearing is to be held;
(vii) A reference to the particular sections of the statutes and/or rules involved;
(viii) A short and plain statement of the matters asserted by the department against the taxpayer and the potential action to be taken; and
(ix) A statement that if the taxpayer fails to attend or participate in a hearing, the hearing can proceed and that adverse action may be taken against the taxpayer.
(x) When the department is notified or otherwise made aware that a limited-English-speaking person is a person to whom the proceedings apply, all notices, including the notice of hearing, continuance and dismissal, must either be in the primary language of that person or must include a notice in the primary language of the person which describes the significance of the notice and how the person may receive assistance in understanding and responding to the notice. In addition, the notice must state that if a party or witness needs an interpreter, a qualified interpreter will be appointed at no cost to the party or witness. The notice must include a form to be returned to the department to indicate whether such person, or a witness, needs an interpreter and to identify the primary language or hearing impaired status of the person.
(b) Appearance and practice at a brief adjudicative proceeding. The right to practice before the department in a brief adjudicative proceeding is limited to:
(i) Persons who are natural persons representing themselves;
(ii) Attorneys at law duly qualified and entitled to practice in the courts of the state of Washington;
(iii) Attorneys at law entitled to practice before the highest court of record of any other state, if attorneys licensed in Washington are permitted to appear before the courts of such other state in a representative capacity, and if not otherwise prohibited by state law;
(iv) Public officials in their official capacity;
(v) Certified public accountants entitled to practice in the state of Washington;
(vi) A duly authorized director, officer, or full-time employee of an individual firm, association, partnership, or corporation who appears for such firm, association, partnership, or corporation;
(vii) Partners, joint venturers or trustees representing their respective partnerships, joint ventures, or trusts; and
(viii) Other persons designated by a person to whom the proceedings apply with the approval of the presiding officer.
In the event a proceeding is converted from a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding, representation is limited to the provisions of law and RCW 34.05.428.
(c) Hearings by telephone. With the concurrence of the presiding officer and all persons involved in the proceedings, a hearing may be conducted telephonically. The conversation will be recorded and will be made a part of the record of the hearing.
(d) Presiding officer.
(i) The presiding officer must be an assistant director of the department's compliance division, or such other person as the director of the department may designate.
(ii) The presiding officer shall conduct the proceeding in a just and fair manner and before taking action, the presiding officer shall provide the taxpayer an opportunity to be informed of the department's position on the pending matter.
(iii) The presiding officer has all authority granted under chapter 34.05 RCW.
(e) Entry of orders.
(i) When the presiding officer issues a decision, the presiding officer shall briefly state the basis and legal authority for the decision. Within ten days of issuing the decision, the presiding officer shall serve upon the parties, the initial order and information regarding any departmental administrative review that may be available.
(ii) The decision and the brief written statement of the basis and legal authority for it is an initial order. The initial order will become a final order if no review is requested as provided in subsection (3) of this rule.
(3) Review of initial orders from brief adjudicative proceeding. The following procedure applies to the department's review of a brief adjudicative proceeding conducted pursuant to subsection (2) of this rule, unless the matter is converted to a formal proceeding as provided in subsection (8) of this rule.
(a) Request for review of the initial order. A party to a brief adjudicative proceeding under subsection (2) of this rule may request review of the initial order by filing a written petition for review, or making an oral request for review, with the department's administrative review and hearings division within twenty-one days after service of the initial order is received by the party. The address and telephone number of the administrative review and hearings division is:
Administrative Review and Hearings Division
Washington State Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47460
Olympia, Washington 98504-7460
Telephone Number: 360-534-1335
(i) When a petition of review of the initial order is made, the taxpayer must submit to the administrative review and hearings division at the time the petition is filed any evidence or written material relevant to the matter that the party wishes the reviewing officer to consider. If the petition for review is made by oral request, the taxpayer must also submit any evidence or written material to the administrative review and hearings division on the same day that the oral request is made.
(ii) The department may, on its own motion, conduct an administrative review of the initial order as provided for in RCW 34.05.491.
(b) Reviewing officer. The administrative review and hearings division shall appoint a reviewing officer who shall make such determination as may appear to be just and lawful. The reviewing officer shall provide the taxpayer and the department an opportunity to explain their positions on the matter and shall make any inquiries necessary to ascertain whether the proceeding should be converted to a formal adjudicative proceeding. The review by the administrative review and hearings division shall be governed by the brief adjudicative procedures of chapter 34.05 RCW and this rule; or WAC 458-20-10002 in the event a brief adjudicative hearing is converted to a formal adjudicative proceeding, and not by the processes and procedures of WAC 458-20-100. The reviewing officer shall have the authority of a presiding officer as provided in this rule.
(c) Record review. Review of an initial order is limited to the evidence considered by the presiding officer, the initial order, the recording of the initial proceeding, and any records and written evidence submitted by the parties to the reviewing officer. However, the agency record need not constitute the exclusive basis for the reviewing officer's decision.
(i) The reviewing officer may request additional evidence from either party at any time during its review of the initial order. Once the reviewing officer requests evidence from a party, that party has seven days after service of the request to supply the evidence to the reviewing officer, unless the reviewing officer, in his or her discretion, allows additional time to submit the evidence.
(ii) In addition to requesting additional evidence, the reviewing officer may review any records of the department necessary to confirm that the tax warrant upon which the initial order of revocation was based remains unpaid. In the event that the tax warrant has been satisfied subsequent to the entry of the initial order, but before the issuance of the final order, the reviewing officer shall reinstate the taxpayer's certificate of registration.
(iii) If the reviewing officer determines that oral testimony is needed, he/she may schedule a time for both parties to present oral testimony. Notice of the oral testimony must be given to the parties in the same manner as the notice provided in subsection (2)(a) of this rule. Oral statements before the reviewing officer shall be by telephone, unless specifically scheduled by the reviewing officer in his or her discretion to be in person.
(iv) The department will have an opportunity to respond to the taxpayer's request for review and may also submit any other relevant evidence and written material to the reviewing officer. The department must submit its material within seven days of service of the material submitted by the party requesting review of the initial order. The department must also serve a copy of all evidence and written material provided to the reviewing officer to the taxpayer requesting review according to subsection (5) of this rule. Proof of service is required under subsection (5)(h) of this rule when the department submits material to the taxpayer under this subsection.
(d) Failure to participate. If a party requesting review of an initial order under this subsection fails to participate in the proceeding or fails to provide documentation to the reviewing officer upon his or her request, the reviewing officer may uphold the initial order based upon the record.
(e) The final orders.
(i) The reviewing officer may issue two final orders. The first final order (the "final order") must include the decision of the reviewing officer and a brief statement of the basis and legal authority for the decision. This order may contain confidential taxpayer information under RCW 82.32.330, and, therefore, cannot be disclosed by the department, except to the taxpayer.
(ii) The reviewing officer may issue a second final order (the "posting order"). The posting order will be issued when the reviewing officer has ordered the revocation of the tax registration certificate. The posting order will state what certificate of registration is being revoked, the listing of the tax warrants involved, and what jurisdictions the tax warrants were filed in.
(iii) Unless specifically indicated otherwise, the term "final order" as used throughout this rule shall refer to both the final order and the posting order.
(iv) The parties can expect that, absent continuances, the final order and posting order will be entered within twenty days of the petition for review.
(f) Reconsideration. Unless otherwise provided in the reviewing officer's order, the reviewing officer's order represents the final position of the department. A reconsideration of the reviewing officer's order may be sought only if the right to a reconsideration is contained in the final order.
(g) Judicial review. Judicial review of the final order of the department is available under Part V, chapter 34.05 RCW. However, judicial review may be available only if a review of the initial decision has been requested under this subsection and all other administrative remedies have been exhausted. See RCW 34.05.534.
(4) Rules of evidence - Record of the proceeding.
(a) Evidence is admissible if in the judgment of the presiding or reviewing officer it is the kind of evidence on which reasonably prudent persons are accustomed to rely on in conducting their affairs. The presiding and reviewing officer should apply RCW 34.05.452 when ruling on evidentiary issues in the proceeding.
(b) All oral testimony must be recorded manually, electronically, or by another type of recording device. The agency record must consist of the documents regarding the matters that were considered or prepared by the presiding officer, or by the reviewing officer in any review, and the recording of the hearing. These records must be maintained by the department as its official record.
(5) Service. All notices and other pleadings or papers filed with the presiding or reviewing officer must be served on the taxpayer, their representatives/agents of record, and the department.
(a) Service is made by one of the following methods:
• In person;
• By first-class, registered, or certified mail;
• By fax and same-day mailing of copies;
• By commercial parcel delivery company; or
• By electronic delivery pursuant to RCW 82.32.135.
(b) Service by mail is regarded as completed upon deposit in the United States mail properly stamped and addressed.
(c) Service by electronic fax is regarded as completed upon the production by the fax machine of confirmation of transmission.
(d) Service by commercial parcel delivery is regarded as completed upon delivery to the parcel delivery company, properly addressed with charges prepaid.
(e) Service by electronic delivery is regarded as completed on the date that the department electronically sends the information to the parties or electronically notifies the parties that the information is available to be accessed by them.
(f) Service to a taxpayer, their representative/agent of record, the department, and presiding officer must be to the address shown on the notice described in subsection (3)(a) of this rule.
(g) Service to the reviewing officer must be to the administrative review and hearings division at the address shown in subsection (3) of this rule.
(h) Where proof of service is required, the proof of service must include:
• An acknowledgment of service;
• A certification, signed by the person who served the document(s), stating the date of service; that the person did serve the document(s) upon all or one or more of the parties of record in the proceeding by delivering a copy in person to (names); and that the service was accomplished by a method of service as provided in this subsection.
(6) Interpreters. When a party or witness requires an interpreter, chapters 2.42 and 2.43 RCW will apply. When those statutes are silent on an issue before the presiding or reviewing officer, the provisions regarding interpreters in WAC 10-08-150 apply.
(7) Informal settlements. The department encourages informal settlement of issues in proceedings under its jurisdiction. The presiding or reviewing officer may not order settlement of the proceedings. Settlement is at the discretion of the parties. Settlement of a proceeding may be concluded by:
(a) A stipulation signed by the taxpayer and the department, or their respective representatives, and/or recited into the record of the proceedings. If the stipulation provides for a payment agreement, the presiding or reviewing officer may order a continuance of the proceedings during the period of repayment and dismissal when all payments have been made. An order providing for the reconvening of the proceedings if the payment agreement is breached is allowed so long as the proceeding is not held less than seven days after notice of the reconvening is provided. Except as provided in this subsection, the presiding or reviewing officer must enter an order in conformity with the terms of the stipulation; or
(b) The entry of an order dismissing the proceedings if the department withdraws the revocation of the certificate of registration.
(8) Conversion of a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding. The presiding or reviewing officer may at any time, on motion of the taxpayer, the department, or the officer's own motion, convert the brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding.
(a) The presiding or reviewing officer may convert the proceeding if the officer finds that use of the brief adjudicative proceeding:
• Violates any provision of law,
• The protection of the public interest requires the agency to give notice to and an opportunity to participate to persons other than the parties, or
• The issues and interests involved warrant the use of procedures governed by RCW 34.05.413 through 34.05.476 or 34.05.479.
(b) WAC 458-20-10002 applies to formal proceedings. In proceedings to revoke a taxpayer's certificate of registration, the converted proceeding is itself the independent administrative review by the department of revenue as provided in RCW 82.32A.020(6).
(9) Computation of time. In computing any period of time prescribed by this rule, the day of the act or event after which the designated period is to run is not included. The last day of the period is included, unless it is a Saturday, Sunday, or a state legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or state legal holiday. When the period of time prescribed is less than seven days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays will be excluded in the computation.
(10) Posting of a final order of revoking a tax registration endorsement - Revocation not a substitute for other collection methods or processes available to the department. When an order revoking a tax registration endorsement is a final order of the department, the department shall post a copy of the posting order in a conspicuous place at the main entrance to the taxpayer's place of business and it must remain posted until such time as the warrant amount has been paid.
(a) It is unlawful to engage in business after the revocation of a tax registration endorsement. A person engaging in the business after a revocation may be subject to criminal sanctions as provided in RCW 82.32.290. RCW 82.32.290(2) provides that a person violating the prohibition against such engaging in business is guilty of a Class C felony in accordance with chapter 9A.20 RCW.
(b) Any certificate of registration revoked shall not be reinstated, nor a new certificate of registration issued until:
(i) The amount due on the warrant has been paid, or provisions for payment satisfactory to the department of revenue have been entered; and
(ii) The taxpayer has deposited with the department of revenue as security for taxes, increases and penalties due or which may become due under such terms and conditions as the department of revenue may require, but the amount of the security may not be greater than one-half the estimated average annual tax liability of the taxpayer.
(c) Revocation proceedings will not substitute for, or in any way curtail, other collection methods or processes available to the department.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-10001, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16; WSR 11-17-094, § 458-20-10001, filed 8/22/11, effective 9/22/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060. WSR 11-04-056, § 458-20-10001, filed 1/26/11, effective 2/26/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 34.05.410. WSR 95-07-070, § 458-20-10001, filed 3/14/95, effective 4/14/95.]



458-20-10002
Adjudicative proceedings—Formal adjudicative proceedings—Log export enforcement actions pursuant to chapter 240-15 WAC—Orders to county officials issued to pursuant to RCW 84.08.120 and 84.41.120—Converted brief adjudicative proceedings.

(1) Introduction. The department conducts adjudicative proceedings pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). This section explains the procedure and process for formal adjudicative proceedings conducted by the department. These formal proceedings include, but are not limited to, log export enforcement actions pursuant to chapter 240-15 WAC, orders to county officials issued pursuant to RCW 84.08.120 and 84.41.120, and converted brief adjudicative proceedings. This section does not apply to wholesale and retail cigarette license revocation/suspension of RCW 82.24.550, certificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) revocation of RCW 82.32.215, or other proceedings which are brief adjudicative proceedings and are explained in WAC 458-20-10001. This section also does not apply to the nonadjudicative proceedings as provided in RCW 82.32.160, 82.32.170 and WAC 458-20-100.
(2) Formal adjudicative proceedings - procedure and process. RCW 34.05.413 through 34.05.479 and chapter 10-08 WAC shall apply to formal adjudicative proceedings conducted by the department of revenue.
(a) Presiding officer - final order - review. The presiding officer of a formal adjudicative proceeding shall be the director, department of revenue, or such person as the director shall designate. The presiding officer, whether the director of the department of revenue, or such person as the director shall have designated, shall make the final decision and shall enter a final order as provided in RCW 34.05.461 (1)(b). No further administrative review is available from a decision of the presiding officer.
(b) Petitions for reconsideration. RCW 34.05.470 provides that petitions for reconsideration shall be filed within ten days of the final order. A petition for reconsideration shall be filed with the presiding officer at the address of the presiding officer provided in the notice of the proceedings, or at such other address as may be provided in the final order, and shall be in the form of other pleadings in the matter. As with all other pleadings, a copy of the petition shall be served upon all other parties to the proceeding.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 34.05.410. WSR 95-07-069, § 458-20-10002, filed 3/14/95, effective 4/14/95.]



458-20-10003
Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to suspension, nonrenewal, and nonissuance of licenses to sell spirits.

(1) Introduction. The department of revenue (department) conducts adjudicative proceedings pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The department adopts in this rule, the procedures as provided in RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494 for the administration of brief adjudicative proceedings to review the department notice explained in subsection (2) of this rule. The department must provide the notice before it may proceed in requesting that the Washington liquor control board (board) suspend, not renew, or not issue a taxpayer's spirits license(s) as defined in RCW 66.24.010 (3)(c), referred to in this rule as "agency action."
This rule explains the procedure pertaining to the adopted brief adjudicative proceedings.
(2) Department notice. If a taxpayer is more than thirty days delinquent in reporting or remitting spirits taxes on a tax return or assessed by the department, including applicable penalties and interest, the department may request that the board suspend the taxpayer's spirits license or licenses and refuse to renew any existing spirits license held by the taxpayer or issue any new spirits license to the taxpayer. Before the department may take agency action, the department must provide the taxpayer with at least seven calendar days prior written notice of the delinquency and inform the taxpayer that the department intends to make the request to the board. The department notice must include:
(a) A listing of any unfiled tax returns;
(b) The amount of unpaid spirits taxes as applicable, including any applicable penalties and interest;
(c) Who to contact to inquire about payment arrangements; and
(d) Information that the taxpayer may seek administrative review of the department notice, including the deadline for seeking such review.
A taxpayer may seek an administrative review of the department notice as explained under subsection (3) of this rule. Brief adjudicative proceedings under this rule do not include the right to challenge the amount of any spirits taxes assessed by the department.
(3) Conduct of brief adjudicative proceedings. To initiate an appeal of a department notice, the taxpayer has seven calendar days from the date on the department notice to request a review of that notice. The taxpayer must file a written notice of appeal explaining why the taxpayer disagrees with the notice of delinquency.
A form notice of appeal is available at dor.wa.gov or by calling 1-800-647-7706. The completed form should be mailed or faxed to the department at:
Washington State Department of Revenue
Compliance Administration
Spirits License Suspension Petition
P.O. Box 47473
Olympia, WA 98504-7473
(a) A presiding officer, who will be either the assistant director of the compliance division or such other person as designated by the director of the department (director), will conduct brief adjudicative proceedings. The presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings will have agency expertise in the subject matter but will not otherwise have participated in the specific matter. The presiding officer's review is limited to the written record.
(b) As part of the notice of appeal, the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative may include written documentation explaining the taxpayer's view of the matter. The presiding officer may also request additional documentation from the taxpayer or the department and will designate the date by which the documents must be submitted.
(c) In addition to the record, the presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings may employ agency expertise as a basis for decision.
(d) Within ten days of receipt of the taxpayer's notice of appeal, the presiding officer will enter an initial order including a brief explanation of the decision under RCW 34.05.485. All orders in these brief adjudicative proceedings will be in writing. The initial order will become the department's final order unless a petition for review is made to the department's administrative review and hearings division under subsection (4) of this rule. If the presiding officer's order invalidates the department notice, the department may in its discretion start new proceedings by sending a new department notice.
(4) Review of initial order from brief adjudicative proceeding. A taxpayer that has received an initial order upholding a department notice under subsection (3) of this rule may request a review by the department by filing a written petition for review or by making an oral request for review with the department's administrative review and hearings division within twenty-one days after the service of the initial order on the taxpayer as described in subsection (8) of this rule.
A form petition of review is available at dor.wa.gov. A request for review should state the reasons for the review.
The address, telephone number, and fax number of the administrative review and hearings division are:
Administrative Review and Hearings Division
Spirits License Petition for Review/Spirits Taxes
Washington State Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47460
Olympia, WA 98504-7460
Telephone Number: 360-534-1335
(a) A reviewing officer, who will be either the assistant director of the administrative review and hearings division or such other person as designated by the director, will conduct a brief adjudicative proceeding and determine whether the initial order was correctly decided. The reviewing officer's review is limited to the written record.
(b) The agency record need not constitute the exclusive basis for the reviewing officer's decision. The reviewing officer will have the authority of a presiding officer.
(c) The order of the reviewing officer will be in writing and include a brief statement of the reasons for the decision, and it must be entered within twenty days of the petition for review. The order will include a notice that judicial review may be available. The order of the reviewing officer represents a final order of the department. If a final order invalidates the department notice, the department may in its discretion start new proceedings by sending a new department notice.
(d) A request for review is deemed denied if the department does not issue an order on review within twenty days after the petition for review is filed.
(5) Record in brief adjudicative proceedings. The record with respect to the brief adjudicative proceedings under RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494 related to department notice will consist of:
(a) The record before the presiding officer: The record before the presiding officer consists of the department notice; the taxpayer's appeal of the department notice; all records relied upon by the department or submitted by the taxpayer related to the department notice; and all correspondence between the taxpayer and the department regarding the department notice.
(b) The record before the reviewing officer: The record before the reviewing officer consists of all documents included in the record before the presiding officer; the taxpayer's petition for review; and all correspondence between the taxpayer and the department regarding the taxpayer's petition for review.
(6) Court appeal. Court appeal from the final order of the department is available pursuant to Part V, chapter 34.05 RCW. However, court appeal may be available only if a review of the initial decision has been requested under subsection (4) of this rule and all other administrative remedies have been exhausted. See RCW 34.05.534.
(7) Computation of time. In computing any period of time prescribed by this rule or by the presiding officer or reviewing officer, the day of the act or event after which the designated period is to run is not to be included. The last day of the period is to be included, unless it is a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday. This subsection does not apply with respect to computation of the seven calendar days required for the department notice.
(8) Service. All notices and other pleadings or papers filed with the presiding or reviewing officer must be served on the taxpayer, their representatives/agents of record, and the department.
(a) Service is made by one of the following methods:
(i) In person;
(ii) By first-class, registered or certified mail;
(iii) By fax and same-day mailing of copies;
(iv) By commercial parcel delivery company; or
(v) By electronic delivery pursuant to RCW 82.32.135.
(b) Service by mail is regarded as completed upon deposit in the United States mail properly stamped and addressed.
(c) Service by electronic fax is regarded as completed upon the production by the fax machine of confirmation of transmission.
(d) Service by commercial parcel delivery is regarded as completed upon delivery to the parcel delivery company, properly addressed with charges prepaid.
(e) Service by electronic delivery is regarded as completed on the date that the department electronically sends the information to the parties or electronically notifies the parties that the information is available to be accessed by them.
(f) Service to a taxpayer, their representative/agent of record, the department, and presiding officer must be to the address shown on the notice described in subsection (3)(a) of this rule.
(g) Service to the reviewing officer must be to the administrative review and hearings division at the address shown in subsection (4) of this rule.
(h) Where proof of service is required, the proofs of service must include:
(i) An acknowledgment of service;
(ii) A certificate, signed by the person who served the document(s), stating the date of service; that the person did serve the document(s) upon all or one or more of the parties of record in the proceeding by delivering a copy in person to (names); and that the service was accomplished by a method of service as provided in this subsection.
(9) Continuance. The presiding officer or reviewing officer may grant, in their sole discretion, a request for a continuance by motion of the taxpayer, the department, or on its own motion.
(10) Conversion of a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding. The presiding officer or reviewing officer, in their sole discretion, may convert a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding at any time on motion of the taxpayer, the department, or the presiding/reviewing officer's own motion.
(a) The presiding/reviewing officer will convert the proceeding when it is found that the use of the brief adjudicative proceeding violates any provision of law, when the protection of the public interest requires the agency to give notice to and an opportunity to participate to persons other than the parties, and when the issues and interests involved warrant the use of the procedures of RCW 34.05.413 through 34.05.479.
(b) When a proceeding is converted from a brief adjudication to a formal proceeding, the director may become the presiding officer or may designate a replacement presiding officer to conduct the formal proceedings upon notice to the taxpayer and the department.
(c) In the conduct of the formal proceedings, WAC 458-20-10002 will apply to the proceedings.
(11) Taking agency action. The department may initiate agency action as follows:
(a) If the taxpayer does not file a timely appeal under subsection (3) of this rule, the department may proceed with agency action the day following the end of the period for requesting such appeal;
(b) If the taxpayer does not make a petition for review consistent with subsection (4) of this rule, the department may proceed with agency action the day following the end of the period for making such petition of review;
(c) If the department makes a final order adverse to the taxpayer under subsection (4) of this rule, the department may proceed with agency action the day following the date the department issues its final order.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-10003, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16; WSR 12-24-008, § 458-20-10003, filed 11/27/12, effective 12/28/12.]



458-20-10004
Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to assessments and warrants for unpaid fees issued under chapter 59.30 RCW for manufactured and mobile home communities.

(1) Introduction. The department of revenue (department) conducts adjudicative proceedings pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The department adopts in this rule, the procedures as provided in RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494 for the administration of brief adjudicative proceedings to review the department's actions described in subsection (2) of this rule.
This rule explains the procedure pertaining to the adopted brief adjudicative proceedings.
(2) Department's action. The following actions taken by the department are subject to the brief adjudicative proceeding process described in this rule:
(a) Assessment of the one-time business license application fee or annual renewal application fee in RCW 59.30.050 (3)(a);
(b) Assessment of the annual registration assessment fee in RCW 59.30.050 (3)(b); and
(c) Assessment of the delinquency fee in RCW 59.30.050(4).
The assessment of more than one type of fee against a manufactured/mobile home community owner or landlord in RCW 59.30.050 does not result in the creation of more than one adjudicative proceeding if those fees are issued in the same document, on the same date.
As explained in RCW 59.30.020(4), the terms "landlord" and "community owner" both refer to the owner of the mobile home park or manufactured home community or their agents. For purposes of this rule, the department refers to such persons as "community owners."
(3) Conduct of brief adjudicative proceedings. To initiate an appeal of the department's action, the community owner has twenty-one calendar days from the date on the department's action to request a review of that action. The community owner must file a written notice of appeal explaining why the community owner disagrees with the action.
A form notice of appeal is available at dor.wa.gov or by calling 1-800-647-7706. The completed form should be mailed or faxed to the department at:
Washington State Department of Revenue
Special Programs
Review of Annual Registration for Manufactured/Mobile Home Communities
P.O. Box 47472
Olympia, WA 98504-7472
(a) A presiding officer, who will be a person designated by the director of the department (director) or the assistant director of special programs division, will conduct brief adjudicative proceedings. The presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings will have agency expertise in the subject matter but will not otherwise have participated in the specific matter. The presiding officer's review is limited to the written record.
(b) As part of the notice of appeal, the community owner or the community owner's representative may include written documentation explaining the community owner's view of the matter. The presiding officer may also request additional documentation from the community owner or the department and will designate the date by which the documents must be submitted.
(c) In addition to the record, the presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings may employ agency expertise as a basis for decision.
(d) Within twenty-one calendar days of receipt of the community owner's notice of appeal, the presiding officer will enter an initial order including a brief explanation of the decision under RCW 34.05.485. All orders in these brief adjudicative proceedings will be in writing. The initial order will become the department's final order unless a petition for review is made to the department's administrative review and hearings division under subsection (4) of this rule. If the presiding officer's order invalidates the department action, the department may in its discretion initiate another action that corrects the defects in the prior action.
(4) Review of initial order from brief adjudicative proceeding. A community owner that has received an initial order upholding a department action under subsection (3) of this rule may request a review by the department by filing a written petition for review or by making an oral request for review with the department's administrative review and hearings division within twenty-one calendar days after the service of the initial order on the community owner as described in subsection (8) of this rule.
A form petition of review is available at dor.wa.gov. A request for review should state the reasons for the review.
The address, telephone number, and fax number of the administrative review and hearings division are:
Administrative Review and Hearings Division
Manufactured/Mobile Home Community Appeals
Washington State Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47460
Olympia, WA 98504-7460
Telephone Number: 360-534-1335
(a) A reviewing officer, who will be either the assistant director of the administrative review and hearings division or such other person as designated by the director, will conduct a brief adjudicative proceeding and determine whether the initial order was correctly decided. The reviewing officer's review is limited to the written record.
(b) The agency record need not constitute the exclusive basis for the reviewing officer's decision. The reviewing officer will have the authority of a presiding officer.
(c) The order of the reviewing officer will be in writing and include a brief statement of the reasons for the decision, and it must be entered within thirty calendar days of the petition for review. The order will include a notice that judicial review may be available. The order of the reviewing officer represents a final order of the department. If a final order invalidates the department's action, the department may in its discretion initiate another action that corrects the defects in the prior action.
(5) Record in brief adjudicative proceedings. The record with respect to the brief adjudicative proceedings under RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494 will consist of:
(a) The record before the presiding officer: The record before the presiding officer consists of the notice of the department action; the community owner's appeal of the department action; all records relied upon by the department or submitted by the community owner related to the department's action; and all correspondence between the community owner and the department regarding the department's action.
(b) The record before the reviewing officer: The record before the reviewing officer consists of all documents included in the record before the presiding officer; the community owner's petition for review; and all correspondence between the community owner and the department regarding the community owner's petition for review.
(6) Court appeal. Court appeal from the final order of the department is available pursuant to Part V, chapter 34.05 RCW. However, court appeal may be available only if a review of the initial decision has been requested under subsection (4) of this rule and all other administrative remedies have been exhausted. See RCW 34.05.534.
(7) Computation of time. In computing any period of time prescribed by this rule or by the presiding officer or reviewing officer, the day of the act or event after which the designated period is to run is not to be included. The last day of the period is to be included, unless it is a Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
(8) Service. All notices and other pleadings or papers filed with the presiding or reviewing officer must be served on the community owner, their representatives/agents of record, and the department.
(a) Service is made by one of the following methods:
(i) In person;
(ii) By first-class, registered or certified mail;
(iii) By fax and same-day mailing of copies;
(iv) By commercial parcel delivery company; or
(v) By electronic delivery pursuant to RCW 82.32.135.
(b) Service by mail is regarded as completed upon deposit in the United States mail properly stamped and addressed.
(c) Service by electronic fax is regarded as completed upon the production by the fax machine of confirmation of transmission.
(d) Service by commercial parcel delivery is regarded as completed upon delivery to the parcel delivery company, properly addressed with charges prepaid.
(e) Service by electronic delivery is regarded as completed on the date that the department electronically sends the information to the parties or electronically notifies the parties that the information is available to be accessed by them.
(f) Service to a community owner, their representative/agent of record, the department, and presiding officer must be to the address shown on the form notice of appeal described in subsection (3) of this rule.
(g) Service to the reviewing officer must be to the administrative review and hearings division at the address shown in subsection (4) of this rule.
(h) Where proof of service is required, the proofs of service must include:
(i) An acknowledgment of service;
(ii) A certificate, signed by the person who served the document(s), stating the date of service; that the person did serve the document(s) upon all or one or more of the parties of record in the proceeding by delivering a copy in person to (names); and that the service was accomplished by a method of service as provided in this subsection.
(9) Continuance. The presiding officer or reviewing officer may grant, in their sole discretion, a request for a continuance by motion of the community owner, the department, or on its own motion.
(10) Conversion of a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding. The presiding officer or reviewing officer, in their sole discretion, may convert a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding at any time on motion of the community owner, the department, or the presiding/reviewing officer's own motion.
(a) The presiding/reviewing officer will convert the proceeding when it is found that the use of the brief adjudicative proceeding violates any provision of law, when the protection of the public interest requires the agency to give notice to and an opportunity to participate to persons other than the parties, and when the issues and interests involved warrant the use of the procedures of RCW 34.05.413 through 34.05.479.
(b) When a proceeding is converted from a brief adjudication to a formal proceeding, the director may become the presiding officer or may designate a replacement presiding officer to conduct the formal proceedings upon notice to the community owner and the department.
(c) In the conduct of the formal proceedings, WAC 458-20-10002 will apply to the proceedings.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-10004, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 84.33.096, 82.32.300, and 82.01.060(2) and RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494. WSR 14-13-098, § 458-20-10004, filed 6/17/14, effective 7/18/14.]



458-20-101
Tax registration and tax reporting.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains tax registration and tax reporting requirements for the Washington state department of revenue (department) as established in RCW 82.32.030 and 82.32.045. This rule discusses who is required to be registered, and who must file excise tax returns. This rule also discusses changes in ownership requiring a new registration, the administrative closure of taxpayer accounts, and the revocation and reinstatement of a tax account with the department. Persons required to file tax returns should also refer to WAC 458-20-104 (Small business tax relief based on income of business). Persons with certain ownership structures (e.g., corporations, limited liability companies, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, and limited liability limited partnerships) must also register with the office of the secretary of state.
Examples. Examples found in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances.
(2) Persons required to obtain tax registration endorsements. Except as provided in (a) of this subsection, every person who is engaged in any business activity for which the department is responsible for administering and/or collecting a tax or fee, must apply for and obtain a tax registration endorsement with the department. (See RCW 82.32.030.) This endorsement is printed on the face of the business person's business license document. The tax registration endorsement is nontransferable, and valid for as long as that person continues in business.
(a) When registration is not required. Registration under this rule is not required if all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The person's value of products, gross proceeds of sales, or gross income of the business, from all business activities taxable under chapter 82.04 RCW (business and occupation (B&O) tax), is less than twelve thousand dollars per year;
(ii) A person's gross income from all business activities taxable under chapter 82.16 RCW (public utility tax), is less than twelve thousand dollars per year;
(iii) The person is not required to collect or pay to the department retail sales tax or any other tax or fee which the department is authorized to administer and/or collect; and
(iv) The person is not otherwise required to obtain a business license subject to the business license application procedure provided in chapter 19.02 RCW. For the purposes of this rule, the term "business license" means any agency permit, license, certificate, approval, registration, charter, or any form or permission required by law, including agency rule, to engage in any activity.
(b) Tax registration endorsement. The term "tax registration endorsement," as used in this rule, has the same meaning as the term "tax registration" or "certificate of registration" used in Title 82 RCW and other rules in chapter 458-20 WAC.
(c) Person. The term "person" has the meaning given in RCW 82.04.030 and WAC 458-20-203.
(d) Tax account ID. The term "tax account ID" as used in this rule, is the ID number used to identify persons registered with the department.
(3) Requirement to file tax returns. Persons registered with the department must file tax returns and remit the appropriate taxes to the department, unless they are placed on an "active nonreporting" status by the department.
(a) Active nonreporting status requirements. The department may relieve any person of the requirement to file returns by placing the person in an active nonreporting status if all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The person's value of products (RCW 82.04.450), gross proceeds of sales (RCW 82.04.070), or gross income of the business (RCW 82.04.080), from all business activities taxable under chapter 82.04 RCW (B&O tax), is less than:
(A) Twenty-eight thousand dollars per year; or
(B) Forty-six thousand six hundred sixty-seven dollars per year for persons generating at least fifty percent of their gross amount from activities taxable under RCW 82.04.255 (real estate brokerage services), RCW 82.04.290 (2)(a) (service and other activities B&O tax classification), and RCW 82.04.285 (operating contests of chance);
(ii) The person's gross income (RCW 82.16.010) from all business activities taxable under chapter 82.16 RCW (public utility tax) is less than twenty-four thousand dollars per year; and
(iii) The person is not required to collect or pay to the department retail sales tax or any other tax or fee the department is authorized to collect.
(b) Notification of active nonreporting status. The department will notify those persons it places on an active nonreporting status. A person may request to be placed on an active nonreporting status if the conditions of (a) of this subsection are met.
(c) Responsibility to notify department about change in status. Persons placed on an active nonreporting status by the department are required to timely notify the department if their business activities do not meet any of the conditions explained in (a) of this subsection. These persons will be removed from an active nonreporting status, and must file tax returns and remit appropriate taxes to the department, beginning with the first period in which they do not qualify for an active nonreporting status.
(d) Obligation to file a tax return. Persons that have not been placed on an active nonreporting status by the department must continue to file tax returns and remit the appropriate taxes.
(4)(a) Example 1. Bob Brown is starting a bookkeeping service. Income generated from this activity is taxable under the service and other activities B&O tax classification. The gross income of the business is expected to be less than twelve thousand dollars per year. Bob's only income is earned from his bookkeeping activity. Due to the nature of the business activities, Bob is not required to pay or collect any other tax or fee which the department is authorized to collect. Bob has no other need to file a business license application.
Bob Brown is not required to apply for and obtain a tax registration endorsement with the department. The conditions under which a business person may engage in business activities without obtaining the tax registration endorsement have been met. However, if Bob Brown in some future period has gross income exceeding twelve thousand dollars per year, he will be required to obtain a tax registration endorsement. If Bob's gross income exceeds forty-six thousand six hundred sixty-seven dollars per year (because Bob generates all of his gross income under the service and other activities B&O tax classification), he will be required to file tax returns and remit the appropriate taxes.
(b) Example 2. Cindy Smith is opening a business to sell children's books to local customers at retail. The gross proceeds of sales are expected to be less than twelve thousand dollars per year.
Cindy Smith must apply for and obtain a tax registration endorsement with the department. While gross income is expected to be less than twelve thousand dollars per year, Cindy Smith is required to collect and remit retail sales tax.
(c) Example 3. Alice Smith operates a taxicab service with an average gross income of eighteen thousand dollars per year. She also owns a management consulting service with an average gross income of fifteen thousand dollars per year. Assume that Alice is not required to collect or pay to the department any other tax or fee the department is authorized to collect. Alice qualifies for an active nonreporting status because her taxicab income is less than the twenty-four thousand dollar threshold for the public utility tax and her consulting income is less than the forty-six thousand six hundred sixty-seven dollar threshold for the B&O tax. If the department does not first place her on an active nonreporting status, she may request the department to do so.
(5) Out-of-state businesses. Out-of-state businesses may have to obtain a tax registration endorsement with the department.
(a) B&O and public utility taxes. The B&O and public utility taxes are imposed on the act or privilege of engaging in business activity within Washington. RCW 82.04.220 and 82.16.020. Out-of-state persons who have established sufficient nexus in Washington to be subject to Washington's B&O or public utility taxes must obtain a tax registration endorsement with this department if they do not satisfy the conditions expressed in subsection (2)(a) of this rule.
(b) Retail sales and use taxes. Out-of-state persons required to collect Washington's retail sales or use tax under RCW 82.04.067 must obtain a tax registration endorsement. Out-of-state persons who are not statutorily required to collect Washington's use tax, may elect to obtain a tax registration endorsement.
(c) Other relevant rules for out-of-state persons. Out-of-state persons making sales into or doing business within Washington should also refer to the following rules in chapter 458-20 WAC for a discussion of their tax reporting responsibilities:
(i) WAC 458-20-193 Interstate sales of tangible personal property;
(ii) WAC 458-20-193D Transportation, communication, public utility activities, or other services in interstate or foreign commerce;
(iii) WAC 458-20-194 Doing business inside and outside the state;
(iv) WAC 458-20-19401 Minimum nexus thresholds for apportionable activities; and
(v) WAC 458-20-221 Collection of use tax by retailers and selling agents.
(6) Registration procedure. The state of Washington initiated the combined licensing program of the business licensing service, and later the unified business identifier (UBI) program to simplify the registration and licensing requirements imposed on the state's business community. Completion of the business license application and payment of the applicable fee(s) enables a person to register or license with several state agencies and cities, including the department of revenue, using a single form. The person will be assigned one unified business identifier number, which is used by all state agencies and cities participating in the UBI program. The department may use the unified business identifier number as the taxpayer's department of revenue tax account ID, or it may assign a different or additional ID as the revenue tax account ID.
(a) Business license application. Persons completing the business license application will be issued a business license document if at least one registration or license endorsement was issued. The face of this document will list the registrations and licenses (endorsements) which have been obtained.
(b) Fees. The department does not charge a separate registration fee for issuing a tax registration endorsement. Persons required to complete a business license application are subject to other fees.
(c) Forms and submission. Business license applications are available online from the department's business licensing service web site at bls.dor.wa.gov.
(7) Registration application. The department requires the following items to be provided on a business license application in order to obtain a tax registration endorsement:
(a) Purpose or reason for application.
(b) The registration endorsement(s) that are needed, including any information required by the respective regulating agency specific to the endorsement requested.
(c) Business information which includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Type of business entity ownership structure;
(ii) Business activities;
(iii) Business name and open date;
(iv) Business contact information, including the physical and mailing address of the business;
(v) Estimated gross annual income of business;
(vi) Business identification number as follows:
(A) Social Security number of the business owner(s) if the business ownership structure is a sole proprietorship or general partnership; or
(B) Federal employer identification number (FEIN) for all other business ownership structures other than those listed in (c)(vi)(A) of this subsection including, but not limited to, corporations, limited liability companies, limited liability partnerships, and joint ventures; or
(C) For those business entities that have not been issued a Social Security number or FEIN, the department may request the business entity provide an alternative federally issued identification number.
(vii) Full legal name(s) and contact information of all governing persons of the business entities identified in (c)(vi)(B) of this subsection.
(d) All license and administrative fees due for the application filing and endorsements requested.
(e) Additional information other than the items identified in this subsection may also be required to satisfy the specific licensing requirements of other agencies.
(8) Temporary revenue registration certificate. A temporary revenue registration certificate may be issued to any person who operates a business of a temporary nature.
(a) Temporary businesses, for the purposes of registration, are those with definite, predetermined dates of operation for no more than two events each year with each event lasting no longer than one month.
(b) Each temporary registration certificate is valid for a single event. Persons that subsequently make sales into Washington may incur additional tax liability. Refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Interstate sales of tangible personal property) for additional information on tax reporting requirements. It may be required that a tax registration endorsement be obtained, in lieu of a temporary registration certificate. See subsection (2) of this rule.
(c) Temporary revenue registration certificates may be obtained by following registration instructions on the department's web site at dor.wa.gov.
(9) Display of business license document. The taxpayer is required to display the business license document in a conspicuous place at the business location for which it is issued.
(10) Multiple locations. A business license document is required for each place of business where a taxpayer engages in business activities for which the department is responsible for administering and/or collecting a tax or fee, and any main office or principal place of business from which excise tax returns are to be filed. This requirement applies to locations both within and without the state of Washington.
(a) Place of business. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "place of business" means:
(i) Any separate establishment, office, stand, cigarette vending machine, or other fixed location; or
(ii) Any vessel, train, or the like, where the taxpayer solicits or makes sales of tangible personal property, or contracts for or renders services in this state or otherwise transacts business with customers.
(b) Multiple locations with a single excise tax return. A taxpayer may report all tax liability for multiple business locations on a single excise tax return, but must maintain a separate business license document for each location. All business license documents will reflect the same tax account ID.
(c) Multiple locations with separate excise tax returns. A taxpayer desiring to file a separate excise tax return covering a branch location, or a specific construction contract, may request on the business license application a separate department of revenue tax account ID for each location to be reported separately.
(d) Application required for each location. A business license application must be completed for each business location to obtain a separate business license document.
(11) Change in ownership. When a change in ownership of a business occurs, the new owner must submit a business license application(s) to receive a new business license document for each business location acquired that is endorsed with the appropriate licenses needed for the business. If the new owner has never been registered for business, it will be issued a new unified business identifier number. The previous business owner's license document must be destroyed, and any further use of the previous owner's tax account ID for tax purposes is prohibited.
(a) Change in ownership. A "change in ownership," for purposes of registration, occurs when, but is not limited to:
(i) The sale of a business by one individual, firm or corporation to another individual, firm or corporation;
(ii) The dissolution of a partnership;
(iii) The withdrawal, substitution, or addition of one or more partners where the general partnership continues as a business organization and the change in the partners is equal to or greater than fifty percent. For example, a general partnership currently has two partners and a third partner is added. The addition of one partner is considered a "change in ownership" for purposes of registration because it is equal to or greater than a fifty percent change in the original number of partners;
(iv) Incorporation of a business previously operated as a partnership or sole proprietorship;
(v) Changing from a corporation to a partnership or sole proprietorship; or
(vi) Changing from a corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship to a limited liability company or a limited liability partnership.
(b) Situations that are not a change in ownership. For the purposes of registration, a "change in ownership" does not occur upon:
(i) The sale of all or part of the common stock of a corporation;
(ii) The transfer of assets to an assignee for the benefit of creditors or upon the appointment of a receiver or trustee in bankruptcy;
(iii) The death of a sole proprietor where there will be a continuous operation of the business by the executor, administrator, or trustee of the estate or, where the business was owned by a marital community or registered domestic partnership, by the surviving spouse or surviving domestic partner of the deceased owner;
(iv) The withdrawal, substitution, or addition of one or more partners where the general partnership continues as a business organization and the change in the partners is less than fifty percent. For example, a general partnership currently has three partners. One partner is removed and immediately replaced by another partner. The removal and replacement of one partner is not considered a "change in ownership" for purposes of registration because it results in less than a fifty percent change in the original number of partners; or
(v) A change in the trade name under which the business is conducted.
(c) Situations where a new business license application may still be required. While changes in a business entity may not result in a "change in ownership," the completion of a new business license application may be required to reflect the changes in the registered account.
(12) Change in location. Whenever the place of business is moved to a new location, the taxpayer must notify the department of the change. Although a new business license application may not be required to notify the department of a location change, some endorsements and licenses will require a new business license and reapproval of the license endorsements at the new location. A new business license document will be issued to reflect the change in location.
(13) Lost business license documents. If any business license document is lost, destroyed or defaced as a result of accident or of natural wear and tear, a new document will be issued upon request.
(14) Administrative closure of taxpayer accounts. The department may, upon written notification to the taxpayer, close the taxpayer's tax account and rescind its tax registration endorsement whenever the taxpayer has reported no gross income and there is no indication of taxable activity for two consecutive years.
The taxpayer may request, within thirty days of notification of closure, that the account remain open. A taxpayer may also request that the account remain open on an "active nonreporting" status if the requirements of subsection (3)(a) of this rule are met. The request will be reviewed by the department and if found to be warranted, the department will immediately reopen the account. The following are acceptable reasons for continuing as an active account:
(a) The taxpayer is engaging in business activities in Washington which may result in tax liability.
(b) The taxpayer is required to collect or pay to the department a tax or fee which the department is authorized to administer and/or collect.
(c) The taxpayer has in fact been liable for excise taxes during the previous two years.
(15) Reopening of taxpayer accounts. A business person choosing to resume business activities where the department is responsible for administering and/or collecting a tax or fee, may request a previously closed account be reopened. The business person must complete a new business license application. When an account is reopened a new business license document, reflecting a current tax registration endorsement, will be issued. Persons requesting the reopening of an account that had previously been closed due to a revocation action should refer to subsection (16) of this rule.
(16) Revocation and reinstatement of tax registration endorsements. Actions to revoke tax registration endorsements must be conducted by the department pursuant to the provisions of chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act, and the taxpayers bill of rights of chapter 82.32A RCW. Persons should refer to WAC 458-20-10001 Adjudicative proceedingsBrief adjudicative proceedingsWholesale and retail cigarette license revocation/suspensionCertificate of registration (tax registration endorsement) revocation, for an explanation of the procedures and processes pertaining to the revocation of tax registration endorsements.
(a) The department may, by order, revoke a tax registration endorsement if:
(i) Any tax warrant issued under the provisions of RCW 82.32.210 is not paid within thirty days after it has been filed with the clerk of the superior court; or
(ii) The taxpayer is delinquent, for three consecutive reporting periods, in the transmission to the department of retail sales tax collected by the taxpayer; or
(iii) Either:
(A) The taxpayer was convicted of violating RCW 82.32.290(4) and continues to engage in business without fully complying with RCW 82.32.290 (4)(b)(i) through (iii); or
(B) A person convicted of violating RCW 82.32.290(4) is an owner, officer, director, partner, trustee, member, or manager of the taxpayer, and the person and taxpayer have not fully complied with RCW 82.32.290 (4)(b)(i) through (iii).
For purposes of (a)(iii) of this subsection, the terms "manager," "member," and "officer" mean the same as defined in RCW 82.32.145.
(b) The revocation order will be, if practicable, posted in a conspicuous place at the main entrance to the taxpayer's place of business. The department may also post a copy of the revocation order in any public facility, as may be allowed by the public entity that owns or occupies the facility. The revocation order posted at the taxpayer's place of business must remain posted until the tax registration endorsement has been reinstated or the taxpayer has abandoned the premises. A revoked endorsement will not be reinstated until:
(i) The amount due on the warrant has been paid, or satisfactory arrangements for payment have been approved by the department, and the taxpayer has posted with the department a bond or other security in an amount not exceeding one-half the estimated average annual liability of the taxpayer; or
(ii) The taxpayer and, if applicable, the owner, officer, director, partner, trustee, member, or manager of the taxpayer who was convicted of violating RCW 82.32.290(4) are in full compliance with RCW 82.32.290 (4)(b)(i) through (iii), if the tax registration endorsement was revoked as described in (a)(iii) of this subsection.
(c) It is unlawful for any taxpayer to engage in business after its tax registration endorsement has been revoked, regardless of whether other licensing endorsements may exist on the business license document.
(17) Penalties for noncompliance. The law provides that any person engaging in any business activity, for which registration with the department is required, must obtain a tax registration endorsement.
(a) The failure to obtain a tax registration endorsement prior to engaging in any taxable business activity constitutes a gross misdemeanor.
(b) Engaging in business after a tax registration endorsement has been revoked by the department constitutes a Class C felony.
(c) Any tax found to have been due, but delinquent, and any tax unreported as a result of fraud or misrepresentation, may be subject to penalty as provided in chapter 82.32 RCW, WAC 458-20-228 and 458-20-230.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 17-22-027, § 458-20-101, filed 10/23/17, effective 11/23/17; WSR 16-10-104, § 458-20-101, filed 5/4/16, effective 6/6/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.24.550(2), and 82.26.220(2). WSR 15-15-025, § 458-20-101, filed 7/7/15, effective 8/7/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.215. WSR 14-13-093, § 458-20-101, filed 6/17/14, effective 7/18/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 08-16-073, § 458-20-101, filed 7/31/08, effective 8/31/08; WSR 07-03-031, § 458-20-101, filed 1/8/07, effective 2/8/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 00-01-069, § 458-20-101, filed 12/13/99, effective 1/13/00; WSR 97-08-050, § 458-20-101, filed 3/31/97, effective 5/1/97; WSR 95-07-089, § 458-20-101, filed 3/17/95, effective 4/17/95; WSR 93-13-126, § 458-20-101, filed 6/22/93, effective 7/23/93; WSR 86-12-015 (Order ET 86-11), § 458-20-101, filed 5/27/86; WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-101, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 73-1, § 458-20-101, filed 11/2/73; Order ET 71-1, § 458-20-101, filed 7/22/71; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-101 (Rule 101), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-102
Reseller permits.

(1) Introduction. This rule provides information about reseller permits issued by the department of revenue (department). The department issues reseller permits to businesses that make wholesale purchases, such as retailers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and qualified contractors. The permits allow the businesses to purchase certain items or services without paying retail sales tax.
(a) Other rules that may apply. Readers may want to refer to other rules for additional information, including those in the following list:
(i) WAC 458-20-101 (Tax registration and tax reporting) for information on who is required to register and file returns;
(ii) WAC 458-20-10201 (Application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits) for information about the application process and eligibility requirements for obtaining a reseller permit;
(iii) WAC 458-20-10202 (Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to reseller permits) for information about the procedures for appealing the denial of an application for a reseller permit;
(iv) WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) for information about resale certificate documentation requirements for wholesale sales occurring before January 1, 2010; and
(v) WAC 458-20-192 (Indian-Indian country) for information on the extent of the state's authority to regulate and impose tax in Indian country.
(b) Examples. Examples found in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances.
(2) What is a reseller permit? A reseller permit is a document issued to a business by the department that the business provides to a seller to substantiate a wholesale purchase. Each reseller permit contains a unique identifying number. Businesses should keep the original permit and make and distribute copies of the permit to sellers from whom they make wholesale purchases as described in subsection (6) of this rule. Sellers may store copies of reseller permits in either paper or electronic format.
The reseller permit document issued by the department contains an optional, blank "Notes" section in which the permit holder may provide additional information, such as a description of the items or services the permit holder wishes to purchase at wholesale.
(3) Who may use a reseller permit? The buyer may authorize any person in its employ to use a copy of the buyer's reseller permit on the buyer's behalf. However, misuse of the reseller permit subjects the buyer to:
• Revocation of the reseller permit;
• Penalties as provided in RCW 82.32.290 and 82.32.291; and
• Tax, interest, and any other penalties imposed by law.
The buyer is responsible for educating all persons authorized to use the reseller permit on the proper use of the buyer's reseller permit.
(4) How long is a reseller permit effective? Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a reseller permit is generally valid for a period of forty-eight months from the date of issuance, renewal, or reinstatement.
(a) Conditions when permit is effective for twenty-four months. A reseller permit is valid for an initial period of twenty-four months and may be renewed for a period of forty-eight months, if the permit is issued to a taxpayer who:
(i) Is not required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030;
(ii) Has been registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030 for a continuous period of less than one year as of the date that the department received the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit;
(iii) Was on nonreporting status as authorized under RCW 82.32.045 at the time the department received the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit or to renew or reinstate a reseller permit;
(iv) Has filed excise tax returns reporting no business activity for purposes of retail sales and business and occupation (B&O) taxes for the twelve-month period immediately preceding the date that the department received the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit or to renew or reinstate a reseller permit; or
(v) Has failed to file excise tax returns covering any part of the twelve-month period immediately preceding the department's receipt of the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit or to renew or reinstate a reseller permit.
(b) Federally recognized Indian tribe. The provisions of (a) of this subsection do not apply to reseller permits issued to any business owned by a federally recognized Indian tribe or by an enrolled member of a federally recognized Indian tribe, if the business does not engage in any business activity that subjects the business to the B&O tax (chapter 82.04 RCW). A permit issued to such business is valid for forty-eight months from the date of issuance, renewal, or reinstatement.
(c) Contractors. A reseller permit issued, renewed, or reinstated to a "contractor" as defined in WAC 458-20-10201(101) is valid for a period of twenty-four months from the date of issuance, renewal, or reinstatement.
(d) Renewal of reseller permit. An application to renew a reseller permit cannot be made more than ninety days before the expiration of the reseller permit.
(e) Business ownership change. A new reseller permit is required whenever a change in the ownership of the buyer's business requires a new tax registration. The new business may not make purchases under the authority of the reseller permit issued to the business before the change in ownership.
(f) Revoked or invalid reseller permit. Purchases may not be made under the authority of a reseller permit that has been revoked by the department or is otherwise invalid. For more information about reseller permit revocation or other invalidation of reseller permits, see subsection (14) of this rule.
(5) Sales at wholesale. All sales are treated as retail sales unless the seller takes from the buyer a copy of a reseller permit, a uniform exemption certificate authorized by RCW 82.04.470, or obtains the data elements described in subsection (7) of this rule. Reseller permits may only be used for sales at wholesale and generally may not be used as proof of entitlement to retail sales tax exemptions otherwise provided by law.
(6) When may a buyer use a reseller permit? The buyer may use a reseller permit only when making wholesale purchases. (See RCW 82.04.060 for additional information.) The reseller permit may not be used when making tax-exempt retail purchases.
(7) Seller's responsibilities. The seller has the burden of proving that the buyer had a reseller permit at the time of sale. A seller may meet that burden by taking from the buyer, at the time of sale or within one hundred twenty days after the sale, a copy of the reseller permit issued to the buyer by the department under RCW 82.32.780 or 82.32.783.
(a) Registered buyer. In lieu of a copy of a reseller permit issued by the department, pursuant to RCW 82.04.470 a seller may accept from a buyer that is required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030:
(i) A properly completed uniform exemption certificate approved by the streamlined sales and use tax agreement governing board; or
(ii) Any other exemption certificate authorized by the department and properly completed by the buyer.
(b) Inclusion of reseller permit number. Certificates authorized in (a) of this subsection must include the reseller permit number issued by the department to the buyer.
(c) Seller not required to verify buyer's registration. A seller that accepts exemption certificates authorized in (a) of this subsection is not required to verify with the department whether the buyer is required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030. Nothing in (c) of this subsection may be construed to modify any of the provisions of RCW 82.08.050.
(d) Buyer not required to be registered. In lieu of a copy of a reseller permit issued by the department, pursuant to RCW 82.04.470 a seller may accept from a buyer that is not required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030:
(i) A properly completed uniform sales and use tax exemption certificate developed by the multistate tax commission;
(ii) A properly completed uniform exemption certificate approved by the streamlined sales and use tax agreement governing board; or
(iii) Any other exemption certificate authorized by the department and properly completed by the buyer.
The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement Certificate of Exemption and the Multistate Tax Commission Uniform Sales and Use Tax Exemption Certificate may each be obtained on the department's web site at dor.wa.gov.
(e) Seller not required to verify buyer's requirement to be registered. A seller that accepts a uniform exemption certificate authorized in (d) of this subsection is not required to verify with the department whether the buyer is required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030. Nothing in this subsection (7)(e) may be construed to modify any of the provisions of RCW 82.08.050.
(f) Data elements. In lieu of obtaining a reseller permit or the documentation in (a) or (d) of this subsection, RCW 82.08.050 authorizes a seller to capture the relevant data elements as allowed under the streamlined sales and use tax agreement. "Data elements" are the information required to be supplied on the actual Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement Certificate of Exemption including: Name, address, type of business, reason for exemption, reseller permit number as applicable in this rule, identification number required by the state to which the sale is sourced, state and country issuing identification number, and if a paper form is used, the signature of the purchaser. See Streamlined Sales Tax Governing Board, Inc. Rule 317.1 for more information.
(g) The term "reseller permit." For purposes of this rule, unless otherwise specified, the term "reseller permit" hereinafter contemplates all of the following: A copy of a reseller permit, a uniform exemption certificate authorized by RCW 82.04.470 as described in (a) and (d) of this subsection, or data elements as described in (f) of this subsection.
(h) Seller must provide documentation or information. If the seller has not obtained a reseller permit or the documentation described in (a), (b), (d), or (f) of this subsection, the seller is liable for the tax due unless it proves by establishing facts and circumstances that show the sale was properly made at wholesale. The department will consider all evidence presented by the seller, including the circumstances of the sales transaction itself, when determining whether the seller has met its burden. It is the seller's responsibility to provide the information necessary to evaluate the facts and circumstances of all sales transactions for which reseller permits were not obtained. Facts and circumstances that should be considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
• The nature of the buyer's business. The items being purchased at wholesale must be consistent with the buyer's business. For example, a buyer having a business name of "Ace Used Cars" would generally not be expected to be in the business of selling furniture;
• The nature of the items sold. The items sold must be of a type that would normally be purchased at wholesale by the buyer; and
• Additional documentation. Other available documents, such as purchase orders and shipping instructions, should be considered in determining whether they support a finding that the sales are sales at wholesale.
(i) Annual electronic verification. Per RCW 82.04.470 a seller that maintains records establishing that it uses electronic means to verify, at least once per calendar year, the validity of its customers' reseller permits need not take a copy of a reseller permit or other documentation or the data elements as authorized in (a), (d), or (f) of this subsection for wholesale sales to those customers with valid reseller permits as confirmed by the department for all sales occurring within twelve months following the date that the seller last electronically verified the validity of its customers' reseller permits, using the department's reseller permit verification system. A seller that meets the requirements of this subsection will be deemed to have met its burden of proving a sale is a wholesale sale rather than a retail sale.
(j) May a seller request a refund for sales tax paid out-of-pocket after obtaining appropriate documentation? If the seller is required to make payment to the department, and later is able to prove through proper documentation or by facts and circumstances that the sales in question were wholesale sales, the seller may in writing request a refund of the taxes paid along with the applicable interest. Both the request and the documentation or proof that the sales in question were wholesale sales must be submitted to the department within the statutory time limitations provided by RCW 82.32.060. For information on requesting refunds see WAC 458-20-229. In the event of an audit, refer to (m) of this subsection.
(k) Timing requirements for single orders with multiple billings. If a single order or contract will result in multiple billings to the buyer, and a reseller permit was not obtained by the seller or on file with the seller at the time the order was placed or the contract entered, the seller may obtain a reseller permit within one hundred twenty days after the first billing. For example, a subcontractor entering into a construction contract for which it has not received a reseller permit must obtain it within one hundred twenty days of the initial construction draw request, even though the construction project may not be completed at that time and additional draw requests will follow.
(l) Proof of wholesale sales obtained, from a buyer not required to be registered, after one hundred twenty days have passed from sale date. If proof that a sale was a wholesale sale is obtained more than one hundred twenty days after the sale or sales in question, the nonregistered buyer must specifically identify the sale or sales to which it applies. Certificates, such as a uniform exemption certificate, must be accompanied by other documentation signed by the buyer specifically identifying the sales in question and stating that the provisions of the accompanying certificate apply. A nonspecific certificate that is not obtained within one hundred twenty days is generally not, in and of itself, acceptable proof of the wholesale nature of the sales in question. The certificate and/or required documentation must be obtained within the statutory time limitations provided by RCW 82.32.050.
(m) Additional time to secure documentation in an audit. If during an audit the department discovers that the seller has not secured, as described in this subsection, the necessary certificates and/or documentation, the seller will generally be allowed one hundred twenty days in which to obtain and present appropriate certificates and/or documentation, or prove by facts and circumstances the sales in question were wholesale sales. The time allotted to the seller will commence from the date the auditor initially provides the seller with the results of the auditor's wholesale sales review. The department will not delay processing the audit report as a result of the seller's failure within the allotted time to secure and present appropriate documentation, or its inability to prove by facts and circumstances that the sales in question were wholesale sales.
(8) Department's reseller permit verification system. Pursuant to RCW 82.32.785, the department has developed a system available on its web site that allows sellers to voluntarily verify whether their customers' reseller permits are valid. Sellers are not obligated to use the verification system. The system is accessible at the department's web site at dor.wa.gov. Information available on the system includes the name of the permit holder, the status of the reseller permit, and the expiration date of the permit.
(9) Penalty for improper use of reseller permit. If any buyer improperly uses a reseller permit number, reseller permit, or other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 to purchase items or services at retail without payment of sales tax that is legally due on the purchase, the department must assess against that buyer a penalty of fifty percent of the tax due on the improperly purchased item or service. See RCW 82.32.291. This penalty is in addition to all other taxes, penalties, and interest due, and applies even if there was no intent to evade the payment of retail sales tax. The penalty will be assessed by the department and applies only to the buyer. However, see subsection (13) of this rule for situations in which the department must waive the penalty.
(a) Improper use of reseller permit. A buyer that purchases items or services at retail without payment of sales tax legally due on the purchase is deemed to have improperly used a reseller permit number, reseller permit, or other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 to purchase the items or services without payment of sales tax and is subject to the penalty described above in this subsection if the buyer:
(i) Furnished to the seller a reseller permit number, a reseller permit or copy of a reseller permit, or other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 to avoid payment of sales tax legally due on the purchase; or
(ii) Purchased from a seller that had previously used electronic means to verify the validity of the buyer's reseller permit with the department and, as a result, did not require the buyer to provide a copy of its reseller permit or furnish other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 to document the wholesale nature of the purchase. In such cases, the buyer bears the burden of proving that the purchases made without payment of sales tax were qualified purchases or the buyer remitted deferred sales tax directly to the department. The buyer not realizing that sales tax was not paid at the time of purchase is not reason for waiving the penalty.
Persons purchasing articles or services for dual purposes (i.e., some for their own consumption and some for resale) should refer to subsection (12) of this rule to determine whether they may furnish a reseller permit to the seller.
(b) Examples.
(i) Example 1. During a routine audit examination of a jewelry store, the department discovers that a dentist has furnished a reseller permit for the purchase of a necklace. The "Notes" section of the reseller permit indicates that in addition to operating a dentistry practice, the dentist also sells jewelry. The jewelry store correctly accepted the reseller permit as appropriate documentation.
Upon further investigation, the department finds that the dentist is not engaged in selling jewelry. The department will impose the retail sales tax, interest, and the fifty percent penalty for improper use of the reseller permit against the dentist.
(ii) Example 2. M&M Plumbing Supply (M&M) has several regular customers that make purchases at wholesale. M&M uses the department's reseller permit verification system to find all regular customers that have a reseller permit. M&M keeps the required data elements in its system and begins to make wholesale sales to all customers the system shows have a reseller permit. While it is best for sellers to ensure customers intend to purchase at wholesale, in this case, M&M has satisfied its requirement to ensure that customers making wholesale purchases have reseller permits. It is the customer's responsibility to review purchase invoices to ensure that deferred sales tax is paid if the purchase is not a valid wholesale purchase. If the customer does not pay the tax due on the next tax return, the misuse penalty will be assessed.
(iii) Example 3. ABC Bank hired Sam's Clean-Up Services (Sam's) to provide a variety of services at properties they had foreclosed on and owned. Sam's has provided services such as securing the sites, winterizing, and making safety repairs. Other services provided included lawn and yard services, debris removal, cleaning fixtures, repairing walls and painting. These types of services on foreclosed properties are generally retail sales and the use of a reseller permit by ABC Bank is a misuse of it. The department will impose the retail sales tax, interest, and the fifty percent penalty for improper use of the reseller permit.
(10) Sales to nonresident buyers. If the buyer is a nonresident, not engaged in business in this state and is not required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030 but buys articles here for the purpose of resale in the regular course of business outside this state, the seller may accept the following from the buyer in lieu of a reseller permit:
(a) A properly completed uniform sales and use tax exemption certificate developed by the multistate tax commission; or
(b) A properly completed uniform exemption certificate approved by the streamlined sales and use tax agreement governing board. Nonresident buyers who are not required to be registered with the department under RCW 82.32.030 also may apply for and receive a reseller permit. For more information about the application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits, see WAC 458-20-10201.
(11) Sales to farmers. Farmers selling agricultural products only at wholesale are generally not required to register with the department. (See WAC 458-20-101 Tax registration and tax reporting.)
(a) Registered farmers. Farmers who are required to be registered with the department must obtain a reseller permit to substantiate wholesale purchases. In lieu of a copy of a reseller permit issued by the department, a seller may accept from a registered farmer a properly completed Farmers' Certificate for Wholesale Purchases and Sales Tax Exemptions as long as that certificate includes the reseller permit number issued by the department to the farmer. See RCW 82.04.470.
(b) Unregistered farmers. Farmers not required to be registered with the department may provide, and the seller may accept, any of the following documents to substantiate the wholesale nature of a purchase in lieu of a reseller permit:
(i) A Farmers' Certificate for Wholesale Purchases and Sales Tax Exemptions;
(ii) A properly completed uniform sales and use tax exemption certificate developed by the multistate tax commission; or
(iii) A properly completed uniform exemption certificate approved by the streamlined sales and use tax agreement governing board.
Farmers who are not required to be registered with the department may apply for and receive a reseller permit. For more information about the application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits, see WAC 458-20-10201.
(12) Purchases for dual purposes. A buyer normally engaged in both consuming and reselling certain types of tangible personal property, and not able to determine at the time of purchase whether the particular property purchased will be consumed or resold, must purchase according to the general nature of the buyer's business. RCW 82.08.130. If the buyer principally consumes the articles in question, the buyer should not give a reseller permit for any part of the purchase. If the buyer principally resells the articles, the buyer may furnish a reseller permit for the entire purchase. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "principally" means greater than fifty percent.
(a) Deferred sales tax liability. If the buyer gives a reseller permit for all purchases and thereafter consumes some of the articles purchased, the buyer must remit the deferred sales tax on the value of the article used to the department. The deferred sales tax liability should be reported under the use tax classification on the buyer's excise tax return.
(i) Buyers making purchases for dual purposes under the provisions of a reseller permit must remit deferred sales tax on all products or services they consume. If the buyer fails to make a good faith effort to remit this tax liability, the penalty for the misuse of a reseller permit will be assessed on the unremitted portion of the deferred sales tax liability.
A buyer will generally be considered to be making a good faith effort to report its deferred sales tax liability if the buyer discovers a minimum of eighty percent of its deferred sales tax liability within one hundred twenty days of purchase, and remits the full amount of the discovered tax liability on the next excise tax return. However, the penalty will not be assessed if the buyer does not satisfy the eighty percent threshold but can show by other facts and circumstances that it made a good faith effort to report its tax liability. Likewise, if the department can show by other facts and circumstances that the buyer did not make a good faith effort in remitting its tax liability the penalty will be assessed, even if the eighty percent threshold is satisfied.
(ii) Example 4. This example illustrates the use of a reseller permit for dual-use purchases.
BC Contracting operates as both a prime contractor and speculative builder of residential homes. BC Contracting purchases building materials from seller that are principally incorporated into projects upon which BC acts as a prime contractor. BC provides seller with a reseller permit and purchases all building materials at wholesale. BC must remit deferred sales tax for all building materials incorporated into the speculative projects to be considered to be properly using its reseller permit.
(b) Tax paid at source deduction. If the buyer does not provide a reseller permit to the seller but pays retail sales tax on all articles of tangible personal property, and subsequently resells a portion of the articles, the buyer must collect retail sales tax from its retail customers as provided by law. When reporting these sales on the excise tax return, the buyer may then claim a deduction to recover the sales tax paid for the property resold.
(i) This deduction may be claimed under the retail sales tax classification only. It must be identified as a "taxable amount for tax paid at source" deduction on the deduction detail worksheet, which must be filed with the excise tax return. Failure to properly identify the deduction may result in the disallowance of the deduction. When completing the local sales tax portion of the tax return, the deduction must be computed at the local sales tax rate paid to the seller, and credited to the seller's tax location code.
(ii) Example 5. This example illustrates the tax paid at source deduction.
A seller is located in Spokane and purchases equipment parts for dual purposes from a supplier located in Seattle. The supplier ships the parts to Spokane. The seller does not furnish a reseller permit for the purchase, and remits retail sales tax to the supplier at the Spokane tax rate. A portion of these parts are sold and shipped to a customer in Kennewick, with retail sales tax collected at the Kennewick tax rate. The seller must report the amount of the sale to the customer on its excise tax return and compute the local sales tax liability using the Kennewick location code (0302) and rate. The seller then should claim the tax paid at source deduction for the cost of the parts resold to the customer, computing the local sales tax credit using the Spokane location code (3210) and rate.
(iii) The department will allow the claim for deduction only if the taxpayer keeps and preserves records in support of the deduction that include the names of the persons from whom it purchased such articles, the dates of the purchases, the types of articles, the amounts of the purchases and the amounts of tax it paid.
(iv) Should the buyer resell the articles at wholesale, or under other situations where retail sales tax is not to be collected, the claim for the tax paid at source deduction on a particular excise tax return may result in a credit. In such cases, the department will issue a credit notice that may be used against future tax liabilities. Alternatively, a taxpayer may request in writing a refund from the department.
(13) Waiver of penalty for misuse of reseller permits. The department will waive the penalty imposed for misuse of reseller permits if it finds that the use of the reseller permit number, reseller permit, or other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 to purchase items or services by a person not entitled to use the reseller permit for that purpose was due to circumstances beyond the control of the buyer or if the reseller permit number, reseller permit, or other documentation authorized under RCW 82.04.470 was properly used for purchases for dual purposes and the buyer made a good faith effort to report deferred sales tax. The use of a reseller permit to purchase items or services for personal use outside of the business does not qualify for the waiver or cancellation of the penalty. The penalty also will not be waived merely because the buyer was not aware of either the proper use of the reseller permit or the penalty. In all cases the burden of proving the facts is on the buyer.
Example 6. During a routine audit examination of a computer dealer, the department discovers that a reseller permit was obtained from a bookkeeping service. On further investigation it is discovered that the bookkeeping service had no knowledge of the use of the reseller permit, and had made no payment to the computer dealer. The employee who furnished the reseller permit had purchased the computer for personal use, and had personally paid the computer dealer.
The fifty percent penalty for the misuse of the reseller permit will be waived for the bookkeeping service. The bookkeeping service had no knowledge of the purchase and unauthorized use of the reseller permit. However, the department will impose the taxes, interest, and the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of the reseller permit against the employee.
(14) Reseller permit revocation or other invalidation. A reseller permit is no longer valid if the permit holder's certificate of registration is revoked, the department closes the permit holder's tax reporting account, or the permit holder otherwise ceases to engage in business.
(a) Closing of an account. A taxpayer who ceases to engage in business will have its tax reporting account closed by the department. The account can be closed per the request of the taxpayer or administratively by the department. The department will administratively close a tax reporting account if a taxpayer has not reported any gross income or filed a return within the last two years. For more information about administrative closure and reopening of taxpayer accounts, see WAC 458-20-101.
(b) Reseller permit revocation. The department may revoke a reseller permit of a taxpayer for any of the following reasons:
(i) The taxpayer used or allowed or caused its reseller permit to be used to purchase any item or service without payment of sales tax, and the taxpayer or other purchaser was not entitled to use the reseller permit for the purchase;
(ii) The department issued the reseller permit to the taxpayer in error;
(iii) The department determines that the taxpayer is no longer entitled to make purchases at wholesale; or
(iv) The department determines that revocation of the reseller permit would be in the best interest of collecting taxes due under Title 82 RCW.
(c) Use of invalidated or revoked reseller permit. The department will provide written notice to a taxpayer whose reseller permit has been revoked or whose tax reporting account has been administratively closed by the department as discussed in (a) of this subsection. The revocation or invalidation is effective on the date specified in the revocation or invalidation notice. Use of a revoked or invalidated permit will result in the fifty percent penalty for improper use of a reseller permit as discussed in subsection (9) of this rule.
(d) Reinstatement of reseller permit. A taxpayer wishing to have its reseller permit reinstated after invalidation or revocation must apply to the department. For more information about the application process for reseller permits, see WAC 458-20-10201.
(e) Requests for reinstatement. The department may refuse to reinstate a reseller permit revoked under (b)(i) of this subsection until all taxes, penalties, and interest due on any improperly purchased item or service have been paid in full. In the event a taxpayer whose reseller permit has been revoked under (b)(i) of this subsection reorganizes, the new business resulting from the reorganization is not entitled to receive a reseller permit from the department until all taxes, penalties, and interest due on any improperly purchased item or service have been paid in full.
(f) Business reorganization. For purposes of this subsection, "reorganize" or "reorganization" means:
(i) The transfer of a majority of the assets of one business to another business, however affected, where any of the persons having an interest in the ownership or management in the former business maintain an ownership or management interest in the new business, either directly or indirectly;
(ii) A mere change in identity or form of ownership, however affected; or
(iii) The new business is a mere continuation of the former business based on significant shared features such as owners, personnel, assets, or general business activity.
(15) Request for copies. A person must, upon request of the department, provide paper or electronic copies of all reseller permits, or other documentation as authorized in RCW 82.04.470, accepted by that person during the period specified by the department to substantiate wholesale sales. If, instead of the documentation specified in this subsection, the seller has retained the relevant data elements from such permits or other documentation authorized in RCW 82.04.470, as allowed under the streamlined sales and use tax agreement, the seller must provide such data elements to the department.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-06-058, § 458-20-102, filed 2/25/16, effective 3/27/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.780, and 82.32.783. WSR 11-12-021, § 458-20-102, filed 5/24/11, effective 6/24/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.32.291, and 82.01.060(2). WSR 08-21-103, § 458-20-102, filed 10/16/08, effective 11/16/08; WSR 04-17-024, § 458-20-102, filed 8/9/04, effective 9/9/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 94-13-031, § 458-20-102, filed 6/6/94, effective 7/7/94; WSR 86-09-058 (Order ET 86-7), § 458-20-102, filed 4/17/86; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-102, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-102 (Rule 102), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-10201
Application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits.

(1) Introduction. Reseller permits, issued by the department of revenue (department), replaced resale certificates as the documentation necessary to substantiate the wholesale nature of a sales transaction effective January 1, 2010. This rule explains the criteria under which the department will automatically issue a reseller permit, the application process for both contractors and taxpayers engaging in other business activities when the department does not automatically issue or renew a reseller permit, and the criteria that may result in the denial of an application for a reseller permit. Unique requirements and provisions apply to contractors. (See Part III of this rule.)
The information in this rule is organized into the following three parts:
(a) Part I: General Information.
(b) Part II: Businesses Other than Contractors.
(c) Part III: Contractors.
(2) Other rules that may apply. Readers may want to refer to other rules for additional information, including those in the following list:
(a) WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits) which explains taxpayers' responsibilities regarding the use of reseller permits, sellers' responsibilities for retaining copies of reseller permits, and the implications for taxpayers not properly using reseller permits and sellers not obtaining copies of reseller permits from taxpayers;
(b) WAC 458-20-10202 (Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to reseller permits) which explains the process a taxpayer must use to appeal the department's denial of an application for a reseller permit; and
(c) WAC 458-20-192 (Indian-Indian country) which explains the extent of the state's authority to regulate and impose tax in Indian country.
(3) Examples. This rule contains examples that identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. The examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances.
Part I – General Information
(101) Definitions. For the purpose of this rule, the following terms will apply:
(a) Consumer. "Consumer" has the same meaning as under RCW 82.04.190.
(b) Contractor. A "contractor" is a person whose primary business activity is as a contractor as defined under RCW 18.27.010 or an electrical contractor as defined under RCW 19.28.006.
(c) Gross income. "Gross income" means gross proceeds of sales as defined in RCW 82.04.070 and value of products manufactured as determined under RCW 82.04.450.
(d) Labor. "Labor" is defined as the work of subcontractors (including personnel provided by temporary staffing companies) hired by a contractor to perform a portion of the construction services in respect to real property owned by a third party. In the case of speculative builders, labor includes the work of any contractor hired by the speculative builder. Labor does not include the work of taxpayer's employees. Nor does the term include architects, consultants, engineers, construction managers, or other independent contractors hired to oversee a project but who are not responsible for the construction of the project. However, for purposes of the percentage discussed in subsection (303)(a)(iii) of this rule, purchases of labor may include the wages of taxpayer's employees and amounts paid to consultants, engineers, construction managers or other independent contractors hired to oversee a project if all such purchases are commingled in the applicant's records and it would be impractical to exclude such purchases.
(e) Materials. "Materials" is defined as tangible personal property that becomes incorporated into the real property being constructed, repaired, decorated, or improved. Materials are the type of tangible personal property that contractors on retail construction projects purchase at wholesale, such as lumber, concrete, paint, wiring, pipe, roofing materials, insulation, nails, screws, drywall, and flooring material. Materials do not include consumable supplies, tools, or equipment, whether purchased or rented, such as bulldozers. However, for purposes of the percentage discussed in subsection (303)(a)(iii) of this rule, purchases of consumable supplies, tools, and equipment rentals may be included with material purchases if all such purchases are commingled in the applicant's records and it would be impractical to exclude such purchases.
(f) Material misstatement. "Material misstatement" is a false statement knowingly or purposefully made by the applicant with the intent to deceive or mislead the department.
(g) Outstanding tax liability. For the purpose of this rule, "outstanding tax liability" is any issued tax invoice that has not been paid in full on or before its stated due date. The definition excludes an invoice placed on hold by the department or where the department has executed a payment agreement with the taxpayer and the taxpayer is still in compliance with that agreement.
(h) Reseller permit. A "reseller permit" is the document issued to a taxpayer by the department, a copy of which the taxpayer provides to a seller to substantiate a wholesale purchase. A wholesale purchase is not subject to retail sales tax. RCW 82.04.060; 82.08.020.
(i) Retail construction activity. "Retail construction activity" means the constructing, repairing, decorating, or improving of new or existing buildings or other structures under, on, or above real property of or for consumers, including the installing or attaching of any article of tangible personal property therein or thereto, whether or not such personal property becomes a part of the realty by virtue of installation, and it also includes the sale of services or charges made for the clearing of land and the moving of earth except the mere leveling of land used in commercial farming or agriculture. Retail construction activity generally involves residential and commercial construction performed for others, including road construction for the state of Washington. It generally includes construction activities that are not specifically designated as speculative building, government contracting, public road construction, logging road construction, radioactive waste cleanup on federal lands, or designated hazardous site clean up jobs.
(j) Wholesale construction activity. "Wholesale construction activity" means labor and services rendered for persons who are not consumers in respect to real property, if such labor and services are expressly defined as a retail sale by RCW 82.04.050 when rendered to or for consumers.
(102)Can any business obtain a reseller permit? No. The legislature passed the act authorizing reseller permits to address the significant retail sales tax noncompliance problem resulting from both the intentional and unintentional misuse of resale certificates. The department will not issue a reseller permit unless the business substantiates that it is entitled to make wholesale purchases. Some businesses may not receive a reseller permit, and if they make wholesale purchases, they will need to pay retail sales tax to the seller and then claim a "taxable amount for tax paid at source" deduction on their excise tax return or request a refund from the department as discussed in subsection (205) of this rule.
Example 1. BC Interior Design (BC) arranges for its customers to order and pay for furniture, window treatments and other decorative items directly from vendors. As the customers purchase directly from the vendors, and BC does not purchase the items for resale to their customers, BC may not qualify for a reseller permit. BC must meet the criteria as discussed in subsection (203) of this rule, which includes reporting income from retailing, wholesaling, or manufacturing activities.
Part II - Businesses Other than Contractors
(201) How does a business obtain a reseller permit? The department may automatically issue a reseller permit to a business if it appears to the department's satisfaction, based on the nature of the business's activities and any other information available to the department, that the business is entitled to make purchases at wholesale.
Those businesses that do not receive an automatically issued reseller permit may apply to the department to obtain a reseller permit. Applications can be filed using the businesses' "My Account." If a paper application is needed, businesses can obtain one by calling 1-800-647-7706 (taxpayer services) or 360-902-7137 (taxpayer account administration). Completed paper applications should be mailed or faxed to the department at:
Taxpayer Account Administration
Washington State Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47476
Olympia, WA 98504-7476
(202) When does a business apply for a reseller permit? A business may apply for a reseller permit at any time.
(203) What criteria will the department consider when deciding whether a business will receive a reseller permit?
(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a business other than a contractor will receive a reseller permit if it satisfies the following criteria (contractors should refer to subsection (303) of this rule for an explanation of the requirements unique to them):
(i) The business has an active tax reporting account with the department;
(ii) The business has reported gross income on its excise tax returns covering a monthly or quarterly period during the immediately preceding six months or, if the business reports on an annual basis, on the immediately preceding annual excise tax return; and
(iii) Five percent or more of the business's gross income reported during the applicable six- or twelve-month period described in (a)(ii) of this subsection was reported under a retailing, wholesaling, or manufacturing business and occupation (B&O) tax classification.
(b) Notwithstanding (a) of this subsection, the department may deny an application for a reseller permit if:
(i) The department determines that an applicant is not entitled to make purchases at wholesale or is otherwise prohibited from using a reseller permit based on the nature of the applicant's business;
(ii) The applicant has been assessed the penalty for the misuse of a resale certificate or a reseller permit;
(iii) The application contains any material misstatement;
(iv) The application is incomplete;
(v) The applicant has an outstanding tax liability due to the department; or
(vi) The department determines that denial of the application is in the best interest of collecting the taxes due under Title 82 RCW.
(c) The department's decision to approve or deny an application may be based on excise tax returns previously filed with the department by the applicant, a current or previous examination of the applicant's books and records by the department, information provided by the applicant in the master application and the reseller permit application, and other information available to the department.
(d) In the event that a business has reorganized, the new business resulting from the reorganization may be denied a reseller permit if the former business would not have qualified for a reseller permit under (a) or (b) of this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, "reorganize" means:
(i) The transfer, however effected, of a majority of the assets of one business to another business where any of the persons having an interest in the ownership or management in the former business maintain an ownership or management interest in the new business, either directly or indirectly;
(ii) A mere change in identity or form of ownership, however effected; or
(iii) The new business is a mere continuation of the former business based on significant shared features such as owners, personnel, assets, or general business activity.
(204) What if I am a new business and don't have a past reporting history? New businesses will generally be issued permits if they indicate they will engage in activity taxable under a retailing, wholesaling, or manufacturing B&O tax classification.
(205) What if I don't get a reseller permit and some of my purchases qualify as wholesale purchases? Some taxpayers that do not qualify for a reseller permit make occasional wholesale purchases. In these circumstances, the taxpayer must pay retail sales tax on these purchases and then claim a "taxable amount for tax paid at source" deduction on its excise tax return. However, such a deduction in respect to the purchase of services is not permitted if the services are not of a type that can be sold at wholesale under the definition of wholesale sale in RCW 82.04.060.
Alternatively, the taxpayer may request a refund from the department of retail sales tax it paid on purchases that are later resold without being used (intervening use) by the taxpayer or for purchases that would otherwise have met the definition of wholesale sale if the taxpayer had provided the seller with a reseller permit or uniform exemption certificate as authorized in RCW 82.04.470. For instructions on requesting a refund see WAC 458-20-229.
Part III - Contractors
(301) How does a contractor obtain a reseller permit? The department may automatically issue a reseller permit to a contractor if the department is satisfied that the contractor is entitled to make purchases at wholesale and that issuing the reseller permit is unlikely to jeopardize collection of sales taxes due based on the criteria discussed in subsection (303) of this rule.
Contractors that do not receive an automatically issued reseller permit may apply to the department to obtain a reseller permit in the same manner as provided in subsection (201) of this rule. However, the application identifies information specific to contractors that must be provided.
(302)When does a contractor apply for a reseller permit? The same guidelines for business applicants as provided in subsection (202) of this rule also apply to contractor applicants.
(303) What are the criteria specific to contractors to receive a reseller permit?
(a) The department may issue a permit to a contractor that:
(i) Provides a completed application with no material misstatement as that term is defined in this rule;
(ii) Demonstrates it is entitled to make purchases at wholesale; and
(iii) Reported on its application at least twenty-five percent of its total dollar amount of material and labor purchases in the preceding twenty-four months were for retail and wholesale construction activities performed by the contractor.
The department may approve an application not meeting these criteria if the department is satisfied that approval is unlikely to jeopardize collection of the taxes due under Title 82 RCW.
(b) If the criteria in (a) of this subsection are satisfied, the department will then consider the following factors to determine whether to issue a reseller permit to a contractor:
(i) Whether the contractor has an active tax reporting account with the department;
(ii) Whether the contractor has reported gross income on its excise tax returns covering a monthly or quarterly period during the immediately preceding six months or, if the contractor reports on an annual basis, on the immediately preceding annual excise tax return;
(iii) Whether the contractor has the appropriate certification and licensing with the Washington state department of labor and industries;
(iv) Whether the contractor has been assessed the penalty for the misuse of a resale certificate or a reseller permit;
(v) Whether the contractor has an outstanding tax liability due to the department; and
(vi) Any other factor resulting in a determination by the department that denial of the contractor's application is in the best interest of collecting the taxes due under Title 82 RCW.
(c) The department's decision to approve or deny an application may be based on the same materials and information as discussed in subsection (203)(c) of this rule.
(d) The provisions of subsection (203)(d) of this rule apply equally to contractors.
Example 2. DC Contracting is a speculative homebuilder and also purchases houses to renovate and sell, sometimes referred to as flipping. A speculative builder is the consumer of all materials incorporated into the real estate including houses purchased for flipping. Retail sales tax is owed on all supplies and services DC Contracting purchases, unless there is an applicable exemption. DC Contracting would not qualify for a reseller permit under these facts.
(304) What if a contractor does not obtain a reseller permit and some of its purchases do qualify as wholesale purchases? The provisions of subsection (205) of this rule apply equally to contractors.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-10201, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16; WSR 16-01-155, § 458-20-10201, filed 12/21/15, effective 1/21/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.780, and 82.32.783. WSR 10-14-080, § 458-20-10201, filed 7/1/10, effective 8/1/10.]



458-20-10202
Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to reseller permits.

(1) Introduction. The department of revenue (department) conducts adjudicative proceedings pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The department adopts in this rule the brief adjudicative procedures as provided in RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.494 for the administration of brief adjudicative proceedings for the following matters related to reseller permits:
(a) A determination of whether an applicant for a reseller permit meets the criteria for a reseller permit per WAC 458-20-10201;
(b) On the administrative appeal of an initial order denying the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit, a determination as to whether the department's order denying the application was correctly based on the criteria for approving reseller permits as set forth in WAC 458-20-10201;
(c) A determination of whether a reseller permit should be revoked using the criteria per RCW 82.32.780 and WAC 458-20-102; and
(d) On the administrative appeal of an initial order revoking the taxpayer's reseller permit, a determination as to whether the department's order revoking the permit was correctly based on the criteria as set forth in RCW 82.32.780 and WAC 458-20-102.
This rule explains the procedure and process pertaining to the adopted brief adjudicative proceedings.
(2) Record in brief adjudicative proceedings.
(a) The record with respect to a taxpayer's appeal per RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.485 of the department's denial of an application for a reseller permit will consist of:
(i) The taxpayer's application for the reseller permit, the taxpayer's notice of appeal, the taxpayer's written response, if any, to the reasons set forth in the department's notice of denial of a reseller permit, all records relied upon by the department or submitted by the taxpayer; and
(ii) All correspondence between the taxpayer requesting the reseller permit and the department regarding the application for the reseller permit.
(b) The record with respect to a taxpayer's appeal per RCW 34.05.482 through 34.05.485 of the department's initial order revoking a reseller permit will consist of the department's notice of intent to revoke the reseller permit, the taxpayer's written response to the department's notice of intent to revoke, the taxpayer's notice of appeal, and all records relied upon by the department, or submitted by the taxpayer.
(3) Conduct of brief adjudicative proceedings.
(a) If the department denies an application for a reseller permit, it will notify the taxpayer of the denial in writing, stating the reasons for the denial. To initiate an appeal of the denial of the reseller permit application, the taxpayer must file a written appeal no later than twenty-one days after service of the department's written notice that the taxpayer's application has been denied.
(b) If the department proposes to revoke a reseller permit, it will notify the taxpayer of the proposed revocation in writing, stating the reasons for the proposed revocation. To contest the proposed revocation of the reseller permit, the taxpayer must file a written response no later than twenty-one days after service of the department's written notice of the proposed revocation of the reseller permit.
(c) A Reseller Permit Appeal Petition form, or form for a response to the proposed revocation of a reseller permit is available at dor.wa.gov or by calling 1-800-647-7706. The completed form should be mailed or faxed to the department at:
Washington State Department of Revenue
Taxpayer Account Administration
P.O. Box 47476
Olympia, WA 98504-7476
(d) A presiding officer, who will be either the assistant director of the taxpayer account administration division or such other person as designated by the director of the department (director), will conduct brief adjudicative proceedings. The presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings will have agency expertise in the subject matter but will not otherwise have participated in responding to the taxpayer's application for a reseller permit or in the decision to propose revocation of the taxpayer's reseller permit.
(e) As part of the appeal, the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative may present written documentation and explain the taxpayer's view of the matter. The presiding officer may request additional documentation from the taxpayer or the department and will designate the date by which the documents must be submitted.
(f) No witnesses may appear to testify.
(g) In addition to the record, the presiding officer for brief adjudicative proceedings may employ agency expertise as a basis for decision.
(h) Within twenty-one days of receipt of the taxpayer's appeal of the denial of a reseller permit or proposed revocation of the reseller permit, the presiding officer will enter an initial order, including a brief explanation of the decision per RCW 34.05.485. All orders in these brief adjudicative proceedings will be in writing. The initial order will become the department's final order unless an appeal is filed with the department's administrative review and hearings division in subsection (4) of this rule.
(4) Review of initial orders from brief adjudicative proceeding. A taxpayer may request a review by the department of an initial order issued per subsection (3) of this rule by filing a petition for review or by making an oral request for review with the department's administrative review and hearings division within twenty-one days after the service of the initial order on the taxpayer. A form for an appeal of an initial order per subsection (3) of this rule is available at dor.wa.gov. A request for review should state the reasons the review is sought. A taxpayer making an oral request for review may at the same time mail a written statement to the address below stating the reasons for the appeal and its view of the matter. The address, telephone number, and fax number of the administrative review and hearings division are:
Administrative Review and Hearings Division, Reseller Permit Appeals
Washington State Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47460
Olympia, WA 98504-7460
Telephone Number: 360-534-1335
(a) A reviewing officer, who will be either the assistant director of the administrative review and hearings division or such other person as designated by the director, will conduct brief adjudicative proceedings and determine whether the department's initial order issued per subsection (3) of this rule was correctly based on the criteria set forth in RCW 82.32.780, WAC 458-20-102, and 458-20-10201. The reviewing officer will review the record and, if needed, convert the proceeding to a formal adjudicative proceeding.
(b) The agency record need not constitute the exclusive basis for the reviewing officer's decision. The reviewing officer will have the authority of a presiding officer.
(c) The order of the reviewing officer will be in writing and include a brief statement of the reasons for the decision, and it must be entered within twenty days of the petition for review. The order will include a notice that judicial review may be available. The order of the reviewing officer represents the final decision of the department.
(d) A request for administrative review is deemed denied if the department does not issue an order on review within twenty days after the petition for review is filed or orally requested.
(5) Conversion of a brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding. The presiding officer or reviewing officer may convert the brief adjudicative proceeding to a formal proceeding at any time on motion of the taxpayer, the department, or the presiding/reviewing officer's own motion.
(a) The presiding/reviewing officer will convert the proceeding when it is found that the use of the brief adjudicative proceeding violates any provision of law, when the protection of the public interest requires the agency to give notice to and an opportunity to participate to persons other than the parties, and when the issues and interests involved warrant the use of the procedures of RCW 34.05.413 through 34.05.479.
(b) When a proceeding is converted from a brief adjudication to a formal proceeding, the director may become the presiding officer or may designate a replacement presiding officer to conduct the formal proceedings upon notice to the taxpayer and the department.
(c) In the conduct of the formal proceedings, WAC 458-20-10002 will apply to the proceedings.
(6) Court appeal. Court appeal from the final order of the department is available pursuant to Part V, chapter 34.05 RCW. However, court appeal may be available only if a review of the initial decision has been requested under subsection (4) of this rule and all other administrative remedies have been exhausted. See RCW 34.05.534.
(7) Computation of time. In computing any period of time prescribed by this rule or by the presiding officer, the day of the act or event after which the designated period is to run is not to be included. The last day of the period is to be included, unless it is a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday. When the period of time prescribed is less than seven days, intermediate Saturdays, Sundays and holidays are excluded in the computation. Service as discussed in subsection (8) of this rule is deemed complete upon mailing.
(8) Service. All notices and other pleadings or papers filed with the presiding or reviewing officer must be served on the taxpayer, their representatives/agents of record, and the department.
(a) Service is made by one of the following methods:
(i) In person;
(ii) By first-class, registered or certified mail;
(iii) By fax and same-day mailing of copies;
(iv) By commercial parcel delivery company; or
(v) By electronic delivery pursuant to RCW 82.32.135.
(b) Service by mail is regarded as completed upon deposit in the United States mail properly stamped and addressed.
(c) Service by electronic fax is regarded as completed upon the production by the fax machine of confirmation of transmission.
(d) Service by commercial parcel delivery is regarded as completed upon delivery to the parcel delivery company, properly addressed with charges prepaid.
(e) Service by electronic delivery is regarded as completed on the date that the department electronically sends the information to the parties or electronically notifies the parties that the information is available to be accessed by them.
(f) Service to a taxpayer, their representative/agent of record, the department, and presiding officer must be to the address shown on the notice described in subsection (3)(a) of this rule.
(g) Service to the reviewing officer must be to the administrative review and hearings division at the address shown in subsection (4) of this rule.
(h) Where proof of service is required, the proofs of service must include:
(i) An acknowledgment of service;
(ii) A certificate, signed by the person who served the document(s), stating the date of service; that the person did serve the document(s) upon all or one or more of the parties of record in the proceeding by delivering a copy in person to (names); and that the service was accomplished by a method of service as provided in this subsection.
(9) Continuance. The presiding officer or reviewing officer may grant a request for a continuance by motion of the taxpayer, the department, or on its own motion.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-13-029, § 458-20-10202, filed 6/6/16, effective 7/7/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.780 and 82.32.783. WSR 12-11-007, § 458-20-10202, filed 5/3/12, effective 6/3/12; WSR 10-14-080, § 458-20-10202, filed 7/1/10, effective 8/1/10.]



458-20-102A
Resale certificates.

(1) Introduction. This section provides information regarding the use of resale certificates, which were the documents used to substantiate the wholesale nature of a sales transaction occurring prior to January 1, 2010. Resale certificates cannot be used to substantiate wholesale sales made after December 31, 2009.
This section provides information that applies to periods prior to January 1, 2010. It explains the conditions under which a buyer may furnish a resale certificate to a seller, and explains the information and language required on the resale certificate. This section also provides tax reporting information to persons who purchase articles or services for dual purposes (i.e., for both resale and consumption).
(a) Legislation passed in 2009. Effective January 1, 2010, reseller permits issued by the department of revenue (department) replace resale certificates as the documentation necessary to substantiate the wholesale nature of a sales transaction (chapter 563, Laws of 2009).
Businesses should consult:
• WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits) for more information about the use of reseller permits to substantiate wholesale sales beginning January 1, 2010;
• WAC 458-20-10201 (Application process and eligibility requirements for reseller permits) for more information about the application process and eligibility requirements for obtaining a reseller permit; and
• WAC 458-20-10202 (Brief adjudicative proceedings for matters related to reseller permits) for more information about the procedures for appealing the denial of an application for a reseller permit.
(b) Legislation passed in 2003. In 2003, the legislature enacted legislation conforming state law to portions of the national Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement (chapter 168, Laws of 2003), which eliminates the good faith requirement when the seller takes from the buyer a resale certificate and also eliminates signature requirements for certificates provided in a format other than paper. These changes apply to resale certificates taken on and after July 1, 2004.
(c) Legislation passed in 2007. Additional Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement legislation was enacted in 2007 (chapter 6, Laws of 2007). It eliminates the provision that resale certificates are only valid for four years from the date they are issued to the seller, as long as there is a recurring business relationship between the buyer and seller. This change is effective on July 1, 2008.
(2) What is a resale certificate? The resale certificate is a document or combination of documents that substantiates the wholesale nature of a sale. The resale certificate cannot be used for purchases that are not purchases at wholesale, or where a more specific certificate, affidavit, or other documentary evidence is required by statute or other section of chapter 458-20 WAC. While the resale certificate may come in different forms, all resale certificates must satisfy the language and information requirements of RCW 82.04.470.
(a) What is the scope of a resale certificate? Depending on the statements made on the resale certificate, the resale certificate may authorize the buyer to purchase at wholesale all products or services being purchased from a particular seller, or may authorize only selected products or services to be purchased at wholesale. The provisions of the resale certificate may be limited to a single sales transaction, or may apply to all sales transactions as long as the seller has a recurring business relationship with the buyer. A "recurring business relationship" means at least one sale transaction within a period of twelve consecutive months. Whatever its form and/or purpose, the resale certificate must be completed in its entirety and signed by a person who is authorized to make such a representation on behalf of the buyer.
(b) Who may issue and sign certificates? The buyer may authorize any person in its employ to issue and sign resale certificates on the buyer's behalf. The buyer is, however, responsible for the information contained on the resale certificate. A resale certificate is not required to be completed by every person ordering or making the actual purchase of articles or services on behalf of the buyer. For example, a construction company that authorizes only its bookkeeper to issue resale certificates on its behalf may authorize both the bookkeeper and a job foreman to purchase items under the provisions of the resale certificate. The construction company is not required to provide, nor is the seller required to obtain, a resale certificate signed by each person making purchases on behalf of the construction company.
The buyer is responsible for educating all persons authorized to issue and/or use the resale certificate on the proper use of the buyer's resale certificate privileges.
(3) Resale certificate renewal. Prior to July 1, 2008, resale certificates must be renewed at least every four years. As of July 1, 2008, the requirement to renew resale certificates at least every four years has been eliminated. The buyer must renew its resale certificate whenever a change in the ownership of the buyer's business requires a new tax registration. (See WAC 458-20-101 Tax registration and tax reporting.) The buyer may not make purchases under the authority of a resale certificate bearing a tax registration number that has been canceled or revoked by the department of revenue (department).
(4) Sales at wholesale. All sales are treated as retail sales unless the seller takes from the buyer a properly executed resale certificate. Resale certificates may only be used for sales at wholesale and may not be used as proof of entitlement to retail sales tax exemptions otherwise provided by law.
(a) When may a buyer issue a resale certificate? The buyer may issue a resale certificate only when the property or services purchased are:
(i) For resale in the regular course of the buyer's business without intervening use by the buyer;
(ii) To be used as an ingredient or component part of a new article of tangible personal property to be produced for sale;
(iii) A chemical to be used in processing an article to be produced for sale (see WAC 458-20-113 on chemicals used in processing);
(iv) To be used in processing ferrosilicon that is subsequently used in producing magnesium for sale;
(v) Provided to consumers as a part of competitive telephone service, as defined in RCW 82.04.065;
(vi) Feed, seed, seedlings, fertilizer, spray materials, or agents for enhanced pollination including insects such as bees for use in the federal conservation reserve program or its successor administered by the United States Department of Agriculture; or
(vii) Feed, seed, seedlings, fertilizer, spray materials, or agents for enhanced pollination including insects such as bees for use by a farmer for producing for sale any agricultural product. (See WAC 458-20-210 on sales to and by farmers.)
(b) Required information. All resale certificates, whether paper or nonpaper format, must contain the following information:
(i) The name and address of the buyer;
(ii) The uniform business identifier or tax registration number of the buyer, if the buyer is required to be registered with the department;
(iii) The type of business;
(iv) The categories of items or services to be purchased at wholesale, unless the buyer is in a business classification that may present a blanket resale certificate as provided by the department by rule;
(v) The date on which the certificate was provided;
(vi) A statement that the items or services purchased either are purchased for resale in the regular course of business or are otherwise purchased at wholesale; and
(vii) A statement that the buyer acknowledges that the buyer is solely responsible for purchasing within the categories specified on the certificate and that misuse of the resale certificate subjects the buyer to a penalty of fifty percent of the tax due, in addition to the tax, interest, and any other penalties imposed by law.
(c) Additional requirements for paper certificates. In addition to the requirements stated in (b) of this subsection, paper certificates must contain the following:
(i) The name of the individual authorized to sign the certificate, printed in a legible fashion;
(ii) The signature of the authorized individual; and
(iii) The name of the seller. RCW 82.04.470.
(5) Seller's responsibilities. When a seller receives and accepts from the buyer a resale certificate at the time of the sale, or has a resale certificate on file at the time of the sale, or obtains a resale certificate from the buyer within one hundred twenty days after the sale, the seller is relieved of liability for retail sales tax with respect to the sale covered by the resale certificate. The seller may accept a legible fax, a duplicate copy of an original resale certificate, or a certificate in a format other than paper.
(a) If the seller has not obtained an appropriate resale certificate or other acceptable documentary evidence (see subsection (8) of this section), the seller is personally liable for the tax due unless it can sustain the burden of proving through facts and circumstances that the property was sold for one of the purposes set forth in subsection (4)(a) of this section. The department will consider all evidence presented by the seller, including the circumstances of the sales transaction itself, when determining whether the seller has met its burden of proof. It is the seller's responsibility to provide the information necessary to evaluate the facts and circumstances of all sales transactions for which resale certificates are not obtained. Facts and circumstances that should be considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
(i) The nature of the buyer's business. The items being purchased at wholesale must be consistent with the buyer's business. For example, a buyer having a business name of "Ace Used Cars" would generally not be expected to be in the business of selling furniture;
(ii) The nature of the items sold. The items sold must be of a type that would normally be purchased at wholesale by the buyer; and
(iii) Additional documentation. Other available documents, such as purchase orders and shipping instructions, should be considered in determining whether they support a finding that the sales are sales at wholesale.
(b) If the seller is required to make payment to the department, and later is able to present the department with proper documentation or prove by facts and circumstances that the sales in question are wholesale sales, the seller may in writing request a refund of the taxes paid along with the applicable interest. Both the request and the documentation or proof that the sales in question are wholesale sales must be submitted to the department within the statutory time limitations provided by RCW 82.32.060. (See WAC 458-20-229 Refunds.) However, refer to (f) of this subsection in event of an audit situation.
(c) Timing requirements for single orders with multiple billings. If a single order or contract will result in multiple billings to the buyer, and the appropriate resale certificate was not obtained or on file at the time the order was placed or the contract entered, the resale certificate must be received by the seller within one hundred twenty days after the first billing. For example, a subcontractor entering into a construction contract for which it has not received a resale certificate must obtain the certificate within one hundred twenty days of the initial construction draw request, even though the construction project may not be completed at that time and additional draw requests will follow.
(d) Requirements for resale certificates obtained after one hundred twenty days have passed. If the resale certificate is obtained more than one hundred twenty days after the sale or sales in question, the resale certificate must be specific to the sale or sales. The certificate must specifically identify the sales in question on its face, or be accompanied by other documentation signed by the buyer specifically identifying the sales in question and stating that the provisions of the accompanying resale certificate apply. A nonspecific resale certificate that is not obtained within one hundred twenty days is generally not, in and of itself, acceptable proof of the wholesale nature of the sales in question. The resale certificate and/or required documentation must be obtained within the statutory time limitations provided by RCW 82.32.050.
(e) Examples. The following examples explain the seller's documentary requirements in typical situations when obtaining a resale certificate more than one hundred twenty days after the sale. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(i) Beginning in January of year 1, MN Company regularly makes sales to ABC Inc. In June of the same year, MN discovers ABC has not provided a resale certificate. MN requests a resale certificate from ABC and, as the resale certificate will not be received within one hundred twenty days of many of the past sales transactions, requests that the resale certificate specifically identify those past sales subject to the provisions of the certificate. MN receives a legible fax copy of an original resale certificate from ABC on July 1st of that year. Accompanying the resale certificate is a memo providing a list of the invoice numbers for all past sales transactions through May 15th of that year. This memo also states that the provisions of the resale certificate apply to all past and future sales, including those listed. MN Company has satisfied the requirement that it obtain a resale certificate specific to the sales in question.
(ii) XYZ Company makes three sales to MP Inc. in October of year 1 and does not charge retail sales tax. In the review of its resale certificate file in April of the following year, XYZ discovers it has not received a resale certificate from MP Inc. and immediately requests a certificate. As the resale certificate will not be received within one hundred twenty days of the sales in question, XYZ requests that MP provide a resale certificate identifying the sales in question. MP provides XYZ with a resale certificate that does not identify the sales in question, but simply states "applies to all past purchases." XYZ Company has not satisfied its responsibility to obtain an appropriate resale certificate. As XYZ failed to secure a resale certificate within a reasonable period of time, XYZ must obtain a certificate specifically identifying the sales in question or prove through other facts and circumstances that these sales are wholesale sales. (Refer to (a) of this subsection for information on how a seller can prove through other facts and circumstances that a sale is a wholesale sale.) It remains the seller's burden to prove the wholesale nature of the sales made to a buyer if the seller has not obtained a valid resale certificate within one hundred twenty days of the sale.
(f) Additional time to secure documentation in audit situation. If in event of an audit the department discovers that the seller has not secured, as described in this subsection (5), the necessary resale certificates and/or documentation, the seller will generally be allowed one hundred twenty days in which to obtain and present appropriate resale certificates and/or documentation, or prove by facts and circumstances the sales in question are wholesale sales. The time allotted to the seller shall commence from the date the auditor initially provides the seller with the results of the auditor's wholesale sales review. The processing of the audit report will not be delayed as a result of the seller's failure within the allotted time to secure and present appropriate documentation, or its inability to prove by facts and circumstances that the sales in question were wholesale sales.
(6) Penalty for improper use. Any buyer who uses a resale certificate to purchase items or services without payment of sales tax and who is not entitled to use the certificate for the purchase will be assessed a penalty of fifty percent of the tax due on the improperly purchased item or service. This penalty is in addition to all other taxes, penalties, and interest due, and can be imposed even if there was no intent to evade the payment of retail sales tax. The penalty will be assessed by the department and applies only to the buyer. However, see subsection (12) of this section for situations in which the department may waive the penalty.
Persons who purchase articles or services for dual purposes (i.e., some for their own consumption and some for resale) should refer to subsection (11) of this section to determine whether they may give a resale certificate to the seller.
(7) Resale certificate - suggested form. While there may be different forms of the resale certificate, all resale certificates must satisfy the language and information requirements provided by RCW 82.04.470. The resale certificate is available on the department's internet site at http://dor.wa.gov, or can be obtained by calling the department's telephone information center at 1- 800-647-7706 or by writing:
Taxpayer Services
Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47478
Olympia, WA 98504-7478
A resale certificate may be in any other form that contains substantially the same information and language, except that certificates provided in a format other than paper are not required to include the printed name of the person authorized to sign the certificate, the signature of the authorized individual, or the name of the seller.
Effective July 1, 2008, buyers also have the option of using a Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement Certificate of Exemption, which has been modified for Washington state laws. It can also be found on the department's internet site at http://dor.wa.gov.
(a) Buyer's responsibility to specify products or services purchased at wholesale. RCW 82.04.470 requires the buyer making purchases at wholesale to specify the kinds of products or services subject to the provisions of the resale certificate. A buyer who will purchase some of the items at wholesale, and consume and pay tax on some other items being purchased from the same seller, must use terms specific enough to clearly indicate to the seller what kinds of products or services the buyer is authorized to purchase at wholesale.
(i) The buyer may list the particular products or services to be purchased at wholesale, or provide general category descriptions of these products or services. The terms used to describe these categories must be descriptive enough to restrict the application of the resale certificate provisions to those products or services that the buyer is authorized to purchase at wholesale. The following are examples of terms used to describe categories of products purchased at wholesale, and businesses that may be eligible to use such terms on their resale certificates:
(A) "Hardware" for use by a general merchandise or building material supply store, "computer hardware" for use by a computer retailer;
(B) "Paint" or "painting supplies" for use by a general merchandise or paint retailer, "automotive paint" for use by an automotive repair shop; and
(C) "Building materials" or "subcontract work" for use by prime contractors performing residential home construction, "wiring" or "lighting fixtures" for use by an electrical contractor.
(ii) The buyer must remit retail sales tax on any taxable product or service not listed on the resale certificate provided to the seller. If the buyer gave a resale certificate to the seller and later used an item listed on the certificate, or if the seller failed to collect the sales tax on items not listed on the certificate, the buyer must remit the deferred sales or use tax due directly to the department.
(iii) RCW 82.08.050 provides that each seller shall collect from the buyer the full amount of retail sales tax due on each retail sale. If the department finds that the seller has engaged in a consistent pattern of failing to properly charge sales tax on items not purchased at wholesale (i.e., not listed on the resale certificate), it may hold the seller liable for the uncollected sales tax.
(iv) Persons having specific questions regarding the use of terms to describe products or services purchased at wholesale may submit their questions to the department for ruling. The department may be contacted on the internet at http://dor.wa.gov/ or by writing:
Taxpayer Services
Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47478
Olympia, WA 98504-7478
(b) Blanket resale certificates. A buyer who will purchase at wholesale all of the products or services being purchased from a particular seller will not be required to specifically describe the items or item categories on the resale certificate. If the certificate form provides for a description of the products or services being purchased at wholesale the buyer may specify "all products and/or services" (or make a similar designation). A resale certificate completed in this manner is often described as a blanket resale certificate.
(i) The resale certificate used by the buyer must, in all cases, be completed in its entirety. A resale certificate in which the section for the description of the items being purchased at wholesale is left blank by the buyer will not be considered a properly executed resale certificate.
(ii) As of July 1, 2008, renewal or updating of blanket resale certificates is not required as long as the seller has a recurring business relationship with the buyer. A "recurring business relationship" means at least one sale transaction within a period of twelve consecutive months.
To effectively administer this provision during an audit, the department will accept a resale certificate as evidence for wholesale sales that occur within four years of the certificate's effective date without evidence of sales transactions being made once every twelve months. For sales transactions made more than four years after the date of the properly completed resale certificate, the seller must substantiate that a recurring business relationship with the buyer has occurred for any sales outside the period of more than four years after the effective date of the resale certificate.
(c) Resale certificates for single transactions. If the resale certificate is used for a single transaction, the language and information required of a resale certificate may be written or stamped upon a purchase order or invoice. The language contained in a "single use" resale certificate should be modified to delete any reference to subsequent orders or purchases.
(d) Examples. The following examples explain the proper use of types of resale certificates in typical situations. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(i) ABC is an automobile repair shop purchasing automobile parts for resale and tools for its own use from DE Supply. ABC must provide DE Supply with a resale certificate limiting the certificate's application to automobile part purchases. However, should ABC withdraw parts from inventory to install in its own tow truck, deferred retail sales tax or use tax must be remitted directly to the department. The buyer has the responsibility to report deferred retail sales tax or use tax upon any item put to its own use, including items for which it gave a resale certificate and later used for its own use.
(ii) X Company is a retailer selling lumber, hardware, tools, automotive parts, and household appliances. X Company regularly purchases lumber, hardware, and tools from Z Distributing. While these products are generally purchased for resale, X Company occasionally withdraws some of these products from inventory for its own use. X Company may provide Z Distributing with a resale certificate specifying "all products purchased" are purchased at wholesale. However, whenever X Company removes any product from inventory to put to its own use, deferred retail sales tax or use tax must be remitted to the department.
(iii) TM Company is a manufacturer of electric motors. When making purchases from its suppliers, TM issues a paper purchase order. This purchase order contains the information required of a resale certificate and a signature of the person ordering the items on behalf of TM. This purchase order includes a box that, if marked, indicates to the supplier that all or certain designated items purchased are being purchased at wholesale.
When the box indicating the purchases are being made at wholesale is marked, the purchase order can be accepted as a resale certificate. As TM Company's purchase orders are being accepted as resale certificates, they must be retained by the seller for at least five years. (See WAC 458-20-254 Recordkeeping.)
(8) Other documentary evidence. Other documentary evidence may be used by the seller and buyer in lieu of the resale certificate form described in this section. However, this documentary evidence must collectively contain the information and language generally required of a resale certificate. The conditions and restrictions applicable to the use of resale certificates apply equally to other documentary evidence used in lieu of the resale certificate form in this section. The following are examples of documentary evidence that will be accepted to show that sales were at wholesale:
(a) Combination of documentary evidence. A combination of documentation kept on file, such as a membership card or application, and a sales invoice or "certificate" taken at the point of sale with the purchases listed, provided:
(i) The documentation kept on file contains all information required on a resale certificate, including, for paper certificates, the names and signatures of all persons authorized to make purchases at wholesale; and
(ii) The sales invoice or "certificate" taken at the point of sale must contain the following:
(A) Language certifying the purchase is made at wholesale, with acknowledgment of the penalties for the misuse of resale certificate privileges, as generally required of a resale certificate; and
(B) The name and registration number of the buyer/business, and, if a paper certificate, an authorized signature.
(b) Contracts of sale. A contract of sale that within the body of the contract provides the language and information generally required of a resale certificate. The contract of sale must specify the products or services subject to the resale certificate privileges.
(c) Other preapproved documentary evidence. Any other documentary evidence that has been approved in advance and in writing by the department.
(9) Sales to nonresident buyers. If the buyer is a nonresident who is not engaged in business in this state, but buys articles here for the purpose of resale in the regular course of business outside this state, the seller must take from the buyer a resale certificate as described in this section. The seller may accept a resale certificate from an unregistered nonresident buyer with the registration number information omitted, provided the balance of the resale certificate is completed in its entirety. The resale certificate should contain a statement that the items are being purchased for resale outside Washington.
(10) Sales to farmers. Farmers selling agricultural products only at wholesale are not required to register with the department. (See WAC 458-20-101 Tax registration and tax reporting.) When making wholesale sales to farmers (including farmers operating in other states), the seller must take from the farmer a resale certificate as described in this section. Farmers not required to be registered with the department may provide, and the seller may accept, resale certificates with the registration number information omitted, provided the balance of the certificates are completed in full. Persons making sales to farmers should also refer to WAC 458-20-210 (Sales of tangible personal property for farming—Sales of agricultural products by farmers).
(11) Purchases for dual purposes. A buyer normally engaged in both consuming and reselling certain types of tangible personal property, and not able to determine at the time of purchase whether the particular property purchased will be consumed or resold, must purchase according to the general nature of his or her business. RCW 82.08.130. If the buyer principally consumes the articles in question, the buyer should not give a resale certificate for any part of the purchase. If the buyer principally resells the articles, the buyer may issue a resale certificate for the entire purchase. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "principally" means greater than fifty percent.
(a) Deferred sales tax liability. If the buyer gives a resale certificate for all purchases and thereafter consumes some of the articles purchased, the buyer must set up in his or her books of account the value of the article used and remit to the department the applicable deferred sales tax. The deferred sales tax liability should be reported under the use tax classification on the buyer's excise tax return.
(i) Buyers making purchases for dual purposes under the provisions of a resale certificate must remit deferred sales tax on all products or services they consume. If the buyer fails to make a good faith effort to remit this tax liability, the penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges may be assessed. This penalty will apply to the unremitted portion of the deferred sales tax liability.
A buyer will generally be considered to be making a good faith effort to report its deferred sales tax liability if the buyer discovers a minimum of eighty percent of the tax liability within one hundred twenty days of purchase, and remits the full amount of the discovered tax liability upon the next excise tax return. However, if the buyer does not satisfy this eighty percent threshold and can show by other facts and circumstances that it made a good faith effort to report the tax liability, the penalty will not be assessed. Likewise, if the department can show by other facts and circumstances that the buyer did not make a good faith effort in remitting its tax liability the penalty will be assessed, even if the eighty percent threshold is satisfied.
(ii) The following example illustrates the use of a resale certificate for dual-use purchases. This example should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. BC Contracting operates both as a prime contractor and speculative builder of residential homes. BC Contracting purchases building materials from Seller D that are principally incorporated into projects upon which BC acts as a prime contractor. BC provides Seller D with a resale certificate and purchases all building materials at wholesale. BC must remit deferred sales tax upon all building materials incorporated into the speculative projects to be considered to be properly using its resale certificate privileges. The failure to make a good faith effort to identify and remit this tax liability may result in the assessment of the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges.
(b) Tax paid at source deduction. If the buyer has not given a resale certificate, but has paid retail sales tax on all articles of tangible personal property and subsequently resells a portion of the articles, the buyer must collect the retail sales tax from its retail customers as provided by law. When reporting these sales on the excise tax return, the buyer may then claim a deduction in the amount the buyer paid for the property resold.
(i) This deduction may be claimed under the retail sales tax classification only. It must be identified as a "taxable amount for tax paid at source" deduction on the deduction detail worksheet, which must be filed with the excise tax return. Failure to properly identify the deduction may result in the disallowance of the deduction. When completing the local sales tax portion of the tax return, the deduction must be computed at the local sales tax rate paid to the seller, and credited to the seller's tax location code.
(ii) The following example illustrates the tax paid at source deduction on or after July 1, 2008. This example should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. Seller A is located in Spokane, Washington and purchases equipment parts for dual purposes from a supplier located in Seattle, Washington. The supplier ships the parts to Spokane. Seller A does not issue a resale certificate for the purchase, and remits retail sales tax to the supplier at the Spokane tax rate. A portion of these parts are sold and shipped to Customer B in Kennewick, with retail sales tax collected at the Kennewick tax rate. Seller A must report the amount of the sale to Customer B on its excise tax return, compute the local sales tax liability at the Kennewick rate, and code this liability to the location code for Kennewick (0302). Seller A would claim the tax paid at source deduction for the cost of the parts resold to Customer B, compute the local sales tax credit at the Spokane rate, and code this deduction amount to the location code for Spokane (3210).
(iii) Claim for deduction will be allowed only if the taxpayer keeps and preserves records in support of the deduction that show the names of the persons from whom such articles were purchased, the date of the purchase, the type of articles, the amount of the purchase and the amount of tax that was paid.
(iv) Should the buyer resell the articles at wholesale, or under other situations where retail sales tax is not to be collected, the claim for the tax paid at source deduction on a particular excise tax return may result in a credit. In such cases, the department will issue a credit notice that may be used against future tax liabilities. However, a taxpayer may request in writing a refund from the department.
(12) Waiver of penalty for resale certificate misuse. The department may waive the penalty imposed for resale certificate misuse upon finding that the use of the certificate to purchase items or services by a person not entitled to use the certificate for that purpose was due to circumstances beyond the control of the buyer. However, the use of a resale certificate to purchase items or services for personal use outside of the business does not qualify for the waiver or cancellation of the penalty. The penalty will not be waived merely because the buyer was not aware of either the proper use of the resale certificate or the penalty. In all cases the burden of proving the facts is upon the buyer.
(a) Considerations for waiver. Situations under which a waiver of the penalty will be considered by the department include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
(i) The resale certificate was properly used to purchase products or services for dual purposes; or the buyer was eligible to issue the resale certificate; and the buyer made a good faith effort to discover all of its deferred sales tax liability within one hundred twenty days of purchase; and the buyer remitted the discovered tax liability upon the next excise tax return. (Refer to subsection (11)(a)(i) of this section for an explanation of what constitutes "good faith effort.")
(ii) The certificate was issued and/or purchases were made without the knowledge of the buyer, and had no connection with the buyer's business activities. However, the penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges may be applied to the person actually issuing and/or using the resale certificate without knowledge of the buyer.
(b) One time waiver of penalty for inadvertent or unintentional resale certificate misuse. The penalty prescribed for the misuse of the resale certificate may be waived or canceled on a one time only basis if such misuse was inadvertent or unintentional, and the item was purchased for use within the business. If the department does grant a one time waiver of the penalty, the buyer will be provided written notification at that time.
(c) Examples. The following are examples of typical situations where the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale privileges will or will not be assessed. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(i) ABC Manufacturing purchases electrical wiring and tools from X Supply. The electrical wiring is purchased for dual purposes, i.e., for resale and for consumption, with more than fifty percent of the wiring purchases becoming a component of items that ABC manufactures for sale. ABC Manufacturing issues a resale certificate to X Supply specifying "electrical wiring" as the category of items purchased for resale. ABC regularly reviews its purchases and remits deferred sales tax upon the wiring it uses as a consumer.
ABC is subsequently audited by the department and it is discovered that ABC Manufacturing failed to remit deferred sales tax upon three purchases of wiring for consumption. The unreported tax liability attributable to these three purchases is less than five percent of the total deferred sales tax liability for wiring purchases made from X Supply. It is also determined that the failure to remit deferred sales tax upon these purchases was merely an oversight. The fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges does not apply, even though ABC failed to remit deferred sales tax on these purchases. The resale certificate was properly issued, and ABC remitted to the department more than eighty percent of the deferred sales tax liability for wiring purchases from X Supply.
(ii) During a routine audit examination of a jewelry store, the department discovers that a dentist has provided a resale certificate for the purchase of a necklace. This resale certificate indicates that in addition to operating a dentistry practice, the dentist also sells jewelry. The resale certificate contains the information required under RCW 82.04.470.
Upon further investigation, the department finds that the dentist is not engaged in selling jewelry. The department will look to the dentist for payment of the applicable retail sales tax. In addition, the dentist will be assessed the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges. The penalty will not be waived or canceled as the dentist misused the resale certificate privileges to purchase a necklace for personal use.
(iii) During a routine audit examination of a computer dealer, it is discovered that a resale certificate was obtained from a bookkeeping service. The resale certificate was completed in its entirety and accepted by the dealer. Upon further investigation it is discovered that the bookkeeping service had no knowledge of the resale certificate, and had made no payment to the computer dealer. The employee who signed the resale certificate had purchased the computer for personal use, and had personally made payment to the computer dealer.
The fifty percent penalty for the misuse of the resale certificate privileges will be waived for the bookkeeping service. The bookkeeping service had no knowledge of the purchase or unauthorized use of the resale certificate. However, the department will look to the employee for payment of the taxes and the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges.
(iv) During an audit examination it is discovered that XYZ Corporation, a duplicating company, purchased copying equipment for its own use. XYZ Corporation issued a resale certificate to the seller despite the fact that XYZ does not sell copying equipment. XYZ also failed to remit either the deferred sales or use tax to the department. As a result of a previous investigation by the department, XYZ had been informed in writing that retail sales and/or use tax applied to all such purchases. The fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges will be assessed. XYZ was not eligible to provide a resale certificate for the purchase of copying equipment, and had previously been so informed. The penalty will apply to the unremitted deferred sales tax liability.
(v) AZ Construction issued a resale certificate to a building material supplier for the purchase of "pins" and "loads." The "pins" are fasteners that become a component part of the finished structure. The "load" is a powder charge that is used to drive the "pin" into the materials being fastened together. AZ Construction is informed during the course of an audit examination that it is considered the consumer of the "loads" and may not issue a resale certificate for its purchase thereof. AZ Construction indicates that it was unaware that a resale certificate could not be issued for the purchase of "loads," and there is no indication that AZ Construction had previously been so informed.
The failure to be aware of the proper use of the resale certificate is not generally grounds for waiving the fifty percent penalty for the misuse of resale certificate privileges. However, AZ Construction does qualify for the "one time only" waiver of the penalty as the misuse of the resale certificate privilege was unintentional and the "loads" were purchased for use within the business.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.780, and 82.32.783. WSR 11-12-021, § 458-20-102A, filed 5/24/11, effective 6/24/11.]



458-20-103
Time and place of sale.

Under the Revenue Act of 1935, as amended, the word "sale" means any transfer of the ownership of, title to, or possession of, property for a valuable consideration, and includes the sale or charge made for performing certain services.
For the purpose of determining tax liability of persons selling tangible personal property, a sale takes place in this state when the goods sold are delivered to the buyer in this state, irrespective of whether title to the goods passes to the buyer at a point within or without this state.
With respect to the charge made for performing services which constitute sales as defined in RCW 82.04.040 and 82.04.050, a sale takes place in this state when the services are performed herein. With respect to the charge made for renting or leasing tangible personal property, a sale takes place in this state when the property is used in this state by the lessee.
Where gift certificates are sold which will be redeemed in merchandise, or in services which are defined by the Revenue Act as retail sales, the sale is deemed to occur and the retail sales tax shall be collected at the time the certificate is actually redeemed for the merchandise or services. The measure of the tax is the total selling price of the merchandise or services at the time of the redemption, including the redemption value of the certificate, or any part thereof, which is applied toward the selling price. (See WAC 458-20-235 for effect of rate changes on prior contracts and sales agreements. See also WAC 458-20-131 which deals with merchandising games, and which covers the situation where certificates or trade checks are issued which may be redeemed for services which are not retail sales, such as barber services, admissions, etc.)
Revised March 2, 1982.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 82-12-021 (Order ET 82-2), § 458-20-103, filed 5/25/82; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-103 (Rule 103), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-104
Small business tax relief based on income of business.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the business and occupation (B&O) tax credit for small businesses provided by RCW 82.04.4451. This credit is commonly referred to as the small business B&O tax credit or small business credit (SBC). The amount of small business B&O tax credit available on a tax return can increase or decrease, depending on the reporting frequency of the account and the net B&O tax liability for that return. This rule also explains the public utility tax income exemption provided by RCW 82.16.040. The public utility tax exemption is a fixed amount, or threshold, based on the reporting frequency assigned to the account. Readers should refer to WAC 458-20-22801 (Tax reporting frequency—Forms) for an explanation of how the department of revenue (department) assigns a particular reporting frequency to each account. Readers may also want to refer to WAC 458-20-101 for an explanation of Washington's tax registration and tax reporting requirements.
This rule provides examples that identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion regarding the applicability of the income exemption for the public utility tax or small business B&O tax credit. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(2) The public utility tax income exemption. Persons subject to public utility tax (PUT) are exempt from payment of this tax for any reporting period in which the gross taxable amount reported under the combined total of all public utility tax classifications does not equal or exceed the maximum exemption for the assigned reporting period. Per RCW 82.16.040, the public utility tax exemption amounts are:
for taxpayers reporting monthly. . . .
$2,000 per month
for taxpayers reporting quarterly. . . .
$6,000 per quarter
for taxpayers reporting annually. . . .
$24,000 per annum
(a) What if the taxable income equals or exceeds the maximum exemption? If the taxable income for a reporting period equals or exceeds the maximum exemption, tax must be remitted on the full taxable amount.
(b) How does the exemption apply if a business does not operate for the entire tax reporting period? The public utility tax maximum exemptions apply to the entire tax reporting period, even though the business may not have operated during the entire period.
(c) Do taxable amounts for B&O tax or other taxes affect this exemption? The public utility tax exemption is not affected by taxable amounts reported in the B&O tax section or any of the other tax sections of the tax return.
(d) Example - How is the public utility tax exemption applied? Taxpayer registers with the department and is assigned a quarterly tax reporting frequency. Taxpayer begins business activities on February 1st. During the two months of the first quarter that the taxpayer is in business, taxpayer's public utility gross income is seven thousand dollars. After deductions provided by chapter 82.16 RCW (Public utility tax) are computed, the total taxable amount is five thousand dollars. In this case, the taxpayer does not owe any public utility tax because the taxable amount of five thousand dollars is less than the six thousand dollar exemption threshold for quarterly taxpayers. The fact that the taxpayer was in business during only two months out of the three months in the quarter has no effect on the threshold amount. However, if there were no deductions available to the taxpayer, the taxable amount would have been seven thousand dollars. The public utility tax would then have been due on the full taxable amount of seven thousand dollars.
(3) The small business B&O tax credit. Persons subject to the B&O tax may be eligible to claim a small business B&O tax credit against the amount of B&O tax otherwise due. The small business B&O tax credit operates completely independent of the public utility tax exemption described above in subsection (2) of this rule. RCW 82.04.4451 authorizes the department to create a tax credit table for use by all taxpayers when determining the amount of their small business B&O tax credit. Taxpayers must use the tax credit table to determine the appropriate amount of their small business B&O tax credit. A tax credit table for each of the monthly, quarterly, and annual reporting frequencies can be found on the department's internet site at http://dor.wa.gov; or by contacting:
Taxpayer Services
Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47478
Olympia, WA 98504-7478
The statute provides that taxpayers who use the tables will not owe any more tax than if they used the statutory credit formula to determine the amount of the credit.
Effective May 1, 2010, section 1102, chapter 23, Laws of 2010 1st sp. sess. amended RCW 82.04.4451. Prior to that amendment the small business credit was calculated at a maximum of thirty-five dollars multiplied by the number of months in the reporting period for all eligible taxpayers. As a result of the amendment, taxpayers who report at least fifty percent (i.e., fifty percent or greater) of their total B&O taxable amount under RCW 82.04.255 (real estate brokers), RCW 82.04.290 (2)(a) (service and other activities), and RCW 82.04.285 (contests of chance) have their maximum credit increased to seventy dollars multiplied by the number of months in the reporting period. (Just a few examples of businesses that generally have taxable amounts to report under RCW 82.04.290 (2)(a) are for-profit hospitals, for-profit research and development, accountants, attorneys, dentists, janitors, and landscape architects. Please see WAC 458-20-224, Service and other business activities for information and more examples of who should report under the service and other classification of the B&O tax.)
(a) How is the credit applied if a business does not operate during the entire tax reporting period? The small business B&O tax credit applies to the entire reporting period, even though the business may not have been operating during the entire period.
(b) Can a husband and wife or partners in a state registered domestic partnership both take the credit? Spouses or state registered domestic partners operating distinct and separate businesses are each eligible for the small business B&O tax credit. For both spouses or both domestic partners to qualify, each must have a separate tax reporting number and file his or her own business tax returns.
(c) How do I determine the amount of the credit? Taxpayers eligible for the small business B&O tax credit must follow the steps outlined in subsection (5) of this rule to determine the amount of credit available. Taxpayers who have other B&O tax credits to apply on a tax return, in addition to the small business B&O tax credit, may use the multiple B&O tax credit worksheet in subsection (4) of this rule before determining the amount of small business B&O tax credit available.
(d) Can I carryover the small business B&O tax credit to future tax reporting periods? Use of the small business B&O tax credit may not result in a B&O tax liability of less than zero, and thus there will be no unused credit.
(e) Do I have to report and pay retail sales tax even if I do not owe any B&O tax? Persons making retail sales must collect and pay all applicable retail sales taxes even if B&O tax is not due. There is no comparable retail sales tax exemption.
(4) Multiple business and occupation tax credit worksheet. The small business B&O tax credit should be computed after claiming any other B&O tax credits available under Title 82 RCW (Excise taxes). Examples of other B&O tax credits to be taken before computing the small business B&O tax credit include the multiple activities tax credit, high technology credit, commute trip reduction credit, pollution control credit, and cogeneration fee credit. The following multiple B&O tax credit worksheet describes the process taxpayers must follow to apply credits in the appropriate order. Refer to subsection (6) of this rule for an example illustrating the use of the multiple B&O tax credit worksheet.
MULTIPLE B&O TAX CREDIT WORKSHEET
 
1.
Determine the total Business and Occupation (B&O) tax due from the B&O section of your excise tax return.
 
$
 
2.
Add together the credit amounts taken for:
 
 
 
 
 
Multiple Activities Tax Credit from Schedule C (if applicable).
 
$
 
 
 
(Add any other B&O tax credits from Title 82 RCW that will be applied to this return period.)
+
$
 
 
 
Total (Enter 0 if none of these credits are being taken.)
 
$
 
3.
Subtract line 2 from line 1. This is the total B&O tax allowable for the Small Business Credit.
 
$
 
4.
Find the specific tax credit table (Table 1 or Table 2) appropriate for the business activities and B&O taxable amounts on your excise tax return. Next, find the tax credit table which matches the reporting frequency assigned to the account. Then find the range of amounts which includes your total B&O tax due (see line three above).
 
 
5.
Read across to the next column. This is the amount of the Small Business Credit to be used on the excise tax return.
$
 
(5) Using the tax credit table to determine your small business B&O tax credit. The following steps explain how to use the small business B&O tax credit table:
(a) Step one. Determine the total B&O tax amount due from the excise tax return. This amount will normally be the total of the tax amounts due calculated for each classification in the B&O tax section of the excise tax return. However, if additional B&O tax credits will be taken on the return, refer to subsection (4) of this rule and the multiple B&O tax credit worksheet before going to step two.
(b) Step two. Find the B&O taxable amounts on the return reported under RCW 82.04.255 (real estate brokers), RCW 82.04.290 (2)(a) (service and other activities), and RCW 82.04.285 (contests of chance) then add them together. Divide that sum result by the total amount of all B&O taxable amounts reported on the return. If the result indicates less than fifty percent of the total of all B&O taxable amounts came from activities reported under RCW 82.04.255, 82.04.290 (2)(a), and 82.04.285 combined, use Table 1 of the small business B&O tax credit table. If the result indicates fifty percent or greater of the total of all B&O taxable amounts came from activities reported under RCW 82.04.255, 82.04.290 (2)(a), and 82.04.285 combined, use Table 2 of the small business B&O tax credit table.
(c) Step three. Find the small business B&O tax credit table that matches the assigned reporting frequency, monthly, quarterly, or annual.
(d) Step four. Find the "If Your Total Business and Occupation Tax is" column of the tax credit table and come down the column until you find the range of amounts which includes the total B&O tax due figure obtained from the excise tax return or multiple B&O tax credit worksheet.
(e) Step five. Read across to the "Your Small Business Credit is" column. The figure shown is the amount of the small business B&O tax credit that can be claimed on the "Small Business B&O Tax Credit" line in the "Credits" section of the excise tax return.
(6) Examples - Using the "Multiple B&O Tax Credit Worksheet" and the tax credit tables.
(a) Using the "Multiple B&O Tax Credit Worksheet." Assume that ABC reports quarterly. This quarter, ABC reports one hundred ninety dollars under the wholesaling classification and seventy dollars under the manufacturing classification for a total B&O tax liability of two hundred sixty dollars. ABC completes Schedule C, and determines it is entitled to a multiple activities tax credit (MATC) of seventy dollars. Using the multiple B&O tax credit worksheet, ABC enters two hundred sixty dollars on line one, enters seventy dollars on line two, and enters one hundred ninety dollars on line three (line two subtracted from line one). Line three, one hundred ninety dollars is the total B&O tax. ABC will use this amount to determine whether it is eligible for a small business B&O tax credit.
(b) Using the small business B&O tax credit tables. Assume the facts are the same as in the previous example in subsection (6)(a) of this rule. After completing the multiple B&O tax credit worksheet, ABC has one hundred ninety dollars of B&O tax liability left for potential application of the small business B&O tax credit. ABC does not have any business activity taxable under RCW 82.04.255 (real estate brokers), RCW 82.04.290 (2)(a) (service and other activities), and RCW 82.04.285 (contests of chance), so the ratio of those combined taxable amounts compared to the total of all B&O taxable amounts on the return is not fifty percent or greater. ABC will refer to Table 1 of the quarterly small business B&O tax credit table to find the "If Your Total Business and Occupation Tax is" column. Following down that column, ABC finds the tax range of one hundred eighty-six to one hundred ninety-one dollars and comes over to the "Your Small Business Credit is" column on the right, which shows that a credit in the amount of twenty-five dollars is available. Before calculating the total amount of tax due for the return, ABC enters its small business B&O tax credit of twenty-five dollars in the "Credits" section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 10-23-058, § 458-20-104, filed 11/12/10, effective 12/13/10. Statutory Authority: 2009 c 521. WSR 10-09-050, § 458-20-104, filed 4/15/10, effective 5/16/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 04-14-052, § 458-20-104, filed 6/30/04, effective 7/31/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 98-16-019, § 458-20-104, filed 7/27/98, effective 8/27/98; WSR 97-08-050, § 458-20-104, filed 3/31/97, effective 5/1/97; WSR 95-07-088, § 458-20-104, filed 3/17/95, effective 4/17/95; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-104, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-104 (Rule 104), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-105
Employees distinguished from persons engaging in and operating a business.

(1) Introduction. The Revenue Act imposes taxes on persons engaged in taxable business activity, which does not include persons acting solely in the capacity of employees. This rule states the conditions that serve to indicate whether a person is engaging in and operating a business or is an employee.
(2) Right to control. While no one factor definitely determines employee status, the most important consideration is the employer's right to control the employee. The right to control is not limited to controlling the result of the work to be accomplished, but includes controlling the details and means by which the work is accomplished. In cases of doubt about employee status the pertinent facts may be submitted to the department of revenue for a specific ruling.
(3) Persons engaging in and operating a business. A person operating a business is a business entity that is engaging in business. The term "engaging in business" includes commencing, conducting, or continuing in business and also the exercise of corporate or franchise powers as well as liquidating a business when the liquidators thereof hold themselves out to the public as conducting such business. RCW 82.04.150. Engaging in business also includes the act of transferring, selling or otherwise dealing in real or personal property, or the rendition of services, for consideration except as an employee. The following conditions will serve to indicate that a person is engaging in and operating a business.
If a person is:
(a) Holding oneself out to the public as engaging in business with respect to dealings in real or personal property, or in respect to the rendition of services;
(b) Entitled to receive the gross income of the business or any part thereof;
(c) Liable for business losses or the expense of conducting a business, even though such expenses may ultimately be reimbursed by a principal;
(d) Controlling and supervising others, and being personally liable for their payroll, as a part of engaging in business;
(e) Employing others to carry out duties and responsibilities related to the engaging in business and being personally liable for their pay;
(f) Filing a statement of business income and expenses (Schedule C) for federal income tax purposes;
(g) A party to a written contract, the intent of which establishes the person to be an independent contractor;
(h) Paid a gross amount for the work without deductions for employment taxes (such as Federal Insurance Contributions Act, Federal Unemployment Tax Act, and similar state taxes).
(4) Employees. The following conditions indicate that a person is an employee.
If the person:
(a) Receives compensation, which is fixed at a certain rate per day, week, month or year, or at a certain percentage of business obtained, payable in all events;
(b) Is employed to perform services in the affairs of another, subject to the other's control or right to control, and includes hired household employees that may cook, clean, provide nanny-care, or grounds maintenance;
(c) Has no liability for the expenses of maintaining an office or other place of business, or any other overhead expenses or for compensation of employees;
(d) Has no liability for losses or indebtedness incurred in the conduct of the business;
(e) Is generally entitled to fringe benefits normally associated with an employer-employee relationship, e.g., paid vacation, sick leave, insurance, and pension benefits;
(f) Is treated as an employee for federal tax purposes;
(g) Is paid a net amount after deductions for employment taxes, such as those identified in subsection (3)(h) of this rule.
(5) Full-time life insurance salespersons. RCW 82.04.360 provides that individuals performing services as full-time life insurance salespersons, as provided in section 3121 (d)(3)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code, will be considered employees. Treatment as an employee under this subsection (5) applies only to persons engaged in the full-time sale of life insurance. The status of other persons, including others listed in section 3121(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, will be determined according to the provisions of subsections (1) through (4) of this rule. For information on the taxability of insurance producers, adjusters, title insurance agents, and surplus line brokers refer to WAC 458-20-164.
(6) Operators of rented or owned equipment. Persons who furnish equipment on a rental or other basis for a charge and who also furnish the equipment operators, are engaging in and operating a business and are not employees of their customers. Likewise, persons who furnish materials and the labor necessary to install or apply the materials, or produce something from the materials, are presumed to be engaging in and operating a business and not to be employees of their customers.
(7) Casual laborers. Persons regularly performing odd job carpentry, painting or paperhanging, plumbing, bricklaying, electrical work, cleaning, yard work, etc., for the public generally are presumed to be engaging in and operating a business. The burden of proof is on such persons to show otherwise. For tax registration and tax reporting requirements refer to WAC 458-20-101. Readers may also want to contact the Washington state employment security department or the Internal Revenue Service for additional information.
(8) Corporations, joint ventures, or individuals acting as a unit. A corporation, joint venture, partnership, limited liability corporation, or any other group of individuals acting as a unit, is not an employee.
(9) Booth renters. For purposes of the business and occupation tax a "booth renter," as defined in RCW 82.04.360, is considered to be engaging in and operating a business and not an employee.
(a) A "booth renter" is any person who:
(i) Performs cosmetology, barbering, esthetics, or manicuring services for which a license is required pursuant to chapter 18.16 RCW; and
(ii) Pays a fee for the use of salon or shop facilities and receives no compensation or other consideration from the owner of the salon or shop for the services performed.
(b) For the taxability of amounts received for the rental or licensing of real estate refer to WAC 458-20-118. Refer to WAC 458-20-200 for the taxability of amounts received for leased departments.
(10) Personal chefs. Personal chefs are engaging in and operating a business as independent contractors. They prepare meals for consumption at their clients' homes. Personal chefs typically serve multiple clients, working with the clients to create personalized meal plans based on the client's specific dietary requirements or requests. The meals may be prepared in the client's home or in a commercial kitchen and delivered to the client's home. Personal chefs may also prepare meals for social events, such as dinner parties, cocktail parties, engagement parties, weddings, or receptions.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 15-20-020, § 458-20-105, filed 9/25/15, effective 10/26/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 92-06-082, § 458-20-105, filed 3/4/92, effective 4/4/92; WSR 89-16-080 (Order 89-10), § 458-20-105, filed 8/1/89, effective 9/1/89; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-105 (Rule 105), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-106
Casual or isolated sales—Business reorganizations.

A casual or isolated sale is defined by RCW 82.04.040 as a sale made by a person who is not engaged in the business of selling the type of property involved. Any sales which are routine and continuous must be considered to be an integral part of the business operation and are not casual or isolated sales.
Furthermore, persons who hold themselves out to the public as making sales at retail or wholesale are deemed to be engaged in the business of selling, and sales made by them of the type of property which they hold themselves out as selling, are not casual or isolated sales even though such sales are not made frequently.
In addition the sale at retail by a manufacturer or wholesaler of an article of merchandise manufactured or wholesaled by him is not a casual or isolated sale, even though he may make but one such retail sale.
Business and Occupation Tax
The business and occupation tax does not apply to casual or isolated sales.
Retail Sales Tax
The retail sales tax applies to all casual or isolated retail sales made by a person who is engaged in the business activity; that is, a person required to be registered under WAC 458-20-101. Persons not engaged in any business activity, that is, persons not required to be registered under WAC 458-20-101, are not required to collect the retail sales tax upon casual or isolated sales.
However, persons in business as selling agents who are authorized, engaged or employed to sell or call for bids on tangible personal property belonging to another, and so selling or calling, are deemed to be sellers, and shall collect the retail sales tax upon all retail sales made by them. The tax applies to all such sales even though the sales would have been casual or isolated sales if made directly by the owner of the property sold.
A transfer of capital assets to or by a business is deemed not taxable to the extent the transfer is accomplished through an adjustment of the beneficial interest in the business. The following examples are instances when the tax will not apply.
(1) Transfers of capital assets between a corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary, or between wholly-owned subsidiaries of the same corporation.
(2) Transfers of capital assets by an individual or by a partnership to a corporation, or by a corporation to another corporation in exchange for capital stock therein.
(3) Transfers of capital assets by a corporation to its stockholders in exchange for surrender of capital stock.
(4) Transfers of capital assets pursuant to a reorganization under 26 U.S.C Section 368 of the Internal Revenue Code, when capital gain or ordinary income is not realized.
(5) Transfers of capital assets to a partnership or joint venture in exchange for an interest in the partnership or joint venture; or by a partnership or joint venture to its members in exchange for a proportional reduction of the transferee's interest in the partnership or joint venture.
(6) Transfer of an interest in a partnership by one partner to another; and transfers of interests in a partnership to third parties, when one or more of the original partners continues as a partner, or owner.
The burden is upon the taxpayer to establish the facts concerning the adjustment of the beneficial interest in the business when exemption is claimed.
Use Tax
The use tax applies upon the use of any property purchased at a casual retail sale without payment of the retail sales tax, unless exempt by law. Uses which are exempt from the use tax are set out in RCW 82.12.030.
Where there has been a transfer of the capital assets to or by a business, the use of such property is not deemed taxable to the extent the transfer was accomplished through an adjustment of the beneficial interest in the business, provided, the transferor previously paid sales or use tax on the property transferred. (See the exempt situations listed under the retail sales tax subdivision of this rule.)
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-106, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 75-1, § 458-20-106, filed 5/2/75; Order ET 74-1, § 458-20-106, filed 5/7/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-106 (Rule 106), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-107
Requirement to separately state sales tax—Advertised prices including sales tax.

(1) Introduction. Under the provisions of RCW 82.08.020 the retail sales tax is to be collected and paid upon retail sales, measured by the selling price.
(2) Retail sales tax separately stated. RCW 82.08.050 specifically requires that the retail sales tax must be stated separately from the selling price on any sales invoice or other instrument of sale, i.e., contracts, sales slips, and/or customer billing receipts. (For an exception covering food and beverage receipts, see WAC 458-20-124, Restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns and similar businesses.) This is required even though the seller and buyer may know and agree that the price quoted is to include state and local taxes, including the retail sales tax.
(a) The law creates a "conclusive presumption" that, for purposes of collecting the tax and remitting it to the state, the selling price quoted does not include the retail sales tax. This presumption is not overcome or rebutted by any written or oral agreement between seller and buyer.
(b) Selling prices may be advertised as including the tax, and in such cases, the advertised price is not the taxable selling price.
(3) Advertising prices including tax.
(a) RCW 82.08.055 provides that a seller may advertise prices as including the sales tax or that the seller is paying the sales tax under the following conditions:
(i) The words "tax included" are stated immediately following the advertised price in print size at least half as large as the advertised price print size, unless the advertised price is one in a listed series;
(ii) When advertised prices are listed in series, the words "tax included in all prices" are placed conspicuously at the head of the list in the same print size as the list;
(iii) If the price is advertised as including tax, the price listed on any price tag must be shown in the same way; and
(iv) All advertised prices and the words "tax included" are stated in the same medium, whether oral or visual, and if oral, in substantially the same inflection and volume.
(b) If these conditions are satisfied, as applicable, then price lists, reader boards, menus, and other price information mediums need not reflect the item price and separately show the actual amount of sales tax being collected on any or all items.
(c) The scope and intent of the foregoing is that buyers have the right to know whether retail sales tax is being included in advertised prices or not and that the tax is not to be used for the competitive advantage or disadvantage of retail sellers.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.08.050, and 2013 2nd sp.s. c 13. WSR 14-01-050, § 458-20-107, filed 12/12/13, effective 1/12/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 82.08.050. WSR 08-14-021, § 458-20-107, filed 6/20/08, effective 7/21/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 90-10-080, § 458-20-107, filed 5/2/90, effective 6/2/90; WSR 86-03-016 (Order ET 86-1), § 458-20-107, filed 1/7/86; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-107, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-107 (Rule 107), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-108
Selling priceCredit card service fees, foreign currency, discounts, patronage dividends.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains "selling price" and what is included in the selling price when discounts, coupons, rebates, or foreign currency are used. This rule also provides tax guidance for credit card service fees, patronage dividends, and payments for "make ready" services.
(a) Other rules that may apply. Readers may also want to refer to other rules for additional information, including those in the following list:
(i) WAC 458-20-107, Requirement to separately state sales taxAdvertised prices including sales tax.
(ii) WAC 458-20-211, Leases or rentals of tangible personal property, bailments.
(iii) WAC 458-20-247, Trade-ins, selling price, sellers' tax measures.
(iv) WAC 458-20-278, Returned goods, defective goodsMotor vehicle lemon law.
(b) Examples: Examples found in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(2) What is included in the "selling price"? RCW 82.08.010 states that "selling price" includes "sales price." "Sales price" means the total amount of consideration, except separately stated trade-in property of like kind, including cash, credit, property, and services, for which tangible personal property, extended warranties, digital goods, digital codes, digital automated services, or other services or anything else defined as a "retail sale" under RCW 82.04.050 are sold, leased, or rented, valued in money, whether received in money or otherwise. No deduction from the total amount of consideration is allowed for the following:
(a) The seller's cost of the property sold;
(b) The cost of materials used, labor or service cost, interest, losses, costs of transportation to the seller, taxes imposed on the seller, and any other expense of the seller;
(c) Charges by the seller for any services necessary to complete the sale other than delivery and installation charges;
(d) Delivery charges; and
(e) Installation charges.
(3) When is third-party consideration included in the "selling price"? The "selling price" or "sales price" includes consideration received by the seller from a third party if:
(a) The seller actually receives consideration from a party other than the buyer, and the consideration is directly related to a price reduction or discount on the sale;
(b) The seller has an obligation to pass the price reduction or discount through to the buyer;
(c) The amount of the consideration attributable to the sale is fixed and determinable by the seller at the time of sale of an item to the buyer; and
(d) One of the following criteria is met:
(i) The buyer presents a coupon, certificate, or other documentation to the seller to claim a price reduction or discount where the coupon, certificate, or documentation is authorized, distributed, or granted by a third party with the understanding that the third party must reimburse any seller to whom the coupon, certificate, or documentation is presented;
(ii) The price reduction or discount is identified as a third-party price reduction or discount on the invoice received by the buyer or on a coupon, certificate, or other documentation presented by the buyer; or
(iii) The buyer identifies himself or herself to the seller as a member of a group or organization entitled to a price reduction or discount; however, a "preferred customer" card that is available to any patron does not constitute membership in such a group. RCW 82.08.010.
(e) Example 1. The Sporting Goods Store offers a 10% discount to all members of the local credit union. Dave, the customer and credit union member, must present an identification card or other evidence of membership in the credit union to claim the 10% discount on his $100 purchase. As the credit union reimburses The Sporting Goods Store for the discount of $10, the store must compute sales tax on the full price of $100. The discount of $10 is deducted from the total price after sales tax has been added to the purchase price. The store must compute retailing business and occupation (B&O) tax on $100.
(4) What is not included in the "selling price"? The "selling price" or "sales price" does not include:
(a) Discounts, including cash, term, or coupons that are not reimbursed by a third party that a seller allows a buyer to take on a sale;
(b) Interest, financing, and carrying charges from credit extended on the sale of tangible personal property, extended warranties, digital goods, digital codes, digital automated services, or other services or anything else defined as a retail sale in RCW 82.04.050, if the amount is separately stated on the invoice, bill of sale, or similar document given to the buyer; and
(c) Any taxes legally imposed directly on the buyer that are separately stated on the invoice, bill of sale, or similar document given to the buyer. RCW 82.08.010.
(d) Example 2. The Good Health Club offers a 10% discount to all members of the local credit union. Jill, the club member and credit union member, must present an identification card or other evidence of membership in the credit union to claim the 10% discount on her monthly membership fee of $50. If the credit union does not reimburse the health club for the $5 discount, the health club absorbs the $5 and it is not part of the taxable selling price. Thus, the club must collect sales tax on a selling price of $45 and compute retailing B&O tax on gross proceeds of sale of $45.
(5) Credit card service fees. When a seller allows a buyer to charge purchases on a credit card, the institution that issued the credit card charges a service fee to the seller. The service fee charge is a part of the seller's cost of doing business. Because the service fee is a cost of doing business, the seller may not deduct the fee when determining its B&O tax and retail sales tax liabilities. RCW 82.04.070 and 82.08.010.
(6) Foreign currency accepted by seller. When determining the measure of tax liability, the selling price or gross proceeds of sale must be measured in terms of the currency of the United States. If payment is accepted in foreign currency, the payment must be converted into United States currency. The effect of this conversion, whether resulting in an increase or decrease in the selling price or gross proceeds of sale, must be recognized when tax is computed.
Example 3. ABC Company (ABC) sells a sweater for $100, plus $8 in retail sales tax, for a total of $108. ABC accepts payment in the form of $108 Canadian. The exchange rate for Canadian dollars at ABC's bank is 0.95 Canadian to 1 U.S. dollars at the time of the sales transaction. In terms of U.S. currency, ABC has actually accepted a payment of $102.60 (108 Canadian x 0.95). The selling price or gross proceeds of sale for determining the measure of tax liability is $95 ($102.60 less $7.60 retail sales tax).
(7) Bona fide discounts. When a sale is made subject to cash or trade discount, the gross proceeds actually derived from the selling price are determined by the transaction as finally completed. A sale is made subject to a discount when the sales price is reduced under terms known to the buyer and seller at the time of the sale, and the price reduction occurs at the time of the sale or within a time agreed and understood by the parties at the time of the sale.
The selling price or sales price of a service or article of tangible personal property does not include bona fide discounts actually taken by the buyer. The amount of bona fide discounts may be deducted only if the amount has been included in the gross amount reported.
Discounts are not deductible when the retail sales tax is based on the selling price or sales price before the discount is taken and no portion of the tax is refunded to the buyer.
(a) Discount vouchers. A discount voucher is an instrument redeemed by a customer from a seller at the time of purchase that:
• Is obtained by the customer from a discount voucher provider that has an agreement with the seller, and the seller determined the price of the voucher sold;
• Allows the customer to acquire the voucher for less than its face value;
• Is redeemable either for a specific good or service (product) or for a certain dollar amount towards the sales price of any product sold by the seller; and
• The seller, at the time of redemption, knows the amount paid by the customer for the voucher.
For additional information that may apply see subsection (3) of this rule.
(i) Taxes apply on the redemption of a discount voucher.
(A) The purchase of a discount voucher prior to redemption is not taxable.
(B) The seller of a product or products purchased using a discount voucher must include the amount the customer paid for the discount voucher in the gross proceeds of sales or gross income of the business, as the case may be.
(C) If a discount voucher is redeemed by a customer for a product subject to retail sales tax, then the amount paid by the customer is included in the taxable sales price of the product.
(D) The seller may not deduct advertising or similar expenses (fees) paid to the discount voucher provider, even if the discount voucher provider "nets out" those expenses (fees) before remitting the payment to the seller.
(ii) Determining the amount paid by the customer for the discount voucher. Sellers must be able to substantiate, through documentation, the amount the customer paid for the redeemed discount voucher and any discount applied to the sale.
(A) If a discount voucher indicates the amount the customer paid, the seller must include that amount in the sales price of the product purchased.
(B) If the seller, through its agreement with the discount voucher provider, knows the amount the customer paid for the discount voucher, that amount is to be included in the sales price of the product purchased.
(C) If the seller does not know at the time of sale the amount the customer paid to obtain a payment instrument and thus does not know whether the instrument is a discount voucher, the seller must treat the consideration paid by the customer as equal to the face value of the instrument.
(b) Cash discounts. A cash discount is an incentive for the buyer to pay the seller's invoice price of goods or charges for services on or before a specified date. RCW 82.04.160. Cash discounts may be deducted when determining the measure for the B&O tax.
Example 4. Mann's Lumber Shop (Mann's) sells construction material to Ken, who builds sheds for resale. Mann's bills Ken for $2,000.00, and offers Ken a 10% discount if he pays the invoiced amount within ten days. Ken pays the invoice upon receipt and takes a 10% discount. Mann's may reduce its gross sales figure by $200 when determining its wholesaling B&O tax.
(i) Extracting or manufacturing. Discount deductions are allowed under the extracting or manufacturing classifications only when the value of the products is determined from the gross proceeds of sales. No discount is available if tax is computed by other means authorized by RCW 82.04.450 (e.g., gross proceeds determined by sales in this state of similar products of like quality and character, and in similar quantities by other taxpayers).
(ii) Retail sales tax. Cash discounts are not deductible for retail sales tax purposes when the seller collects the tax on the selling price before the discount is taken and no portion of the tax is refunded to the buyer.
Example 5. Mann's sells Richard all materials needed for a shed that Richard wants to build for extra storage. Mann's bills Richard for $500 plus retail sales tax at 9.5% ($500 + $47.50). Mann's offers a 10% discount if Richard pays the invoiced amount within ten days. Richard neglects to take advantage of the offered discount even though he pays the full invoice within ten days. Mann's gives Richard a credit for $50. Mann's may deduct the $50 discount when reporting retailing B&O tax, but cannot when reporting retail sales tax as no sales tax was refunded.
Example 6. Mann's sells George all the materials needed for a shed that George plans to build for storage. Mann's bills George for $500 plus retail sales tax at 9.5% ($500 + $47.50 = $547.50). Mann's offers a 10% discount if George pays the invoiced amount within ten days. George takes advantage of the cash discount and pays $492.75. Mann's must report a sale of $450 and sales tax of $42.75 on its excise tax return.
(c) Retail stores' coupons. Retail stores' coupons are issued by retail stores and redeemable only at that store or at affiliated stores of the chain. The coupons offer a reduced price for a specific item upon presentation at the store. The price reduction is a discount, and the retail store must report the amount actually paid by the buyer when reporting retail sales and B&O taxes.
(8) What is not a bona fide discount? Bona fide discounts do not include discounts on the selling price to the buyer, when the buyer is required to perform a service to receive a discount. Examples of services that may be required include advertising, shelf placement of product, special in-store displays, and hiring product demonstrators to promote sales.
(a) Slotting fees. Grocers sometimes receive discounts, allowances, slotting fees, or free product from manufacturers if the grocers provide shelf space for new products or advantageous shelf space for display of the manufacturers' products. Grocers' product placement or slotting activities in exchange for consideration from manufacturers constitute business transactions. RCW 82.04.140. Receipts received by grocers for product placement or slotting activities are taxable income to the grocers under the service and other activities B&O tax classification.
(b) Manufacturers' or distributors' coupons. Manufacturers' or distributors' coupons offer a reduction in price of a specified amount on the customer's purchase of specified items. The manufacturer or distributor will redeem these coupons when they are turned in by the seller. Redemption is usually at full face value plus a small handling charge. In this case, the seller actually receives the full retail price for the item sold. Tax is due on the full retail price.
(c) Manufacturers' rebates. Manufacturers sometimes make rebates available to buyers. Normally the buyer pays the seller the full purchase price for an item, and then sends requested documentation with a rebate claim form to the manufacturer. The rebate is sent directly to the buyer.
(i) Seller's measure of tax. A cash payment by the manufacturer to the buyer has no effect on the selling price of the sales transaction that occurred between the seller and buyer. The measure of the tax remains the total consideration paid or delivered to the seller by the buyer.
(ii) Automobile manufacturers' sales promotions. Automobile manufacturers routinely run sales promotions offering a rebate or cash payment directly to the buyer. As an alternative to direct payment, these programs may allow the buyer to assign his or her right to the rebate to the selling dealer. The assignment from the buyer to the seller of the right to a manufacturer's rebate is a part of the consideration paid or delivered by the buyer to the seller. In such cases, the measure of the B&O tax and retail sales tax must include the value of the manufacturer's rebate.
(d) Manufacturers' incentives to retailers. Except as provided in subsection (7)(b) of this rule regarding cash discounts, a payment or credit from a manufacturer or distributor to a retailer that is conditioned on the retailer making sales of services or tangible personal property to consumers, or engaging in any activity other than making the original wholesale purchase from the manufacturer or distributor, is not a bona fide discount.
(9) Patronage dividends. A patronage dividend is the distribution of a member's share of the profits of a cooperative association based on the quantity of purchases made by the member. The amount of a patronage dividend (rebate or refund) is determined by:
• The expenses of doing business;
• The volume of sales to other members; and
• The proportion of business the specific member has conducted with the cooperative.
A patronage dividend determined in this manner is simply a redistribution of the cooperative's "profit," even though the cooperative may refer to accounting mechanisms such as "tentative" or "delayed" invoices, or to "deferred discounts."
A member receiving dividends may deduct the amount received from gross income if it reports the income and qualifies for the investment income deduction under RCW 82.04.4281.
(a) Exception. Patronage dividends that are granted in the form of discounts in the selling price of specific articles (for example, a rebate of five cents per gallon on purchases of gasoline) are deductible from the gross income received by the taxpayer granting the dividends.
(b) Example 7. AB Cooperative, a nonprofit association, sells equipment to members and nonmembers. All equipment is sold at the normal and competitive prices. At year-end the volume of business done with members is determined, and proportionate shares of net profit are refunded. These dividends are not discounts on the selling price of specific articles and are not deductible from the cooperative's gross proceeds of sales when determining taxability.
(c) Example 8. MAX, a cooperative selling association comprised of several franchise dealers, sets up refunds as patronage dividends to comply with the Robinson-Patman Act. This act allows MAX to return to its dealers net earnings resulting from trading operations in proportion to purchases from or through the association.
Each purchase is invoiced to the dealer at the suggested wholesale price with net price to MAX also indicated. Every month dealers pay a regular flat fee plus a fixed percentage assessed on volume of purchases for payment of operational expenses. Refunds of the difference between the suggested wholesale price and the net cost are made to dealers quarterly.
The patronage dividends are distributions of the cooperative corporation's profits and are not deductible discounts because the discounts were not provided as a part of the sale of a particular article.
(10) Payments to dealers for "make-ready" services. Equipment dealers may be required by the manufacturer to perform or be responsible for "make-ready" services. These services generally include the inspection, conditioning, and necessary repair of the equipment prior to the sale by the dealer. Payments for "make-ready" services are not bona fide cash discounts taken by the dealer, nor do they represent any adjustment to the dealer's purchase price of the sold equipment.
Payment for these services is a cost of doing business for the manufacturer. As a cost of doing business, the payment may not be deducted from the gross proceeds of sales when the manufacturer determines its B&O tax liability. Payments or credits received by the dealer for services performed are subject to the wholesaling B&O tax classification.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 15-15-157, § 458-20-108, filed 7/21/15, effective 8/21/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 88-01-050 (Order 87-9), § 458-20-108, filed 12/15/87; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-108, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-108 (Rule 108), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-109
Finance charges, carrying charges, interest, penalties.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the B&O and public utility taxation of finance charges, carrying charges, interest and/or penalties received by taxpayers in the regular course of business. This section also explains when these amounts are not part of the selling price for retail sales tax purposes.
(2) Business and occupation tax. Persons who receive finance charges, carrying charges, service charges, penalties and interest are taxable under the service and other business activities classification on the receipt of amounts from these sources.
(a) Amounts received from these sources include but are not limited to:
(i) Interest received by persons engaged in public utility activities; and
(ii) Interest received by persons regularly engaged in the business of selling real estate.
(b) Persons engaged in financial business activities should refer to WAC 458-20-146.
(c) Amounts categorized as "interest" in a lease payment are generally taxable in the retailing classification as part of the total lease payment and part of the selling price for retail sales tax purposes. See WAC 458-20-211.
(d) Interest or finance charges received from an installment sale are taxable under the service classification.
(3) Retail sales tax. Retail sales tax applies as follows.
(a) Finance charges, carrying charges, service charges, penalties and/or interest from installment sales are not considered a part of the selling price of such property and are not subject to the retail sales tax, when:
(i) The amount of such finance charges, carrying charges, service charges, penalty, or interest is in addition to the usual or established cash selling price; and
(ii) The amount is segregated on the taxpayers' accounts; and
(iii) The amount is billed separately to customers.
(b) Amounts designated as finance charges, carrying charges, service charges or interest in a lease of tangible personal property must be included in the measure of retail sales tax regardless of the fact that such charges may be billed separately to customers. However, a penalty or interest charge for failure of the customer to make a timely lease payment is taxable under the service and other business activities classification and not subject to retail sales tax.
(4) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion as to whether the situation results in taxable interest or finance charges. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(a) ABC Electric Company, who sells electricity to consumers, receives $9,000.00 in late charges in the month of November. These fees are taxable under the service and other classification of the business and occupation tax. The public utility tax would not apply to this income.
(b) XYZ Furniture Company sells furniture and allows its customers to pay for the furniture over a twelve-month period. The seller charges interest at twelve percent per annum for allowing the customer to defer immediate payment. The interest charged the customer is a separate activity from the sale of the furniture and is taxable under the service and other business activities classification.
(c) Jane Doe is leasing a car from ABC Leasing, Inc. The lease contract provides that if the customer is more than fifteen days late in making the lease payment, a five percent penalty will be charged. Jane Doe was more than fifteen days late in making her March payment and was required to pay the five percent penalty. The penalty amount received by ABC Leasing is a separate activity from the lease of the vehicle and is taxable under the service and other activity business and occupation tax. Retail sales tax does not apply to this amount.
(d) John Doe sold his personal residence on contract. He receives monthly interest and principal payments. The interest is received in exchange for the seller's deferring receipt of immediate payment. The sale of the residence was not related to any other business activities and John Doe has sold no other real estate. The interest is not taxable under the B&O tax since the transaction was a casual and isolated sale.
(e) Judy Smith is engaged in business as a real estate broker and regularly sells real estate for others. Judy Smith sold her personal residence on contract. She receives monthly interest and principal payments. She receives no other interest from real estate contracts. The sale of her own residence can be distinguished from the sale of real estate for others. Since this was a single sale of her own residence, it is a casual and isolated sale and the interest is not subject to B&O tax.
(f) James Smith sold on contract seventeen of twenty-three apartment complexes which he owned during a four-year period. He receives payment of principal and interest every month from these sales. The only other income he receives is from the rental of apartment units to nontransients. The income which James Smith receives as interest from the sale of the real estate is subject to the service and other B&O tax. The rental of the apartment units is not taxable for the B&O tax. The courts have held that the selling and financing of sales of capital assets by means of real estate contracts does not constitute an investment within the meaning of RCW 82.04.4281. James Smith is engaged in a taxable business activity. A deduction is provided to sellers who are engaged in banking, loan, security, or other financial businesses if the sale is primarily secured by a first mortgage or trust deed on nontransient residential property. However, James Smith is not engaged in these types of business, nor was the loan secured in this manner. Persons in a financial business should refer to WAC 458-20-146.
(g) David Roe acquired four pieces of real property over a period of several years. This property has been held for residential rental to nontransients. David Roe sold all of the real estate in 1991 and is receiving payments of principal and interest pursuant to sales contracts. The determination of whether the interest received is subject to the business and occupation tax depends on all facts and circumstances and cannot be made based on the limited facts set forth in this example. Additional facts and circumstances would include, but not be limited to, the extent to which David Roe has purchased and sold real property in the past, the number of other sales contracts held by David Roe aside from the ones mentioned here, whether the property may have been acquired by inheritance, and the type of business in which David Roe regularly engages.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-23-038, § 458-20-109, filed 11/13/91, effective 1/1/92; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-109 (Rule 109), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-110
Delivery charges.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the manner in which delivery charges are considered for purposes of business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes. For information about delivery charges with regard to promotional materials, see WAC 458-20-17803 (Use tax on promotional materials).
(2) What are delivery charges? "Delivery charges" means charges by the seller for preparation and delivery to a location designated by the purchaser of tangible personal property or services including, but not limited to, transportation, shipping, postage, handling, crating, and packing.
(3) Do the business and occupation (B&O) and retail sales taxes apply to delivery charges? The measure of the tax is "gross proceeds of sales" for B&O tax (RCW 82.04.070) and "selling price" for retail sales tax (RCW 82.08.010). Gross proceeds of sales and selling price include all consideration paid by the buyer, without any deduction for costs of doing business such as material, labor, and transportation costs, including delivery charges. Thus, delivery charges by the seller are a component of these tax measures.
(a) What if delivery charges are separately itemized on the sales invoice? Amounts received by a seller from a buyer for delivery charges are included in the measure of tax regardless of whether charges for such costs are billed separately, itemized, or whether the seller is also the carrier. Limiting delivery charges to the actual cost of delivery to the seller does not affect taxability.
(b) Does retail sales tax apply to all delivery charges by the seller? Delivery charges by the seller making a retail sale are a component of the selling price. If the sale of the tangible personal property or service is exempt from retail sales tax, such as certain "food and food ingredients," retail sales tax does not apply to the selling price, including delivery charges, associated with that sale. Similarly, if the product is sold at wholesale, retail sales tax does not apply to the delivery charges of that sale.
If a retail sale consists of both taxable and nontaxable tangible personal property, and delivery charges are a component of the selling price, retail sales tax applies to the percentage of delivery charges allocated to the taxable tangible personal property. Retail sales tax is not due on delivery charges allocated to exempt tangible personal property.
The seller may use either of the following percentages to determine the taxable portion of the delivery charges:
(i) A percentage based on the total sales price of the taxable tangible personal property compared to the total sales price of all tangible personal property in the shipment; or
(ii) A percentage based on the total weight of the taxable tangible personal property compared to the total weight of all tangible personal property in the shipment.
(c) Are there any situations in which delivery charges by the seller may be excluded from the measure of tax? There is no specific exclusion from the measure of tax for delivery charges by the seller. Actual delivery costs, regardless of whether separately charged, may be excluded from the measure of the manufacturing and extracting B&O taxes when the products are delivered outside the state. For further discussion, refer to WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products). WAC 458-20-13501 (Timber harvest operations) provides guidance regarding this issue for persons engaged in activities associated with timber harvesting.
(d) Delivery charges in cases of payments to third parties. Delivery charges incurred after the buyer takes delivery of the goods are not part of the selling price when the seller is not liable for payment of the delivery charges. To be excluded from the gross proceeds of sales for B&O tax and selling price for retail sales tax, the seller must document that the buyer alone is responsible to pay the carrier for the delivery charges.
(e) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. In these examples, if the seller had been required to collect use tax (RCW 82.12.040) instead of retail sales tax (RCW 82.08.050), the use tax collection responsibility remains the same as for retail sales tax. This is because, in this context, the "value of article used" has the same meaning as the "purchase price" or "selling price."
(i) Example 1. Jane Doe orders a life vest from Marine Sales and requests that the vest be mailed by the United States Postal Service to her home. Marine Sales places the correct postage on the package using its postage meter and separately itemizes a charge on the sales invoice to Jane at the exact amount of the postage cost. Marine Sales is subject to the retailing B&O tax on the gross proceeds of the sale and must collect retail sales tax on the selling price, both of which measures of tax include the charge for postage.
(ii) Example 2. XYZ Corporation orders equipment from ABC Distributors and provides ABC with a properly completed resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A), for purchases made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102), for purchases made on or after January 1, 2010. ABC ships the equipment using overnight air delivery and itemizes the actual amount of its shipping costs on the sales invoice. ABC must remit wholesaling B&O tax on the gross proceeds of sale, which includes the amount billed as shipping charges. Since the equipment is purchased for resale, ABC does not collect or report retail sales tax.
(iii) Example 3. The facts in this example are the same as those in (ii) of this subsection except that XYZ provides ABC with a properly completed exemption certificate. Retail sales tax does not apply to the delivery charge because the selling price, of which the delivery charge is a component, is exempt from retail sales tax. However, the delivery charge is included in the gross proceeds of the sale, and thus, is subject to retailing B&O tax.
(iv) Example 4. Jones Computer Supply, a distributor, makes retail sales of computer products primarily by mail order. It is the practice of Jones Computer Supply to add a ten-dollar handling charge for each order. No separate charge is made for actual transportation. The handling charge is part of the measure of tax for the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(v) Example 5. ABC Construction in Seattle purchased a new saw from XYZ, Inc. The sales contract specifies that ABC will contract with MNO, Inc. for shipping to Seattle and that MNO, Inc. will pick up the saw in Spokane. ABC does contract with MNO for the shipping and is shown as the consignor on the bill of lading. The transportation charge is not included in the measure of tax for purposes of the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes because ABC, the buyer, is liable for payment to MNO, for shipping the new saw.
(4) Delivery charges and use tax. "Value of article used," which is the measure of the use tax for tangible personal property, includes the amount of any delivery charge paid or given to the seller or on behalf of the seller with respect to the purchase of such article. Beginning July 1, 2004, both the "value of the article used" and the "value of the service used" will be the "purchase price" in instances where the seller is required under RCW 82.12.040 to collect use tax from the purchaser. RCW 82.12.010. "Purchase price" has the same meaning as "selling price" as described in subsection (3) of this section. Consumers responsible for remitting use tax directly to the department should refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. Presume that all transactions in the following examples occur July 1, 2004, or later.
(a) Example 1. ABC Construction ordered replacement parts for a saw from XYZ, Inc., a business located in Chicago that is not required to collect Washington taxes. XYZ contracted with MNO Freight to ship the parts from Chicago. ABC is subject to use tax on the value of the article used (presumed to be the purchase price of the parts) including the cost of the transportation, regardless of whether the transportation costs are itemized.
(b) Example 2. The facts in this example are the same as those in (a) of this subsection except that instead of ordering a replacement part, ABC Construction sends a broken part to XYZ, Inc. in Chicago for repair. ABC is subject to use tax on the repair service. The cost of transportation is included in the value of the service used, regardless of whether the transportation costs are itemized.
(c) Example 3. ABC Construction ordered replacement parts for a saw from XYZ, Inc., a business located in Chicago that is not required to collect Washington taxes. ABC hired MNO Freight to ship the parts from Chicago and was responsible for payment. ABC may exclude the cost of the transportation from the value on which use tax is due. The transportation costs ABC pays MNO are not a component of the value of the article used because the cost is not part of the consideration paid to XYZ for the replacement parts. ABC is subject to use tax on the value of the parts, which is presumed to be their purchase price.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-110, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and chapters 82.04, 82.08 and 82.12 RCW. WSR 08-14-026, § 458-20-110, filed 6/20/08, effective 7/21/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 05-02-039, § 458-20-110, filed 12/30/04, effective 1/30/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-23-037, § 458-20-110, filed 11/13/91, effective 12/14/91; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-110 (Rule 110), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-111
Advances and reimbursements.

The word "advance" as used herein, means money or credits received by a taxpayer from a customer or client with which the taxpayer is to pay costs or fees for the customer or client.
The word "reimbursement" as used herein, means money or credits received from a customer or client to repay the taxpayer for money or credits expended by the taxpayer in payment of costs or fees for the client.
The words "advance" and "reimbursement" apply only when the customer or client alone is liable for the payment of the fees or costs and when the taxpayer making the payment has no personal liability therefor, either primarily or secondarily, other than as agent for the customer or client.
There may be excluded from the measure of tax amounts representing money or credit received by a taxpayer as reimbursement of an advance in accordance with the regular and usual custom of his business or profession.
The foregoing is limited to cases wherein the taxpayer, as an incident to the business, undertakes, on behalf of the customer, guest or client, the payment of money, either upon an obligation owing by the customer, guest or client to a third person, or in procuring a service for the customer, guest or client which the taxpayer does not or cannot render and for which no liability attaches to the taxpayer. It does not apply to cases where the customer, guest or client makes advances to the taxpayer upon services to be rendered by the taxpayer or upon goods to be purchased by the taxpayer in carrying on the business in which the taxpayer engages.
For example, where a taxpayer engaging in the business of selling automobiles at retail collects from a customer, in addition to the purchase price, an amount sufficient to pay the fees for automobile license, tax and registration of title, the amount so collected is not properly a part of the gross sales of the taxpayer but is merely an advance and should be excluded from gross proceeds of sales. Likewise, where an attorney pays filing fees or court costs in any litigation, such fees and costs are paid as agent for the client and should be excluded from the gross income of the attorney.
On the other hand, no charge which represents an advance payment on the purchase price of an article or a cost of doing or obtaining business, even though such charge is made as a separate item, will be construed as an advance or reimbursement. Money so received constitutes a part of gross sales or gross income of the business, as the case may be. For example, no exclusion is allowed with respect to amounts received by (1) a doctor for furnishing medicine or drugs as a part of his treatment; (2) a dentist for furnishing gold, silver or other property in conjunction with his services; (3) a garage for furnishing parts in connection with repairs; (4) a manufacturer or contractor for materials purchased in his own name or in the name of his customer if the manufacturer or contractor is obligated to the vendor for the payment of the purchase price, regardless of whether the customer may also be so obligated; (5) any person engaging in a service business or in the business of installing or repairing tangible personal property for charges made separately for transportation or traveling expense.
Revised May 1, 1947.
[Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-111 (Rule 111), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-112
Value of products.

The term "value of products" includes the value of by-products, and except as provided herein, shall be determined by "gross proceeds of sales" whether such sales are at wholesale or at retail, to which shall be added all subsidies and bonuses received with respect to the extraction, manufacture, or sale thereof.
"The term 'gross proceeds of sales' means the value proceeding or accruing from the sale of tangible personal property . . . without any deduction on account of the cost of property sold, the cost of materials used, labor costs, interest, discount paid, delivery costs, taxes, or any other expense whatsoever paid or accrued and without any deduction on account of losses." (RCW 82.04.070.)
In the case of bona fide sales of products. The law provides (RCW 82.04.450), that under the extracting and manufacturing classifications of the business and occupation tax the value of products extracted or manufactured shall be determined by the gross proceeds of sales in every instance in which a bona fide sale of such products is made, and whether sold at wholesale or at retail.
Sales to points outside the state. In determining the value of products delivered to points outside the state there may be deducted from the gross proceeds of sales so much thereof as the taxpayer can show to be actual transportation costs from the point at which the shipment originates in this state to the point of delivery outside the state.
All other cases. The law provides that where products extracted or manufactured are
(1) For commercial or industrial use (by the extractor or manufacturer—see WAC 458-20-134); or
(2) Transported out of the state, or to another person without prior sale; or
(3) Sold under circumstances such that the stated gross proceeds from the sale are not indicative of the true value of the subject matter of the sale; the value shall correspond as nearly as possible to the gross proceeds from other sales at comparable locations in this state of similar products of like quality and character, in similar quantities, under comparable conditions of sale, to comparable purchasers, and shall include subsidies and bonuses.
In the absence of sales of similar products as a guide to value, such value may be determined upon a cost basis. In such cases, there shall be included every item of cost attributable to the particular article or article extracted or manufactured, including direct and indirect overhead costs.
Revised June 1, 1970.
[Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-112 (Rule 112), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-113
Ingredients or components, chemicals used in processing new articles for sale.

(1) The term "retail sale" means "every sale of tangible personal property . . . other than a sale to one who purchases for the purpose of resale . . . or for the purpose of consuming the property purchased in producing for sale a new article of tangible personal property or substance, of which such property becomes an ingredient or component or is a chemical used in processing, when the primary purpose of such chemical is to create a chemical reaction directly through contact with an ingredient of a new article being produced for sale . . . (RCW 82.04.050.)
(2) Ingredients or components. The sale of articles of tangible personal property which physically enter into and form a part of a new article or substance produced for sale does not constitute a retail sale. This does not exempt from the retail sales tax the sale of articles consumed in a manufacturing process which do not enter into and become a physical part of the new article produced for sale, such as fuel used for heating purposes, oil for machinery, sandpaper, etc.
(3) Also, the definition of retail sale does not exclude consumables purchased for use in manufacturing, refining, or processing new articles for sale merely because some constituents of the consumables may also be traceable in the finished product, which are impurities or undesirable or unnecessary constituents of the finished product.
(4) For articles to qualify for sales and use tax exemption as ingredients or components of products produced for sale, such articles or their constituents must be traceable in the finished product and identifiable as having been directly provided by the article claimed for exemption.
(5) Chemicals used in processing. Sales of chemicals to a person for use in processing articles produced for sale are not retail sales, and therefore are not subject to the retail sales tax.
(6) "Chemicals used in processing" carries its common restricted meaning in commercial usage. It includes only chemical substances which are used by the purchaser to unite with other chemical substances, present as ingredients or components of the articles or substances being processed, to produce a chemical reaction therewith, as contrasted with merely a physical change therein. A chemical reaction is one in which there takes place a permanent change of certain properties, with the formation of new substances which differ in chemical composition and properties from the substances originally present, and usually differ from them in appearance as well. It is not necessary that all of the new substances which are formed be present in the final completed article or substance which is sold; one or more of such new substances resulting from the chemical reaction may be removed or drawn off in the processing.
(7) To illustrate: Sales of chemicals to a pulp mill for use in the digesting and bleaching of pulp are not subject to the retail sales tax because such chemicals react chemically with the cellulose in the pulp fiber which, in turn, becomes a major ingredient of the final product, paper. Similarly, sales of carbon to an aluminum reduction plant for the primary purpose of forming a chemical reaction with alumina to remove its oxygen content are not retail sales.
(8) Conversely, sales of water purifiers and wetting agents to a pulp mill are taxable sales. The treated water acts primarily as a conveyor or carrier of the pulp fibers and only an insignificant part of the water becomes an ingredient of the final product. Similarly, sales of caustic soda to potato processors to remove peelings from potatoes are retail sales because the chemical reacts only with the peelings which are removed as waste, and not with the potatoes which are sold as the final product.
(9) Sales of diesel or fuel oil to a steel mill or foundry, for use or consumption primarily in generating heat, are retail sales and subject to the retail sales tax, notwithstanding the fact that some portion of the oil may cause a chemical reaction and to some extent alter the character of the article being manufactured or processed.
(10) Effective April 3, 1986, (chapter 231, Laws of 1986), purchases for the purpose of consuming the property purchased in producing ferrosilicon which is subsequently used in producing magnesium for sale, if the primary purpose is to create a chemical reaction directly through contact with an ingredient of ferrosilicon, are not subject to retail sales tax or use tax.
(11) In special cases where doubt exists, a special ruling will be made by the department of revenue upon submission of all the pertinent facts relative to the nature of the chemical substances concerned and the use made thereof by the purchaser.
Revised June 1, 1970.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 86-20-027 (Order 86-17), § 458-20-113, filed 9/23/86; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-113 (Rule 113), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-115
Sales of packing materials and containers.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the B&O, retail sales, and use taxes which apply to persons who sell packing materials and to those who use packing materials.
(2) Definitions. The term "packing materials" means and includes all boxes, crates, bottles, cans, bags, drums, cartons, wrapping papers, cellophane, twines, gummed tapes, wire, bands, excelsior, waste paper, and all other materials in which tangible personal property may be contained or protected within a container, for transportation or delivery to a purchaser.
(3) Business and occupation tax.
(a) Sales of packing materials to persons who sell tangible personal property contained in or protected by packing materials are sales for resale and subject to tax under the wholesaling classification. Sellers must obtain resale certificates for sales made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permits for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, from purchasers to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014.
(b) Sales of containers to persons who sell tangible personal property contained within the containers, but who retain title to such containers which are to be returned, are sales for consumption and subject to tax under the retailing classification. This class includes wooden or metal bottle cases, barrels, gas tanks, carboys, drums, bags and other items, when title to the container remains with the seller of the tangible personal property contained within the container, and even though a deposit is not made for the containers, and when such articles are customarily returned to the seller. If a charge is made against a customer for the container, with the understanding that such charge will be canceled or rebated when the container is returned, the amount charged is deemed to be made as security for the return of the container and is not part of the selling price for tax purposes. However, refer to the comments below for sales of containers for beverages and foods.
(c) Title to containers, whether designated as returnable or nonreturnable, for beverages and food sold at retail, including beer, milk, soft drinks, mixers and the like, will be deemed to pass to the customer along with the contents. In such cases, amounts charged for the containers are part of the selling price of the food or beverage and subject to retailing tax when sold to consumers. Sales to persons who will resell the food or beverages are wholesale sales.
(d) Persons who perform custom or commercial packing for others are generally taxable under the service B&O tax classification on the income from the packing activity.
(i) Under RCW 82.04.190, persons taxable under the service B&O tax classification are consumers of any materials used in performing the service. Sales of packing materials to persons engaged in the business of custom or commercial packing are sales for consumption and are subject to the retail sales tax. However, there is a specific statutory exemption from the B&O tax for persons who perform packing of fresh perishable horticultural products for the grower. These persons are also exempt from retail sales tax on the purchase of any materials and supplies used in performing the packing service.
(ii) Persons who perform custom or commercial packing for others and who also manufacture the boxes, containers, or other packaging materials used by them in the packing are subject to the manufacturing tax and use tax on the value of the packing materials which they manufacture. Refer to WAC 458-20-136 Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating.
(e) Persons who operate cold storage warehouses or who perform processing for hire for others, which includes packaging the processed items, are not the consumers of the containers or other packaging materials. Sales of boxes, cartons, and packaging materials to these persons are taxable under the wholesaling tax classification. Refer to WAC 458-20-136 and 458-20-133 Frozen food lockers.
(f) Persons who manufacture packing materials for delivery outside Washington or for their own commercial or industrial use are manufacturers and should refer to WAC 458-20-136, 458-20-134 Commercial or industrial use, and WAC 458-20-112 Value of products.
(4) Retail sales tax.
(a) All sales taxable under the retailing classification of the business and occupation tax as indicated above are also subject to retail sales tax except those specifically distinguished hereafter in this subsection.
(b) Retail sales tax does not apply to sales of returnable food and beverage containers, and vendors may take a deduction from gross retail sales for the amount of such sales in reporting sales tax due, providing (i) the seller separately states the charge for the container and (ii) the separately stated charge is the amount the vendor will pay for a repurchase of the container. Return of the containers is a repurchase by the vendor, and sales tax is not due on amounts paid to the customer on such repurchases, since the vendor will resell the containers in the regular course of business. (RCW 82.08.0282.)
(c) No deduction is allowed in computing tax under the retail sales tax classification where the retail sales tax is collected from the customer upon the charge for the container.
(d) Sales of packing materials to cooperative marketing associations, agents, or independent contractors for the purpose of packing fresh perishable horticultural products for the growers thereof, are not subject to retail sales tax. See also WAC 458-20-214 Cooperative marketing associations and independent dealers acting as agents of others with respect to the sale of fruit and produce.
(5) Use tax.
(a) The use tax applies to uses of packing materials and containers to which retail sales tax would apply but, for any reason, was not paid at the time such materials and containers were acquired.
(b) The use tax applies to the use of packing materials, such as boxes, cartons, and strapping materials, by a manufacturer in Washington where the packing materials are used to protect materials while being transported to another site of the manufacturer for further processing.
(c) The use tax applies to the use of pallets by a manufacturer or seller where the pallets will not be sold with the product, but are for use in the manufacturing plant or warehouse.
(6) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(a) ABC Packing Co. does custom packing of small parts for a Washington manufacturer. The parts are sent by truck to ABC who then places the parts into plastic bags and seals the bags through a heat fusion process. ABC is the consumer of the bags and must pay either retail sales tax or use tax on the use of the bags. This is true even though the bags will remain with the parts until delivered to the ultimate user of the parts.
(b) XY manufactures paper products in Washington. The paper is placed on large rolls. These large rolls are shipped to another of its own plants where the paper goes through a slitter for conversion into reams of paper. These large rolls involve the use of "cores" made of heavy fiber board on which the paper is rolled. "Plugs" are placed in the ends to give additional support. The rolls are also wrapped and banded with steel banding. The cores, plugs, wrapping materials, and banding are all eventually removed during the additional processing. XY is the consumer of the plugs, cores, and other packing materials and must pay retail sales or use tax on these items.
(c) XY uses three types of pallets in its manufacturing operation. One type of pallet is used strictly for storing paper which is in the manufacturing process. A second type of pallet is returnable and the customer is charged a deposit which is refunded at the time the pallet is returned. The third type of pallet is nonreturnable and is sold with the product. XY is required to pay retail sales or use tax on the first two types of pallets. The third type of pallets may be purchased by XY without the payment of retail sales or use tax since these pallets are sold with the paper products.
(d) Cold Storage Co. does custom fish processing for various customers. The processing involves cutting whole fish into fillets or steaks, vacuum packaging the pieces, and freezing the packages. The packing activity is considered to be part of a processing for hire activity. As a processor for hire, Cold Storage Co. is not the consumer of the packing materials.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-115, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 93-19-017, § 458-20-115, filed 9/2/93, effective 10/3/93; WSR 88-20-014 (Order 88-6), § 458-20-115, filed 9/27/88; Order 74-2, § 458-20-115, filed 6/24/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-115 (Rule 115), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-116
Sales and/or use of labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material.

(1) Introduction. This section explains Washington's B&O and retail sales tax applications to the sale of labels, name plates, tags, and advertising material. It also gives tax reporting information to persons offering premiums at reduced or no cost to customers.
(2) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:
(a) "Labels," "name plates," and "tags" are slips, generally made of paper or cloth, which are affixed to articles or containers for identification or description.
(b) A "premium" is an item offered free of charge or at a reduced price to prospective customers as an inducement to buy.
(3) Sales for resale. Sales of labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material to persons for use in the following manner are sales for resale (wholesale sales) and not subject to retail sales tax:
(a) Sales of labels, name plates, and tags to persons who will attach these items to articles or containers sold by them, or enclose these items with articles sold by them. However, the labels, name plates, or tags may not be purchased for resale if they will be put to intervening use by such persons.
(b) Sales of premiums to persons who pass title to the premium along with other articles which are sold by them, when the passing of title to the premiums is not contingent upon the returning of coupons or other evidence of prior purchase.
(c) Sales of premiums to persons who in turn sell the same to customers at a reduced price.
(d) Sales of advertising material to persons who enclose the advertising material with articles sold by them, when such advertising material relates primarily to the articles with which it is enclosed. Persons who enclose advertising material with articles being sold for the purpose of promoting sales of other products are consumers and may not purchase this advertising material for resale. (See RCW 82.12.010(5).)
(4) Retail sales tax. Sales of labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material to consumers are retail sales. The retail sales tax applies to the following:
(a) Sales of labels, name plates, and tags to persons who attach the same to containers enclosing articles sold by them, when such persons retain title to the containers which are to be returned. Such sales are sales for consumption and subject to the retail sales tax. Since the container is not being resold, any labels, name plates, tags, or similar items attached to the container are also not being resold.
(b) Sales of labels, name plates, and tags to persons who use them for inventory, statistical, or other business purposes. Such sales are sales for consumption and the retail sales tax applies, notwithstanding the labels, name plates, or tags remain attached to the articles or containers delivered to the customer.
(c) Sales of premiums to persons who do not pass title thereto with other articles which are sold by them, but which are given as an inducement to perform a service, or are given upon the returning of coupons or other evidence of prior purchase. Such sales are sales for consumption and are subject to the retail sales tax.
(d) Sales of premiums to persons who offer them as an inducement to potential customers at no charge and with no requirement that the customer purchase any other article or service as a condition to receive the premium. Such sales are sales for consumption and subject to the retail sales tax.
(5) Business and occupation tax. The B&O tax applies to the sale of labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material as follows:
(a) Wholesaling. Persons who sell labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material to persons who will resell these items as described in subsection (3) of this section are subject to the wholesaling B&O tax on the gross proceeds of these sales. Sellers must obtain resale certificates for sales made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permits for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, from their customers to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014.
(b) Retailing. Persons who sell labels, name plates, tags, premiums, and advertising material to consumers are subject to the retailing B&O tax on such sales.
(6) Deferred sales or use tax. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the purchaser is required to pay the deferred sales or use tax directly to the department.
(7) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(a) ABC Timber purchases log tags which are attached to logs as they are received in ABC's yard. These tags are used by ABC to keep track of the logs for inventory purposes. These tags remain on the logs after sale, and are also used by ABC's customers to verify receipt of the logs. ABC must remit retail sales or use tax upon the purchase of the log tags, notwithstanding they remain attached to the logs after sale to ABC's customers. The use of these tags for inventory purposes by ABC prior to actual sale is intervening use as a consumer.
(b) MT Gas, a gasoline and service station, offers customers a free set of stemware with any gasoline purchase of ten gallons or more. Customer purchasing seven to nine gallons of gasoline may purchase the same set of stemware for a nominal amount. MT Gas may purchase the stemware without paying retail sales tax. The stemware is offered as a premium, and is considered to be resold along with the gasoline. It is immaterial that the sale of gasoline is exempt from the retail sales tax. MT Gas must report the retailing B&O tax and collect and remit retail sales tax on the price charged for the stemware sold to those customers purchasing seven to nine gallons of gasoline.
(c) KMP Company is a camping club which purchases gift items which are used as premiums. These gift items are offered free of charge to potential customers on condition that the potential customer attend a sales presentation. No purchase of a membership or anything else is required to receive the premium. KMP must remit retail sales or use tax upon the purchase of the premiums. KMP is the consumer of premiums given away free of charge where the recipient has no requirement to purchase any service or article as a condition of receiving the premium.
(d) BC Bank offers a choice of various premiums to customers opening new savings accounts. In some cases, a charge may be made to the customer for the premium, with the amount of the charge based on the amount of deposit the customer makes in the new savings account. BC Bank may give a resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A) for purchases made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102) for purchases made on or after January 1, 2010, to its suppliers for those premiums which will be resold to its new customers. For those premiums which will be given to customers without charge, BC Bank must pay either the retail sales tax to its suppliers or use tax to the department on the cost of the premiums. It also must report the retailing B&O tax and collect and remit retail sales tax on any amounts charged to its customers.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-116, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 93-19-018, § 458-20-116, filed 9/2/93, effective 10/3/93; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-116, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-116 (Rule 116), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-117
Sales and/or use of dunnage.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains Washington's B&O tax, retail sales tax, and use tax to the sale or use of dunnage.
(a) The term "dunnage" means any material used for the purpose of protecting or holding in place cargo or freight during transportation by any carrier of property, and which is not an integral part of the carrier itself. Dunnage includes, but is not limited to, wood blocks, stakes, separating strips, timber, double decks, false floors, door shields, bulkheads, and other bracing. Dunnage generally does not remain with the cargo that is being transported and will not be delivered to the person who will ultimately receive the cargo. On the other hand, packing materials are generally part of the total package containing the cargo and are ultimately delivered to the customer as part of the cargo or merchandise.
(b) Persons selling dunnage to air, rail, or water carriers operating in interstate or foreign commerce should also refer to WAC 458-20-175. Persons selling or purchasing packing materials should refer to 458-20-115 (Sales of packing materials and containers).
(2) Business and occupation tax. The B&O tax applies as follows to sales of dunnage.
(a) Wholesaling. The wholesaling tax applies to the gross proceeds derived from sales of dunnage to persons who resell the dunnage, without intervening use.
(b) Retailing of interstate transportation equipment. This B&O tax classification applies to sales of dunnage to air, rail, and water carriers. These sales are exempt from retail sales tax because of the provisions of RCW 82.08.0261.
(c) Retailing. The retailing tax applies to sales of dunnage to motor carriers and all other consumers.
(3) Retail sales tax. The retail sales tax generally applies to the sale of dunnage to consumers. This includes situations in which the purchaser may initially use the materials for dunnage and then resell the materials after they have served that purpose. RCW 82.08.0261 does provide a retail sales tax exemption for sales of tangible personal property, including dunnage, to air, rail, and water carriers operating in interstate or foreign commerce. To substantiate a claim for this exemption, the seller must retain as part of its records the completed exemption certificate(s) prescribed by WAC 458-20-175. However, air, rail, and water carriers are subject to use tax on dunnage used in Washington. (See below.)
(4) Deferred sales or use tax. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the purchaser is required to pay the deferred sales or use tax directly to the department.
(a) Air, rail, and water carriers engaged in interstate or foreign commerce should note that while the purchase of dunnage may qualify for the retail sales tax exemption provided by RCW 82.08.0261, the subsequent use in Washington of that dunnage is subject to use tax. These carriers should refer to WAC 458-20-175 to determine any potential use tax liability.
(b) Persons who manufacture the materials they will use for dunnage, such as lumber manufacturers, are subject to use tax on the value of the dunnage and are also subject to the manufacturing B&O tax. These persons should refer to WAC 458-20-136 and WAC 458-20-112.
(5) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances. Unless stated otherwise, these examples presume both seller and purchaser are located in Washington.
(a) BCD, Inc. provides stevedoring services within the State of Washington. BCD routinely acquires lumber for use in securing cargo within the holds of ships during transport. While this lumber may be bolted or nailed to the ship, it is removed at the destination port when the cargo is off-loaded. BCD provides the lumber as a part of its overall stevedoring services, and does not make retail sales of the lumber to its customers.
BCD Inc. must pay retail sales tax when purchasing all such lumber. The lumber is used as dunnage and does not become an integral part of the ship, despite being bolted or nailed to the ship. If BCD has not paid retail sales tax on the acquisition of the lumber, it must remit the deferred sales or use tax directly to the department.
(b) D Company sells lumber and wood blocks to FG Engineering. FG is a manufacturer of equipment parts and uses the lumber and wood blocks as dunnage for the transportation of parts by rail to Montana. The lumber and wood blocks are salvaged and sold by FG after the transportation of the parts is completed.
The sale of the lumber and wood blocks to FG Engineering is a sale at retail, notwithstanding FG resells the dunnage materials in Montana. The use of the lumber and wood blocks as dunnage by FG Engineering is considered use as a consumer. D Company must collect and remit the retail sales tax, and report the gross proceeds of the sale under the retailing B&O tax classification.
(c) RB Lumber manufactures lumber in Washington which it ships by rail to customers in other states. RB Lumber takes irregular sized and other low quality lumber and uses it as dunnage in loading rail cars. Arrangements have been made with the rail carrier for the dunnage to be given away as firewood at the destination.
RB Lumber is subject to manufacturing B&O tax and also use tax on the value of the dunnage. If there is a comparable retail selling price for these materials, the value will be determined on that basis. If there is no comparable selling price, the value may be determined on the basis of cost of production as provided in WAC 458-20-112.
(d) KMB, Inc. sells lumber for use as dunnage to Western Rail, a common carrier operating by rail in multiple states. Some of the lumber will be first used in Washington and some will be transported to other states without intervening use for use in those states as dunnage. Western Rail may purchase the dunnage without payment of retail sales tax by giving the seller an exemption certificate as explained in WAC 458-20-175.
KMB, Inc. must report this sale under the retailing of interstate equipment B&O tax classification since Western Rail has claimed exemption for payment of the retail sales tax under RCW 82.08.0261. The seller must retain copies of the exemption certificates for five years. Western Rail must report use tax on the dunnage which is used in Washington.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 00-01-068, § 458-20-117, filed 12/13/99, effective 1/13/00; WSR 93-19-019, § 458-20-117, filed 9/2/93, effective 10/3/93; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-117 (Rule 117), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-118
Sale or rental of real estate, license to use real estate.

(1) Amounts derived from the sale and rental of real estate are exempt from taxation under the business and occupation tax. However, there is no exemption of amounts derived from engaging in any business wherein a mere license to use or enjoy real property is granted. Amounts derived from the granting of a license to use real property are taxable under the service B&O tax classification unless otherwise taxed under another classification by specific statute, e.g., sale of lodging taxed under retailing. (See RCW 82.04.050 and 82.04.290.) Further, no exemption is allowed for amounts received as commissions for the sale or rental of real estate (RCW 82.04.390) nor for interest received by persons engaged in the business of selling real estate on time or installment contracts. For purposes of distinguishing the lease or rental of real estate from the granting of a license to use real estate the department of revenue will be guided by the following principles.
(2) Lease or rental of real estate. A lease or rental of real property conveys an estate or interest in a certain designated area of real property with an exclusive right in the lessee of continuous possession against the world, including the owner, and grants to the lessee the absolute right of control and occupancy during the term of the lease or rental agreement. An agreement will not be construed as a lease of real estate unless a relationship of "landlord and tenant" is created thereby. It is presumed that the sale of lodging by a hotel, motel, tourist court, etc., for a continuous period of thirty days or more is a rental of real estate. It is further presumed that all rentals of mini-storage facilities, apartments and leased departments constitute rentals of real estate. The rental of a boat moorage slip or an airplane hangar/tie down site is presumed to be a rental of real estate only if a specific space, slip, or site is assigned and the rental is for a period of thirty days or longer.
(3) License to use real estate. A license grants merely a right to use the real property of another but does not confer exclusive control or dominion over the same. Usually, where the grant conveys only a license to use, the owner controls such things as lighting, heating, cleaning, repairing, and opening and closing the premises.
(a) Persons who are involved in more than one kind of business activity are required to segregate their income and report under the appropriate tax classification based on the nature of the specific activity (see RCW 82.04.440).
(b) It will be presumed that a taxable license to use or enjoy real property is granted in the rental of the following:
(i) Hotel rooms (for periods of less than 30 continuous days; see WAC 458-20-166).
(ii) Motels, tourist courts and trailer parks (for periods of less than 30 continuous days; see WAC 458-20-166).
(iii) Cold storage lockers (see WAC 458-20-133).
(iv) Safety deposit boxes and private mail boxes.
(v) Storage space (see WAC 458-20-182).
(vi) Space within park or fair grounds to a concessionaire.
(vii) Hairdressers, barbers, or manicurists who lease space within another business (see WAC 458-20-200 Leased departments).
(viii) Use of boat launch facilities for recreational purposes.
(ix) Space on a building for the attachment of advertising signs, including for periods in excess of 30 continuous days.
(c) RCW 82.04.050 (2)(f) specifically defines all services of a hotel, motel, or similar businesses as being retail sales. Thus, the rentals of meeting rooms, display rooms, or ball rooms are retail sales when rented out by such businesses. Persons who are not in the business of selling lodging are taxable under the service B&O tax classification on income from the rental of meeting rooms.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-02-056, § 458-20-118, filed 12/28/90, effective 1/28/91; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-118, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-118 (Rule 118), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-119
Sales by caterers and food service contractors.

(1) Introduction. This section explains Washington's business and occupation (B&O) tax and retail sales tax applications for sales by caterers and food service contractors.
(a) Examples. This section contains examples that identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(b) What other sections might apply? The following sections may contain additional relevant information:
• WAC 458-20-107 Requirement to separately state sales tax—Advertised prices including sales tax.
• WAC 458-20-124 Restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns and similar businesses.
• WAC 458-20-166 Hotels, motels, boarding houses, rooming houses, resorts, summer camps, trailer camps, etc.
• WAC 458-20-167 Educational institutions, school districts, student organizations, and private schools.
• WAC 458-20-168 Hospitals, nursing homes, boarding homes, adult family homes and similar health care facilities.
• WAC 458-20-175 Persons engaged in the business of operating as a private or common carrier by air, rail or water in interstate or foreign commerce.
• WAC 458-20-189 Sales to and by the state of Washington, counties, cities, towns, school districts, and fire districts.
• WAC 458-20-190 Sales to and by the United States—Doing business on federal reservations—Sales to foreign governments.
• WAC 458-20-244 Food and food ingredients.
(2) Sales by caterers. Sales of meals and prepared food by caterers are subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes when sold to consumers. "Caterer" means a person who provides, prepares, and serves meals for immediate consumption at a location selected by the customer. The tax liability is the same whether the meals are prepared at the customer's site or the caterer's site. The retailing B&O and retail sales taxes also apply when caterers prepare and serve meals using ingredients provided by the customer.
(3) Food service contractors. The term "food service contractor" means a person who operates a food service at a kitchen, cafeteria, dining room, or similar facility owned by an institution or business. Food service contractors may manage the food service operation on behalf of the institution or business, or may actually make sales of meals or prepared foods.
(a) Sales of meals. Food service contractors who sell meals or prepared foods to consumers are subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes on their gross proceeds of sales. For example, the operation of a cafeteria which provides meals to employees of a manufacturing or financial business is generally a retail activity. The food service contractor is considered to be making retail sales of meals, whether payment for the meal is made by the employees or the business, unless the business itself is reselling the meals to the employees.
In all cases where the meals are prepared at off-site facilities not owned by the institution or business, the food service contractor is considered to be making sales of meals and the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes apply to the gross proceeds of sale, or gross income for sales to consumers.
(b) Food service management. The gross proceeds derived from the management of a food service operation are subject to the service and other business activities B&O tax. These tax reporting provisions apply whether the staff actually preparing the meals or prepared foods is employed by the institution or business hiring the food service contractor, or by the food service contractor itself. If the food service contractor merely manages the food service operation on behalf of an institution or business, that institution or business is considered to be selling meals or providing the meals as a part of the services the institution or business renders to its customers. These institutions and businesses should refer to subsections (4) and (5) in this section to determine their B&O tax and retail sales tax liabilities.
Food service management includes, but is not limited to, the following activities:
(i) Food service contractors operating a cafeteria or similar facility which provides meals and prepared food for employees and/or guests of a business, but only where the business owning the facility is the one actually selling the meals to its employees.
(ii) Food service contractors managing and/or operating a cafeteria, lunch room, or similar facility for the exclusive use of students or faculty at an educational institution or private school. The educational institution or private school provides these meals to the students and faculty as a part of its educational services. The food service contractor is managing a food service operation on behalf of the institution, and is not making retail sales of meals to the students, faculty, or institution. Sales of meals or prepared foods to guests in such areas are, however, subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(iii) Food service contractors managing and/or operating the dietary facilities of a hospital, nursing home, or similar institution, for the purpose of providing meals or prepared foods to patients or residents thereof. These meals are provided to the patients or residents by the hospital, nursing home, or similar institution as a part of the services rendered by the institution. The food service contractor is managing a food service operation on behalf of the institution, and is not considered to be making retail sales of meals to the patients, residents, or institution. Sales of meals to doctors, nurses, visitors, and other employees through a cafeteria or similar facility are, however, subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(c) Examples.
(i) GC Inc. is a food service contractor managing and operating an on-site cafeteria for B College. This cafeteria is operated for the exclusive use of students and faculty. Guests of students or faculty members, however, are allowed to use the facilities. All moneys collected in the cafeteria are retained by B College. B College pays GC's direct costs for managing and operating the cafeteria, including the costs of the unprepared food products, employee salaries, and overhead expenses. GC also receives a management fee.
GC Inc. is managing a food service operation. The measure of tax is the gross proceeds received from B College. GC Inc. may not claim a deduction on account of cost of materials, salaries, or any other expense. GC Inc.'s proceeds are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax classification. B College is considered to be making retail sales of meals to the guests and must collect and remit retail sales tax on the gross proceeds of these sales. B College should refer to WAC 458-20-167 to determine whether the retailing B&O tax applies.
(ii) DF Food Service contracts with Hospital A to manage and operate Hospital A's dietary and cafeteria facilities. DF is to receive a per meal fee for meals provided to Hospital A's patients. DF Food Service retains all proceeds for sales of meals to physicians, nurses, and visitors in the cafeteria.
The gross proceeds received from Hospital A in regards to the meals provided to the patients are derived from the management of a food service operation. These proceeds are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax classification. DF, however, is making retail sales of meals to physicians, nurses, and visitors in the cafeteria. DF Food Service must pay retailing B&O tax, and collect and remit retail sales tax, on the gross proceeds derived from the cafeteria sales.
(4) Retailing B&O and retail sales taxes. The sales of meals to consumers are subject to the retailing B&O tax and generally subject to retail sales tax. However, a retail sales tax exemption is available for the following sales of meals:
(a) Prepared meals sold under a state-administered nutrition program for the aged as provided for in the Older Americans Act (Public Law 95-478 Title III) and RCW 74.38.040(6).
(b) Prepared meals sold to or for senior citizens, disabled persons, or low-income persons by a not-for-profit organization organized under chapter 24.03 or 24.12 RCW. However, this exemption does not apply to purchases of prepared meals by not-for-profit organizations, such as hospitals, which provide the meals to patients as a part of the services they render.
(c) Prepared meals sold to the federal government. (See WAC 458-20-190.) However, meals sold to federal employees are taxable, even if the federal employee will be reimbursed for the cost of the meals by the federal government.
(5) Wholesale sales of prepared meals. Persons making sales of prepared meals to persons who will be reselling the meals are subject to the wholesaling B&O tax classification. Sellers must obtain resale certificates for sales made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permits for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, from their customers to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014.
(6) When is deferred sales or use tax due? If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the purchaser is required to pay the deferred sales or use tax directly to the department.
(a) Purchases of dishes, kitchen utensils, linens, and items which do not become an ingredient of the meal, are subject to retail sales tax.
(b) Retail sales tax or use tax applies to purchases of equipment, repairs, appliances, and construction.
(c) The retail sales or use tax does not apply to purchases of food or beverage products which are ingredients of meals being sold at retail or wholesale.
(d) Purchases of food products and prepared meals by persons who are not in the business of selling meals at retail or wholesale are subject to the retail sales tax. However, certain food products are statutorily exempt of retail sales or use tax. (See WAC 458-20-244.)
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 2011 c 55. WSR 12-07-060, § 458-20-119, filed 3/19/12, effective 4/19/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-119, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 99-11-107, § 458-20-119, filed 5/19/99, effective 6/19/99; WSR 93-23-019, § 458-20-119, filed 11/8/93, effective 12/9/93; WSR 86-03-016 (Order ET 86-1), § 458-20-119, filed 1/7/86; WSR 82-16-061 (Order ET 82-7), § 458-20-119, filed 7/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 78-07-045 (Order ET 78-4), § 458-20-119, filed 6/27/78; Order ET 74-1, § 458-20-119, filed 5/7/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-119 (Rule 119), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-120
Sales of ice.

Sales of ice to fishermen for the purpose of packing and preserving their fish during the trip from the fishing banks to their port of discharge are sales for consumption and are taxable under the retail sales tax.
Sales of ice to persons, other than railroad companies, for use in icing refrigerator cars are sales for consumption and are taxable under the retail sales tax.
The use of ice purchased or manufactured by interstate railroad companies for the purpose of icing within this state perishables or refrigerator cars or car cooling systems, is subject to use tax. (See WAC 458-20-175.)
Sales of ice to persons who sell fish, fruit, vegetables and other commodities are sales for resale and not subject to the retail sales tax when such ice is used for packing during shipment and title thereto passes to the purchaser along with the property sold.
Sales of ice to persons operating restaurants, soda fountains and the like are sales for resale and are not subject to the retail sales tax when such ice is used exclusively as crushed ice in drinks sold by such persons.
Sales of ice to persons operating creameries, beer parlors, restaurants, soda fountains and the like are sales for consumption and are taxable under the retail sales tax when such ice is used primarily for the purpose of cooling food products and is not for resale to customers.
Revised May 1, 1949.
[Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-120 (Rule 120), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-121
Sales of heat or steamIncluding production by cogeneration.

(1) Introduction. This section provides tax reporting information to persons who sell heat and/or steam. Because heat and steam are often the product of a cogeneration facility, this section also provides tax information for persons operating cogeneration facilities. Persons generating electrical power should also refer to WAC 458-20-179 (Public utility tax).
(2) Definitions.
(a) The term "biomass fuel" means wood waste and other wood residuals, including forest derived biomass, but does not include firewood or wood pellets. "Biomass fuel" also includes partially organic by-products of pulp, paper, and wood manufacturing processes.
(b) The term "hog fuel" means wood waste and other wood residuals including forest derived biomass. "Hog fuel" does not include firewood or wood pellets.
(3) Sale of heat or steam - Business and occupation (B&O) tax. Persons engaging in the business of operating a plant for the production, extraction, or storage of heat or steam for distribution, for hire or sale, are taxable under the service and other business activities classification. This includes heat or steam produced by a biomass system, cogeneration, geothermal sources, fossil fuels, or any other method.
(4) Sale or production of electricity - Cogeneration. The production of steam, heat, or electricity is not a manufacturing activity within the definition of RCW 82.04.120. Persons who operate a plant or system for the generation, production or distribution of electrical energy for hire or sale are subject to the provisions of the public utility tax under the light and power tax classification. Persons who generate electrical energy should refer to WAC 458-20-179 (Public utility tax). A deduction may be taken for:
(a) Power generated in Washington and delivered out-of-state. (See RCW 82.16.050(6).)
(b) Amounts derived from the sale of electricity to persons who are in the business of selling electricity and are purchasing the electricity for resale. (See RCW 82.16.050(2).)
(5) Tax incentive programs - Cogeneration. There were tax incentive programs available for cogeneration projects begun before January 1, 1990. Sales and use tax deferrals may apply under certain conditions for power generation facilities, even though the production of power is not specifically subject to a manufacturing tax. For example, if the cogeneration facilities are part of a manufacturing plant for the production of new articles of tangible personal property and the requirements for tax deferral are met, the business may apply for tax deferral programs. These incentive programs are discussed in WAC 458-20-240 (Manufacturer's new employee tax credits), 458-20-24001 (Sales and use tax deferralManufacturing and research/development activities in rural countiesApplications filed after March 31, 2004), and 458-20-24002 (Sales and use tax deferralNew manufacturing and research/development facilities).
(6) Fuel. Persons who produce their own fuel to generate heat, steam, or electricity are subject to the manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the fuel. This includes the value of fuel which is created at the same site as a by-product of another manufacturing process, such as production of hog fuel. The taxable value should be determined based on comparable sales, or on the basis of all costs in the absence of comparable sales. Refer to WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products).
(a) Fuel does not become an ingredient or component of power, steam, or electricity. The sale of fuel to be used by the purchaser to generate heat, steam, or electricity is a retail sale. In most cases, the purchase of fuel for such purposes is subject to payment of retail sales tax to the supplier. (See (b) of this subsection for discussion of a sales and use tax exemption specific to biomass fuel.)
In the event retail sales tax is not paid to the supplier, and no exemption from retail sales tax is available, deferred sales or use tax must be paid. However, the law provides a specific exemption from the use tax for biomass fuel used by the fuel's extractor or manufacturer when used directly in the operation of the particular extractive operation or manufacturing plant which produced or manufactured the same biomass fuel. For example, if a lumber manufacturer produces wood waste which is used in the same plant to produce heat for drying lumber, the wood waste is not subject to use tax even though the manufacturing B&O tax applies to this biomass fuel. (See RCW 82.12.0263.)
(b) Effective July 1, 2009:
• Sales of hog fuel used to produce electricity, steam, heat, or biofuel are exempt from retail sales tax when the purchaser provides the seller with a properly filled out "buyer's retail sales tax exemption certificate." RCW 82.08.956.
• The use of hog fuel for production of electricity, steam, heat, or biofuel is exempt from use tax. RCW 82.12.956.
(7) Equipment and supplies. Persons who are in the business of producing heat, steam, or electricity are required to pay retail sales tax to suppliers of all equipment and supplies. If the supplier fails to collect retail sales tax, deferred sales or use tax must be paid.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 18-05-011, § 458-20-121, filed 2/8/18, effective 3/11/18; WSR 10-10-031, § 458-20-121, filed 4/26/10, effective 5/27/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 94-13-033, § 458-20-121, filed 6/6/94, effective 7/7/94; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-121, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-121 (Rule 121), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-124
Restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns and similar businesses.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains how Washington's business and occupation (B&O) tax and retail sales tax apply to sales by restaurants and similar businesses. It discusses sales of meals, beverages, and foods at prices inclusive of the retail sales tax. This rule also explains how discounted and promotional meals are taxed. Caterers and persons who merely manage the operations of a restaurant or similar business should refer to WAC 458-20-119 to determine their tax liability.
(a) Restaurants, cocktail bars, and taverns. The term "restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns, and similar businesses" means every place where prepared foods and beverages are sold and served to individuals, generally for consumption on the premises where sold.
(b) Examples. This rule contains examples that identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(c) What other rules might apply? In addition to information available on the department's web site pertaining to prepared food and beverage sales, the following rules may contain other relevant information:
• WAC 458-20-107 Requirement to separately state sales tax—Advertised prices including sales tax.
• WAC 458-20-119 Sales by caterers and food service contractors.
• WAC 458-20-131 Gambling activities.
• WAC 458-20-183 Amusement, recreation, and physical fitness services.
• WAC 458-20-187 Tax responsibility of persons owning and/or operating vending machines, amusement devices, and service machines.
• WAC 458-20-189 Sales to and by the state of Washington, counties, cities, towns, school districts, and fire districts.
• WAC 458-20-190 Sales to and by the United States—Doing business on federal reservations—Sales to foreign governments.
• WAC 458-20-243 Litter tax.
• WAC 458-20-244 Food and food ingredients.
(2) Retailing B&O and retail sales taxes. Sales of meals and prepared foods to consumers by restaurants, cocktail bars, taverns, and similar businesses are subject to the retailing tax classification and generally subject to retail sales tax. Retail sales tax exemptions are available for the following sales of meals:
(a) Prepared meals sold under a state-administered nutrition program for the aged as provided for in the Older Americans Act (Public Law 95-478 Title III) and RCW 74.38.040(6);
(b) Prepared meals sold to or for senior citizens, disabled persons, or low-income persons by a not-for-profit organization organized under chapter 24.03 or 24.12 RCW;
(c) Prepared meals sold to the federal government. (See WAC 458-20-190.) However, meals sold to federal employees are taxable, even if the federal employee will be reimbursed for the cost of the meals by the federal government;
(d) Effective July 1, 2011, RCW 82.08.9995 provides a retail sales tax exemption for meals provided without specific charge by a restaurant to its employees. Such meals are also exempt from B&O tax and use tax. (RCW 82.04.750 and 82.12.9995.) If any charge is made for meals to employees, retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax apply.
For the purposes of (d) of this subsection, the following definitions apply:
(i) "Meal" means one or more items of prepared food or beverages other than alcoholic beverages. For the purposes of (d) of this subsection, "alcoholic beverage" and "prepared food" have the same meanings as provided in RCW 82.08.0293.
(ii) "Restaurant" means any establishment having special space and accommodation where food and beverages are regularly sold to the public for immediate, but not necessarily on-site, consumption, but excluding grocery stores, mini-markets, and convenience stores. Restaurant includes, but is not limited to, lunch counters, diners, coffee shops, espresso shops or bars, concession stands or counters, delicatessens, and cafeterias. It also includes space and accommodations where food and beverages are sold to the public for immediate consumption that are located within:
• Hotels, motels, lodges, boarding houses, bed and breakfast facilities;
• Hospitals, office buildings, movie theaters; and
• Schools, colleges, or universities, if a separate charge is made for such food or beverages.
Restaurants also include:
• Mobile sales units that sell food or beverages for immediate consumption within a place, the entrance to which is subject to an admission charge; and
• Public and private carriers, such as trains and vessels, that sell food or beverages for immediate consumption if a separate charge is made for such food or beverages.
A restaurant is open to the public for purposes of this subsection if members of the public can be served as guests. "Restaurant" does not include businesses making sales through vending machines or through mobile sales units such as catering trucks or sidewalk vendors of food or beverage items.
(3) Wholesaling B&O tax. Persons making sales of prepared meals to persons who will be reselling the meals are subject to the wholesaling B&O tax classification. Sellers must obtain a copy of the purchaser's reseller permit to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102 Reseller permits.
(4) Service B&O tax. Compensation received from owners of vending machines for allowing the placement of those machines at the restaurant, cocktail bar, tavern, or similar business is subject to the service and other business activities tax. Persons operating games of chance should refer to WAC 458-20-131.
(5) Exemptions. Effective October 1, 2013, RCW 82.08.210 provides retail sales tax and use tax exemptions for sales to restaurants of products that impart flavor to food during the cooking process; and
• Are completely or substantially consumed by combustion during the cooking process; or
• That support the food during the cooking process and are comprised entirely of wood.
The exemption includes products such as wood chips, charcoal, charcoal briquettes, grapevines, and cedar grilling planks. The exemptions do not apply to any type of gas fuel. For the purpose of these exemptions, "restaurant" has the same meaning as found in RCW 82.08.9995. These exemptions are scheduled to expire July 1, 2017.
(6) Deferred sales or use tax. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the purchaser is required to pay the deferred sales or use tax directly to the department.
(a) Retail sales tax or use tax applies to purchases of dishes, kitchen utensils, linens, and items that do not become an ingredient of the meal.
(b) Retail sales tax or use tax applies to purchases of equipment, repairs, appliances, and construction.
(c) Retail sales tax or use tax does not apply to purchases of food or beverage products that are ingredients of the meals being sold.
(d) Retail sales tax or use tax does not apply to purchases of paper plates, paper cups, paper napkins, toothpicks, or any other articles that are furnished to customers, the first actual use of which renders such articles unfit for further use, when purchased by restaurants and similar businesses making actual sales of meals.
(7) Combination business. Persons operating a combination of two kinds of food sales, of which one is the sale of prepared food (i.e., an establishment, such as a deli, selling food products ready for consumption and in bulk quantities), should refer to WAC 458-20-244 for taxability information.
(8) Discounted meals, promotional meals, and meals given away. Persons who sell meals on a "two for one" or similar basis are not giving away a free meal, but rather are selling two meals at a discounted price. Both the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes are calculated on the reduced price actually received by the seller.
Persons who provide meals free of charge to persons other than their employees are consumers of those meals. Persons operating restaurants or similar businesses are not required to report use tax on food and food ingredients given away, even if the food or food ingredients are part of prepared meals. For example, a restaurant providing meals to the homeless or hot dogs free of charge to a little league team will not incur a retail sales or use tax liability with respect to these items given away. A sale has not occurred, and the food and food ingredients exemption applies. Should the restaurant provide the little league team with soft drinks free of charge, the restaurant will incur a deferred retail sales or use tax liability with respect to those soft drinks. Soft drinks are excluded from the exemption for food and food ingredients. (See WAC 458-20-244.)
(9) Sales of meals, beverages and food at prices that include retail sales tax. Persons may advertise and/or sell meals, beverages, or any kind of food product at prices including sales tax. Any person electing to advertise and/or make sales in this manner must clearly indicate this pricing method on the menus and other price information.
(10) Spirits, beer, and wine restaurant licensees. Restaurants operating under the authority of a license from the liquor control board to sell spirits, beer, and wine by the glass for on-premises consumption generally have both dining and cocktail lounge areas. Customers purchasing beverages or food in lounge areas may not be given sales invoices, sales slips, or dinner checks, nor are they generally provided with menus.
(a) Many spirits, beer, and wine restaurant licensees elect to sell beverages or food at prices inclusive of the sales tax in the cocktail lounge area. If this pricing method is used, notification that retail sales tax is included in the price of the beverages or foods must be posted in the lounge area in a manner and location so that customers can see the notice without entering employee work areas. The department presumes that no retail sales tax has been collected or is included in the gross receipts when a notice is not posted and the customer does not receive a sales slip or sales invoice separately stating the retail sales tax.
(b) The election to include retail sales tax in the selling price in one area of a location does not preclude the restaurant operator from selling beverages or food at a price exclusive of sales tax in another. For example, a spirits, beer, and wine restaurant licensee may elect to include the retail sales tax in the price charged for beverages in the lounge area, while the price charged in the dining area is exclusive of the sales tax.
(c) Spirits, beer, and wine restaurant licensees are not required to post actual drink prices in the cocktail lounge areas. However, if actual prices are posted, the advertising requirements expressed in WAC 458-20-107 must be met.
(11) Gratuities. Tips or gratuities representing donations or gifts by customers under circumstances which are clearly voluntary are not part of the selling price and not subject to tax. However, mandatory additions to the price by the seller, whether labeled service charges, tips, gratuities or otherwise are part of the selling price and are subject to both the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(12) Examples.
(a) XYZ Restaurant operates both a cocktail bar and a dining area. XYZ has elected to sell drinks and appetizers in the bar at prices including the retail sales tax while selling drinks and meals served in the dining area at prices exclusive of the sales tax. There is a sign posted in the bar area advising customers that all prices include retail sales tax. Customers in the dining area are given sales invoices that separately state the retail sales tax. As an example, a typical well drink purchased in the bar for $2.50 inclusive of the sales tax, is sold for $2.50 plus sales tax in the dining area. The pricing requirements have been satisfied and the drink and food totals are correctly reflected on the customers' dinner checks. XYZ may factor the retail sales tax out of the cocktail bar gross receipts when determining its retailing and retail sales tax liability.
(b) RBS Restaurant operates both a cocktail bar and a dining area. RBS has elected to sell drinks at prices inclusive of retail sales tax for all areas where drinks are served. It has a sign posted to inform customers in the bar area of this fact and a statement is also on the dinner menu indicating that any charges for drinks includes retail sales tax. Dinner checks are given to customers served in the dining area that state the price of the meal exclusive of sales tax, sales tax on the meal, and the drink price including retail sales tax. Because the business has met the sign posting requirement in the bar area and has indicated on the menu that sales tax is included in the price of the drinks, RBS may factor the sales tax out of the gross receipts received from its drink sales when determining its taxable retail sales.
(c) Z Tavern sells all foods and drinks at a price inclusive of the retail sales tax. However, there is no mention of this pricing structure on its menus or reader boards. The gross receipts from Z Tavern's food and drink sales are subject to the retailing and retail sales taxes. Z Tavern has failed to meet the conditions for selling foods and drinks at prices including tax. Z Tavern may not assume that the gross receipts include any sales tax and may not factor the retail sales tax out of the gross receipts.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 2015 c 86. WSR 15-21-092, § 458-20-124, filed 10/21/15, effective 11/21/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.08.050, and 2013 2nd sp.s. c 13. WSR 14-01-050, § 458-20-124, filed 12/12/13, effective 1/12/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 2011 c 55. WSR 12-07-060, § 458-20-124, filed 3/19/12, effective 4/19/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-124, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 93-23-018, § 458-20-124, filed 11/8/93, effective 12/9/93; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-124, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-124 (Rule 124), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-12401
Special stadium sales and use tax.

(1) Introduction. RCW 82.14.360 provides for a special stadium sales and use tax that applies to sales of food and beverages by restaurants, taverns, and bars in counties with a population of one million or more. The tax applies only to those food and beverage sales that are already subject to the retail sales tax. Grocery stores, mini-markets, and convenience stores were specifically excluded from the definition of a restaurant and are not required to collect the tax. However, a restaurant located within a grocery store, mini-market, or convenience store is subject to this tax if the restaurant is owned or operated by a different legal entity from the store or market. The special stadium tax applied only in King County and was effective through September 30, 2011.
(2) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section.
(a) "Restaurant" means any establishment having special space and accommodation where food and beverages are regularly sold to the public for immediate, but not necessarily on-site, consumption, but excluding grocery stores, mini-markets, and convenience stores. Restaurant includes, but is not limited to, lunch counters, diners, coffee shops, espresso shops or bars, concession stands or counters, delicatessens, and cafeterias. It also includes space and accommodations where food and beverages are sold to the public for immediate consumption that are located within hotels, motels, lodges, boarding houses, bed-and-breakfast facilities, hospitals, office buildings, movie theaters, and schools, colleges, or universities, if a separate charge is made for such food or beverages. Mobile sales units that sell food or beverages for immediate consumption within a place, the entrance to which is subject to an admission charge, are "restaurants" for purposes of this tax. So too are public and private carriers, such as trains and vessels, that sell food or beverages for immediate consumption on trips that both originate and terminate within the county imposing the special stadium tax if a separate charge for the food and/or beverages is made. A restaurant is open to the public for purposes of this section if members of the public can be served as guests. "Restaurant" does not include businesses making sales through vending machines or through mobile sales units such as catering trucks or sidewalk vendors of food or beverage items.
(b) "Tavern" has the same meaning here as in RCW 66.04.010 and means any establishment with special space and accommodation for the sale of beer by the glass and for consumption on the premises.
(c) "Bar" means any establishment selling liquor by the glass or other open container and includes, but is not limited to, establishments that have been issued a class H license by the liquor control board.
(d) "Grocery stores, mini-markets, and convenience stores," have their ordinary and common meaning.
(3) Tax application. This special stadium sales and use tax applied only to food and beverages sold by restaurants, bars, and taverns in King County through September 30, 2011. The tax is in addition to any other sales or use tax that applies to these sales. This special tax only applies if the regular sales or use tax imposed by chapters 82.08 or 82.12 RCW applies.
(a) The tax applies to the total charge made by the restaurant, tavern, or bar, for food and beverages. If a mandatory gratuity is included in the charge that, too, is subject to the tax.
(b) Catering provided by a restaurant, tavern, or bar is also subject to the tax. However, when catering is done by a business that does not meet the definition of restaurant in subsection (2) of this section, has no facilities for preparing food, and all food is prepared at the customer's location, the charge is not subject to the tax.
(c) In the case of catering subject to the tax, if a separate charge is made for linens, glassware, tables, tents, or other items of tangible personal property that are not required for the catering, those separate charges are not subject to the tax. However, separately stated charges for items that are required as a part of the catering service, such as waitpersons or mandatory gratuities, are subject to the tax.
(4) Examples. The following examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. For these examples, assume the transactions occurred in King County prior to October 1, 2011.
(a) The Hot Bakery operates a coffee shop where customers may purchase baked goods and coffee for consumption on the premises. When utensils are provided with the bakery goods, the sale of bakery goods, along with the coffee is considered prepared food. The sale of prepared food is subject to the retail sales tax and special stadium tax. If the bakery products are bagged or boxed without utensils, the retail sales and special stadium taxes do not apply under the provisions of RCW 82.08.0293. See WAC 458-20-244 Food and food ingredients, for information about the sales of prepared foods.
(b) Charlie operates a "fast food" business. Customers may consume the food and beverages on the premises or may take the food "to go" for consumption elsewhere. All sales of food and beverages by this business are subject to the special stadium tax, including the food and beverages sold "to go."
(c) Jane operates carts that may be set up on a sidewalk or within parks from which customers may purchase hot dogs and beverages. The cart includes heating facilities for preparation of hot dogs at the cart site. No seating is provided by the business. The site location is not owned or leased by Jane. These sales are not subject to the special stadium sales tax because the business does not have a designated space for the preparation of the food it sells. This business does not fit the definition of "restaurant." However, if Jane operates a mobile food service unit selling food or beverages for immediate consumption at fixed locations within the grounds of a stadium, arena, fairgrounds, or other place, admission to which is subject to an admission charge, then the special stadium tax applies.
(d) Bill operates a combination gas station and convenience store. The convenience store sells some groceries and also some prepared foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers. Customers may also purchase soft drinks or coffee by the cup. None of these sales are subject to the special stadium sales tax because of the specific language in the statute exempting convenience stores from the tax.
(e) Peter operates a business that sells prepared pizza. The business prepares and bakes the pizza at its premises. The business has no seating. Customers may order the pizzas by either entering Peter's place of business or by telephone. Customers may either take delivery at the seller's site or the business will deliver the pizza to the customer's residence or other site. These sales are subject to the special stadium sales tax because the business does have a designated site and facilities for the preparation of food for sale for immediate consumption, even though no seating is available. The regular retail sales tax applies to these sales since these sales are not exempt food products under RCW 82.08.0293(2).
(f) Jack has the exclusive concession rights to prepare and sell hot dogs within a sports facility. Customers place their orders and take delivery of the prepared food and beverages at Jack's site in the sports facility. Jack provides no seating that he controls. Customers generally take the food and beverage to their seats and consume the items while watching the sports event. Jack will also prepare hot dogs and soft drinks at his food bar and use his employees or agents to sell these products to customers in the stands while the sports event is in progress. All of the sales of food and beverages by Jack are subject to the special stadium sales tax. Jack's business operation meets the definition of "restaurant." Jack has set aside space that he controls for the purpose of preparing food and beverages for immediate consumption for sale to the public.
(g) Jinny operates a cafe within Abe's grocery store, for the sale of food or beverages for immediate consumption on the premises. Abe's grocery store is a separate entity from Jinny's cafe, and it leases the space for the cafe to Jinny. Sales of food and beverages by Abe's grocery store are exempt from the special stadium tax, but sales at the cafe by Jinny are subject to retail sales tax and the special stadium sales tax.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2) and 82.14.360(1). WSR 12-01-026, § 458-20-12401, filed 12/12/11, effective 1/12/12; WSR 10-01-050, § 458-20-12401, filed 12/9/09, effective 1/9/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.14.080. WSR 96-16-086, § 458-20-12401, filed 8/7/96, effective 9/7/96.]



458-20-126
Sales of motor vehicle fuel, special fuel, and nonpolluting fuel.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the retail sales and use taxes for motor vehicle fuel, special fuel, and fuels commonly referred to as liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, or propane. This rule also provides documentation requirements to buyers and sellers of fuel for both on and off highway use.
(2) What are motor vehicle fuel and special fuel, and how are they taxed? "Motor vehicle fuel" as used in this rule means gasoline or any other inflammable gas or liquid the chief use of which is as fuel for the propulsion of motor vehicles. (See RCW 82.36.010.) "Special fuel" as used in this rule means all combustible gases and liquids suitable for the generation of power for propulsion of motor vehicles, except that it does not include motor vehicle fuel as defined above. (See RCW 82.38.020.) Diesel fuel is an example of a special fuel.
Retail sales tax or use tax applies to sales and uses of motor vehicle fuel or special fuel, unless an exemption applies, when the taxes of chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW have not been paid or have been refunded. Generally, fuel taxes apply to sales of fuel for highway consumption and retail sales or use tax applies to fuel sold for consumption off the highways (e.g., boat fuel, or fuel for farm machinery or construction equipment, etc.).
(3) What motor vehicle fuel and special fuel exemptions are available?
(a) Passenger-only ferries. RCW 82.08.0255 and 82.12.0256 provide retail sales tax and use tax exemptions for motor vehicle fuel or special fuel for use in passenger-only ferry vessels. These exemptions apply only to fuel purchased by public transportation benefit areas created under chapter 36.57A RCW, county owned ferries, or county ferry districts created under chapter 36.54 RCW.
(b) Nonprofit transportation providers. RCW 82.08.0255 and 82.12.0256 provide retail sales tax and use tax exemptions for motor vehicle fuel or special fuel purchased or used by private, nonprofit transportation providers certified under chapter 81.66 RCW, if the purchaser is entitled to fuel tax refund or exemption under chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW.
(c) Public transportation. RCW 82.08.0255 and 82.12.0256 provide retail sales tax and use tax exemptions for motor vehicle fuel or special fuel purchased or used for the purpose of public transportation, if the purchaser is entitled to a refund or an exemption under RCW 82.36.275 or 82.38.080.
(d) Special fuel used in interstate commerce. RCW 82.08.0255 provides a retail sales tax credit or refund for sales of special fuel that is delivered in this state but later transported and used outside this state by persons engaged in interstate commerce. The credit or refund also applies to persons hauling their own goods in interstate commerce.
Certificate. Persons selling special fuel to interstate carriers must obtain a completed "Certificate of Special Fuel Sales to Interstate Carriers" from the purchaser to document entitlement to the credit or refund. The certificate may be obtained from the department of revenue (department) on the internet at http://www.dor.wa.gov/, or by contacting the department's taxpayer services division at:
Taxpayer Services
Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47478
Olympia, WA 98504-7478
1-800-647-7706
The provisions of the certificate may be limited to a single sales transaction, or may apply to all sales transactions as long as the seller has a recurring business relationship with the buyer. A "recurring business relationship" means at least one sale transaction within a period of twelve consecutive months.
(e) Farm fuel users of diesel or aircraft fuels. For the purpose of this rule, a "farm fuel user" means either a farmer or a person who provides horticultural services for farmers, such as soil preparation, crop cultivation, or crop harvesting services.
(i) RCW 82.08.865 and 82.12.865 provided retail sales tax and use tax exemptions to farm fuel users for diesel, biodiesel, and aircraft fuel purchased for nonhighway use.
(ii) These exemptions also apply to a fuel blend if all the component fuels of the blend would otherwise be exempt under RCW 82.08.865 and 82.12.865 if the component fuels were sold as separate products. The exemptions do not apply to fuel used for residential heating purposes.
(iii) When purchasing an eligible fuel, a farm fuel user must provide the seller with a completed "Farmers' Retail Sales Tax Exemption Certificate," which may be obtained from the department using the contact information described in (d) of this subsection.
Sellers of eligible fuels to farm fuel users must document the tax exempt sales of red-dyed diesel, biodiesel, or aircraft fuel by accepting the certificate mentioned above and retaining it in their records for five years.
(4) Nonpolluting fuels. Nonpolluting fuels are described as liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas, commonly called propane. Nonpolluting fuels may be purchased for either highway or "off-highway" use. Nonpolluting fuels purchased for highway use are normally subject to taxes under either chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW. Nonpolluting fuels purchased for "off-highway" use are subject to retail sales tax or use tax.
(a) Highway fuel used by Washington licensed vehicle owners. RCW 82.38.075 encourages the use of nonpolluting fuels by providing for payment of an annual fee by users of nonpolluting fuels, in lieu of the motor vehicle fuel tax. This fee is paid at the time of original and annual renewals of vehicle license registrations. A decal or other identifying device must be displayed as prescribed by the department of licensing as authority to purchase these nonpolluting fuels.
Fuel dealers should not collect retail sales or use tax on any nonpolluting fuels sold to Washington licensed vehicle owners for highway use when the vehicle displays a valid decal or other identifying device issued by the department of licensing.
(b) "Off-highway" fuel use. Nonpolluting fuels purchased for "off-highway" use are not subject to the taxes of chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW, and therefore the retail sales tax applies.
(c) Bulk purchases of fuel. The department recognizes that certain licensed special fuel users may find it more practical to accept deliveries of nonpolluting fuels into a bulk storage facility rather than into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. Persons selling nonpolluting fuels to such bulk purchasers must obtain from the purchaser an exemption certificate to document entitlement to the exemption. The "Certificate for Purchase of Nonpolluting Special Fuels" must certify the amount of fuel that the purchaser will consume in using motor vehicles upon the highways of this state. This procedure is limited to persons duly registered with the department. The registration number given on the certificate ordinarily will be sufficient evidence that the purchaser is properly registered. The "Certificate for Purchase of Nonpolluting Special Fuel" may be obtained from the department using the contact information described in subsection (3)(d) of this rule.
(i) When fuel is purchased for both on and off highway use, and it is not possible for a special fuel user licensee to determine the exact proportion purchased for highway use in this state, the amount of the off-highway use special fuel may be estimated. If an estimate is used and retail sales tax is not paid, the purchaser must make an adjustment on the next excise tax return and remit use tax on the portion of the fuel used for off-highway purposes.
(ii) Nonpolluting fuel not placed in motor vehicle fuel tanks by the seller are subject to retail sales tax, unless a "Certificate for Purchase of Nonpolluting Special Fuel" is obtained from the purchaser. The seller must collect and remit the retail sales tax to the department, or retain the certificate as part of its permanent records. When nonpolluting fuel is delivered by the seller into the bulk storage facilities of a special fuel user licensee or is otherwise sold to such buyers under conditions where it is not delivered into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, the department will presume that the entire amount of fuel sold is subject to retail sales tax unless the seller has obtained a completed certificate.
(d) Vehicles licensed outside the state of Washington. Owners of out-of-state licensed vehicles are exempt from the requirement to purchase an annual license as provided in RCW 82.38.075.
(i) Therefore, the fuel taxes of chapters 82.36 and 82.38 RCW generally apply to the out-of-state licensed vehicle owner's purchases of nonpolluting fuel for highway use.
(ii) Retail sales tax applies to the out-of-state licensed vehicle owner's purchases of nonpolluting fuel for off-highway use.
(iii) If the fuel taxes of chapters 82.36 and 82.38 RCW have not been paid, have been refunded, or have not been applied, then retail sales tax is due on the out-of-state licensed vehicle owner's purchases of nonpolluting fuel, for either highway or off-highway use.
(e) Any person selling or dispensing liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, or propane into a tank of a motor vehicle powered by this fuel that does not comply with the provisions in chapter 82.38 RCW described in this rule, is subject to the penalty provisions in chapter 82.38 RCW.
(5) Refunds are available for fuel taxes paid when fuel is consumed off the highway. If a person purchases motor vehicle fuel or special fuel and pays the fuel taxes of chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW, and then consumes the fuel off the highway, the person is entitled to a refund of these taxes under the procedures of chapter 82.36 or 82.38 RCW. However, a person receiving a refund of vehicle fuel taxes because of the off-highway consumption of the fuel in this state is subject to use tax on the value of the fuel. The department of licensing administers the fuel tax refund provisions and will deduct from the amount of a refund the amount of use tax due.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.12.022, and 82.14.230. WSR 15-04-104, § 458-20-126, filed 2/3/15, effective 3/6/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.08.0255, 82.12.0256, 82.08.865, and 82.12.865. WSR 10-01-051, § 458-20-126, filed 12/9/09, effective 1/9/10; WSR 08-16-045, § 458-20-126, filed 7/29/08, effective 8/29/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-15-022, § 458-20-126, filed 7/11/91, effective 8/11/91; WSR 83-17-099 (Order ET 83-6), § 458-20-126, filed 8/23/83; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-126, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 73-1, § 458-20-126, filed 11/2/73; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-126 (Rule 126), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-127
Sales of newspapers, magazines and periodicals.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the application of the business and occupation (B&O) tax, retail sales tax, and use tax to sales and/or use of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals. The tax reporting information in the section is limited to persons that purchase and resell these publications. The department of revenue (department) has adopted other sections providing tax reporting information to persons printing and/or publishing these publications and other printed materials.
• Persons printing and/or publishing newspapers, magazines, and periodicals should also refer to WAC 458-20-143.
• For information regarding the printing industry in general, see WAC 458-20-144.
• Persons duplicating printed materials for others should also refer to WAC 458-20-141.
• For information regarding potential litter tax liability, see WAC 458-20-243.
(2) General tax application. This subsection explains the B&O tax and retail sales tax responsibilities of persons selling newspapers, magazines, and periodicals to consumers, when the seller is not also the printer or publisher of the publication. Refer to subsection (4) of this section for information about tax reporting responsibilities of persons selling through organizers, captains, or others selling from house to house.
Where subscriptions or renewals of subscriptions are mailed directly by purchasers to publishers outside the state, the guidelines contained in WAC 458-20-193 and 458-20-221 apply to the obligation of sellers to collect retail sales or use tax.
(a) Sales of printed magazines and periodicals. Sales of magazines and periodicals to consumers by persons operating newsstands, book stores, department stores, drug stores and the like are sales at retail and are subject to the retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax. Refer to WAC 458-20-143 for the definition of "periodical or magazine."
(b) Magazines and periodicals sold as digital products. Sales of magazines and periodicals that are transferred electronically to the end user are subject to the retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax regardless of how they are accessed. For more information on the application of tax on digital products, refer to RCW 82.04.050, 82.04.192, and 82.04.257.
(c) Sales of newspapers. Sales of printed newspapers to consumers by persons operating newsstands, book stores, department stores, drug stores and the like are sales at retail and are subject to the retailing B&O tax. Sales of newspapers are specifically exempt from the retail sales tax per RCW 82.08.0253. Refer to WAC 458-20-143 for the definition of "newspaper."
(3) Retail sales tax exemptions. The retail sales tax does not apply to the following:
(a) Newspapers (refer to WAC 458-20-143 for a definition of "newspaper"); and
(b) Subscription sales of magazines and periodicals, including those transferred electronically to the buyer, if these sales are for the purpose of fund-raising by:
• Educational institutions as defined in RCW 82.04.170; or
• Nonprofit organizations engaged in activities primarily for the benefit of boys and girls nineteen years of age and younger. (RCW 82.08.02535.)
(4) Sales by distributors. When magazines or periodicals are distributed to the final purchaser by a news company or distributor who effects such distribution through organizers, captains, or others selling from house to house or upon the streets, the news company or distributor is responsible for the collection and payment of the retail sales tax.
(a) Such news companies or distributors must collect from those selling the magazines or periodicals the retail sales tax upon the gross retail selling price of all magazines and periodicals taken by such persons.
(b) Tax registration endorsements are not required for organizers, captains, or other persons selling magazines or other periodicals if they meet the conditions of WAC 458-20-101 (2)(a). Separate registration and license documents will be issued to the news company or magazine distributor for each of the local stations operated by such company. Such registration and license documents will reflect the same tax reporting account number as the news company or magazine distributor. For more information, refer to WAC 458-20-101(10).
(5) Buyer's responsibility to remit deferred sales or use tax. Where no retail sales tax is paid upon the purchase of, or subscription to, a magazine or periodical, the buyer or subscriber must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law.
Deferred sales or use tax should be reported on the use tax line of the buyer's excise tax return. For detailed information about use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 10-21-043, § 458-20-127, filed 10/13/10, effective 11/13/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 89-21-001, § 458-20-127, filed 10/5/89, effective 11/5/89; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-127, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-127 (Rule 127), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-128
Real estate brokers and salesmen.

Definitions
As used herein:
The terms "real estate broker" and "real estate salesman" mean, respectively, a person licensed as such under the provisions of chapter 18.85 RCW.
Business and Occupation Tax
A real estate broker is engaged in business as an independent contractor and is taxable under the service and other activities classification upon the gross income of the business.
The measure of the tax on real estate commissions earned by the real estate broker shall be the gross commission earned by the particular real estate brokerage office including that portion of the commission paid to salesmen or associate brokers in the same office on a particular transaction: Provided, however, That where a real estate commission is divided between an originating brokerage office and a cooperating brokerage office on a particular transaction, each brokerage office shall pay the tax only upon their respective shares of said commission; and provided further, that where the brokerage office has paid the tax as provided herein, salesmen or associated brokers within the same brokerage office shall not be required to pay a similar tax upon the same transaction. RCW 82.04.255.
Thus, with the exception of cooperating brokerage offices, no deduction is allowed for commissions, fees or salaries paid by a broker to another broker or salesman, nor for other expenses of doing business.
The term "gross income of the business" includes gross income from commissions, fees and other emoluments however designated which the agent receives or becomes entitled to receive, but does not include amounts held in trust for others. (See also WAC 458-20-111, advances and reimbursements.) No deductions are allowed for dues, charges, and fees paid to multiple listing associations.
Real estate salesmen are presumed to be independent contractors. They are subject to the service and other activities classification of the business and occupation tax on gross income from real estate commissions and fees earned where the brokerage office at which the real estate salesman's license is posted has not paid the tax on the gross commission.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-128, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-128 (Rule 128), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-129
Gasoline service stations.

Gasoline Service Stations
Business and Occupation Tax
Retailing. Persons operating gasoline service stations are taxable under the retailing classification upon the gross proceeds of sales of tangible personal property, from services rendered with respect to the cleaning or repair of such property, gross income from towing and gross income from automobile parking and storage. On computing tax there may be deducted from gross proceeds of sales the amount of state and federal gallonage tax on motor vehicle fuel included therein.
Retail Sales Tax
The retail sales tax applies upon the sale of tangible personal property (except vehicle fuel) on which the tax of either chapters 82.36 or 82.38 RCW is paid and upon charges for towing, automobile parking and storage and the sale of services rendered with respect to the cleaning or repairing of tangible personal property.
Thus the tax applies upon the sale of tires, accessories, etc., upon sales of labor and materials in respect to lubricating, greasing, tire changing, etc., and also upon washing, battery charging and repair work. (See also WAC 458-20-126.)
[Order ET 73-1, § 458-20-129, filed 11/2/73; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-129 (Rule 129), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-131
Gambling activities.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use tax reporting requirements of persons operating contests of chance such as pull-tab and punch board games, card games, bingo games, raffles, and persons operating amusement games such as dart-toss games, ball-throw or ball-roll games, and crane games. It also explains the B&O tax reporting requirements of persons engaged in the business of conducting parimutuel wagering, which became effective July 1, 2005. Nonprofit organizations conducting activities for fund-raising purposes should also refer to RCW 82.04.3651, 82.08.02573, and WAC 458-20-169 (Religious, charitable, benevolent, nonprofit service organizations, and sheltered workshops) to determine if a B&O, retail sales, or use tax exemption is available for their activities.
Persons conducting the types of activities described above should also be aware that the Washington state gambling commission regulates these activities. These persons should refer to chapter 9.46 RCW (Gambling—1973 Act), Title 230 WAC (Gambling commission), and/or contact the Washington state gambling commission with any questions regarding their licensing and reporting responsibilities with the commission. Persons engaging in the business of parimutuel wagering should refer to chapter 67.16 RCW (Horse racing) and/or contact the Washington horse racing commission for additional reporting responsibilities.
(2) Parimutuel wagering. Effective July 1, 2005, persons engaging within this state in the business of conducting race meets for which a license must be obtained from the Washington horse racing commission are taxable under the parimutuel wagering B&O tax classification. Chapter 369, Laws of 2005. This tax is in addition to any tax imposed under chapter 67.16 RCW. Unlike the parimutuel tax, the B&O tax applies to both in-state and out-of-state parimutuel wagering. The measure of tax is the gross income of the business derived from parimutuel wagering. For purposes of this classification, "gross income" does not include amounts paid to players for winning wagers, or taxes imposed or other distributions required under chapter 67.16 RCW (i.e., RCW 67.16.102 owners bonus, RCW 67.16.105 fair fund, RCW 67.16.175 breeders award).
(3) Contests of chance. Contests of chance means any contests, games, gaming schemes, or gaming devices, other than the state lottery as defined in RCW 67.70.010, in which the outcome depends in a material degree upon an element of chance, notwithstanding that skill of the contestants may also be a factor in the outcome. The term includes social card games, bingo, raffle, and punch board games, and pull-tabs as those terms are defined in chapter 9.46 RCW. Contests of chance does not include race meets for the conduct of which a license must be secured from the Washington horse racing commission, or "amusement game" as defined in RCW 9.46.0201.
(a) Taxability of contests of chance on or after July 1, 2005. Effective July 1, 2005, persons operating contests of chance are taxable under one of two new B&O tax classifications on their total gross income for all contests of chance. Chapter 369, Laws of 2005. Persons whose gross income from contests of chance is less than fifty thousand dollars in a calendar year will report all such income under the "gambling contests of chance (less than $50,000 a year)" tax classification. Income from amusement games should not be combined with income from contests of chance for purposes of determining if the "less than fifty thousand dollar" threshold is met. (See subsection (4) of this section for tax-reporting information about amusement games.)
Persons whose gross income from contests of chance is fifty thousand dollars or more in a calendar year will report all such income under the "gambling contests of chance ($50,000 a year or greater)" tax classification.
(b) Taxability of contests of chance before July 1, 2005. Before July 1, 2005, persons operating contests of chance were taxable on their gross income under the service and other activities B&O tax classification.
(c) Measure of tax. Persons operating contests of chance are subject to B&O tax on the gross income of the business derived from contests of chance. With respect to income from contests of chance, "gross income" of the business does not include the monetary value or actual cost of any prizes that are awarded, amounts paid to players for winning wagers, accrual of prizes for progressive jackpot contests, or repayment of amounts used to seed guaranteed progressive jackpot prizes. In the case of donated merchandise, the operator may deduct the fair-market value of the merchandise. Costs of operating the game, including the amount paid for the purchase of the actual game (e.g., a punch board), may not be deducted.
(d) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(i) Example 1. Persons operating for-profit weekly bingo games at the Town & Country Social Club are taxable upon gross income arising from the operation of their games. As their annual gross income from the bingo games is $30,000, they will report under the gambling contests of chance (less than $50,000 a year) tax classification.
(ii) Example 2. The Lucky Card Room (LCR) charges a fee to all card players as a condition for participating in their card games. Depending on the game, the LCR may charge a fee based on time, on a per-hand basis, or on a percentage of the wagered amount (commonly referred to as a "rake"). Their annual gross income from card game fees and percentages of wagers is $120,000, and thus they will report under the gambling contests of chance ($50,000 a year or greater) tax classification.
(iii) Example 3. Take A Chance (TAC) is a business offering customers several types of gambling activities, such as pull-tabs, bingo, and punch board games. Based on last year's income and this year's anticipated income, TAC started the year out reporting their gross income under the gambling contests of chance (less than $50,000 a year) tax classification. As their income from gambling activities was better than anticipated, they passed the $50,000 threshold. TAC must now start reporting their gross income under the gambling contests of chance ($50,000 a year or greater) tax classification. They must also reclassify, by filing amended excise tax returns, all income reported for the year under the tax classification for less than $50,000 a year to $50,000 a year or greater.
(4) Amusement games. Chapter 369, Laws of 2005, made no change to the taxability of income derived from amusement games as defined in RCW 9.46.0201. The gross receipts derived from the operation of these games are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax. The cost of any prizes awarded may not be deducted from the measure of tax.
For example. The Flying High Club provides amusement games for customers to play. Prizes, such as free or discounted meal vouchers or home appliances, are awarded to the winners. The cost of these prizes is not allowed as an adjustment to computing the Flying High Club's gross income.
(a) What is an amusement game? The term "amusement game" is defined in RCW 9.46.0201 as a game played for entertainment in which:
(i) The contestant actively participates;
(ii) The outcome depends in a material degree upon the skill of the contestant;
(iii) Only merchandise prizes are awarded;
(iv) The outcome is not in the control of the operator;
(v) The wagers are placed, the winners are determined, and a distribution of prizes or property is made in the presence of all persons placing wagers at such game; and
(vi) The game is conducted or operated by any agricultural fair, person, association, or organization in such manner and at such locations as may be authorized by rules adopted by the gambling commission under chapter 9.46 RCW.
(b) Examples of amusement games. Crane machines, coin-toss and dart-toss games at fairs and carnivals, and skill-stop games are examples of games qualifying as amusement games under RCW 9.46.0201. For additional examples of amusement games, refer to WAC 230-20-508 (Authorized amusement games—Types, standards and classifications) issued by the gambling commission.
(c) Coin-operated games are not amusement games. Persons operating coin-operated games that do not qualify under the definition of amusement games in RCW 9.46.0201 (e.g., pinball, video, and pool games) should refer to WAC 458-20-187 (Coin-operated vending machines, amusement devices and service machines) for an explanation of their tax reporting responsibilities.
(5) Sales of foods and beverages. Sales of foods, beverages, and other tangible personal property by persons operating or conducting any of the activities described above are retail sales and subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes, unless a specific exemption applies (e.g., see WAC 458-20-124 regarding sales of food and beverages by restaurants, taverns, and similar businesses and WAC 458-20-244 for exemptions available for certain food products). Persons conducting dice games to determine the amount that the customer will pay for food or beverages are subject to tax upon the amount the customer actually pays for the food or drink.
(6) Merchandise prizes. Persons operating or conducting any of the activities described above are the consumers of any merchandise delivered to the players in the form of prizes or awards. Purchases of this merchandise are purchases at retail and subject to the retail sales tax, unless a specific exemption applies (e.g., see WAC 458-20-244 for exemptions available for certain food products). Purchases of supplies, devices, and other equipment used in the conduct of these activities are also subject to the retail sales tax.
If retail sales tax is not collected by the seller, the person conducting these activities must remit the retail sales tax (often referred to as deferred retail sales tax) or use tax directly to the department of revenue. See also WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 07-02-072, § 458-20-131, filed 12/29/06, effective 1/29/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 99-08-090, § 458-20-131, filed 4/6/99, effective 5/7/99; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-131, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-131 (Rule 131), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-132
Automobile dealers/demonstrator and executive vehicles.

(1) Introduction. This section accounts for the unique practices of the retail automobile dealer's industry and reflects administrative notice of the customs of this trade. The tax reporting formulas explained in this rule represent a compromise of tax liabilities and offsetting deductions. It recognizes that demonstrators and vehicles used by executives or persons associated with a dealer are actually used for limited periods of time without significantly affecting their marketability or retail selling value, and that such used vehicles have a high trade-in value when returned to inventory for sale.
(2) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section.
(a) The terms "demonstration" and "demonstrator" mean the use of automobiles provided by dealers to their sales staff, without charge, for any personal or business reason other than (or in addition to) the mere display of such vehicles to prospective purchasers.
(b) The term "display" means the showing for sale of vehicles to prospective purchasers, at or near the dealer's premises, including the short term test driving, operating, and examining by prospective purchasers.
(c) The term "executive use vehicle" means any vehicle from sales inventory, used by any person associated with the automobile dealership for personal driving, other than for demonstration or display purposes as defined above, when such person does not have a recent model vehicle registered and licensed in that person's own name on which retail sales tax was paid.
(d) The term "recent model vehicle" refers to a car of the current model year or either of the two preceding model years.
(e) The terms "purchase price" and "total cost" mean the amount charged to the dealer for the purchase of a vehicle and includes any additional charges for accessories installed on the vehicle. If the vehicle was acquired through a trade-in by a customer, these terms then mean the trade-in value given to the customer by the dealer (with consideration of underallowances and overallowances) as well as any costs of refurbishing and repairs in preparing the vehicle for resale or use. These values will generally be the amounts shown as the vehicle cost within the dealer's inventory records.
(f) The phrase "pickup truck" refers only to trucks having a commercial pickup body rated at three-quarter ton capacity or less.
(3) Business and occupation tax. Automobile dealers are taxable under the retailing classification upon the sale or lease of automobiles to their employees or other representatives for personal use, including demonstration. The business and occupation tax does not apply upon the transfer of vehicles to employees or other representatives for their personal use, including demonstration where no sale occurs.
(4) Retail sales tax. The retail sales tax applies upon the sale or lease of automobiles, parts, and accessories by dealers to their employees or other representatives for the personal use by such persons. The retail sales tax does not apply to the display of automobiles where no sale takes place.
(5) Use tax. The use tax does not apply to the display of new or used automobiles by dealers, their employees or other representatives. Neither does use tax apply upon the personal use or demonstration of automobiles which have been sold or leased to dealers' employees or other representatives and upon which the retail sales tax has been paid. Also, use tax does not apply upon demonstrator vehicles if no such vehicles are actually used. However, where an automobile dealer purchases a passenger car or pickup truck without paying a retail sales tax and uses such car or truck for personal use or demonstration purposes, the use tax applies even if such personal car or demonstrator may later be sold by the dealer.
(6) Computation of use tax. For practical purposes, automobile dealers may elect to compute the use tax upon the use of demonstrators by sales staff on either a "one per one hundred vehicles sold" basis or on an "actual number of demonstrators used" basis. Use of the one per one hundred vehicles sold method will satisfy the use tax liability for personal or business use of demonstrators by sales staff employed by a new car dealer. However, the one per one hundred vehicles sold method will not satisfy the use tax liability for the personal or business use of vehicles by persons other than sales staff employed by the dealership.
(a) One per one hundred demonstrator reporting basis. The use of demonstrators is subject to the use tax on the basis of one demonstrator for each one hundred new automobiles and pickup trucks, or fractional part of such number, of all makes or models sold at retail including lease transactions during a calendar year. The use tax on each such demonstrator is measured by twenty-five percent of the average selling price, including dealer preparation, transportation, and factory or dealer installed accessories, of all makes and models of new passenger cars and new pickup trucks sold during the preceding calendar year divided by the number of such units sold: Provided, That the first such vehicle reported during any calendar year shall be subject to use tax measured by the full average retail selling price.
(i) The average retail selling price is computed by dividing the total retail sales of new passenger cars and trucks in the preceding year by the total units sold in the preceding year. Thus, for example, a dealer with $3,000,000.00 in gross sales for the previous year, who sold 250 units that year derives an average selling price of $12,000.00. The very first demonstrator use in the current year will be $12,000.00 multiplied by the prevailing use tax rate. All subsequent demonstrators reported in the current year, based upon the formula of one demonstrator for each one hundred units sold, will be $3,000.00 multiplied by the prevailing use tax rate.
(ii) The use tax is paid as of the date of the first sale in any calendar year and subsequently upon the sale of the one hundred and first automobile or pickup truck. If a dealer sold 340 units in the current year, use tax would be due on four units (the first at one hundred percent of the average retail selling price of all new vehicles sold in the preceding year and the remaining three at twenty-five percent of the previous year's average selling price of new vehicles).
(b) Actual demonstrator reporting basis. Dealers who decide to report use tax on demonstrators on an actual basis are required to report use tax on each vehicle assigned to demonstrator use. The value is computed in the same manner as under the one per one hundred basis. The first vehicle in the current year which is used for demonstrator use is taxable on the full average selling price of all new vehicles sold in the preceding year. Additional vehicles during the year which are put to use as demonstrators are taxable at twenty-five percent of the average selling price of new vehicles sold in the preceding year.
(c) The above method of computation applies only in respect to use by sales staff of demonstrator vehicles operated under dealer plates issued to the dealership. Vehicles which are required to be licensed other than to the dealership are presumed to be used substantially for purposes other than demonstration and are subject to the use tax measured by the actual value (purchase price) of such vehicles.
(d) Change in reporting method. When an automobile dealer has elected to report the use tax under the "one per one hundred basis," or upon the actual number of demonstrators used, it will not be permitted to change the manner of reporting without the written consent of the department of revenue.
Dealers are required to provide reasonably accurate records reflecting the use of dealer plates.
(7) Executive vehicles - personal use of vehicles by executives and persons associated with a dealer. When a dealer or a person associated with a dealer (firm executive, corporate officer, partner, or manager) does not have a recent model car registered and licensed in its own name and regularly uses either one or various new cars from inventory for personal driving (whether or not such cars are also used for demonstration purposes) the use tax applies to the value of one such car for each two calendar years in addition to the tax which applies to demonstrator use by sales staff. The measure of the use tax is the same as the measure for the computation of use tax on subsequently used demonstrator vehicles, that is, twenty-five percent of the average selling price of all makes and models of new passenger cars and pickup trucks sold at retail during the preceding year.
(a) The dealer may not include within the executive car reporting method the use of a new vehicle which is not of the type or model of new vehicles authorized to be sold by the dealer's franchise agreement. The executive car reporting method applies only to vehicles removed from inventory for use by the executives. Vehicles purchased specifically for use by the executives are taxable on the purchase price of each vehicle.
(b) No use tax in addition to that outlined above will be due if members of the immediate family of the executive also use a vehicle from inventory which is not otherwise licensed or required to be licensed. "Immediate family" includes only the executive's spouse or state registered domestic partner and children or state registered domestic partner's children, who live in the same household as the executive.
(8) Vehicles used by automobile manufacturers or distributors. Automobile manufacturers or distributors will often assign vehicles to their employee representatives for demonstration purposes, sales solicitation and personal use in the state. It is common practice to replace these vehicles frequently so that several vehicles may be used by a company representative during the course of the year. Under these circumstances, the department of revenue will allow computation of the use tax based on the average selling price of all new cars sold in the preceding year multiplied by the maximum complement of cars of each model year in use at any time during the year. The tax is due at the start of the model year. No use tax is due on the usual turnover or replacement of cars within the model year.
(9) Vehicles loaned to nonprofit or other organizations. The use tax applies to the value of vehicles that are required to be licensed and are loaned or donated to civic, religious, nonprofit or other organizations. The use tax may be computed for loaned vehicles on a value of two percent per month multiplied by the purchase price of the vehicle. Such tax is in addition to the tax on the use of demonstrators as provided in this rule. Vehicles that are not required to be licensed which are used for the purpose of promoting or participating in an event such as a parade, pageant, convention, or other community activity are not subject to the use tax provided the dealer obtains a temporary letter of authority or a special plate in accordance with RCW 46.16.048.
(10) Service department vehicles. Vehicles removed from inventory and committed to use as service vehicles, parts trucks, or service department loaner cars are subject to use tax. Dealers will often use vehicles for this purpose for only short periods of time. In recognition of this, dealers may elect to report use tax on either the purchase price of the vehicle or on two percent per month of the purchase price for each month or any fraction thereof that the vehicle is being used as a service vehicle or loaner. If use tax is reported based on total purchase price rather than on the two percent method, a trade-in deduction is allowed if the vehicle is returned to inventory and concurrently another vehicle replaces this vehicle for use as a loaner or service vehicle. The trade-in value is the wholesale value and generally will be the value recorded by the dealer in the inventory records exclusive of any refurbishing costs at the time the vehicle is returned to inventory.
(11) Personal use of used vehicles. Used vehicle dealers who provide used cars for personal use to their sales staff or managers without charge are subject to use tax on one vehicle per year for each sales person or manager to whom a used vehicle is provided. The value for use tax reporting is the average selling price of all used vehicles sold in the preceding year multiplied by twenty-five percent. The use tax is due in the month in which the vehicle is first used for personal use. New vehicle dealers will also be taxable in this manner for used cars furnished to sales staff or managers, but only if no new cars are provided during the course of the year to the manager or sales person. If both new and used cars are provided by a new vehicle dealer to a manager or sales person, use tax liability is as provided in subsections (6) and (7) of this section.
Where used car dealers satisfy the criteria for executive car use (no current model vehicle registered in the user's name) they are deemed to be using one executive or personal use vehicle per calendar year. In such cases use tax must be reported under the same formula as for subsequently used new demonstrator cars, that is, measured by twenty-five percent of the average selling price of all used cars sold during the preceding calendar year. Use tax also is due on all vehicles that are capitalized for accounting purposes or removed from inventory and used for personal use. In such cases, the use tax measure is the purchase price of the vehicle. If the vehicle was acquired through a trade-in by a customer, the value will generally be that recorded by the dealer in the inventory records including any costs incurred in repairing or refurbishing the vehicle. Purchase of a new car by a used car dealer and used personally by the dealer or person associated with the dealer is subject to use tax measured by the purchase price of the vehicle.
(12) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax status of each situation must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(a) Dealer A makes a specific charge each month to its sales person for the use of a vehicle. The sales person uses the vehicle for personal use as well as displaying the vehicle to potential customers. The dealer is required to report the gross charges under the retailing and retail sales tax classifications. No use tax is due on this vehicle.
(b) Dealer A assigns a vehicle from its new vehicle inventory for personal and business use to each of its new vehicle sales staff. No charge is made to the sales staff for the use of the vehicle. Dealer A is subject to use tax and may elect to report the tax on each vehicle assigned to the sales staff or may report on the "one per one hundred" method discussed above. Once a method is elected, the dealer may not change methods without approval from the department.
(c) Dealer A assigns a vehicle from its new vehicle inventory for personal use to its service manager. The service manager will use the vehicle for approximately ninety days when it will be replaced with another new vehicle. The service manager does not have a recent model car registered and licensed in his/her name. The dealer is subject to use tax on the vehicles assigned to the service manager. The tax will apply on only one vehicle every second year and will be measured by twenty-five percent of the average selling price of all new passenger cars and trucks sold in the previous year.
(d) Dealer A has the franchise to sell Chevrolets. Dealer A purchases a new Mercedes Benz for its personal use. The dealer attaches a "dealer plate" to this vehicle. Dealer A is subject to use tax on the purchase price of this vehicle. The dealer may not report use tax on the method authorized for reporting executive cars for this vehicle since the dealer is not an authorized dealer for this make of vehicle and the vehicle was not removed from the dealer's new vehicle inventory.
(e) Vehicle Manufacturer A has five employees who live and work from their homes in Washington. These employees call on dealers in Washington to resolve warranty disputes. Each employee is given a new vehicle at the start of the model year. The vehicle will be replaced every sixty days. Manufacturer A owes use tax on five vehicles at the start of the model year. No additional use tax will be due when these vehicles are replaced during the same model year. However, should a sixth employee be added during the course of the year, an additional vehicle will be subject to use tax.
(f) Dealer A uses a vehicle from inventory as a service truck. This vehicle is used to pick up parts from local suppliers, transportation for making emergency repairs on customer's vehicles, and similar activities. The dealer is liable for use tax on this vehicle. At its option, the dealer may report use tax on two percent per month of the purchase price of the vehicle or may report use tax on the full value of the vehicle at the time it is put to use.
(g) Dealer A uses a new vehicle from inventory for his/her own personal use. Dealer A's spouse also uses a new vehicle. Dealer A's son who lives in the same household will occasionally use a new vehicle. All of these vehicles are operated with dealer plates attached. Dealer A does not have a recent model car licensed in Washington. Dealer A is subject to use tax on one vehicle as an "executive" car every second year as provided above.
(h) Dealer A loans a vehicle to a civic organization for a thirty-day period. The dealer is unable to obtain a temporary letter of authority for use of the vehicle under RCW 46.16.048. The dealer is liable for use tax, but the dealer may report the use tax based on two percent of the purchase price of the vehicle per month as the measure of the tax. No use tax would be due if the dealer had obtained a letter of authority under RCW 46.16.048 for the use of the vehicle.
(i) Dealer A, who sells new and used vehicles, assigns a used vehicle to the used car sales manager for personal use. However, if the sales manager exceeds the sales goals for the preceding quarter, the manager will be assigned a new vehicle for personal use for the following quarter. The manager will generally exceed the sales goal at least once during the year. Since the manager uses both a new and used car from inventory during the course of a year, use tax will be computed based on twenty-five percent of the average selling price of all new cars and trucks sold in the preceding year. The use tax will be due on one such vehicle every second year.
(j) Dealer A, who sells new and used vehicles, regularly assigns a used vehicle from inventory to its service manager for personal use. This vehicle is replaced approximately every sixty days. Use tax is due on one vehicle every year measured by twenty-five percent of the average selling price of all used vehicles sold in the preceding year.
[Statutory Authority: 2009 c 521. WSR 10-07-133, § 458-20-132, filed 3/23/10, effective 4/23/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 92-05-066, § 458-20-132, filed 2/18/92, effective 3/20/92; WSR 86-09-002 (Order ET 86-5), § 458-20-132, filed 4/3/86; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-132, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-132 (Rule 132), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-133
Frozen food lockers.

Business and Occupation Tax
Persons engaged in the business of renting frozen food lockers are taxable under the service and other business activities classification upon the gross income from rentals thereof.
When such persons also engage in the activities of curing, smoking, cutting or wrapping meat of and for consumers, or do any other act through which such meat is altered or improved, they become taxable under the retailing classification upon the gross charges made therefor.
Retail Sales Tax
The retail sales tax applies upon the charges made for curing, smoking, cutting or wrapping meat of and for consumers, or for any act through which such meat is altered or improved, and sellers are required to collect such tax from their customers.
The retail sales tax does not apply upon the charges made for the rental of frozen food lockers.
Issued May 1, 1949.
[Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-133 (Rule 133), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-134
Commercial or industrial use.

(1) Definitions.
(a) "The term 'commercial or industrial use' means the following uses of products, including by-products, by the same person that extracted or manufactured them:
(i) Any use as a consumer; and
(ii) The manufacturing of articles, substances or commodities." (RCW 82.04.130.)
(b) The term "biomass fuel" means wood waste and other wood residuals, including forest derived biomass, but does not include firewood or wood pellets. "Biomass fuel" also includes partially organic by-products of pulp, paper, and wood manufacturing processes.
(2) Examples of commercial or industrial use. The following are examples of commercial or industrial use:
(a) The use of lumber by the manufacturer of that lumber to build a shed for its own use.
(b) The use of a motor truck by the manufacturer of that truck as a service truck for itself.
(c) The use by a boat manufacturer of patterns, jigs and dies which it has manufactured.
(d) The use by a contractor building or improving a publicly owned road of crushed rock or pit run gravel which it has extracted.
(3) Business and occupation tax. Persons manufacturing or extracting tangible personal property for commercial or industrial use are subject to tax under the manufacturing or extracting B&O tax classifications, as the case may be. The tax is measured by the value of the product manufactured or extracted and used. (See WAC 458-20-112 for definition and explanation of value of products.)
(4) Use tax. Persons manufacturing or extracting tangible personal property for commercial or industrial use are subject to use tax on the value of the articles used, unless a specific exemption is provided. (See WAC 458-20-178 for further explanation of the use tax and definition of value of the article used.)
(5) Exemptions. The following uses of articles produced for commercial or industrial use are expressly exempt of use tax.
(a) RCW 82.12.0263 exempts from the use tax the use of biomass fuel by the same person that extracted or manufactured that biomass fuel when it is used directly in the operation of the particular extractive operation or manufacturing plant which produced or manufactured the same biomass fuel.
(b) Property produced for use in manufacturing ferrosilicon which is subsequently used to make magnesium for sale is exempt of use tax if the primary purpose is to create a chemical reaction directly through contact with an ingredient of ferrosilicon. (RCW 82.04.190(1).)
(c) Effective July 1, 2009, hog fuel used to produce electricity, steam, heat, or biofuel is exempt from use tax. RCW 82.12.956. For the purposes of this exemption, "hog fuel" means wood waste and other wood residuals including forest derived biomass, but not including firewood or wood pellets. "Biofuel" has the same meaning as provided in RCW 43.325.010.
(6) Special provisions regarding value of article used. RCW 82.12.010 provides the following special valuation provisions to persons manufacturing products for commercial or industrial use:
(a) In the case of articles manufactured or produced by the user and used in the manufacture or production of products sold or to be sold to the United States Department of Defense, the value of the articles used is determined according to the value of the ingredients of those articles.
(b) In the case of an article manufactured or produced for purposes of serving as a prototype for the development of a new or improved product, the value of the article used is determined by:
• The retail selling price of such new or improved product when first offered for sale; or
• The value of materials incorporated into the prototype in cases in which the new or improved product is not offered for sale.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 18-05-011, § 458-20-134, filed 2/8/18, effective 3/11/18; WSR 10-10-031, § 458-20-134, filed 4/26/10, effective 5/27/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 86-20-027 (Order 86-17), § 458-20-134, filed 9/23/86; WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-134, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-134 (Rule 134), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-135
Extracting natural products.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the application of the business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to persons extracting natural products. Persons extracting natural products often use the same extracted products in a manufacturing process. This rule provides guidance for determining when an extracting activity ends and the manufacturing activity begins. In addition to all other taxes, commercial fishermen may be subject to the enhanced food fish excise tax levied by chapter 82.27 RCW (Tax on enhanced food fish).
Persons engaging in activities associated with timber harvest operations should refer to WAC 458-20-13501 (Timber harvest operations). Persons engaged in a manufacturing activity should also refer to WAC 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating) and 458-20-13601 (Manufacturers and processors for hire—Sales and use tax exemptions for machinery and equipment).
(2) Who is an "extractor"? RCW 82.04.100 defines the term "extractor" to mean every person who, from the person's own land or from the land of another under a right or license granted by lease or contract, either directly or by contracting with others for the necessary labor or mechanical services, for sale or for commercial or industrial use mines, quarries, takes or produces coal, oil, natural gas, ore, stone, sand, gravel, clay, mineral, or other natural resource product. The term includes a person who fells, cuts, or takes timber, Christmas trees other than plantation Christmas trees, or other natural products. It also includes any person who takes fish, shellfish, or other sea or inland water foods or products.
(a) Persons excluded from the definition of "extractor." The term "extractor" does not include:
(i) Persons performing under contract the necessary labor or mechanical services for others (these persons are extractors for hire, see subsection (4) of this section); or
(ii) Persons who are farmers as defined in RCW 82.04.213. Refer to WAC 458-20-209 and 458-20-210 for tax-reporting information for farmers and persons selling property to or performing horticultural services for farmers; or
(iii) Persons producing marijuana.
(b) When an extractor is also a manufacturer. An extractor may subsequently take an extracted product and use it as a raw material in a manufacturing process. The following examples explain when an extracting process ends and a manufacturing process begins for various situations. These examples should be used only as a general guide. A determination of when extracting ends and manufacturing begins for other situations can be made only after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
(i) Mining and quarrying. Mining and quarrying operations are extracting activities, and generally include the screening, sorting, and piling of rock, sand, stone, gravel, or ore. For example, an operation that extracts rock, then screens, sorts, and with no further processing places the rock into piles for sale, is an extracting operation.
(A) The crushing and/or blending of rock, sand, stone, gravel, or ore are manufacturing activities. These are manufacturing activities whether or not the materials were previously screened or sorted.
(B) Screening, sorting, piling, or washing of the material, when the activity takes place in conjunction with crushing or blending at the site where the materials are taken or produced, is considered a part of the manufacturing operation if it takes place after the first screen. If there is no separate first screen, only those activities subsequent to the materials being deposited into the screen are considered a part of the manufacturing operation.
(ii) Commercial fishing. Commercial fishing operations, including the taking of any fish in Washington waters (within the statutory limits of the state of Washington) and the taking of shellfish or other sea or inland water foods or products, are extracting activities. These activities often include the removal of meat from the shell and the icing of fish or sea products.
(A) A person growing, raising, or producing a product of aquaculture as defined in RCW 15.85.020 on the person's own land or on land in which the person has a present right of possession is considered a farmer. RCW 82.04.213.
(B) Cleaning (removal of the head, fins, or viscera), filleting, and/or steaking fish are manufacturing activities. The cooking of fish or seafood is also a manufacturing activity. Refer to RCW 82.04.260 and WAC 458-20-136 for information regarding the special B&O tax rate/classification that applies to the manufacturing of seafood products that remain in a raw, raw frozen, or raw salted state.
(C) The removal of meat from the shell or the icing of fish or sea products, when the activity is performed in conjunction with and at the site where manufacturing takes place (e.g., cooking the fish or seafood), is considered a part of the manufacturing operation.
(3) Tax-reporting responsibilities for income received by extractors. Extractors are subject to the extracting B&O tax upon the value of the extracted products. (See WAC 458-20-112 regarding "value of products.") Extractors who sell the products at retail or wholesale in this state are subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases, the extractor must report under both the "production" (extracting) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) classifications of the B&O tax, and claim a tax credit under the multiple activities tax credit (MATC). See also WAC 458-20-19301 (Multiple activities tax credits) for a more detailed explanation of the MATC reporting requirements. Extractors that manufacture tangible personal property that they sell to buyers who will either resell the tangible personal property without any intervening use, or will include the tangible personal property as a component or ingredient in another product for sale by the buyer to another customer, are making wholesale sales. To document the wholesale nature of any transaction, sellers making wholesale sales must obtain from the buyer a resale certificate for sales made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permit for sales made on or after January 1, 2010. See also WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits) for a more detailed explanation of a seller's obligation to document its wholesale sales. Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or until December 31, 2014, whichever first occurs.
For example, Corporation quarries rock without further processing. Corporation sells and delivers the rock to Landscaper, who is located in Washington. Landscaper provides Corporation with a resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A) for purchases made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102) for purchases made on or after January 1, 2010. Corporation should report under both the extracting and wholesaling B&O tax classifications, and claim a MATC per WAC 458-20-19301. Had Corporation delivered the quarried rock to an out-of-state location, Corporation would have incurred only an extracting B&O tax liability.
(a) When extractors use their products in a manufacturing process. Persons who extract products, use these extracted products in a manufacturing process, and then sell the products all within Washington are subject to both "production" taxes (extracting and manufacturing) and the "selling" tax (wholesaling or retailing), and may claim the appropriate credits under the MATC. (See also WAC 458-20-136 on manufacturing.)
For example, Company quarries rock (an extracting activity), crushes and blends the rock (a manufacturing activity), and sells the resulting product at retail. The taxable value of the extracted rock is $50,000 (the amount subject to the extracting B&O tax). The taxable value of the crushed and blended rock is $140,000 (the amount subject to the manufacturing B&O tax). The crushed and blended rock is sold for $140,000 (the amount subject to the retailing B&O tax). Assume the tax rates for the extracting and manufacturing B&O taxes are .00484, and the tax rate for the retailing B&O tax is .00471. Company should compute its tax liability as follows:
(i) Reporting B&O tax on the combined excise tax return:
(A) Extracting B&O tax liability of $242 ($50,000 x .00484);
(B) Manufacturing B&O tax liability of $678 ($140,000 x .00484); and
(C) Retailing B&O tax liability of $659 ($140,000 x .00471).
(ii) Completing the multiple activities tax credit (Part II of Schedule C):
Activity which results in a tax credit
Taxable Amount
Business and Occupation Tax Reported
Extracting
Manufacturing
Wholesaling
Retailing
Total Credit
Washington extracted products manufactured in Washington
50,000
242
242
 
 
242
Washington extracted products sold in Washington
 
 
 
 
 
 
Washington manufactured products sold in Washington
140,000
 
678
 
659
659
 
Multiple Activities Tax Credit Subtotal of taxes paid to Washington state
901
 
Credit ID 800
901
Schedule C helps taxpayers calculate and claim the multiple activities tax credit provided by RCW 82.04.440. In the Schedule C example above, materials that a person extracts and then uses in a manufacturing process in Washington are entered at their value when extracting ceases and manufacturing begins ($50,000 shown on the "Washington extracted products manufactured in Washington" line of the Schedule C). The taxable amount reported on the "Washington manufactured products sold in Washington" line of the Schedule C is the value of products at the point that manufacturing ceases ($140,000), not simply the value added by the manufacturing activity. For more information and examples that are helpful in determining the value of products, refer to WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products).
(b) When extractors sell their products at retail or wholesale. An extractor making retail sales must collect and remit retail sales tax on all sales to consumers, unless the sale is exempt by law (e.g., see WAC 458-20-244 regarding sales of certain food products). Extractors making wholesale sales must obtain resale certificates for sales made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permits for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, from their customers to document the wholesale nature of any transaction as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or until December 31, 2014, whichever first occurs.
(4) Tax-reporting responsibilities for income received by extractors for hire. Persons performing extracting activities for extractors are subject to the extracting for hire B&O tax upon their gross income from those services.
For example, a person removing ore, waste, or overburden at a mining pit for the operator of the mining operation is an extractor for hire. Likewise, a person drilling to locate or provide access to a satisfactory grade of ore at the mining pit for the operator is also an extractor for hire. The gross income derived from these activities is subject to the extracting for hire B&O tax classification.
(5) Mining or mineral rights. Royalties or charges in the nature of royalties for granting another the privilege or right to remove minerals, rock, sand, or other natural resource product are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax. The special B&O tax rate provided by RCW 82.04.2907 does not apply because this statute specifically excludes compensation received for any natural resource. Refer also to RCW 82.45.035 and WAC 458-61-520 (Mineral rights and mining claims) for more information regarding the sale of mineral rights and the real estate excise tax.
Income derived from the sale or rental of real property, whether designated as royalties or another term, is exempt of the B&O tax.
(6) Tax liability with respect to purchases of equipment or supplies and property extracted and/or manufactured for commercial or industrial use. The retail sales tax applies to all purchases of equipment, component parts of equipment, and supplies by persons engaging in extracting or extracting for hire activities unless a specific exemption applies. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the buyer is required to remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred retail sales tax") or use tax directly to the department.
(a) Exemption available for certain manufacturing equipment. RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 provide retail sales and use tax exemptions for certain machinery and equipment used by manufacturers and processors for hire. While this exemption does not extend to extractors or extractors for hire, persons engaged in both extracting and manufacturing activities should refer to WAC 458-20-13601 for an explanation of how these exemptions may apply to them.
(b) Property manufactured for commercial or industrial use. Persons manufacturing tangible personal property for commercial or industrial use are subject to both the manufacturing B&O and use taxes upon the value of the property manufactured, unless a specific exemption applies. (See also WAC 458-20-134 on commercial or industrial use.)
If the person also extracts materials used in the manufacturing process, the extracting B&O tax is due on the value of the extracted materials and a MATC may be taken. For example, Quarry extracts rock, crushes the rock into desired size, and then uses the crushed rock in its parking lot. The use of the crushed rock by Quarry in its parking lot is a commercial or industrial use. Quarry is subject to the extracting and manufacturing B&O taxes and may claim a MATC. Quarry is also responsible for remitting use tax on the value of the crushed rock applied to the parking lot.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 82.04.100. WSR 14-23-060, § 458-20-135, filed 11/17/14, effective 12/18/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-135, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 04-01-126, § 458-20-135, filed 12/18/03, effective 1/18/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 00-11-096, § 458-20-135, filed 5/17/00, effective 6/17/00; WSR 86-09-058 (Order ET 86-7), § 458-20-135, filed 4/17/86; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-135, filed 3/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 78-07-045 (Order ET 78-4), § 458-20-135, filed 6/27/78; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-135 (Rule 135), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-13501
Timber harvest operations.

(1) Introduction. Timber harvest operations generally consist of a variety of different activities. These activities may be subject to different tax rates or classifications under the business and occupation tax and public utility tax, depending on the nature of the activity.
(a) Scope of rule. This rule explains the application of the business and occupation (B&O), public utility, retail sales, and use taxes to persons performing activities associated with timber harvest operations. This rule explains how the public utility tax deduction provided by RCW 82.16.050 for the transportation of commodities to an export facility applies to the transportation of logs. It also explains how the B&O tax exemption provided by RCW 82.04.333 for small timber harvesters applies.
(b) Additional information sources for activities associated with timber harvest operations. In addition to the taxes addressed in this rule, the forest excise and real estate excise taxes often apply to certain activities or sales associated with timber harvest operations. Persons engaged in timber harvest operations should refer to the following rules for additional information:
(i) WAC 458-20-135 Extracting natural products;
(ii) WAC 458-20-136 Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating;
(iii) WAC 458-20-13601 Manufacturers and processors for hireSales and use tax exemption for machinery and equipment;
(iv) Chapter 458-40 WAC Taxation of forest land and timber; and
(v) Chapter 458-61A WAC Real estate excise tax.
(c) Examples. This rule contains examples that identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. The examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances.
(d) Information regarding short-rotation hardwoods. Persons cultivating short-rotation hardwoods are considered farmers. Refer to WAC 458-20-209 and 458-20-210 for tax-reporting information for farmers and persons selling property to or performing horticultural services for farmers. "Short-rotation hardwoods" are hardwood trees, such as, but not limited to, hybrid cottonwoods, cultivated by agricultural methods in growing cycles shorter than fifteen years. RCW 84.33.035.
(2) Timber harvesters. Timber harvesters may engage in business activities that require them to report under the extracting, manufacturing, wholesaling, or retailing B&O tax classifications.
The definition of "extractor" found in RCW 82.04.100 relates to the harvesting of trees (other than plantation Christmas trees) and is generally identical to the definition of "harvester" found in RCW 84.33.035. An exception is the specific provisions in the definition of "harvester" relating to trees harvested by federal, state, and local government entities. Both definitions include every person who from the person's own land or from the land of another under a right or license granted by lease or contract, either directly or by contracting with others for the necessary labor or mechanical services, fells, cuts (severs), or takes timber for sale or for commercial or industrial use. Both definitions exclude persons performing under contract the necessary labor or mechanical services for the extractor/harvester.
(a) Timber purchasers to file information report. A purchaser must report to the department of revenue (department) purchases of privately owned timber in an amount exceeding two hundred thousand board feet, if purchased in a voluntary sale made in the ordinary course of business. The report must contain all information relevant to the value of the timber purchased including, but not limited to, the following, as applicable: Purchaser's name, address and contact information; seller's name, address, and contact information; sale date; termination date in sale agreement; total sale price; legal description of sale area; sale name; forest practice application/harvest permit number if available; total acreage involved in the sale; estimated net volume of timber purchased by tree species and log grade; and description and value of property improvements.
This report must be filed on or before the last day of the month following the purchase of the timber. A two hundred fifty dollar penalty may be imposed against a purchaser for each failure to satisfy the requirements for filing this report. These filing requirements are scheduled to expire July 1, 2018. RCW 84.33.088.
(b) Extracting. The felling, cutting (severing from land), or taking of trees is an extracting activity as defined in RCW 82.04.100. The extracting B&O tax classification applies to the value of the products extracted, which is the value of the severed trees prior to any manufacturing activity.
(c) Manufacturing. The cutting into length (bucking), delimbing, and measuring (for bucking) of felled, cut (severed), or taken trees is a manufacturing activity as defined in RCW 82.04.120. The manufacturing B&O tax is measured by the value of the products manufactured, which is generally the gross proceeds of sale. For more information regarding the value of products see RCW 82.04.450 and WAC 458-20-112.
If the product is delivered to a point outside the state, transportation costs incurred by the seller from the last point at which manufacturing takes place within Washington may be deducted from the gross proceeds of sale when determining the value of the product.
Example 1. In each of the following situations presume that the timber harvester delivers the product to the customer at a point outside the state:
(i) If there is no further manufacturing subsequent to manufacturing conducted at the harvest site, the measure of tax is the gross proceeds of the sale of the logs less transportation costs incurred by the seller from the harvest site to delivery to the customer;
(ii) If logs are hauled to a facility for processing into lumber, poles, or piles, the measure of tax is the gross proceeds of sale of the lumber, poles, or piles less transportation costs incurred by the seller from the facility to delivery to the customer; and
(iii) If logs are hauled to a facility that only removes the bark, the measure of tax is the gross proceeds of sale of the logs less transportation costs incurred by the seller from the harvest site to the customer. This is because the mere removal of bark is not a manufacturing activity.
However, if at that facility the debarking is a part of a manufacturing process (e.g., cutting the logs into lumber), the entire process, including the debarking, is a manufacturing activity. In such a case, the measure of tax is the gross proceeds of sale of the products manufactured from the logs less transportation costs incurred by the seller from the facility to the customer.
(d) Selling. The income from the sale of the logs is subject to tax under either the wholesaling or retailing B&O tax classification, as the case may be, unless exempt by law. The measure of tax is the gross proceeds of sale without any deduction for transportation costs.
(i) When determining the gross proceeds of sale, the timber harvester may not deduct amounts paid to others.
Example 2. A timber harvester enters into a contract with another person to perform the necessary labor and mechanical services for the harvesting of timber. The harvester is to receive sixty percent of the log sale proceeds, and the person contracting to perform the services is to receive forty percent. The log buyer purchases the logs for five hundred thousand dollars. The buyer pays three hundred thousand dollars to the harvester and two hundred thousand dollars to the person performing the harvesting services. The harvester's gross proceeds of sale is five hundred thousand dollars.
(ii) Retail sales tax must be collected and remitted on all sales to consumers, unless exempt by law. For wholesale sales, sellers must obtain and retain copies of their customers' reseller permits to document the wholesale nature of the transaction. For information on reseller permits see WAC 458-20-102 and 458-20-10201.
(e) Multiple activities tax credit (MATC). An extractor or manufacturer who sells the product extracted or manufactured must report under each of the appropriate "production" (extracting or manufacturing) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) classifications on the excise tax return. The extractor or manufacturer may then claim a multiple activities tax credit (MATC) as described in RCW 82.04.440 for the extracting tax (RCW 82.04.230) or manufacturing tax (RCW 82.04.240), provided the credit does not exceed the wholesaling or retailing tax liability. For a more detailed explanation of the MATC reporting requirements see WAC 458-20-19301.
(3) Extractors for hire. Persons performing extracting activities (labor or mechanical services), such as independent contractors, for timber harvesters are subject to tax under the extracting for hire B&O tax classification measured by the gross income from those services. RCW 82.04.280.
Example 3. Tree Severing Corporation (TSC) is hired by Timber Harvester to fell trees owned by Timber Harvester. TSC is performing an extracting activity, and is considered an extractor for hire with respect to those services. TSC owes B&O tax under the extractor for hire tax classification measured by its gross income from the services.
Extracting activities commonly performed by extractors for hire include, but are not limited to:
(a) Cutting or severing trees;
(b) Logging road construction or maintenance;
(c) Activities related to and performed on timber-producing property that are necessary and incidental to timber operations, such as:
(i) Slash cleanup and burning;
(ii) Scarification;
(iii) Stream and pond cleaning or rebuilding;
(iv) Restoration of logging roadways to a natural state;
(v) Restoration of wildlife habitat; and
(vi) Fire trail work.
(4) Processors for hire. Persons performing services as independent contractors for timber harvesters during the manufacturing portion of a timber harvest operation are subject to tax under the processing for hire B&O tax classification measured by the gross income from those services. RCW 82.04.280. For information regarding processors for hire see WAC 458-20-136.
Example 4. Tree Services Inc. (TSI) is hired to delimb and buck severed trees at the harvest site by the owner of the severed trees, the TTT Company. TSI is a processor for hire and is subject to B&O tax under the processing for hire tax classification. TTT then hires Chopper Services to transport the logs by helicopter from where the logs were delimbed and bucked to a location from which the logs will be transported to a mill. Under these circumstances, Chopper Services is a processor for hire as the manufacturing of the logs has started. However, if the manufacturing process on those logs had not yet begun Chopper Services would be an extractor for hire. In either case, the measure of tax is the gross income from the services.
Persons performing processing for hire or extracting for hire services for consumers must collect and remit retail sales tax on those services unless otherwise exempt by law.
(5) Hauling activities. Persons performing services for timber harvesters are often required to haul logs by motor vehicle from the harvest site over public roads. The income attributable to this hauling activity is subject to the public utility tax (PUT).
Effective August 1, 2015, RCW 82.16.020 provides a reduced PUT rate for most log transportation businesses. A "log transportation business" means the business of transporting logs by truck, except when the transportation meets the definition of urban transportation business or occurs exclusively on private roads. RCW 82.16.010. The distinction between motor and urban transportation is explained in WAC 458-20-180. If the hauling is exclusively performed over private roads, the gross income from the transportation activity is subject to tax under the service and other activities B&O tax classification, not the PUT.
Example 5. Hauler A hauls logs over private roads from the harvest site to the transfer site where the logs are unloaded. Hauler B hauls these logs over both private and public roads from the transfer site to a mill. The income received by Hauler A is subject to tax under the service and other activities B&O tax classification. The income received by Hauler B is subject to the public utility tax.
(a) Subcontracting hauls to a third party. If the person hired to haul logs by motor carrier subcontracts part or all of the hauling to a third party, the amount paid to the third party is subject to the public utility tax if any part of the transportation performed by the third party occurred on a public road, and is subject to the B&O tax if the transportation occurred exclusively on private roads. The person originally hired to haul the logs by motor carrier may be entitled to claim the deduction for jointly furnished services in computing its PUT liability, depending on the circumstances. See WAC 458-20-179 for more information on the PUT deduction for services furnished jointly. No similar deduction is available under the B&O tax.
(b) Hauls using own equipment. If the person hauls the product using his or her own equipment, and has established hauling rates that are paid to third-parties for comparable hauls, these rates may be used to establish the measure of tax for the hauling activity. Otherwise, the measure of the tax should be all costs attributable to the hauling activity including, but not limited to, the following costs relative to the hauling equipment: Depreciation; repair parts and repair labor; and wages and benefits for employees or compensation to contractors driving or maintaining the equipment. If appropriate records are not maintained to document these costs, the department will accept one-third of the gross income derived from a contract for all labor or mechanical services beginning with the cutting or severance of trees through the hauling services as the measure of the tax under the motor transportation PUT classification.
(c) Deduction for hauls to export facilities. Refer to subsection (13) of this rule for information regarding the deduction available for certain log hauls to export facilities.
(6) Common timber sale arrangements. Persons who sell and/or take timber may be subject to various taxes including the B&O tax, timber excise tax, and real estate excise tax. There are a number of ways in which harvesting activities are conducted and timber is sold. The timing of the transfer of ownership of, or the contractual right to sever, standing timber determines which taxes are due and who is liable for remitting tax.
The following examples briefly identify two common types of timber sale arrangements and then state a conclusion as to the taxes that apply. These examples are not an all-inclusive list of the different types of timber sale arrangements, or the variations that may occur. These examples presume that the trees being harvested are not Christmas trees, and that no participant is a federal, state, or local government entity.
(a) Example 6. Sale of standing timber (stumpage sales). In this type of arrangement, Seller (landowner or other owner of the rights to standing timber) sells standing timber to Buyer. Buyer receives title to the timber from Seller before it is severed from the stump. Buyer may hire Contractor to perform the harvesting activity.
The tax consequences are:
(i) Seller is liable for real estate excise tax. A sale of real property has occurred under RCW 82.45.060. Refer to chapter 458-61 WAC for information on the real estate excise tax.
(ii) Buyer is liable for both timber excise tax and B&O tax. Buyer is a "harvester" under RCW 84.33.035 and an "extractor" under RCW 82.04.100 because Buyer "from the...land of another under a right or license...fells, cuts (severs), or takes timber for sale or for commercial or industrial use." See subsection (2) of this rule.
(iii) Contractor is liable for B&O tax and possibly public utility tax because Contractor "is performing under contract the necessary labor or mechanical services for the extractor/harvester." See subsections (3), (4), and (5) of this rule.
(b) Example 7. Sale of harvested timber (logs). In this type of sales transaction, Seller (landowner or other owner of the rights to standing timber) hires Contractor to perform the harvesting activity. Contractor obtains all the necessary cutting permits, performs all of the harvesting activities from severing the trees to delivering the logs for scaling, and makes all the arrangements for the sale of the logs. Contractor, in effect, is performing the harvesting and marketing services for Seller. Seller retains title to the logs until after they are scaled, at which time title transfers to Buyer.
The tax consequences are:
(i) Seller is liable for both timber excise tax and B&O tax. Seller is a "harvester" under RCW 84.33.035 and an "extractor" under RCW 82.04.100 because Seller is "the person who from the person's own land or from the land of another under a right or license granted by lease or contract...fells, cuts (severs), or takes timber for sale or for commercial or industrial use." See subsection (2) of this rule.
(ii) Contractor is liable for B&O tax and possibly public utility tax because Contractor "is performing under contract the necessary labor or mechanical services for the extractor/harvester." See subsections (3), (4), and (5) of this rule.
(iii) There is no real estate excise tax liability because there is no sale of real property under chapter 82.45 RCW.
(7) Equipment and supplies used in timber harvest operations. The retail sales tax applies to all purchases of equipment, component parts of equipment, and supplies by persons engaging in timber operations unless a specific exemption applies. Purchases of fertilizer and spray materials (e.g., pesticides) for use in the cultivating of timber are also subject to the retail sales tax, unless purchased for resale as tangible personal property. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the buyer is required to remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred retail sales tax") or use tax directly to the department.
If a person using property in Washington incurs a use tax liability, and prior to that use paid a retail sales or use tax on the same property to another state or foreign country (or political subdivision of either), that person may claim a credit for those taxes against the Washington use tax liability.
(a) Exemption available for certain manufacturing equipment. RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 provide retail sales and use tax exemptions for certain machinery and equipment used by manufacturers. Persons engaged in both extracting and manufacturing activities should refer to WAC 458-20-13601 for an explanation of how these exemptions may apply to them.
(b) Property manufactured for commercial use. Persons manufacturing tangible personal property for commercial or industrial use are subject to both the manufacturing B&O tax and use tax on the value of the property manufactured, unless a specific exemption applies. WAC 458-20-134 defines and provides information on commercial or industrial use, and WAC 458-20-112 describes how to determine the value of products. If the person also extracts the product, B&O tax is due under the extracting tax classification, and a MATC may be taken.
Example 8. ABC Company severs trees, manufactures the logs into lumber, and then uses the lumber to construct an office building. The use of the lumber by ABC in constructing its office building is a commercial or industrial use. ABC is subject to tax under the extracting and manufacturing B&O tax classifications and may claim a MATC. ABC is also responsible for remitting use tax on the value of the lumber incorporated into the office building.
(8) Seeds and seedlings. Persons cultivating timber often purchase or collect tree seeds that are raised into tree seedlings. The growing of the seed may be performed by the person cultivating timber, or through the use of a third-party grower. In the case of a third-party grower, the seed is provided to the grower and tree seedlings are received back after a specified growing period.
(a) Responsibility to remit retail sales or use tax. The purchase of seeds or seedlings by a person cultivating timber is subject to the retail sales tax. If the seller fails to collect retail sales tax, the buyer must remit retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax, unless otherwise exempt by law. The use of seed collected by a person cultivating timber is subject to use tax. In the case of seed provided to third-party growers in Washington, the seed owner, and not the third-party grower, incurs any use tax liability on the value of the seed. The value of seedlings brought into and used in Washington is subject to the use tax, unless retail sales or use tax was previously paid on the seedlings or on the seed from which the seedlings were grown.
(b) Limited sales and use tax exemptions for conifer seeds. RCW 82.08.850 and 82.12.850 provide retail sales and use tax exemptions for certain sales or uses of conifer seeds. A deferral mechanism is also available if the buyer cannot at the time of purchase determine whether the purchase is eligible for the sales tax exemption.
(i) Retail sales tax exemption. Retail sales tax does not apply to the sale of conifer seed that is immediately placed into freezer storage operated by the seller if the seed is to be used for growing timber outside Washington. This exemption also applies to the sale of conifer seed to an Indian tribe or member and is to be used for growing timber in Indian country, again only if the seed is immediately placed into freezer storage operated by the seller. For the purposes of this exemption, "Indian country" has the meaning given in RCW 82.24.010.
This exemption applies only if the buyer provides the seller with an exemption certificate in a form and manner prescribed by the department. The seller must retain a copy of the certificate to substantiate the exempt nature of these sales.
(ii) Deferring payment of retail sales tax if unable to determine whether purchase qualifies for the retail sales tax exemption. If a buyer of conifer seed is normally engaged in growing timber both within and outside Washington and is not able to determine at the time of purchase whether the seed acquired, or the seedlings germinated from the seed acquired, will be used for growing timber within or outside Washington, the buyer may defer payment of the sales tax until it is determined that the seed, or seedlings germinated from the seed, will be planted for growing timber in Washington. A buyer that does not pay sales tax on the purchase of conifer seed and subsequently determines that the sale did not qualify for the tax exemption must remit to the department the amount of sales tax that would have been paid at the time of purchase. It is important to note that the sales tax liability may be deferred only if the seller immediately places the conifer seed into freezer storage operated by the seller.
(iii) Tax paid at source deduction. A buyer who pays retail sales tax on the purchase of conifer seed and subsequently determines that the sale qualifies for the tax paid at source deduction may claim a deduction on its excise tax return. The deduction is allowed only if the buyer keeps and preserves records that show from whom the seed was purchased, the date of the purchase, the amount of the purchase, and the tax that was paid.
(iv) Use tax exemption. Use tax does not apply to the use of conifer seed to grow seedlings if the seedlings are grown by a person other than the owner of the seed. This exemption applies only if the seedlings will be used for growing timber outside Washington, or if the owner of the conifer seed is an Indian tribe or member and the seedlings will be used for growing timber in Indian country. If the owner of the conifer seed is not able to determine at the time the seed is used in a growing process whether the use of the seed qualifies for this exemption, the owner may defer payment of the use tax until it is determined that the seedlings will be planted for growing timber in Washington. For the purposes of this exemption, "Indian country" has the meaning given in RCW 82.24.010.
(9) Activities or income incidental to timber operations. The following activities or income, and the applicable tax classifications are often associated with timber operations. These tax-reporting requirements apply even if these activities are incidental to the person's primary business activity.
(a) Taking other natural products from timberland. The value of natural products such as boughs, mushrooms, seeds, and cones taken for sale or commercial or industrial use is subject to the tax under the extracting B&O tax classification. The sale of these products is subject to B&O tax under the wholesaling or retailing tax classification, as the case may be. Persons both extracting and selling natural products should refer to WAC 458-20-19301 for an explanation of the MATC reporting requirements. The retail sales tax applies to sales to consumers, unless a specific exemption applies.
(b) Timber cruising, scaling, and access fees. Gross income from timber cruising, scaling services, and allowing others to use private roads is subject to tax under the service and other activities B&O tax classification. This tax classification also applies to access fees for activities such as hunting, taking firewood, bough cutting, mushroom picking, or grazing. Charges to allow a person to take an identified quantity of tangible personal property are considered sales of that property. See subsection (9)(d) of this rule.
(c) Planting, thinning, and spraying. The service and other activities B&O tax applies to the gross proceeds of sale received for planting trees or other vegetation, precommercial thinning, and spraying or applying fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides.
(d) Sales of firewood and Christmas trees. Sales of firewood, Christmas trees, and other tangible personal property are either wholesale (subject to B&O tax under the wholesaling tax classification) or retail (subject to B&O tax under the retailing tax classification and also to retail sales tax) sales, depending on the nature of the transaction. These sales are often made in the nature of charges allowing the buyer to select and take an identified quantity of the property (e.g., six cords of firewood or two Christmas trees).
(e) Unloading logs from logging trucks. Gross income from the unloading of logs from logging trucks onto rail cars at transfer points is subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes when the activity is a rental of equipment with operator. RCW 82.04.050. For more information regarding the rental of equipment with an operator see WAC 458-20-211. If this activity is not a rental of equipment with operator, gross income from the activity is subject to tax under the service and other activities B&O tax classification. The income from unloading of logs from logging trucks is subject to tax under the stevedoring B&O tax classification if performed at an export facility as a part of or to await future movement in waterborne export. For tax-reporting information regarding services associated with interstate or foreign commerce see WAC 458-20-193D.
(f) Transporting logs by water. Gross income received for transporting logs by water (e.g., log booming and rafting) or log patrols is subject to tax under the "other public service business" classification of the public utility tax.
This tax classification applies to the gross income from this activity even if the person segregates a charge for boomsticks used while transporting the logs. In many cases logs will be towed to a location specified by the customer for storage. Any charges for boomsticks while the logs are stored are rentals of tangible personal property and subject to the tax under the retailing B&O tax classification and retail sales tax if to a consumer. For information regarding the rental of tangible personal property see WAC 458-20-211.
(g) Export sorting yard operations. Export sorting yard operations generally consist of multiple activities. These activities can include, but are not necessarily limited to, services such as weighing, tagging, banding, appraising, and sorting of logs. Other incidental activities, such as the debarking, removal of imperfections such as crooks, knots, splits, and seams, and trimming of log ends to remove defects, are also performed as needed. Income received by persons performing the export sorting yard activities as identified in this subsection is subject to tax under the service and other activities B&O tax classification.
(10) Harvesting Christmas trees. Persons growing, producing, or harvesting Christmas trees are either farmers or extractors under the law, as explained below. Activities generally associated with the harvesting of Christmas trees, such as cutting, trimming, shearing, and bailing (packaging) are not manufacturing activities because they are not the "cutting, delimbing, and measuring of felled, cut, or taken trees" under RCW 82.04.120.
(a) Plantation Christmas tree operations. Persons growing or producing plantation Christmas trees on their own lands or on lands in which they have a present right of possession are farmers. RCW 82.04.213. Plantation Christmas trees are Christmas trees that are exempt from the timber excise tax under RCW 84.33.170. This requires that the Christmas trees be grown on land prepared by intensive cultivation and tilling, such as irrigating, plowing, or turning over the soil, and on which all unwanted plant growth is controlled continuously for the exclusive purpose of raising Christmas trees. RCW 82.04.035 and 84.33.035.
(i) Gross income from wholesale sales of plantation Christmas trees by farmers is exempt from B&O tax. RCW 82.04.330. Gross income from retail sales of plantation Christmas trees by farmers is subject to the retailing B&O tax and to retail sales tax. For information on sales of agricultural products by farmers see WAC 458-20-210.
(ii) Farmers growing or producing plantation Christmas trees may purchase seeds, seedlings, fertilizer, and spray materials at wholesale. RCW 82.04.050 and 82.04.060.
(iii) Persons performing cultivation or harvesting services for farmers are generally subject to the service and other activities B&O tax on the gross income from those services. See WAC 458-20-209 for information on farming for hire and horticultural services performed for farmers.
(b) Other Christmas tree operations. Persons who either directly or by contracting with others for the necessary labor or mechanical services fell, cut, or take Christmas trees other than plantation Christmas trees are extractors. RCW 82.04.100. The tax-reporting instructions regarding extracting and extracting for hire activities provided elsewhere in this rule apply.
(11) Timber harvest operations in conjunction with other land clearing or construction activities. Persons sometimes engage in timber harvest operations in conjunction with the clearing of land for the construction of residential communities, golf courses, parks, or other development. In such cases, these persons are engaging in separate business activities, and income from each may be subject to different tax liabilities. Income attributable to the timber harvest operations is subject to tax under the tax classifications as described elsewhere in this rule. Income attributable to the clearing of land for the construction of the residential community, golf course, park, or other development is subject to the wholesaling, retailing, retail sales, or public road construction tax, as the case may be. Refer to WAC 458-20-170, 458-20-171, and 458-20-172 for tax-reporting information regarding these construction activities. Persons performing landscape and horticultural services such as cutting or trimming trees after the land is developed should refer to WAC 458-20-226.
(12) Logging road construction and maintenance. Constructing or maintaining logging roads (whether active or inactive) is considered an extracting activity. Income derived from this activity is subject to the extracting or extracting for hire B&O tax, as the case may be. This income is not subject to the retail sales tax. A person constructing or maintaining a logging road is a consumer of all materials incorporated into the logging road. The purchase or use of these materials is subject to either the retail sales or use tax.
(a) Logging road materials provided without charge. Landowners/timber harvesters may provide materials (e.g., crushed rock) without charge to persons constructing or maintaining logging roads. In such cases, while both the person providing the materials without charge and the person applying the materials to the road are consumers under the law, tax is due only once on the value of the materials. The person constructing or maintaining the roads is responsible for remitting use tax on the value of the materials, unless that person documents that the landowner or timber harvester previously remitted the appropriate retail sales or use tax.
Alternatively, the person may take a written statement from the landowner/timber harvester certifying that the landowner/timber harvester has remitted (for past periods) and/or will remit (for future periods) all applicable retail sales or use taxes due on materials provided without charge. This statement must identify the period of time, not to exceed four years, for which it is effective. The statement must identify the landowner/timber harvester's tax reporting account number and must be signed by a person who is authorized to make such a representation.
(b) Extracted or manufactured logging road materials. Persons constructing or maintaining logging roads are subject to the B&O and use taxes on the value of applied materials they extract or manufacture from private pits, quarries, or other locations. The measure of tax is the value of the extracted or manufactured products, as the case may be. See WAC 458-20-112 for additional information regarding how to determine the "value of products."
(i) If the person either directly or by contracting with others extracts and crushes, washes, screens, or blends materials to be incorporated into the road, B&O tax under the extracting classification is due on the value of the extracted product before any manufacturing. B&O tax under the manufacturing classification, and use tax are also due upon the value of manufactured product. If the "cost basis" is the appropriate method for determining the value of products under WAC 458-20-112, this value includes the cost of transportation to a processing point, but does not include any transportation from the processing point to the road site. A MATC may be taken when computing the B&O tax as explained in WAC 458-20-19301.
(ii) In the case of fill dirt, sand, gravel, or rock that is extracted from a location away from the logging road site, but not further processed, B&O tax under the extracting classification, and use tax are due upon the value of the extracted product. If the "cost of production basis" is the appropriate method for determining the value of products under WAC 458-20-112, this value does not include transportation costs to the road site.
(iii) The mere severance of fill dirt, sand, gravel, or rock from outcroppings at the side of a logging road for placement in the road is a part of the logging road construction or maintenance activity. The person incorporating these materials into the road does not incur a tax liability for either the extracting or the use of these materials.
(13) Deduction for hauling logs to export yards. RCW 82.16.050 provides a public utility tax deduction for amounts derived from the transportation of commodities from points of origin within this state to an export elevator, wharf, dock, or shipside ("export facility") on tidewater or navigable tributaries of tidewaters. The commodities must be forwarded from the facility, without intervening transportation, by vessel and in their original form, to an interstate or foreign destination. No deduction is allowed when the point of origin and the point of delivery are located within the corporate limits of the same city or town.
(a) Conditions for deduction. This deduction is available only to the person making the last haul, not including hauls within the export facility, before the logs are put on the ship. This deduction is not available if the haul starts in the same city or town where the export facility is located.
The deduction is available only if:
(i) The logs eventually go by vessel to another state or country; and
(ii) The form of the logs does not change between the time the logs are delivered to the export facility and the time the logs are put on the ship. The mere removal of bark from the logs (debarking) or the incidental removal of imperfections (see subsection (9)(g), of this rule) while the logs are at the export facility is not itself a manufacturing activity, nor does it result in a change in the "original form" of the logs as contemplated by RCW 82.16.050.
(b) Documentation requirements for deduction. The log hauler must prove entitlement to the deduction. Delivery tickets that show delivery to an export facility are not, alone, sufficient proof. A certificate from the export facility operator is acceptable additional proof if it is substantially in the following form. Rather than a certificate covering each haul, a "blanket certificate" may be used for a one-year period of time if no significant changes in operation will occur within this period of time.
Exemption certificate for logs delivered to an export facility
The undersigned export facility operator hereby certifies:
That              percentage or more of all logs hauled to the storage facilities at                , the same located on tidewater or navigable tributaries thereto, will be shipped by vessel directly to an out-of-state or foreign destination and the following conditions will be met:
 
1. The logs will not go through a process to change the form of the logs before shipment to another state or country.
 
2. There will be no intervening transportation of these logs from the time of receipt at the export facility until loaded on the vessel for the interstate or foreign journey.
 
Trucking Firm _____
 
Trucking Firm Address _____
 
Trucking Firm UBI# _____
 
Export Facility Operator _____
 
Operator UBI# _____
 
Person Giving Statement _____
 
Title of Person Giving Statement _____
(c) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion regarding the deductibility of income derived from hauling logs to export facilities. Unless specifically provided otherwise, presume that the logs are shipped directly to another country from the export facility.
(i) Example 9. Logs are hauled from the harvest site to an export facility. While the bark will be removed from fifty percent of the logs, no other processing takes place. Because the mere removal of bark is not considered a change in the form of the logs, the export facility may provide a certificate in the above form indicating that all logs at this facility will ultimately be shipped to another country. The hauler may then claim a deduction for one hundred percent of this haul.
(ii) Example 10. Logs are hauled from the harvest site to an export sorting area. At this location further sorting takes place and eighty percent of the logs are hauled approximately one mile on public roads to shipside and shipped to another country. The other twenty percent of the logs are sold to local sawmills. The haul to the sorting yard is subject to tax because there is another haul from the sorting yard to shipside. It is immaterial that the hauler may be paid based on an "export" rate.
The haul from the sorting yard to shipside is deductible if it does not start and end within the corporate limits of the same city or town, and the hauler obtains the appropriate exemption certificate. The haul to the local sawmills is not deductible.
(iii) Example 11. Logs are hauled from the harvest site to an export facility. The hauler is aware that all logs will need to be hauled a distance of approximately one-half mile across the export facility yard to reach the ship when it arrives at the dock. The dock is located next to the export facility. The hauler may take the deduction, provided the appropriate exemption certificate is obtained. Movement of the logs within the export facility is not an intervening haul.
(14) Small timber harvesters - Business and occupation tax exemption. RCW 82.04.333 provides a limited exemption from B&O tax for small harvesters. A small harvester may take a deduction for an amount not to exceed one hundred thousand dollars per tax year from the gross receipts or value of products proceeding or accruing from timber harvested. A deduction may not reduce the amount of tax due to less than zero.
A "small harvester" means every person who from his or her own land or from the land of another under a right or license granted by lease or contract, either directly or by contracting with others for the necessary labor or mechanical services, fells, cuts, or takes timber for sale or for commercial or industrial use in an amount not exceeding two million board feet in a calendar year. When the United States or any instrumentality thereof, the state, including its departments and institutions and political subdivisions, or any municipal corporation therein so fells, cuts, or takes timber for sale or for commercial or industrial use, not exceeding these amounts, the small harvester is the first person other than the United States or any instrumentality thereof, the state, including its departments and institutions and political subdivisions, or any municipal corporation therein, who acquires title to or a possessory interest in the timber. Small harvester does not include persons performing under contract the necessary labor or mechanical services for a harvester, and it does not include the harvesters of Christmas trees or short-rotation hardwoods. RCW 84.33.035.
(a) Registration - Tax return. A person whose only business activity is as a small harvester of timber and whose gross income in a calendar year from the harvesting of timber is less than one hundred thousand dollars, is not required to register with the department for B&O tax purposes. This person must nonetheless register with the forest tax division of the department for payment of the timber excise tax. See chapters 84.33 RCW and 458-40 WAC for more information regarding the timber excise tax.
An unregistered small harvester of timber is required to register with the department for B&O tax purposes in the month when the gross proceeds received during a calendar year from the timber harvested exceed the exempt amount. The harvester must then file and report on an excise tax return all proceeds received during the calendar year to the time when the filing of the excise tax return is required.
(b) Examples. In each of the following examples, the harvester must register with the department's forest tax division for the payment of timber excise tax, and must report under the appropriate tax classifications as described above in this rule.
(i) Example 12. A small harvester not currently registered with the department for B&O tax purposes harvests timber in June and again in August, receiving fifty thousand dollars in June and two hundred thousand dollars in August from the sale of the logs harvested.
B&O tax is due on the entire two hundred fifty thousand dollars received from the sale of logs. The small harvester must register with the department in August when the receipts from the timber harvesting business exceed the one hundred thousand dollars exemption amount. An excise tax return is to be filed in the appropriate period as provided in WAC 458-20-22801.
(ii) Example 13. A person is primarily engaged in another business that is currently registered with the department for B&O tax purposes and has monthly receipts of two hundred fifty thousand dollars. The person is a small harvester as defined in RCW 84.33.035 and receives sixty thousand dollars from the sale of the timber harvested.
B&O tax remains due on two hundred fifty thousand dollars from the other business activities. The sixty thousand dollars received from the sale of logs is exempt and is not reported on the person's excise tax return. The exemption applies to the activity of harvesting timber and receipts from the sale of logs are not combined with the receipts from other business activities to make the sale of logs taxable.
(iii) Example 14. A small harvester not otherwise registered with the department for B&O tax purposes contracts with a logging company to provide the labor and mechanical services of the harvesting. The small harvester is to receive sixty percent and the logging company forty percent of the log sale proceeds. The log purchaser pays two hundred fifty thousand dollars for the logs during the calendar year, paying one hundred fifty thousand dollars to the small harvester and one hundred thousand dollars to the logging company.
For the small harvester, B&O tax is due on the entire two hundred fifty thousand dollars paid for the logs. The small harvester is taxed upon the gross sales price of the logs without deduction for the amount paid to the logging company. RCW 82.04.070. The small harvester must register with the department for B&O tax purposes in the month when, for the calendar year, the proceeds from all timber harvested exceed one hundred thousand dollars. The logging company is taxed on the one hundred thousand dollars it received under the appropriate business tax classification(s). The logging company is not a small harvester as defined in RCW 84.33.035.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), and 82.16.020. WSR 16-02-063, § 458-20-13501, filed 1/4/16, effective 2/4/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 01-13-042, § 458-20-13501, filed 6/14/01, effective 7/15/01.]



458-20-136
Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the application of the business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to manufacturers. It identifies the special tax classifications and rates that apply to specific manufacturing activities. The law provides a retail sales and use tax exemption for certain machinery and equipment (M&E) used by manufacturers. Refer to RCW 82.08.02565, 82.12.02565, and WAC 458-20-13601 (Manufacturers and processors for hire—Sales and use tax exemption for machinery and equipment) for more information regarding this exemption. Effective June 12, 2014, chapter 140, Laws of 2014 (SB 6505), machinery and equipment used directly in the manufacturing, research and development, or testing of marijuana, including related services, are not eligible for the M&E retail sales and use tax exemption. For purposes of this rule, "marijuana" is any product with a THC concentration greater than .03 percent. Persons engaging in both extracting and manufacturing activities should also refer to WAC 458-20-135 (Extracting natural products) and 458-20-13501 (Timber harvest operations).
(2) Manufacturing activities. RCW 82.04.120 explains that the phrase "to manufacture" embraces all activities of a commercial or industrial nature wherein labor or skill is applied, by hand or machinery, to materials so that as a result thereof a new, different, or useful substance or articles of tangible personal property is produced for sale or commercial or industrial use. The phrase includes the production or fabrication of special-made or custom-made articles.
(a) "To manufacture" includes, but is not limited to:
(i) The production or fabrication of dental appliances, devices, restorations, substitutes, or other dental laboratory products by a dental laboratory or dental technician;
(ii) The cutting, delimbing, and measuring of felled, cut, or taken trees;
(iii) The crushing and/or blending of rock, sand, stone, gravel, or ore;
(iv) The cleaning (removal of the head, fins, or viscera) of fish; and
(v) The production of compressed or liquefied natural gas for use as transportation fuel as defined in RCW 82.16.310.
(b) "To manufacture" does not include:
(i) The conditioning of seed for use in planting;
(ii) The cubing of hay or alfalfa;
(iii) The growing, harvesting, or producing of agricultural products;
(iv) The cutting, grading, or ice glazing of seafood which has been cooked, frozen, or canned outside this state;
(v) The packing of agricultural products, including sorting, washing, rinsing, grading, waxing, treating with fungicide, packaging, chilling, or placing in controlled atmospheric storage; and
(vi) The repairing and reconditioning of tangible personal property for others.
(3) Manufacturers and processors for hire. RCW 82.04.110 defines "manufacturer" to mean every person who, either directly or by contracting with others for the necessary labor or mechanical services, manufactures for sale or for commercial or industrial use from his or her own materials or ingredients any articles, substances, or commodities. However, a nonresident of the state of Washington who is the owner of materials processed for it in this state by a processor for hire is not deemed to be a manufacturer in this state because of that processing. Additionally, any owner of materials from which a nuclear fuel assembly is fabricated in this state by a processor for hire is also not deemed to be a manufacturer because of such processing.
(a) The term "processor for hire" means a person who performs labor and mechanical services upon property belonging to others so that as a result a new, different, or useful article of tangible personal property is produced for sale or commercial or industrial use. Thus, a processor for hire is any person who would be a manufacturer if that person were performing the labor and mechanical services upon his or her own materials.
(b) If a particular activity is excluded from the definition of "to manufacture," a person performing the labor and mechanical services upon materials owned by another is not a processor for hire. For example, the cutting, grading, or ice glazing of seafood that has been cooked, frozen, or canned outside this state is excluded from the definition of "to manufacture." Because of this exclusion, a person who performs these activities on seafood belonging to others is not a "processor for hire."
(c) A person who produces aluminum master alloys, regardless of the portion of the aluminum provided by that person's customer, is considered a "processor for hire." RCW 82.04.110. For the purpose of this specific provision, the term "aluminum master alloy" means an alloy registered with the Aluminum Association as a grain refiner or a hardener alloy using the American National Standards Institute designating system H35.3.
(d) In some instances, a person furnishing the labor and mechanical services undertakes to produce an article, substance, or commodity from materials or ingredients furnished in part by the person and in part by the customer. Depending on the circumstances, this person will either be considered a manufacturer or a processor for hire.
(i) If the person furnishing the labor and mechanical services furnishes materials constituting less than twenty percent of the value of all of the materials or ingredients which become a part of the produced product, that person will be presumed to be processing for hire.
(ii) The person furnishing the labor and mechanical services will be presumed to be a manufacturer if the value of the materials or ingredients furnished by the person is equal to or greater than twenty percent of the total value of all materials or ingredients which become a part of the produced product.
(iii) If the person furnishing the labor and mechanical services supplies, sells, or furnishes to the customer, before processing, twenty percent or more in value of the materials or ingredients from which the product is produced, the person furnishing the labor and mechanical services will be deemed to be the owner of the materials and considered a manufacturer.
(e) There are occasions where a manufacturing facility and ingredients used in the manufacturing process are owned by one person, while another person performs the actual manufacturing activity. The person operating the facility and performing the manufacturing activity is a processor for hire. The owner of the facility and ingredients is the manufacturer.
(4) Tax-reporting responsibilities for income received by manufacturers and processors for hire. Persons who manufacture products in this state are subject to the manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of the products, including by-products (see also WAC 458-20-112 regarding "value of products"), unless the activity qualifies for one of the special tax rates discussed in subsection (5) of this rule. See also WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property).
For example, Corporation A stains door panels that it purchases. Corporation A also affixes hinges, guide wheels, and pivots to unstained door panels. Corporation B shears steel sheets to dimension, and slits steel coils to customer's requirements. The resulting products are sold and delivered to out-of-state customers. Corporation A and Corporation B are subject to the manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of these manufactured products. These manufacturing activities take place in Washington, even though the manufactured product is delivered out-of-state. A credit may be available if a gross receipts tax is paid on the selling activity to another state. (See also WAC 458-20-19301 on multiple activities tax credits.)
(a) Manufacturers who sell their products at retail or wholesale in this state are also subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases, the manufacturer must report under both the "production" (manufacturing) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) classifications of the B&O tax, and claim a multiple activities tax credit (MATC). See also WAC 458-20-19301 for a more detailed explanation of the MATC reporting requirements. Manufacturers are making wholesale sales when their buyer will resell the tangible personal property without intervening use, or includes the tangible personal property as a component or ingredient in another product for sale by the buyer to another customer. Sellers in these wholesale sales must obtain a reseller permit from the buyer. Reseller permits replaced resale certificates effective January 1, 2010. Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014, whichever first occurs. For additional information on reseller permits see WAC 458-20-102.
For example on January 1, 2010, Raw Fish Incorporated purchases raw fish that it manufactures into fillets. The resulting product is then sold at wholesale to its customer, Fish Distributor LLC. Fish Distributor LLC resells the fillets without intervening use to its customers and provides Raw Fish Incorporated with a copy of its reseller permit. Raw Fish Incorporated is subject to both the manufacturing raw seafood B&O tax upon the value of the manufactured product, and the wholesaling B&O tax upon the gross proceeds of sale. Raw Fish Incorporated is entitled to claim a MATC.
(b) Processors for hire are subject to the processing for hire B&O tax upon the total charge made for those services, including any charge for materials furnished by the processor. The B&O tax applies whether the resulting product is delivered to the customer within or outside this state.
(c) The measure of tax for manufacturers and processors for hire with respect to "cost-plus" or "time and material" contracts includes the amount of profit or fee above cost received, plus the reimbursements or prepayments received on account of materials and supplies, labor costs, taxes paid, payments made to subcontractors, and all other costs and expenses incurred by the manufacturer or processor for hire.
(d) A manufacturing B&O tax exemption is available for the cleaning of fish, if the cleaning activities are limited to the removal of the head, fins, or viscera from fresh fish without further processing other than freezing. RCW 82.04.2403. Processors for hire performing these cleaning activities remain subject to the processing for hire B&O tax.
(e) Amounts received by hop growers or dealers for hops shipped outside the state of Washington for first use, even though the hops have been processed into extract, pellets, or powder in this state are exempt from the B&O tax. RCW 82.04.337. However, a processor for hire with respect to hops is not exempt on amounts charged for processing these products.
(f) Manufacturers and processors for hire making retail sales must collect and remit retail sales tax on all sales to consumers, unless the sale is exempt by law (e.g., see WAC 458-20-244 regarding sales of certain food products). A manufacturer or processor for hire making wholesale sales must obtain a reseller permit from the buyer. Reseller permits replaced resale certificates effective January 1, 2010. Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014, whichever first occurs. For additional information on reseller permits see WAC 458-20-102.
(g) Effective July 1, 2015, a gas distribution business manufacturing or selling liquefied natural gas or compressed natural gas for use as transportation fuel is exempt from state and local public utility taxes. The sale of natural gas from which the buyer manufactures compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas, where the compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas is to be sold or used as transportation fuel, is also exempt from state and local public utility taxes. The gross receipts from these activities are subject to the manufacturing, wholesaling, or retailing B&O tax and local taxes, as applicable. The retail sale of compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas is also subject to fuel taxes, if it is used in a motor vehicle. If the fuel is not used in a motor vehicle (off-road, boat, etc.) the fuel is subject to retail sales or use tax.
(5) Manufacturing - Special tax rates/classifications. RCW 82.04.260 provides several special B&O tax rates/classifications for manufacturers engaging in certain manufacturing activities. In all such cases the principles set forth in subsection (4) of this rule concerning multiple activities and the resulting credit provisions are also applicable.
Special tax classifications/rates are provided for the activities of:
(a) Manufacturing wheat into flour, barley into pearl barley, soybeans into soybean oil, canola into canola oil, meal, or canola by-products, or sunflower seeds into sunflower oil;
(b) Splitting or processing dried peas;
(c) Manufacturing seafood products, which remain in a raw, raw frozen, or raw salted state;
(d) Manufacturing by canning, preserving, freezing, processing, or dehydrating fresh fruits and vegetables ("fruits" and "vegetables" does not include marijuana);
(e) Slaughtering, breaking, and/or processing perishable meat products and/or selling the same at wholesale and not at retail; and
(f) Manufacturing nuclear fuel assemblies.
(6) Repairing and/or refurbishing distinguished from manufacturing. The term "to manufacture" does not include the repair or refurbishing of tangible personal property. To be considered "manufacturing," the application of labor or skill to materials must result in a "new, different, or useful article." If the activity merely restores an existing article of tangible personal property to its original utility, the activity is considered a repair or refurbishing of that property. (See WAC 458-20-173 for tax-reporting information on repairs.)
(a) In making a determination whether an activity is manufacturing as opposed to a repair or reconditioning activity, consideration is given to a variety of factors including, but not limited to:
(i) Whether the activity merely restores or prolongs the useful life of the article;
(ii) Whether the activity significantly enhances the article's basic qualities, properties, or functional nature; and
(iii) Whether the activity is so extensive that a new, different, or useful article results.
(b) The following example illustrates the distinction between a manufacturing activity resulting in a new, different, or useful article, and the mere repair or refurbishment of an existing article. This example should only be used as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances. In cases of uncertainty, persons should contact the department for a ruling.
(i) Corporation rebuilds engine cores. When received, each core is assigned an individual identification number and disassembled. The cylinder head, connecting rods, crankshaft, valves, springs, nuts, and bolts are all removed and retained for reassembly into the same engine core. Unusable components are discarded. The block is then baked to burn off dirt and impurities, then blasted to remove any residue. The cylinder walls are rebored because of wear and tear. The retained components are cleaned, and if needed straightened and/or reground. Corporation then reassembles the cores, replacing the pistons, gaskets, timing gears, crankshaft bearings, and oil pumps with new parts. The components retained from the original engine core are incorporated only into that same core.
(ii) Corporation is under these circumstances not engaging in a manufacturing activity. The engine cores are restored to their original condition, albeit with a slightly larger displacement because of wear and tear. The cores have retained their original functional nature as they run with approximately the same efficiency and horsepower. The rebuilding of these cores is not so extensive as to result in a new, different, or useful article. Each engine core has retained its identity because all reusable components of the original core are reassembled in the same core. Corporation has taken an existing article and extended its useful life.
(7) Combining and/or assembly of products to achieve a special purpose as manufacturing. The physical assembly of products from various components is manufacturing because it results in a "new, different, or useful" product, even if the cost of the assembly activity is minimal when compared with the cost of the components. For example, the bolting of a motor to a pump, whether bolted directly or by using a coupling, is a manufacturing activity. Once physically joined, the resulting product is capable of performing a pumping function that the separate components cannot.
(a) In some cases the assembly may consist solely of combining parts from various suppliers to create an entirely different product that is sold as a kit for assembly by the purchaser. In these situations, the manufacturing B&O tax applies even if the person combining the parts does not completely assemble the components, but sells them as a package. For example, a person who purchases component parts from various suppliers to create a wheelbarrow, which will be sold in a "kit" or "knock-down" condition with some assembly required by purchaser, is a manufacturer. The purchaser of the wheelbarrow kit is not a manufacturer, however, even though the purchaser must attach the handles and wheel.
(b) The department considers various factors in determining if a person combining various items into a single package is engaged in a manufacturing activity. Any single one of the following factors is not considered conclusive evidence of a manufacturing activity, though the presence of one or more of these factors raises a presumption that a manufacturing activity is being performed:
(i) The ingredients are purchased from various suppliers;
(ii) The person combining the ingredients attaches his or her own label to the resulting product;
(iii) The ingredients are purchased in bulk and broken down to smaller sizes;
(iv) The combined product is marketed at a substantially different value from the selling price of the individual components; and
(v) The person combining the items does not sell the individual items except within the package.
(c) The following examples should be used only as a general guide. The specific facts and circumstances of each situation must be carefully examined to determine if the combining of ingredients is a manufacturing activity or merely a packaging or marketing activity. In cases of uncertainty, persons combining items into special purpose packages should contact the department for a ruling.
(i) Combining prepackaged food products and gift items into a wicker basket for sale as a gift basket is not a manufacturing activity when:
(A) The products combined in the basket retain their original packaging;
(B) The person does not attach his or her own labels to the components or the combined basket;
(C) The person maintains an inventory for sale of the individual components and does sell these items in this manner as well as the combined baskets.
(ii) Combining bulk food products and gift items into a wicker basket for sale as a gift basket is a manufacturing activity when:
(A) The bulk food products purchased by the taxpayer are broken into smaller quantities; and
(B) The taxpayer attaches its own labels to the combined basket.
(iii) Combining components into a kit for sale is not a manufacturing activity when:
(A) All components are conceived, designed, and specifically manufactured by and at the person's direction to be used with each other;
(B) The person's label is attached to or imprinted upon the components by supplier;
(C) The person packages the components with no further assembly, connection, reconfiguration, change, or processing.
(8) Tax liability with respect to purchases of equipment or supplies and property manufactured for commercial or industrial use. The retail sales tax applies to purchases of tangible personal property by manufacturers and processors for hire unless the property becomes an ingredient or component part of a new article produced for sale, or is a chemical used in the processing of an article for sale. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the buyer is required to remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred retail sales tax") or use tax directly to the department. Refer to WAC 458-20-113 for additional information about what qualifies as an ingredient or component or a chemical used in processing.
(a) RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 provide a retail sales and use tax exemption for certain machinery and equipment used by manufacturers and/or processors for hire. Effective June 12, 2014, machinery and equipment used directly in the manufacturing, research and development, or testing of marijuana, including related services, are not eligible for the M&E retail sales and use tax exemption. Refer to WAC 458-20-13601 for additional information regarding how these exemptions apply.
(b) Persons manufacturing tangible personal property for commercial or industrial use are subject to both the manufacturing B&O and use taxes upon the value of the property manufactured, unless a specific exemption applies. (See also WAC 458-20-134 on commercial or industrial use.) Persons who also extract the product used as an ingredient in a manufacturing process should refer to WAC 458-20-135 for additional information regarding their tax-reporting responsibilities.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.04.120, 82.04.213, 82.04.260, 82.04.4266, 82.08.02565, 82.12.022, and 82.12.02565. WSR 15-01-005, § 458-20-136, filed 12/4/14, effective 1/4/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-136, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 00-11-096, § 458-20-136, filed 5/17/00, effective 6/17/00; WSR 88-21-014 (Order 88-7), § 458-20-136, filed 10/7/88; WSR 86-20-027 (Order 86-17), § 458-20-136, filed 9/23/86; WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-136, filed 3/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.01.060(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 78-07-045 (Order ET 78-4), § 458-20-136, filed 6/27/78; Order ET 71-1, § 458-20-136, filed 7/22/71; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-136 (Rule 136), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-13601
Manufacturers and processors for hireSales and use tax exemptions for machinery and equipment.

(1) Introduction.
(a) This rule explains the retail sales and use tax exemptions provided by RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 for sales to or use by manufacturers or processors for hire of machinery and equipment (M&E) used directly in a manufacturing operation or research and development operation. This rule explains the requirements that must be met to substantiate a claim of exemption. For information regarding the sales and use tax deferral for manufacturing and research/development activities in high unemployment counties, refer to WAC 458-20-24001 and chapter 82.60 RCW. For the high technology business sales and use tax deferral refer to chapter 82.63 RCW.
(b) Effective June 12, 2014, the retail sales and use tax exemptions provided by RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 do not apply to:
(i) Sales of machinery and equipment used directly in the manufacturing, research and development, or testing of marijuana; and
(ii) Sales of or charges made for labor and services rendered in respect to installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving such machinery and equipment.
(c) Effective August 1, 2015, an ineligible person, as defined in subsection (2)(e) of this rule, does not qualify for the retail sales and use tax exemptions provided by RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565, unless the taxpayer first used the qualifying machinery and equipment in this state prior to August 1, 2015.
(2) Definitions. For purposes of the manufacturing machinery and equipment tax exemptions, the following definitions apply:
(a) Affiliated group. "Affiliated group" means a group of two or more entities that are either:
(i) Affiliated as defined in RCW 82.32.655; or
(ii) Permitted to file a consolidated return for federal income tax purposes.
(b) Cogeneration. "Cogeneration" means the simultaneous generation of electrical energy and low-grade heat from the same fuel. See RCW 82.08.02565.
(c) Device. "Device" means an item that is not attached to the building or site. Examples of devices are: Forklifts, chainsaws, air compressors, clamps, free standing shelving, software, ladders, wheelbarrows, and pulleys.
(d) Industrial fixture. "Industrial fixture" means an item attached to a building or to land. Fixtures become part of the real estate to which they are attached and at the time of attachment are classified as real property, not personal property. Examples of "industrial fixtures" are fuel oil lines, boilers, craneways, and certain concrete slabs.
(e) Ineligible person. "Ineligible person" means all members of an affiliated group if all of the following apply:
(i) At least one member of the affiliated group was registered with the department of revenue (department) to do business in Washington state on or before July 1, 1981;
(ii) As of August 1, 2015, the combined employment in this state of the affiliated group exceeds forty thousand full-time and part-time employees, based on data reported to the employment security department by the affiliated group; and
(iii) The business activities of the affiliated group primarily include development, sales, and licensing of computer software and services.
(f) Machinery and equipment (M&E). "Machinery and equipment" means industrial fixtures, devices, and support facilities, and tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or component thereof, including repair parts and replacement parts. M&E includes pollution control equipment installed and used in a qualifying operation to prevent air pollution, water pollution, or contamination that might otherwise result from the operation.
(g) Manufacturer. "Manufacturer" has the same meaning as provided in chapter 82.04 RCW. Manufacturer also includes a person that prints newspapers or other materials; and effective August 1, 2015, a person engaged in the development of prewritten computer software that is not transferred to purchasers by means of tangible storage media. RCW 82.08.02565, chapter 5, Laws of 2015 3rd sp. sess. (ESSB 6138).
(h) Manufacturing. "Manufacturing" has the same meaning as "to manufacture" in chapter 82.04 RCW.
(i) Manufacturing operation. "Manufacturing operation" means the manufacturing of articles, substances, or commodities for sale as tangible personal property. A manufacturing operation begins at the point where the raw materials enter the manufacturing site and ends at the point where the processed material leaves the manufacturing site. The operation includes storage of raw materials at the site, the storage of in-process materials at the site, and the storage of the processed material at the site. The manufacturing operation is defined in terms of a process occurring at a location. To be eligible as a qualifying use of M&E, the use must take place within the manufacturing operation, unless specifically exempted by law. Storage of raw material or other tangible personal property, packaging of tangible personal property, and other activities that potentially qualify under the "used directly" criterion, and that do not constitute manufacturing in and of themselves, are not within the scope of the exemption unless they take place at a manufacturing site. The statute specifically allows testing to occur away from the site.
The term "manufacturing operation" also includes that portion of a cogeneration project that is used to generate power for consumption within the manufacturing site of which the cogeneration project is an integral part. The term does not include the production of electricity by a light and power business as defined in RCW 82.16.010 or the preparation of food products on the premises of a person selling food products at retail.
(i) Neither duration or temporary nature of the manufacturing activity nor mobility of the equipment determine whether a manufacturing operation exists. For example, operations using portable saw mills or rock crushing equipment are considered "manufacturing operations" if the activity in which the person is engaged is manufacturing. Rock crushing equipment that deposits material onto a roadway is not used in a manufacturing operation because this is a part of the constructing activity, not a manufacturing activity. Likewise, a concrete mixer used at a construction site is not used in a manufacturing operation because the activity is constructing, not manufacturing. Other portable equipment used in nonmanufacturing activities, such as continuous gutter trucks or trucks designed to deliver and combine aggregate, or specialized carpentry tools, do not qualify for the same reasons.
(ii) Manufacturing tangible personal property for sale can occur in stages, taking place at more than one manufacturing site. For example, if a taxpayer processes pulp from wood at one site, and transfers the resulting pulp to another site that further manufactures the product into paper, two separate manufacturing operations exist. The end product of the manufacturing activity must result in an article, substance, or commodity for sale.
(j) Marijuana. "Marijuana" is any product with a THC concentration greater than .03 percent.
(k) Processor for hire. "Processor for hire" has the same meaning as used in chapter 82.04 RCW and as explained in WAC 458-20-136 Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating.
(l) Qualifying operation. "Qualifying operation" means a manufacturing operation, a research and development operation, or a testing operation.
(m) Research and development operation. "Research and development operation" means engaging in research and development as defined in RCW 82.63.010 by a manufacturer or processor for hire. RCW 82.63.010 defines "research and development" to mean: Activities performed to discover technological information, and technical and nonroutine activities concerned with translating technological information into new or improved products, processes, techniques, formulas, inventions, or software. The term includes exploration of a new use for an existing drug, device, or biological product if the new use requires separate licensing by the Federal Food and Drug Administration under chapter 21, C.F.R., as amended. The term does not include adaptation or duplication of existing products where the products are not substantially improved by application of the technology, nor does the term include surveys and studies, social science and humanities research, market research or testing, quality control, sale promotion and service, computer software developed for internal use, and research in areas such as improved style, taste, and seasonal design.
(n) Sale. "Sale" has the same meaning as "sale" in chapter 82.08 RCW, which includes by reference RCW 82.04.040. RCW 82.04.040 includes by reference the definition of "retail sale" in RCW 82.04.050. "Sale" includes renting or leasing, conditional sale contracts, leases with option to purchase, and any contract under which possession of the property is given to the purchaser but title is retained by the vendor as security for the payment of the purchase price.
(o) Site. "Site" means the location at which the manufacturing or testing takes place.
(p) Support facility. "Support facility" means a part of a building, or a structure or improvement, used to contain or steady an industrial fixture or device. A support facility must be specially designed and necessary for the proper functioning of the industrial fixture or device and must perform a function beyond being a building or a structure or an improvement. It must have a function relative to an industrial fixture or a device. To determine if some portion of a building is a support facility, the parts of the building are examined. For example, a highly specialized structure, like a vibration reduction slab under a microchip clean room, is a support facility. Without the slab, the delicate instruments in the clean room would not function properly. The ceiling and walls of the clean room are not support facilities if they only serve to define the space and do not have a function relative to an industrial fixture or a device.
(q) Tangible personal property. "Tangible personal property" has its ordinary meaning.
(r) Testing. "Testing" means activities performed to establish or determine the properties, qualities, and limitations of tangible personal property.
(s) Testing operation. "Testing operation" means the testing of tangible personal property for a manufacturer or processor for hire. A testing operation begins at the point where the tangible personal property enters the testing site and ends at the point where the tangible personal property leaves the testing site. The term also includes that portion of a cogeneration project that is used to generate power for consumption within the site of which the cogeneration project is an integral part. The term does not include the production of electricity by a light and power business as defined in RCW 82.16.010 or the preparation of food products on the premises of a person selling food products at retail. The testing operation is defined in terms of a process occurring at a location. To be eligible as a qualifying use of M&E, the use must take place within the testing operation, unless specifically excepted by law.
(3) Retail sales and use tax exemptions. The M&E exemptions provide retail sales and use tax exemptions for machinery and equipment used directly in a manufacturing operation or research and development operation, except for such sales or use relating to marijuana effective June 12, 2014. Sales of or charges made for labor and services rendered in respect to installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving qualifying machinery and equipment are also exempt from sales tax, except for such sales or charges relating to marijuana effective June 12, 2014. However, because the exemption is limited to items with a useful life of one year or more, some charges for repair, labor, services, and replacement parts may not be eligible for the exemption. In the case of labor and service charges that cover both qualifying and nonqualifying repair and replacement parts, the labor and services charges are presumed to be exempt. If all of the parts are nonqualifying, the labor and service charge is not exempt, unless the parts are incidental to the service being performed, such as cleaning, calibrating, and adjusting qualifying machinery and equipment.
The exemption may be taken for qualifying machinery and equipment used directly in a testing operation by a person engaged in testing for a manufacturer or processor for hire, with the exception of such testing relating to marijuana effective June 12, 2014.
Sellers remain subject to the retailing B&O tax on all sales of machinery and equipment to consumers if delivery is made within the state of Washington, notwithstanding that the sale may qualify for an exemption from the retail sales tax.
(a) Sales tax. The purchaser must provide the seller with an exemption certificate. The exemption certificate must be completed in its entirety. The seller must retain a copy of the certificate as a part of its records. This certificate may be issued for each purchase or in blanket form certifying all future purchases as being exempt from sales tax. Blanket certificates are valid for as long as the buyer and seller have a recurring business relationship. A "recurring business relationship" means at least one sale transaction within a period of twelve consecutive months. RCW 82.08.050 (7)(c).
The form must contain the following information:
(i) Name, address, and registration number of the buyer;
(ii) Name of the seller;
(iii) Name and title of the authorized agent of the buyer/user;
(iv) Authorized signature;
(v) Date; and
(vi) Whether the form is a single use or blanket-use form.
A copy of an M&E certificate form may be obtained from the department's web site at dor.wa.gov, or by contacting the department's taxpayer services division at:
Taxpayer Services
Department of Revenue
P.O. Box 47478
Olympia, WA 98504-7478
1-800-647-7706
(b) Use tax. The use tax complements the retail sales tax by imposing a tax of like amount on the use within this state as a consumer of any tangible personal property purchased at retail, where the user has not paid retail sales tax with respect to the purchase of the property used. For additional information on use tax see chapter 82.12 RCW and WAC 458-20-178. If the seller fails to collect the appropriate retail sales tax, the purchaser is required to pay the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or the use tax directly to the department unless the purchase and/or use is exempt from the retail sales and/or use taxes. A qualifying person using eligible machinery and equipment in Washington in a qualifying manner is exempt from the use tax. If an item of machinery and equipment that was eligible for use tax or sales tax exemption fails to overcome the majority use threshold or is entirely put to use in a nonqualifying manner, use tax is due on the fair market value at the time the item was put to nonqualifying use. See subsection (9) of this rule for an explanation of the majority use threshold.
(4) Who may take the exemption? The exemption may be taken by a manufacturer or processor for hire who manufactures articles, substances, or commodities for sale as tangible personal property (excluding marijuana), and who, for the item in question, meets the used directly test and overcomes the majority use threshold. (See subsection (8) of this rule for a discussion of the "used directly" criterion and see subsection (9) of this rule for an explanation of the majority use threshold.) However, for research and development operations, there is no requirement that the operation produce tangible personal property for sale. A processor for hire who does not sell tangible personal property is eligible for the exemption if the processor for hire manufactures articles, substances, or commodities that will be sold by the manufacturer. For example, a person who is a processor for hire but who is manufacturing with regard to tangible personal property that will be used by the manufacturer, rather than sold by the manufacturer, is not eligible. For additional information on manufacturing, processing for hire, or fabricating, see WAC 458-20-136 and RCW 82.04.110. Persons who engage in testing for manufacturers or processors for hire are eligible for the exemption. To be eligible for the exemption, the taxpayer need not be a manufacturer or processor for hire in the state of Washington, but must meet the definition of manufacturer provided in subsection (2)(g) of this rule.
(5) What is eligible for the exemption? Machinery and equipment used directly in a qualifying operation by a qualifying person is eligible for the exemption, subject to overcoming the majority use threshold.
There are three classes of eligible machinery and equipment: Industrial fixtures, devices, and support facilities. Also eligible is tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or component of the machinery and equipment, including repair parts and replacement parts. "Machinery and equipment" also includes pollution control equipment installed and used in a qualifying operation to prevent air pollution, water pollution, or contamination that might otherwise result from the operation.
(6) What is not eligible for the exemption? In addition to items that are not eligible because they do not meet the used directly test or fail to overcome the majority use threshold, the following four categories of property are statutorily excluded from eligibility:
(a) Hand-powered tools. Screw drivers, hammers, clamps, tape measures, and wrenches are examples of hand-powered tools. Electric powered, including cordless tools, are not hand-powered tools, nor are calipers, plugs used in measuring, or calculators.
(b) Property with a useful life of less than one year. All eligible machinery and equipment must satisfy the useful life criterion, including repair parts and replacement parts. For example, items such as blades and bits are generally not eligible for the exemption because, while they may become component parts of eligible machinery and equipment, they generally have a useful life of less than one year. Blades generally having a useful life of one year or more, such as certain sawmill blades, are eligible. See subsection (7) of this rule for thresholds to determine useful life.
(c) Buildings. Buildings, other than machinery and equipment that is permanently affixed to or becomes a physical part of a building. Buildings provide work space for people or shelter machinery and equipment or tangible personal property. The building itself is not eligible, however some of its components might be eligible for the exemption. The industrial fixtures and support facilities that become affixed to or part of the building might be eligible. The subsequent real property status of industrial fixtures and support facilities does not affect eligibility for the exemption.
(d) Building fixtures. Building fixtures that are not integral to the manufacturing operation, testing operation, or research and development operation that are permanently affixed to and become a physical part of a building, such as utility systems for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, communications, plumbing, or electrical. Examples of nonqualifying fixtures are: Fire sprinklers, building electrical systems, or washroom fixtures. Fixtures that are integral to the manufacturing operation might be eligible, depending on whether the item meets the other requirements for eligibility, such as the used directly test.
(7) The "useful life" threshold. RCW 82.08.02565 has a per se exception for "property with a useful life of less than one year." Property that meets this description is not eligible for the M&E exemption. The useful life threshold identifies items that do not qualify for the exemption, such as supplies, consumables, and other classes of items that are not expected or intended to last a year or more. For example, tangible personal property that is acquired for a one-time use and is discarded after use, such as a mold or a form, has a useful life of less than one year and is not eligible. If it is clear from taxpayer records or practice that an item is used for at least one year, the item is eligible, regardless of the answers to the four threshold questions. A taxpayer may work directly with the department to establish recordkeeping methods that are tailored to the specific circumstances of the taxpayer. The following steps should be used to determine whether an item meets the "useful life" threshold. The series of questions progress from simple documentation to complex documentation. To substantiate qualification under any step, a taxpayer must maintain adequate records or be able to establish by demonstrating through practice or routine that the threshold is overcome. Catastrophic loss, damage, or destruction of an item does not affect eligibility of machinery and equipment that otherwise qualifies. Assuming the machinery and equipment meets all of the other M&E requirements and does not have a single one-time use or is not discarded during the first year, useful life should be determined by answering the following questions for an individual piece of machinery and equipment:
(a) Is the machinery and equipment capitalized for either federal tax purposes or accounting purposes?
• If the answer is "yes," it qualifies for the exemption.
• If the answer is "no,"
(b) Is the machinery and equipment warranted by the manufacturer to last at least one year?
• If the answer is "yes," it qualifies for the exemption.
• If the answer is "no,"
(c) Is the machinery and equipment normally replaced at intervals of one year or more, as established by industry or business practice? (This is commonly based on the actual experience of the person claiming the exemption.)
• If the answer is "yes," it qualifies for the exemption.
• If the answer is "no,"
(d) Is the machinery and equipment expected at the time of purchase to last at least one year, as established by industry or business practice? (This is commonly based on the actual experience of the person claiming the exemption.)
• If the answer is "yes," it qualifies for the exemption.
• If the answer is "no," it does not qualify for the exemption.
(8) The "used directly" criteria. Items that are not "used directly" in a qualifying operation are not eligible for the exemption. The statute provides eight descriptions of the phrase "used directly." The manner in which a person uses an item of machinery and equipment must match one of these descriptions. Examples of items that are not used directly in a qualifying operation are cafeteria furniture, safety equipment not part of qualifying M&E, packaging materials, shipping materials, or administrative equipment. Machinery and equipment is "used directly" in a manufacturing operation, testing operation, or research and development operation, if the machinery and equipment meets any one of the following criteria:
(a) Acts on or interacts with. It acts on or interacts with an item of tangible personal property. Examples include drill presses, concrete mixers (agitators), ready-mix concrete trucks, hot steel rolling machines, rock crushers, and band saws. Also included is machinery and equipment used to repair, maintain, or install tangible personal property. Computers qualify under this criterion if:
(i) They direct or control machinery or equipment that acts on or interacts with tangible personal property; or
(ii) If they act on or interact with an item of tangible personal property.
(b) Conveys, transports, handles, or temporarily stores. It conveys, transports, handles, or temporarily stores an item of tangible personal property at the manufacturing site or the testing site. Examples include wheelbarrows, handcarts, storage racks, forklifts, tanks, vats, robotic arms, piping, and concrete storage pads. Floor space in buildings does not qualify under this criterion. Also not eligible under this criterion are items that are used to ship the product or in which the product is packaged, as well as materials used to brace or support an item during transport.
(c) Controls, guides, measures, verifies, aligns, regulates or tests. It controls, guides, measures, verifies, aligns, regulates, or tests tangible personal property at the site or away from the site. Examples of "away from the site" are road testing of trucks, air testing of planes, or water testing of boats, with the machinery and equipment used off site in the testing eligible under this criterion. Machinery and equipment used to take readings or measurements is eligible under this criterion.
(d) Provides physical support. It provides physical support for or access to tangible personal property. Examples include catwalks adjacent to production equipment, scaffolding around tanks, braces under vats, and ladders near controls. Machinery and equipment used for access to the building or to provide a work space for people or a space for tangible personal property or machinery and equipment, such as stairways or doors, is not eligible under this criterion.
(e) Produces power or lubricates. It produces power for or lubricates machinery and equipment. A generator providing power to a sander is an example of machinery and equipment that produces such power. An electrical generating plant that provides power for a building is not eligible under this criterion. Lubricating devices, such as hoses, oil guns, pumps, and meters, whether or not attached to machinery and equipment, are eligible under this criterion.
(f) Produces another item. It produces another item of tangible personal property for use in the manufacturing operation, testing operation, or research and development operation. Examples include machinery and equipment that make dies, jigs, or molds, and printers that produce camera-ready images.
(g) Packs. It places tangible personal property in the container, package, or wrapping in which the tangible personal property is normally sold or transported.
(h) Is integral to research and development. It is integral to "research and development" as it is defined in RCW 82.63.010.
(9) The majority use threshold.
(a) M&E used both in a qualifying and nonqualifying manner. Machinery and equipment used both directly in a qualifying operation and also in a nonqualifying manner is eligible for the exemption only if the qualifying use satisfies the majority use requirement. Examples of situations in which an item of machinery and equipment is used for qualifying and nonqualifying purposes include: The use of machinery and equipment in manufacturing and repair activities, such as using a power saw to make cabinets in a shop versus using it to make cabinets at a customer location; the use of machinery and equipment in manufacturing and constructing activities, such as using a forklift to move finished sheet rock at the manufacturing site versus using it to unload sheet rock at a customer location; and the use of machinery and equipment in manufacturing and transportation activities, such as using a mixer truck to make concrete at a manufacturing site versus using it to deliver concrete to a customer. Majority use can be expressed as a percentage, with the minimum required amount of qualifying use being greater than fifty percent compared to overall use. To determine whether the majority use requirement has been satisfied, the person claiming the exemption must retain records documenting the measurement used to substantiate a claim for exemption or, if time, value, or volume is not the basis for measurement, be able to establish by demonstrating through practice or routine that the requirement is satisfied. Majority use is measured by looking at the use of an item during a calendar year using any of the following:
(i) Time. Time is measured using hours, days, or other unit of time, with qualifying use of the M&E the numerator, and total time used the denominator. Suitable records for time measurement include employee time sheets or equipment time use logs.
(ii) Value. Value means the value to the person, measured by revenue if both the qualifying and nonqualifying uses produce revenue. Value is measured using gross revenue, with revenue from qualifying use of the M&E the numerator, and total revenue from use of the M&E the denominator. If there is no revenue associated with the use of the M&E, such as in-house accounting use of a computer system, the value basis may not be used. Suitable records for value measurement include taxpayer sales journals, ledgers, account books, invoices, and other summary records.
(iii) Volume. Volume is measured using amount of product, with volume from qualifying use of the M&E the numerator and total volume from use of the M&E the denominator. Suitable records for volume measurement include production numbers, tonnage, and dimensions.
(iv) Other comparable measurement for comparison. The department may agree to allow a taxpayer to use another measure for comparison, provided that the method results in a comparison between qualifying and nonqualifying uses. For example, if work patterns or routines demonstrate typical behavior, the taxpayer with the department's approval can satisfy the majority use test using work site surveys as proof.
(b) Bundling similar M&E into classes. Each piece of M&E does not require a separate record if the taxpayer can establish that it is reasonable to bundle M&E into classes. Classes may be created only from similar pieces of machinery and equipment and only if the uses of the pieces are the same. For example, forklifts of various sizes and models can be bundled together if the forklifts are doing the same work, as in moving wrapped product from the assembly line to a storage area. An example of when not to bundle classes of M&E for purposes of the majority use threshold is the use of a computer that controls a machine through numerical control versus use of a computer that creates a camera ready page for printing.
(c) Industry-wide standards. Typically, whether the majority use threshold is met is decided on a case-by-case basis, looking at the specific manufacturing operation in which the item is being used. However, for purposes of applying the majority use threshold, the department may develop industry-wide standards. For instance, the aggregate industry uses concrete mixer trucks in a consistent manner across the industry. Based on a comparison of selling prices of the processed product picked up by the customer at the manufacturing site and delivery prices to a customer location, and taking into consideration the qualifying activity (interacting with tangible personal property) of the machinery and equipment compared to the nonqualifying activity (delivering the product) of the machinery and equipment, the department has determined that concrete trucks qualify under the majority use threshold. Only in those limited instances where it is apparent that the use of the concrete truck is atypical for the industry would the taxpayer be required to provide recordkeeping on the use of the truck to support the exemption.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-07-046, § 458-20-13601, filed 3/14/16, effective 4/14/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.04.120, 82.04.213, 82.04.260, 82.04.4266, 82.08.02565, 82.12.022, and 82.12.02565. WSR 15-01-005, § 458-20-13601, filed 12/4/14, effective 1/4/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.08.02565, and 82.12.02565. WSR 08-14-024, § 458-20-13601, filed 6/20/08, effective 7/21/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 00-11-096, § 458-20-13601, filed 5/17/00, effective 6/17/00.]



458-20-138
Personal services rendered to others.

The term "personal services," as used herein, refers generally to the activity of rendering services as distinct from making sales of tangible personal property or of services which have been defined in the law as "sales" or "sales at retail." (See RCW 82.04.040 and 82.04.050.)
The following are illustrative of persons performing personal services which are within the scope of this rule: Attorneys, doctors, dentists, architects, engineers, public accountants, public stenographers, barbers, beauty shop operators. (See also WAC 458-20-224.)
Business and Occupation Tax
Persons engaged in the business of rendering personal services to others are taxable under the service and other activities classification upon the gross income of such business.
There must be included within gross amounts reported for tax all fees for services rendered and all charges recovered for expenses incurred in connection therewith, such as transportation costs, hotel, restaurant, telephone and telegraph charges, etc.
Retail Sales Tax
The retail sales tax does not apply to the amount charged or received for the rendition of personal services to others, even though some tangible personal property in the form of materials and supplies is furnished or used in connection with such services.
Persons performing such services are consumers of all materials and supplies used in connection therewith and must pay the retail sales tax upon the purchase of such material and supplies.
If persons engaged in a personal service business sell articles of tangible personal property apart from the rendition of personal services, the retail sales tax must be collected upon the sale of such articles.
Revised June 1, 1970.
[Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-138 (Rule 138), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-139
Trade shops—Printing plate makers, typesetters, and trade binderies.

The term "printing plate makers" includes, among others, photoengravers, electrotypers, stereotypers, and lithographic plate makers.
Business and Occupation Tax
Printing plate makers, typesetters and trade binderies (referred to in the trade as "trade shops") are primarily engaged in the business of altering or improving tangible personal property owned by them for sale or altering or improving tangible personal property owned by their customers. In either case the gross proceeds (including the value of any property exchanged by the customer in kind) from sales of, or services rendered to, plates, mats, engravings, type, etc., which are delivered in this state are taxable under retailing if the sale is to a "consumer" or wholesaling-all others if the sale is to one who will resell the property in the regular course of business without intervening "use." (See WAC 458-20-102A Resale certificates and WAC 458-20-102 Reseller permits.) Neither of these classifications is applicable however, if the article sold is delivered to an out-of-state customer at an out-of-state point or if an article is produced for commercial or industrial use (see WAC 458-20-134). In these cases tax is due under the manufacturing classification on the "value of products."
Retail Sales Tax
Sales to the printing industry and others of tangible personal property, or of services of altering or improving tangible personal property, by printing plate makers, typesetters, and trade binderies are sales at retail and subject to the retail sales tax unless the purchaser resells the article in the regular course of business without any intervening "use." For example, a trade shop must collect and account for the retail sales tax where a printing plate is sold to a printer who uses the plate to produce copy for a customer, even though he subsequently sells and delivers both the plate and the copy to the customer. In this situation the printer has made "intervening use" of the plate as a printing tool and is a "consumer" liable for payment of the retail sales tax to the trade shop.
Sales of plates, engravings, etc., to advertising agencies are retail sales and subject to the retail sales tax.
Sales by supply houses to trade shops of metal or other materials becoming a component part of an article produced for sale are not subject to the retail sales tax. As evidence of this, trade shops are required to furnish their vendors resale certificates for purchases made before January 1, 2010, or reseller permits for purchases made on or after January 1, 2010, to document the wholesale nature of any purchase as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). On the other hand, sales to trade shops of items for use such as machinery, equipment, tools, and other articles or materials, including chemicals which are used in the production of plates, mats, engravings, type, etc., are retail sales subject to the retail sales tax.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-139, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-139 (Rule 139), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-140
Photofinishers and photographers.

Business and Occupation Tax
Retailing. The gross proceeds of all sales taxable under the retail sales tax are taxable under the retailing classification.
Wholesaling. Taxable under the wholesaling classification upon the gross proceeds from sales for resale.
Manufacturing. Photofinishers who produce negatives, prints, or slides in Washington and who transfer or deliver such articles to points outside this state are subject to business tax under the manufacturing classification upon the value of products (see Rule 112) [WAC 458-20-112] and are not subject to tax under the retailing or wholesaling classification.
Processing for hire. Photofinishers who develop film for others and who make delivery of the film to points outside the state are subject to business tax under the processing for hire classification upon the total charge for the work done. It is immaterial that the customers are located outside the state or that the film was sent in from outside the state for processing.
Service. Taxable under the service and other activities classification upon gross income from sales to publishers of newspapers, magazines and other publications of the right to publish photographs.
Retail Sales Tax
Photofinishers. Photofinishers developing films and selling to consumers the prints made therefrom are making taxable retail sales, and the retail sales tax must be collected upon the full charge made to the customer. Photofinishers developing films and selling to other than consumers the prints made therefrom are sales for resale and not subject to the retail sales tax.
Sales by supply houses to photofinishers of paper upon which prints are made and of chemicals which are to be used in making the prints are sales for resale and are not taxable under the retail sales tax. Sales by supply houses to photofinishers of equipment and materials which do not become a component part of the prints are taxable under the retail sales tax.
Portrait and commercial photographers. Photographers who make negatives on special order and sell photographs to customers (other than dealers for resale) must collect the retail sales tax upon such sales.
Sales by supply houses to a portrait or commercial photographer of the paper upon which such photographs are printed are not taxable because such material becomes an ingredient of the final product sold for consumption. Sales of chemicals, such as developing agents, fixing solutions, etc., for use in such process are also nontaxable. However, sales to a photographer of materials and equipment used in processing, whenever such materials do not become a component part of the final photograph or are not chemicals used in processing are taxable under the retail sales tax.
Sales to consumers by photographers of pictures, frames, camera films and other articles are subject to the retail sales tax.
Sales by photographers of the right to publish photographs are primarily licenses to use and not sales of tangible personal property. Such sales are not subject to the retail sales tax.
Photographers tinting and coloring pictures or prints belonging to customers are making retail sales upon which the retail sales tax applies to the total charge made therefor. Sales of oil and water colors to a photographer for use in tinting and coloring pictures or prints belonging to a customer are sales for resale and are not subject to the retail sales tax.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-140, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-140 (Rule 140), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-141
Duplicating activities and mailing bureaus.

(1) Introduction. This rule discusses the business and occupation (B&O) tax and retail sales and use tax reporting responsibilities of persons who engage in duplicating activities or who provide mailing bureau services in Washington. Persons engaged in printing activities should refer to WAC 458-20-144 (Printing industry).
(2) Duplicating activities. Duplicating is the copying of typed, written, drawn, photographed, previously duplicated, or printed materials using a photographic process such as photocopying, color copying, or blueprinting.
(a) Sales of duplicated products. Income from the sale of photostats, photocopies, blueprint copies and other duplicated tangible personal property to consumers is subject to the retailing B&O tax. The measure of tax is the gross proceeds of sale. The seller is also responsible for collecting and remitting retail sales tax on the selling price when making sales to consumers, unless a specific exemption applies. The wholesaling B&O tax applies to the gross proceeds of sale when the buyer purchases the duplicated property for resale without intervening use. The seller must obtain a resale certificate from the buyer to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102 (Resale certificates).
If the seller is also the manufacturer of the duplicated products, the seller may be eligible for a multiple activities tax credit. Refer to WAC 458-20-19301 (Multiple activities tax credits) for more information about the credit.
(b) Duplicating as a manufacturing activity. A person duplicating tangible personal property for sale or commercial or industrial use (the use of manufactured property as a consumer) is subject to the manufacturing B&O tax classification. For further information about manufacturing activities, refer to WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products), WAC 458-20-134 (Commercial or industrial use), and WAC 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating).
(c) Self-service copying. Some persons provide consumers with access to duplicating equipment to make their own copies (frequently referred to "self-service copying"). These customers are generally charged on a per page basis. The gross proceeds of sales made to consumers for self-service copying is subject to the retailing B&O tax. The seller is also responsible for collecting retail sales tax, unless a specific exemption applies. In such cases, the person providing access to duplicating equipment is not engaged in a manufacturing activity and charges for self-service copying are not subject to the manufacturing B&O tax.
(d) Potential litter tax liability. Chapter 82.19 RCW imposes a litter tax on manufacturers (including duplicators), wholesalers, and retailers of certain products. These products include, but are not limited to, newspapers, magazines, and household paper and paper products. Thus, persons who duplicate tangible personal property for sale or who provide facilities for self-service copying may incur a litter tax liability. The measure of the litter tax is the gross proceeds of sale. For further information about the litter tax, refer to chapter 82.19 RCW and WAC 458-20-243 (Litter tax).
(e) Purchases for resale. The purchase of tangible personal property for resale as tangible personal property or as a component or ingredient of duplicated property is a purchase at wholesale. Examples of items that may be purchased at wholesale include paper, ink, toner, and staples. Refer to WAC 458-20-113 (Ingredients or components, chemicals used in processing new articles for sale). Wholesale purchases are not subject to retail sales tax when the buyer provides a resale certificate to the seller as provided by WAC 458-20-102 (Resale certificates).
(f) Purchases subject to retail sales or use tax. A person who engages in duplicating activities and acquires tangible personal property for use as a consumer must pay retail sale tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department when the seller fails to collect retail sales tax. Examples of purchases by a person engaged in duplicating activities that are subject to retail sales tax or use tax include photocopiers, cutting boards, computers, cash registers, and office furniture. For further information about the use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
Persons who engage in duplicating products for sale should refer to WAC 458-20-13601 (Manufacturers and processors for hire—Sales and use tax exemption for machinery and equipment) for information about the sales and use tax exemptions for certain machinery and equipment used directly in a manufacturing operation.
(g) Example. Copy Company provides a public area with photocopying equipment and materials (paper, toner, and staples) to allow customers to make their own copies. Copy Company has a separate area where Copy Company employees make copies for customers. The income attributable to copies made both by the customers and by Copy Company employees is subject to the retailing B&O and retail sales taxes. The value of the copies made by Copy Company employees is also subject to the manufacturing B&O tax, and Copy Company may claim a multiple activities tax credit as described above in subsection (2)(a). Litter tax may be due as explained above in subsection (2)(d).
Copy Company may purchase the paper, toner, and staples that are used or provided in both areas at wholesale, if the seller receives a resale certificate. Retail sales or use tax applies to the purchase of photocopying equipment in both areas. The purchase and/or use of the equipment where Copy Company employees make copies may qualify for the machinery and equipment exemption described in WAC 458-20-13601.
(3) Mailing bureau services. Mailing bureaus, also referred to as mail houses, prepare for distribution mail pieces such as bulletins, form letters, advertising material, political publications, and flyers as directed by their customers. The customer may provide the mail pieces to be prepared for distribution or the mailing bureau itself may sell the material to the customer. Mailing bureaus that duplicate the material being prepared should also refer to subsection (2), above. Mailing bureaus that print the material being prepared should also refer to WAC 458-20-144.
(a) Mailing bureau activities. Activities conducted by mailing bureaus include, but are not limited to, picking up, addressing, labeling, binding, folding, enclosing, sealing, tabbing, and mailing the mail pieces. The mailing bureau generally charges the customer on a per-piece basis for each separate service provided plus the actual cost of any postage.
Charges for labor and services rendered in respect to altering, imprinting, or improving tangible personal property of or for consumers are retail sales. RCW 82.04.050 (2)(a). Thus, the retailing B&O tax applies to income received from consumers for services that include addressing, labeling, binding, folding, enclosing, sealing, and/or tabbing. Mailing bureau businesses are also responsible for collecting and remitting retail sales tax when making sales to consumers, unless a specific exemption applies.
(b) Measure of tax. The measure of the B&O and retail sales taxes is the gross proceeds of sale and selling price, respectively. These terms include all consideration paid by the buyer, however identified, without any deduction for costs of doing business, such as material, labor, and delivery costs. RCW 82.04.070 and 82.08.010.
(i) Postage. Charges for postage or other delivery costs are included in the measure of tax for both B&O tax and retail sales tax if the costs are part of the consideration paid by the customer. It is immaterial if the amounts charged for postage are stated or shown separately on the sales invoice or reflect actual mailing costs to the mailing bureau. Amounts charged for postage and other delivery costs are not included in the measure of tax only if the amounts are not part of the consideration paid by the customer.
(A) When is postage part of the consideration paid? Charges for postage costs are considered part of the consideration paid if the permit to use precancelled stamps, a postage meter, or an imprint account for bulk mailings is in the name of the mailing bureau. The mailing bureau is liable to the post office for payment and the customer's payment of such amounts represents a payment on the sale of tangible personal property or the services provided. For further information, refer to WAC 458-20-111 (Advances and reimbursements).
(B) When is postage not part of the consideration paid? Charges for postage are not considered part of the consideration paid if the permit to use precancelled stamps or a permit imprint account for bulk mailings is in the customer's name. The mailing bureau in these cases has no primary or secondary liability for payment of the postage costs. (Refer to WAC 458-20-111 for information about advances and reimbursements.)
(ii) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of any situation must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances. For purposes of the following examples, sales invoices to the customer separately identify charges for postage.
(A) Example 1. Mailing Bureau receives mail pieces from Department Store to prepare and mail. Mailing Bureau advises Department Store of the estimated amount of postage. Department Store deposits an amount equal to the estimated cost of postage in its own permit imprint account. The estimated postage is not part of the total consideration paid because the Department Store is personally liable to the post office for postage. The total charge, excluding postage, is the consideration paid by Department Store and subject to tax.
(B) Example 2. Assume facts as described above in Example 1. The post office determines that the actual cost of postage exceeds the estimated amount deposited by Department Store in its permit imprint account. Post office transfers the additional amount for postage from Mailing Bureau's account. Mailing Bureau invoices Department Store for the additional amount. The additional amount for postage is not part of the consideration paid and is not included in the measure of tax because Mailing Bureau's liability for payment of the additional postage is limited to that of an agent.
(C) Example 3. Mailing Bureau receives from Political Candidate B mail pieces to prepare and mail. Mailing Bureau uses its own postage meter to apply metered postage. Postage is a part of the consideration paid by Candidate B and is included in the measure of tax.
(D) Example 4. Mailing Bureau receives prestamped mail pieces from Medical Clinic to prepare and mail. The mail pieces qualify for the lower bulk mail rates after Mailing Bureau prepares the mail pieces. The post office refunds the difference between the single piece rate and the bulk mail rate to Mailing Bureau. Mailing Bureau retains the amount due for services rendered and in turn remits the balance of the refunded postage to Medical Clinic. Postage is not a part of the consideration paid and is not included in the measure of tax.
(E) Example 5. Mailing Bureau prints, prepares, and mails mail pieces for Non-Profit Organization's fund-raising drive. Mailing Bureau applies metered postage using its own postage meter. The charge for postage is a part of the consideration paid and included in the measure of tax.
(F) Example 6. Mailing Bureau duplicates, prepares, and mails advertising for Restaurant. Mailing Bureau applies precancelled stamps that it purchases from the post office. The charge for postage is a part of the consideration paid and included in the measure of tax.
(G) Example 7. Mailing Bureau picks up mail pieces from Washington City to prepare and mail. Mailing Bureau applies metered postage using its own postage meter. The charge for postage is a part of the consideration paid by Washington City and included in the measure of tax.
(H) Example 8. Mailing Bureau prepares and mails advertising for Insurance Company. To apply postage, Mailing Bureau uses a postage meter leased by Insurance Company from a third party vendor. Insurance Company is liable to the third party vendor for payment of postage. The consideration does not include charges for postage.
(I) Example 9. Assume same facts as described in Example 8 above. The postage meter account contains insufficient funds required for mailing pieces. Mailing Bureau advances sufficient funds to Insurance Company's metering account. Mailing Bureau invoices Insurance Company for the additional amount. The consideration does not include postage because Mailing Bureau's liability for payment is limited to that of an agent.
(c) Retail sales tax exemptions. Certain sales tax exemptions may apply to the sale of tangible personal property or labor and services rendered to tangible personal property.
(i) Interstate sales of tangible personal property. The sale of tangible personal property is not subject to retail sales tax when the seller agrees to and does deliver the property outside the state. Refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property) for further information about interstate sales.
(ii) Labor and services rendered in respect to tangible personal property of or for a nonresident. RCW 82.08.0265 provides a retail sales tax exemption for charges made for labor and services rendered in respect to any installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving tangible personal property of or for a nonresident when the seller agrees to and does deliver the property to the purchaser at a point outside this state or delivers the property to a common or bona fide private carrier consigned to the purchaser at a point outside this state. For further information about this exemption, refer to WAC 458-20-173 (Installing, cleaning, repairing or otherwise altering or improving personal property of consumers).
(d) Purchases for resale. The purchase of tangible personal property for resale as tangible personal property or to become a component or ingredient of property upon which mailing bureau services will be performed is a purchase at wholesale. Examples of items that may be purchased at wholesale include paper, printing ink, envelopes, and staples. Wholesale purchases are not subject to retail sales tax when the buyer provides a resale certificate to the seller as provided by WAC 458-20-102 (Resale certificates). Refer to WAC 458-20-113 (Ingredients or components, chemicals used in processing new articles for sale) for further information regarding ingredients and components.
(e) Purchases subject to retail sales or use tax. A mailing bureau business that purchases, leases, or otherwise acquires tangible personal property for use as a consumer must pay retail sale tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department when the seller fails to collect the retail sales tax. Examples of such property include photocopiers, cutting boards, computers, office furniture, and equipment to address, label, fold, seal, insert, meter, stamp, or sort. For further information about the use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
(f) Purchases of mailing lists. Persons acquiring mailing lists are purchasing an information service regardless of the medium used to provide or transfer the information. Thus, the purchase of a mailing list by a mailing bureau business is not subject to either retail sales or use tax.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 05-03-053, § 458-20-141, filed 1/11/05, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-141, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-141 (Rule 141), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-142
Photographic equipment and supplies.

Sales of tangible personal property by a photographic supply house to persons who purchase such property for personal consumption or use are subject to the retail sales tax. Illustrative of such sales are the following:
Photographic films, paper, chemicals, frames, repair parts for cameras and other equipment sold to customers for personal use.
X-ray materials and equipment sold to doctors, dentists, hospitals, dental and X-ray laboratories.
Equipment sold to photofinishers, portrait and commercial photographers and photoengravers such as cameras, lenses, backgrounds, graduates, trays, utensils, lamps, retouching dope, leads, pencils and sundry materials which do not become an ingredient or component part of the pictures produced for sale.
Photographic films, chemicals and equipment sold to a newspaper publisher.
Photographic films sold to portrait and commercial photographers for use in their business.
Sales of tangible personal property by a photographic supply house to persons who resell such property in the regular course of business or consume the same in producing for sale a new article of which such property is an ingredient or component, or a chemical used in processing the same, are not subject to the retail sales tax. Illustrative of such sales are the following:
Photographic films, photo mailers, cameras, art-corners, etc., sold to a dealer or photographer for the purpose of resale;
Photographic paper, mounts, frames, adhesives, card board, oil and water colors, India ink sold to a photofinisher, portrait or commercial photographer or photoengraver to be used in producing photographic prints for sale.
Envelopes, paper and twine sold to a photographer or photofinisher for use in delivering photographic prints sold.
Chemicals, such as developing agents, fixing agents, etc., sold to a photofinisher, portrait or commercial photographer or photoengraver, which chemicals are used in producing pictures for sale.
The retail sales tax applies upon the charge made for repairing cameras and other equipment, the retouching or alteration of photographs or films, when done for consumers.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-142, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-142 (Rule 142), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-143
Printers and publishers of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals.

(1) Introduction. This section explains the application of the business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to printers and/or publishers of newspapers, magazines, periodicals, and other printed materials. The department of revenue (department) has adopted other sections providing tax reporting information to persons printing, publishing, or selling these publications and other printed materials.
• Persons selling newspapers, magazines, and periodicals that are not printed and/or published by the seller should also refer to WAC 458-20-127;
• For information regarding the printing industry in general, see WAC 458-20-144;
• For information regarding the tax-reporting responsibilities of persons selling direct mail or engaging in business as a mailing bureau, see WAC 458-20-141;
• For information regarding the tax-reporting responsibilities of persons duplicating printed materials for others, see WAC 458-20-141;
• For information regarding potential litter tax liability, see WAC 458-20-243.
(2) Definitions. The following definitions apply throughout this section:
(a) "Newspaper."
(i) Effective July 1, 2008, "newspaper" means a publication issued regularly at stated intervals at least twice a month and printed on newsprint in tabloid or broadsheet format folded loosely together without stapling, glue, or any other binding of any kind, including any supplement of a printed newspaper; and an electronic version of a printed newspaper that:
• Shares content with the printed newspaper; and
• Is prominently identified by the same name as the printed newspaper or otherwise conspicuously indicates that it is a complement to the printed newspaper. See RCW 82.04.214.
(ii) Prior to July 1, 2008, "newspaper" means a publication issued regularly at stated intervals at least twice a month and printed on newsprint in tabloid or broadsheet format folded loosely together without stapling, glue, or any other binding of any kind.
(b) "Supplement" means a printed publication, including a magazine or advertising section, that is:
(i) Labeled and identified as part of the printed newspaper; and
(ii) Circulated or distributed:
• As an insert or attachment to the printed newspaper; or
• Separate and apart from the printed newspaper so long as the distribution is within the general circulation area of the newspaper.
(c) "Periodical or magazine" means a printed publication, other than a newspaper, issued regularly at stated interval at least once every three months, including any supplement or special edition of the publication.
(d) For purposes of this section, "other printed material" refers to printed materials other than newspapers, magazines, or periodicals.
(3) General tax guidance.
(a) Publishing newspapers. Effective July 1, 2009, publishers of newspapers are taxable under the publication of newspapers classification of the B&O tax upon the gross income (including advertising income) derived from publishing newspapers. See (d) of this subsection and RCW 82.04.260(13). Prior to July 1, 2009, publishers of newspapers are taxable under the printing and publishing classification of the B&O tax upon the gross income (including advertising income) derived from publishing newspapers.
Persons reporting income under the publication of newspapers classification of the B&O tax must file a complete annual tax performance report with the department. In addition, such persons must electronically file with the department all reports, returns, and any other forms. Refer to RCW 82.32.600 and WAC 458-20-267 for the specific guidelines and requirements.
Retail sales of newspapers, whether by publishers or others, are exempt from retail sales tax. See RCW 82.08.0253.
(b) Publishing periodicals or magazines. Publishers of periodicals or magazines are taxable under the printing and publishing classification of the B&O tax upon the gross income (including advertising income) derived from publishing periodicals or magazines. See (d) of this subsection and RCW 82.04.280(1).
Retail sales of printed magazines and periodicals are subject to retail sales tax. Magazines and periodicals transferred electronically to the end user are also subject to the retail sales tax regardless of how they are accessed. For more information on the sale of digital products, refer to RCW 82.04.050, 82.04.192, and 82.04.257.
(c) Publishing other printed materials. Retail and wholesale sales of other printed materials by persons who both print and publish the items, are taxable under the printing and publishing classification. Persons who publish but do not print other printed materials, are subject to:
• Either the wholesaling or retailing B&O tax, measured by gross sales of the other printed materials; and
• The service and other activities B&O tax, measured by the gross income received from advertising.
(d) Doing business inside and outside the state. RCW 82.04.460 requires that advertising income earned by printers and by publishers of newspapers, periodicals, and magazines derived from business activities performed within Washington be apportioned to this state for tax purposes. Refer to chapter 23 (E2SSB 6143), Laws of 2010 1st sp. sess. Part I for information on apportioning advertising income.
(e) Wholesale sales of printed materials. Sales of magazines, periodicals, and other printed materials by the publisher to newsstands, book stores, department stores, and others who resell such items are wholesale sales. Such sales are not subject to retail sales tax when the buyer provides a resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A) for sales made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102) for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, to the seller.
(4) Sales to publishers.
(a) Sales to newspaper, magazine and periodical publishers of paper and printers ink which become a part of the publications sold, and sales by printers of printed publications to publishers for sale, are wholesale sales and are not subject to the retail sales tax when the buyer provides a resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A) for sales made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102) for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, to the seller.
(b) With respect to community newspapers which are distributed free of charge, where the publisher has a contract with his advertisers to distribute the newspaper to the subscriber in consideration for the payments made by the advertisers, it will be construed that the publisher sells the newspaper to the advertiser, and, therefore, the retail sales tax will not apply with respect to the charge made by the printer to the publisher for printing the newspaper or with respect to the purchase of ink and paper when the publisher prints his own newspaper.
(c) Sales to newspaper, magazine or periodical publishers of equipment and of supplies and materials which do not become a part of the finished publication that is sold are subject to the retail sales tax unless specifically exempt (see subsection (5) of this section). This includes, among others, sales of fuel, furniture, lubricants, and office supplies.
(d) Sales to newspaper, magazine or periodical publishers of baseball bats, bicycles, dolls and other articles of tangible personal property which are to be distributed by the publisher as gifts, premiums or prizes are sales for consumption and subject to the retail sales tax.
(e) Sales by authors and artists to publishers of the right to publish scripts, paintings, illustrations and cartoons are mere licenses to use, not sales of tangible personal property and are not subject to the retail sales tax.
(5) Exemption for sales of computer equipment to printers and/or publishers. RCW 82.08.806 and 82.12.806 provide printers and publishers retail sales and use tax exemptions for computer equipment that is used primarily in the printing or publishing of any printed material. The exemption includes repair parts and replacement parts for such equipment and sales of or charges made for labor and services rendered in respect to installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving the computer equipment. The exemption also includes maintenance agreements (service contracts), as defined in WAC 458-20-257, on such equipment. This exemption applies only to computer equipment not otherwise exempt under RCW 82.08.02565.
(6) Use tax. Publishers of newspapers, magazines and periodicals are subject to tax upon the value of articles printed or produced for use in conducting such business. Tax also applies to materials, supplies, and other items which do not become part of the finished publication or which are not resold. Where retail sales tax is not paid, the publisher must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law. Deferred sales or use tax should be reported on the use tax line of the buyer's excise tax return. For detailed information about use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178, Use tax.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.534, 82.32.585, 82.32.590, 82.32.600, 82.32.605, 82.32.607, 82.32.710, 82.32.790, 82.32.808, 82.04.240, 82.04.2404, 82.04.260, 82.04.2909, 82.04.426, 82.04.4277, 82.04.4461, 82.04.4463, 82.04.448, 82.04.4481, 82.04.4483, 82.04.449, 82.08.805, 82.08.965, 82.08.9651, 82.08.970, 82.08.980, 82.08.986, 82.12.022, 82.12.025651, 82.12.805, 82.12.965, 82.12.9651, 82.12.970, 82.12.980, 82.16.0421, 82.29A.137, 82.60.070, 82.63.020, 82.63.045, 82.74.040, 82.74.050, 82.75.040, 82.75.070, 82.82.020, 82.82.040, 84.36.645, and 84.36.655. WSR 18-13-094, § 458-20-143, filed 6/19/18, effective 7/20/18. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 10-18-067, § 458-20-143, filed 8/30/10, effective 9/30/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-16-053 (Order ET 83-5), § 458-20-143, filed 8/1/83; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-143, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-4, § 458-20-143 (Rule 143), filed 6/12/70, effective 7/12/70.]



458-20-144
Printing industry.

(1) Introduction. This section discusses the taxability of the printing industry. For information on the taxability of mailing bureau services and a discussion of direct mail, refer to WAC 458-20-141. For information on the taxability of printers and publishers of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals, refer to WAC 458-20-143.
(2) Definition. The phrase "printing industry" includes letterpress, offset-lithography, and gravure processes as well as multigraph, mimeograph, autotyping, addressographing and similar activities.
(3) Business and occupation tax.
(a) Printers are subject to the business and occupation tax under the printing and publishing classification upon the gross income of the business.
(b) Effective July 1, 2009, printers of newspapers are taxable under the publication of newspapers classification of the B&O tax upon the gross income of the business. Persons reporting income under the publication of newspapers classification of the B&O tax must file a complete annual tax performance report with the department. In addition, such persons must electronically file with the department all reports, returns, and any other forms. Refer to RCW 82.32.600 and WAC 458-20-267 for the specific guidelines and requirements.
(c) Doing business inside and outside the state. RCW 82.04.460 requires that advertising income earned by printers derived from business activities performed within Washington be apportioned to this state for tax purposes. Refer to chapter 23 (E2SSB 6143), Laws of 2010 1st sp. sess. Part I for information on apportioning advertising income.
(4) Retail sales tax.
(a) The printing or imprinting of advertising circulars, books, briefs, envelopes, folders, posters, racing forms, tickets, and other printed matter, whether upon special order or upon materials furnished either directly or indirectly by the customer is a retail sale and subject to the retail sales tax, providing the customer either consumes, or distributes such articles free of charge, and does not resell such articles in the regular course of business. The retail sales tax is computed upon the total charge for printing, and the printer may not deduct the cost of labor, author's alterations, or other service charges in performing the printing, even though such charges may be stated or shown separately on invoices.
(b) Sales of printed matter to advertising agencies who purchase for their own use or for the use of their clients, and not for resale in the regular course of business, are sales for consumption and subject to the retail sales tax.
(c) Sales of tickets to theater owners, amusement operators, transportation companies and others are sales for consumption and subject to the retail sales tax. Such tickets are not resold by the theater owners or amusement proprietors as tangible personal property but are used merely as a receipt to the patrons for payment and as evidence of the right to admission or transportation.
(d) Sales of school annuals and similar publications by printers to school districts, private schools or student organizations therein are subject to the retail sales tax.
(e) Sales by printers of books, envelopes, folders, posters, racing forms, stationery, tickets and other printed matter to dealers for resale in the regular course of business are wholesale sales. Such sales are not subject to retail sales tax when seller obtains a resale certificate for sales made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, from the buyer to document the wholesale nature of the sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014.
(f) Charges made by bookbinders or printers for imprinting, binding or rebinding of materials for consumers are subject to the retail sales tax.
(g) Sales to printers of equipment, supplies and materials which do not become a component part or ingredient of the finished printed matter sold or which are put to "intervening use" before being resold are subject to the retail sales tax unless specifically exempt (see subsection (5) of this section). This includes, among others, sales of fuel, furniture, and lubricants.
(h) Sales to printers of paper stock and ink which become a part of the printed matter sold are sales for resale and are not subject to retail sales tax when the buyer provides a resale certificate (WAC 458-20-102A) for sales made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit (WAC 458-20-102) for sales made on or after January 1, 2010, to the seller.
(5) Exemption for sales of computer equipment to printers. RCW 82.08.806 and 82.12.806 provide a retail sales and use tax exemption to a printer or publisher, of computer equipment, including repair parts and replacement parts for such equipment, when the computer equipment is used primarily in the printing or publishing of any printed material, or to sales of or charges made for labor and services rendered in respect to installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving the computer equipment. This exemption applies only to computer equipment not otherwise exempt under RCW 82.08.02565.
(6) Commissions and discounts.
(a) There is a general trade practice in the printing industry of making allowances to advertising agencies of a certain percentage of the gross charge made for printed matter ordered by the agency either in its own name or in the name of the advertiser. This allowance may be a "commission" or may be a "discount."
(b) A "commission" paid by a seller constitutes an expense of doing business and is not deductible from the measure of tax under either business and occupation tax or retail sales tax. On the other hand, a "discount" is a deduction from an established selling price allowed to buyers, and a bona fide discount is deductible under both these classifications.
(c) In order that there may be a definite understanding, printers, advertising agencies and advertisers are advised that tax liability in such cases is as follows:
(i) The allowance taken by an advertising agency will be deductible as a discount in the computation of the printer's liability only in the event that the printer bills the charge on a net basis; i.e., less the discount.
(ii) Where the printer bills the gross charge to the agency, and the advertiser pays the sales tax measured by the gross charge, no deduction will be allowed, irrespective of the fact that in payment of the account the printer actually receives from the agency the net amount only; i.e., the gross billing, less the commission retained by the agency. In all cases the commission received is taxable to the agency.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), 82.32.534, 82.32.585, 82.32.590, 82.32.600, 82.32.605, 82.32.607, 82.32.710, 82.32.790, 82.32.808, 82.04.240, 82.04.2404, 82.04.260, 82.04.2909, 82.04.426, 82.04.4277, 82.04.4461, 82.04.4463, 82.04.448, 82.04.4481, 82.04.4483, 82.04.449, 82.08.805, 82.08.965, 82.08.9651, 82.08.970, 82.08.980, 82.08.986, 82.12.022, 82.12.025651, 82.12.805, 82.12.965, 82.12.9651, 82.12.970, 82.12.980, 82.16.0421, 82.29A.137, 82.60.070, 82.63.020, 82.63.045, 82.74.040, 82.74.050, 82.75.040, 82.75.070, 82.82.020, 82.82.040, 84.36.645, and 84.36.655. WSR 18-13-094, § 458-20-144, filed 6/19/18, effective 7/20/18. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 11-04-010, § 458-20-144, filed 1/21/11, effective 2/21/11; WSR 06-04-033, § 458-20-144, filed 1/26/06, effective 2/26/06; WSR 05-03-052, § 458-20-144, filed 1/11/05, effective 7/1/05; Order ET 70-4, § 458-20-144 (Rule 144), filed 6/12/70, effective 7/12/70.]



458-20-145
Local sales and use tax.

(1) Introduction. Effective July 1, 2008, Washington implements new rules governing how local retail sales taxes are sourced within Washington. See RCW 82.32.730 and 82.14.490. These rules govern where the local retail sales tax attributable to the sale of tangible personal property, retail services, extended warranties, and the lease of tangible personal property is sourced.
"Source," "sourced," or "sourcing" refer to the location (as in a local taxing district, jurisdiction, or authority) where a sale or lease is deemed to occur and is subject to retail sales tax. The department assigns location codes to identify the specific taxing locations that receive the local taxes. These location codes are used on tax returns to accurately identify the correct taxing location and tax rate.
Sellers and their agents are responsible for determining the appropriate tax rate for all their retail sales taxable in Washington. Sellers and their agents are also responsible for collecting from their purchasers the correct amount of tax due upon each sale and remitting that tax to the department.
Throughout this section the department provides a number of examples that identify facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined separately after a review of all of the facts and circumstances.
This section is divided into four subsections. Subsection (1) contains this introduction, a description of department resources available to assist taxpayers in performing local sales tax sourcing, and certain key terms. Subsection (2) describes Washington's sourcing rules that become effective July 1, 2008. Subsection (3) provides information relating to the sourcing of telecommunication services. Finally, subsection (4) briefly explains Washington's use tax rule.
(a) What resources does the department offer to help sellers determine their local retail sales tax sourcing? The department offers a number of resources to assist taxpayers in sourcing retail sales. These resources include:
(i) The "Local Sales & Use Tax Flyer." This publication is updated every quarter and is mailed to select taxpayers reporting on paper returns. It is also available online on the department's web site at www.dor.wa.gov under "get a form or publication." It provides a listing of all local taxing jurisdictions, location codes, and their corresponding tax rates.
(ii) The online sales and use tax rate look up application (GIS). This is an online application that provides current and past sales and use tax rates and location codes based on an address or a selected location on a map. It also allows users to download data that they can incorporate into their own systems to retrieve the proper tax rate for a specific address.
(iii) Taxing jurisdiction maps. The department has a selection of maps of various taxing jurisdictions that identify the boundaries of a specific taxing jurisdiction.
(b) Of what key terms should I be aware when reading this section?
(i) "Receipt" and "receive" mean taking possession of tangible personal property and making first use of services. "Receive" and "receipt" do not include possession by a shipping company on behalf of the purchaser. See RCW 82.32.730 (8)(d).
(ii) "Retail sale" has the same meaning as provided in RCW 82.04.050 and includes the following three types of retail sales: Sales and leases of tangible personal property; sales of retail services; and sales of extended warranties.
(iii) "Retail service" means those services described in RCW 82.04.050 as retail sales. This definition includes retail sales of labor and services rendered with respect to tangible personal property.
The following is a nonexclusive list of retail services, many of which are addressed in detail in other rules adopted by the department:
• Constructing, remodeling, or painting buildings (e.g., see WAC 458-20-170);
• Land clearing and earth moving (e.g., see WAC 458-20-172);
• Landscape maintenance and horticultural services (e.g., see WAC 458-20-226);
• Repairing or cleaning equipment (e.g., see WAC 458-20-173);
• Lodging provided by hotels and motels (e.g., see WAC 458-20-166);
• Amusement and recreation services such as golf, bowling, swimming, and tennis (e.g., see WAC 458-20-183);
• Physical fitness services such as exercise classes, personal trainer services, and the use of exercise equipment (e.g., see WAC 458-20-183); and
• Abstract, title insurance, or escrow services (e.g., see WAC 458-20-156).
(iv) "Tangible personal property" means property that can be seen, weighed, measured, felt, or touched, or that is in any other manner perceptible to the senses and includes prewritten software. See RCW 82.08.010(7), 82.08.950, and 82.12.950 for more information.
(v) "Extended warranty" is an agreement for a specified duration to perform the replacement or repair of tangible personal property at no additional charge or a reduced charge for tangible personal property, labor, or both, or to provide indemnification for the replacement or repair of tangible personal property, based on the occurrence of specified events. The term "extended warranty" does not include an agreement, otherwise meeting the definition of extended warranty in this subsection, if no separate charge is made for the agreement and the value of the agreement is included in the sales price of the tangible personal property covered by the agreement. See RCW 82.04.050(7).
(vi) "Motor vehicle" generally means every vehicle that is self-propelled and every vehicle that is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails. Motor vehicles are vehicles capable of being moved upon public ways. "Motor vehicle" includes a neighborhood electric vehicle as defined in RCW 46.04.357. "Motor vehicle" includes a medium-speed electric vehicle as defined in RCW 46.04.295. An electric personal assistive mobility device is not considered a motor vehicle. A power wheelchair is not considered a motor vehicle. For more information see RCW 46.04.320 "Motor vehicle" and RCW 46.04.670 "Vehicle."
(vii) "Primary property location" is the property's physical address as provided by the lessee and kept in the lessor's records maintained in the ordinary course of business, provided use of this address does not constitute bad faith. The primary property location will not change merely by intermittent use of the leased property in different local jurisdictions, e.g., use of leased business property on business trips or service calls to multiple jurisdictions.
(viii) "Transportation equipment" refers to:
(A) Locomotives and railcars used to carry people or property in interstate commerce; and
(B) Trucks and truck tractors with gross vehicle weight ratings of 10,000 pounds or greater, trailers, and semi-trailers, or passenger buses registered through an international registration plan and operated under authority of a carrier authorized and certificated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (or other federal authority) to engage in carrying people or property in interstate commerce (International Registration Plan is a reciprocity agreement among states of the United States and provinces of Canada providing for payment of license fees on the basis of total distance operated in all jurisdictions); and
(C) Aircraft operated by air carriers authorized and certificated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (or other federal or foreign authority) to carry people or property by air in interstate or foreign commerce; and
(D) Containers designed for use on and component parts attached or secured on the items described in (b)(viii)(A) through (C) of this subsection (1). RCW 82.32.730 (8)(e).
(2) Local retail sales tax sourcing. This subsection describes Washington's retail sales tax sourcing rules. Subsection (2)(a) of this section lists the general sourcing rules applicable to the sale of tangible personal property, retail services, and extended warranties. Subsection (2)(b) of this section provides special sourcing rules related to certain "florist sales" and the sale of watercraft; mobile, modular, and manufactured homes; and motor vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers, and aircraft that do not qualify as transportation equipment. Subsection (2)(c) of this section addresses the sourcing rules applicable to leases of tangible personal property.
(a) Sales of tangible personal property, retail services, and extended warranties. This subsection describes the sourcing rules applicable to the sale of tangible personal property, retail services, and extended warranties.
These rules apply in a descending order of priority. This means that the seller first should determine if (a)(i) of this subsection (Rule 1 below) applies. If it does apply, then the seller must source the sale under Rule 1. If Rule 1 does not apply, then the seller must source the sale to the location required under sourcing Rule 2 (below), and so forth until the applicable sourcing rule is determined.
If the seller ships or delivers tangible personal property to a customer who receives that property outside Washington, the sale is deemed to have taken place outside Washington and is not subject to Washington state or local retail sales tax.
The following rules apply when sourcing retail sales in Washington:
(i) Rule 1: Seller's business location. If a purchaser receives tangible personal property, a retail service, or an extended warranty at the seller's business location, the sale is sourced to that business location.
In the case of retail services, this sourcing rule will generally apply where a purchaser receives retail services at the seller's place of business, e.g., an auto repair shop, a hotel or motel, a health club providing physical fitness services, an auto parking service, a dry-cleaning service, and a storage garage. While these types of retail services are usually received at the seller's place of business, if services are received at a location other than the seller's place of business, then alternate sourcing rules will apply.
(A) Examples: Rule 1 - Tangible Personal Property.
(1) Bill, a Tacoma resident, travels to Renton and purchases a ring from a jeweler located in Renton. Bill receives the ring at the Renton location. The seller must source the sale to the Renton location.
(2) Mary, a Walla Walla resident, buys a prewritten software program from a store located in Cheney. Mary receives a compact disc containing the software at the Cheney location. The seller must source the sale to the Cheney location.
(3) Trains, Inc., an Auburn business, buys a locomotive that qualifies as transportation equipment. Trains, Inc. receives the locomotive in Fife at the seller's place of business. The seller must source the sale to the Fife location.
(B) Examples: Rule 1 - Retail Services.
(1) Barbara, a Longview resident, takes her car to a mechanic shop located in Centralia. The mechanic services the car at the Centralia location. Several days later Barbara picks up the car from the Centralia location. The services are received in Centralia. The mechanic must source the sale to the Centralia location.
(2) Rex, a Seattle resident, drops off a roll of film at a photo developer located in Bellevue. Rex picks up the developed film from the Bellevue location. The services are received in Bellevue. The developer must source the sale to the Bellevue location.
(3) Bob, a Pasco resident, takes shirts to a drycleaner located in Kennewick. The drycleaner cleans and presses the shirts. Bob then picks up the shirts in Kennewick the following week. The services are received in Kennewick. The seller must source the sale to the Kennewick location.
(C) Example: Rule 1 - Extended Warranties.
(1) Saffron, a Des Moines resident, buys a computer from a Burien computer outlet. When purchasing the computer Saffron also purchases and receives a five-year extended warranty for the computer at the Burien outlet. The seller must source the sale of the extended warranty and computer to the Burien location.
(ii) Rule 2: Tangible personal property, retail services, or extended warranties received at a location other than the seller's place of business. If the purchaser receives tangible personal property, retail services, or an extended warranty at a location other than the seller's place of business (and sourcing Rule 1 therefore does not apply), then the sale must be sourced to the location where the purchaser, or the purchaser's donee (e.g., a gift), receives such property, retail service, or extended warranty. This location can be a location indicated in instructions, known to the seller, for delivery to the purchaser or donee.
Construction contractors, painters, plumbers, carpet layers (retailers who install what they sell), earth movers, and house wreckers are the types of retail service providers that typically will source sales under this sourcing Rule 2 (presuming they provide their services at a location other than their place of business).
(A) Examples: Rule 2 - Tangible Personal Property.
(1) Wade, a Seattle resident, buys furniture from a store located in Everett. Wade has the furniture delivered to his Seattle residence. Wade receives the furniture at his location in Seattle. The seller must source the sale to Wade's Seattle residence.
(2) Joanne, a Port Angeles business owner, purchases a prewritten software program online from a store located in Sequim. Joanne receives the software at her home address in Port Angeles. The seller has information identifying the location where the software is electronically received by Joanne in Port Angeles. The seller must source the sale to Joanne's Port Angeles home location.
(3) Jean, a Tumwater resident, buys prewritten software to detect online security threats. The seller is a store located in Bothell. As part of the purchase price, Jean receives prewritten software updates. All software is electronically delivered. The seller does not know where the software is electronically delivered. However, the purchase order discloses a ship-to address where the software will be received in Tumwater. The seller must source the sale to Jean's ship-to address as this address represents a delivery location indicated in instructions for delivery to Jean. The seller must source the sale to the Tumwater location according to the ship-to address.
(4) Karl, a Spokane Valley resident, buys a mattress at a store in Spokane. The merchant delivers the mattress from its warehouse located in Deer Park to Karl's home in Spokane Valley. Karl receives the mattress at his home location in Spokane Valley. The seller must source the sale to the Spokane Valley home location.
(5) George, an Olympia resident, orders a pizza from a restaurant located in Tumwater. The restaurant obtains George's Olympia address when taking the order. George receives the pizza at the Olympia address. The seller must source the sale to Olympia according to George's Olympia address.
(6) Gunther, a Sumner resident, places an order for towels with a catalog mail order outlet located in Tacoma. The seller delivers the towels to Gunther's home at a Sumner location from a warehouse in Fife. Gunther receives the towels at the Sumner location. The seller must source the sale to Gunther's Sumner home location.
(B) Examples: Rule 2 - Retail Services.
(1) Brett, a Tacoma resident, contracts with an Olympia painting firm to have his house repainted. The Olympia firm sends employees to Brett's home in Tacoma where they perform the painting. Brett receives the painting services at his home in Tacoma. The painting firm must source the sale of painting services to Brett's Tacoma home location.
(2) Julie, an Aberdeen resident, hires a construction contractor to build a new business facility in Kelso. Julie receives the construction services at the Kelso location. The contractor must source the services to the Kelso construction location.
(3) Gabe, a Shoreline resident, sends a clock to a repair business located in Auburn. The business repairs the clock and then delivers the clock to Gabe's home in Shoreline. Gabe receives the services at the Shoreline location. The repair service must source the sale to Gabe's Shoreline home location.
(C) Example: Rule 2 - Extended Warranties.
(1) Tara, a Chelan resident, buys a computer over the internet. The retailer offers a five year extended warranty. Tara decides to purchase the extended warranty and sends the seller the appropriate paperwork. The seller then sends the extended warranty documents to Tara's home in Chelan. The sale of the extended warranty is sourced to the Chelan home location where Tara receives the warranty documents.
(D) Additional Examples: Rule 2 - Delivery Outside Washington, Gifts, and Receipt by a Shipping Company.
(1) Alan, a Spokane resident, buys a mattress at a store in Spokane. The merchant delivers the mattress from its warehouse located in Deer Park to Alan's vacation home in Idaho. The mattress was received outside of Washington and is not subject to Washington state and local sales tax. The seller does not source the sale to Washington.
(2) Sandra, a Vancouver, Washington resident, buys a computer online from a merchant in Seattle. The computer is a gift for Tim, a student attending college in Pullman. The purchaser directs the seller to ship the computer to Tim's home address in Pullman. Tim receives the computer at the Pullman location. The merchant will source the sale based on the ship-to address in Pullman.
(3) Martha, a Wenatchee resident, travels to a gift shop in Leavenworth. Martha buys five (5) items for herself and five (5) gifts for friends. Martha takes possession of the five (5) items for herself at the gift shop. Martha then has the gift shop deliver the five (5) gifts to addresses located in Wenatchee. The seller will source the sale of the five (5) items purchased by Martha for herself to Leavenworth. The seller must source the five (5) gifts to Wenatchee according to the ship-to address where each donee receives its gift.
(4) Sheila, a Yakima resident, buys equipment from a Pasco retailer. Sheila arranges to have a shipping company pick up the equipment and deliver that equipment to Sheila in Yakima. In the purchase order Sheila notifies the seller that the equipment will be received at a ship-to address in Yakima. Tangible personal property is not considered received at the seller's place of business in cases where the purchaser arranges to have the goods picked up by a shipping company on its behalf. The seller must source this sale to Sheila's ship-to Yakima location where the equipment is received.
(iii) Rule 3: Purchaser's address maintained in the seller's ordinary business records. If neither sourcing Rule 1 nor Rule 2 apply, a retail sale is sourced to the purchaser's address as indicated in the seller's records maintained in the ordinary course of the seller's business, provided use of this address does not constitute bad faith.
Example - Rule 3.
(1) Shannon buys prewritten software from a Bellevue seller by downloading the software from the seller's web site. Shannon's location is unknown at the time of sale. However, the seller maintains a Seabeck address for Shannon in its business records. Because Shannon does not receive the software at the seller's place of business and the location of receipt is unknown, sourcing Rules 1 and 2 do not apply. The seller must source the sale to the address maintained in its ordinary business records for Shannon (the Seabeck address).
(iv) Rule 4: Purchaser's address obtained at the consummation of sale. If any of sourcing Rules 1 through 3 do not apply, the sale is sourced to the purchaser's address obtained during the consummation of sale. If no other address is available, this address may be the address included on the purchaser's payment instrument (e.g., check, credit card, or money order), provided use of this address does not constitute bad faith.
Example - Rule 4.
(1) Eric buys prewritten software over the internet from a retail outlet located on Vashon Island. The seller transmits the prewritten software to an email address designated by Eric. The email address does not disclose Eric's location. Eric pays for the software by credit card. When entering the relevant credit card information, Eric discloses a residential address in Port Angeles to which the credit card is billed. Sourcing Rules 1 and 2 do not apply because Eric does not receive the software at the seller's business location and the seller does not know where the software is being received. Sourcing Rule 3 does not apply because the retail outlet does not have Eric's address on file in its ordinary business records. Therefore, the retail outlet must source the sale to the address related to the customer's credit card information given during the consummation of the sale. The retail outlet must source the sale to Eric's Port Angeles location.
(v) Rule 5: Origin sourcing default rule. If a seller is unable to source a sale under any of the sourcing Rules 1 through 4 above, or the seller has insufficient information to apply those rules, the default origin sourcing rule applies. Subsection (2)(b)(v)(A) through (C) of this section describes sourcing Rule 5 as it applies to the sale of tangible personal property, retail services, and extended warranties.
(A) Origin sourcing: Tangible personal property. If any of sourcing Rules 1 through 4 do not apply, the seller must source sales of tangible personal property to the address from which the property was shipped.
(B) Origin sourcing: Electronically delivered prewritten software. If any of the sourcing Rules 1 through 4 do not apply, the seller must source sales of electronically delivered prewritten computer software to the address location from which the computer software was first available for transmission by the seller. Locations that merely provide for the transfer of computer software are not address locations from which the computer software is first available for transmission.
(C) Origin sourcing: Retail services and extended warranties. If any of sourcing Rules 1 through 4 do not apply, the seller must source retail services and extended warranties to the address from which it provides the service or warranty.
(D) Examples: Rule 5 - Prewritten Software.
(1) Rebecca purchases prewritten computer software electronically and requests that the software be delivered to a specified email address. The seller operates from a retail store located in Tacoma. The seller does not know the location where the software will be received and further does not have information about Rebecca's location in its ordinary business records. Additionally, Rebecca does not supply the seller with address information during the consummation of the sale. Thus, none of sourcing Rules 1 through 4 apply. This sale must be sourced under the default sourcing rule. The seller first made the prewritten software available for transmission at its Tacoma location. The seller will source the sale to that Tacoma location from which the prewritten software was first available for transmission. This result will not change if the software is routed from a Tacoma server through a second server (either operated by the seller or some third party) located outside of the Tacoma location. Routing as used in this context refers to the transfer of prewritten software from one location to another location for retransmission to a final destination, and does not include transfers to another location where additional services or products may be added.
(2) Assume the facts in Example (1) directly above, except that Rebecca's order is submitted to the Tacoma location and the prewritten software is first available for transmission from a Bellevue location. The seller will source the sale to the Bellevue location.
(b) Special sourcing rule: Florist sales and sales of watercraft; modular, mobile, and manufactured homes; and motor vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers, and aircraft that do not qualify as transportation equipment. If you are a "florist" making sales or you are making a retail sale of watercraft; modular, mobile, or manufactured homes; or motor vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers, and aircraft that do not qualify as transportation equipment (excluding leases and rentals), you must source the sale to the location at or from which delivery is made. For specific information concerning "florist sales," who qualifies as a "florist," and the related sourcing rules see RCW 82.32.730 (6)(d) and (8)(c) as amended by Senate Bill No. 6799, chapter 324, Laws of 2008.
When the sale of goods is delivered into Washington from a point outside the state and a local in-state facility, office, outlet, agent or other representative (even though not formally characterized as a "salesperson") of the seller participates in the transaction in some way, such as by taking the order, then the location of the local facility, etc., will determine the place of sale for purposes of the local sales tax. However, if the seller, the seller's agent or the seller's representative maintains no local in-state facility, office, outlet or residence from which business in some manner is conducted, the local tax must be determined by the location of the customer.
Example: Special Sourcing Rule.
(1) Ben, a Federal Way purchaser, buys a car from a dealer in Fife. The customer has the option of picking up the car on the lot in Fife or having it delivered to his residential address in Federal Way. Ben asks to have the car delivered to the Federal Way location. The dealer must source the sale of the car to the dealer's location in Fife from which the car was delivered.
(c) Leases of tangible personal property. "Lease" and "rental" mean any transfer of possession or control of tangible personal property for a fixed or indeterminate term for consideration. For more information concerning "leases" and "rentals" see RCW 82.04.040. The terms "lease" and "rental" are used interchangeably throughout this subsection (2)(c). This subsection (2)(c) provides local retail sales tax sourcing guidance for lessors who lease tangible personal property.
(i) How do I source lease payments attributable to the lease of transportation equipment? If you are leasing transportation equipment, you must source the lease payments attributable to that transportation equipment under sourcing Rules 1 through 5 above as a retail sale. See subsection (1)(b)(viii) of this section for a description of transportation equipment.
(ii) How should I source lease payments attributable to the lease of motor vehicles, trailers, semi-trailers, and aircraft that do not qualify as transportation equipment? If you are leasing a motor vehicle, trailer, semi-trailer, or aircraft that does not qualify as transportation equipment, you must source the lease payments under this subsection (2)(c)(ii).
(A) Leases that require recurring periodic payments. If the lease requires recurring periodic payments, you must source each periodic payment to the primary property location of the leased property. See subsection (1)(b)(vii) of this section for a description of primary property location. The primary property location will not change by intermittent use of the leased property in different jurisdictions, e.g., use of leased business property on business trips or service calls to multiple local jurisdictions.
(B) Leases that do not require recurring periodic payments. If the lease does not require recurring periodic payments, you must source the single lease payment under sourcing Rules 1 through 5 above as a retail sale.
(C) Examples:
(1) Rich, a Fall City customer, leases a car from a dealer in Duvall. Rich leases the car for a period of one year. The car does not qualify as transportation equipment. Rich provides the dealer with his residential address in Fall City where he keeps the car. Rich makes monthly periodic payments throughout the term of the lease. Rich indicates the primary property location for the car is his residence in Fall City. The Fall City location is recorded in the store's business records. The periodic lease payments will be sourced to the residential primary property location in Fall City. If Rich were to move to Seattle during the term of the lease and notify the dealer of a change in the car's primary property location, the dealer would source any lease payments subsequent to that change in primary property location to Seattle.
(2) Amanda, a Tacoma business owner, rents a trailer for a period of one week and no periodic payments are required under the lease. The trailer does not qualify as transportation equipment. Amanda receives the trailer at a business location in Tacoma. The seller will source the sale to the Tacoma business location.
(iii) How do I source lease payments for all other tangible personal property? If you lease tangible personal property not described in subsection (2)(c)(i) or (ii) of this section, you must source your lease payments under this subsection (2)(c)(iii).
(A) Lease that requires recurring periodic payments. If the lease requires recurring periodic payments, you must source the first periodic payment on that lease under sourcing Rules 1 through 5 as a retail sale. You must then source all subsequent periodic payments to the primary property location for each period covered by such periodic payments. See subsection (1)(b)(vii) of this section for a description of primary property location. The primary property location will not change by intermittent use of the leased property in different local jurisdictions, e.g., use of leased business property on business trips or service calls to multiple local jurisdictions.
(B) Leases that do not require recurring periodic payments. If the lease does not require recurring periodic payments, you must source the single payment under sourcing Rules 1 through 5 as a retail sale.
(C) Examples:
(1) Mark, a Gig Harbor resident, leases furniture from a store in Bremerton. The furniture will be leased for twelve months. The store delivers the furniture to Mark's home address in Gig Harbor. Mark indicates the primary property location for the equipment is his home address in Gig Harbor. The Gig Harbor location is recorded in the store's business records. The customer makes monthly periodic payments for the term of the lease. The first periodic payment must be sourced to Gig Harbor where Mark receives the furniture. The store must then source all subsequent periodic payments to Gig Harbor, which represents the primary property location recorded in the store's ordinary business records.
(2) Brad, a Pasco business owner, leases furniture from a store in Spokane. Brad picks up the furniture in Spokane and makes the initial periodic payment on the lease. The furniture is leased for a period of twelve months. Brad indicates the primary property location for the equipment is a business address in Pasco. The Pasco location is recorded in the store's business records. Brad then makes monthly periodic payments for the term of the lease. The first periodic payment must be sourced to Spokane where Brad received the furniture. The store must source the subsequent periodic payments to the Pasco primary property location.
(3) Alison, a Seattle business owner, leases equipment from a store in Issaquah. Alison picks up the equipment in Issaquah and makes an initial periodic payment on the lease. The equipment is used in work primarily performed in Washington, but the equipment is also taken out intermittently on a number of service calls made in Oregon. Alison indicates the primary property location for the equipment is a business address in Seattle. The Seattle location is recorded in the store's business records. The equipment is leased for a period of one year. Alison makes monthly periodic payments for the term of the lease. The first periodic payment must be sourced to Issaquah where the equipment is received. The store must source the subsequent periodic payments to Seattle, which represents the primary property location. Alison's intermittent use of the equipment in other jurisdictions does not change the primary property location of the equipment.
(4) Amelia, a Pasco business owner, leases equipment from a store located in Pasco. Amelia picks up the equipment in Pasco, making an initial periodic payment on the lease. The lease is for a period of one year. During the first six months of the lease, Amelia indicates the primary property location for the equipment is a business address in Walla Walla. For the second six months of the lease, Amelia indicates the primary property location is a business address in Leavenworth. The store records the primary property locations in its business records. The store must source the initial periodic payment to Pasco where Amelia received the equipment. The store must source all other periodic lease payments covering the first six months of the lease to the primary property location recorded for Walla Walla. The store must source those periodic lease payments covering the last six months of the lease to the primary property location in Leavenworth.
(5) Brian, a North Bend business owner, rents a backhoe from Construction Rentals located in Lynnwood. The lease period is 45 days and the lease requires a single lease payment. Brian pays the entire lease amount at the time of pickup. The customer picks up the equipment in Lynnwood and takes it to a job site in DuPont. Construction Rentals must source the sale to the location in Lynnwood where Brian receives the backhoe.
(6) Lisa, an Olympia business owner, rents a pressure washer from Rental Co. located in Lacey. The rental period is one day and no periodic payments are required under the lease. Lisa picks up the equipment in Lacey and takes it to a job site in Yelm. Sales tax is sourced to the seller's location in Lacey. If Rental Co. delivered the pressure washer directly to Lisa at the job site in Yelm, the sale would have been sourced to the location of the job site in Yelm.
(3) Telecommunications services.
Where can I find information related to the sourcing and sale of telecommunication services? Sales of telecommunication services and ancillary services are defined as retail sales in RCW 82.04.050. Sellers must source these services under the sourcing provisions located in RCW 82.32.520. See RCW 82.04.065 for more information about telecommunication services and ancillary services.
(4) Use tax. How is use tax sourced in Washington? Where a seller does not have an obligation to collect Washington sales tax, the tangible personal property or service sold by that person may be subject to use tax under chapter 82.12 RCW et seq. This use tax is sourced to the place of first use and is payable by the purchaser. The seller may be required to collect use tax pursuant to the requirements of RCW 82.12.040.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 08-12-035, § 458-20-145, filed 5/30/08, effective 6/30/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-145, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 75-1, § 458-20-145, filed 5/2/75; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-145 (Rule 145), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-146
National and state banks, mutual savings banks, savings and loan associations and other financial institutions.

Business and Occupation Tax
The gross income of national banks, states banks, mutual savings banks, savings and loan associations, and certain other financial institutions is subject to the business and occupation tax according to the following general principles.
Services and other activities. Generally, the gross income from engaging in financial businesses is subject to the business and occupation tax under the classification service and other activities. Following are examples of the types of income taxable under this classification: Interest earned (including interest on loans made to nonresidents unless the financial institution has a business location in the state of the borrower's residence which rendered the banking service), commissions earned, dividends earned, fees and carrying charges, charges for bookkeeping or data processing, safety deposit box rentals. See WAC 458-20-14601 Financial institutions—Income apportionment.
The term "gross income" is defined in the law as follows:
"Gross income of the business" means the value proceeding or accruing by reason of the transaction of the business engaged in and includes gross proceeds of sales, compensation for the rendition of services, gains realized from trading in stocks, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness, interest, discount, rents, royalties, fees, commissions, dividends, and other emoluments however designated, all without any deduction on account of the cost of tangible property sold, the cost of materials used, labor costs, interest, discount, delivery costs, taxes, or any other expense whatsoever paid or accrued and without any deduction on account of losses.
The law allows certain deductions from gross income to arrive at the taxable amount (the amount upon which the business and occupation tax is computed). Deductible gross income should be included in the gross amount reported on the excise tax return and should then be shown as a deduction and explained on the deduction schedules. The deductions generally applicable to financial businesses include the following:
(1) Dividends received by a parent from its subsidiary corporations (RCW 82.04.4281).
(2) Interest received on investments or loans primarily secured by first mortgages or trust deeds on nontransient residential properties. (See WAC 458-20-166 for definition of "transient.") (RCW 82.04.4292.)
(3) Interest received on obligations of the state of Washington, its political subdivisions, and municipal corporations organized pursuant to the laws thereof. (RCW 82.04.4291.) A deduction may also be taken for interest received on direct obligations of the federal government, but not for interest attributable to loans or other financial obligations on which the federal government is merely a guarantor or insurer.
(4) Gross proceeds from sales or rentals of real estate (RCW 82.04.390). These amounts may be entirely excluded from the gross income reported and need not be shown on the return as a deduction.
Retailing. Sales of tangible personal property and certain services are defined as "retail sales" and are subject to the business and occupation tax under the classification retailing. Such sales are also subject to the retail sales tax which the seller must collect and remit to the department of revenue (department). Transactions taxable as sales at retail are not subject to tax under service and other activities.
Following are examples of transactions subject to the retailing classification of the business and occupation tax and to the retail sales tax: Sales of meals or confections, sales of repossessed merchandise, sales of promotional material, leases of tangible personal property, sales of check registers, coin banks, personalized checks (note: When the financial institution is not the seller of these items but simply takes orders as agent for the supplier, the supplier is responsible for reporting as the retail seller. The financial institution has liability for reporting the retail sales tax on sales made as an agent only if the supplier is an out-of-state firm not registered with the department), escrow fees, casual sales (occasional sales of depreciated assets such as used furniture and office equipment—subject to retail sales tax but deductible from the business and occupation tax; see WAC 458-20-106 Casual or isolated sales—Business reorganizations).
Sales for resale. When a financial institution buys tangible personal property for resale to its customers without intervening use, the sales tax is not applicable. In this case the financial institution should give the vendor a resale certificate for purchases made before January 1, 2010, or a reseller permit for purchases made on or after January 1, 2010, to document the wholesale nature of any sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102A (Resale certificates) and WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits). Even though resale certificates are no longer used after December 31, 2009, they must be kept on file by the seller for five years from the date of last use or December 31, 2014.
Use Tax
The use tax complements the retail sales tax by imposing a tax of like amount on the use of tangible personal property purchased or acquired without payment of the retail sales tax. Thus, when office equipment or supplies are purchased or leased from an unregistered out-of-state vendor who does not collect the Washington state retail sales tax, the use tax must be paid directly to the department. Space for the reporting of this tax will be found on the excise tax return. (For more information, see WAC 458-20-178 Use tax.)
When tax liability arises. Tax should be reported during the reporting period in which the financial institution receives, becomes legally entitled to receive, or in accord with the system of accounting regularly employed enters the consideration as a charge against the client, purchaser or borrower. Financial institutions may prepare excise tax returns to the department reporting income in periods which correspond to accounting methods employed by each institution for its normal accounting purposes in reporting to its supervisory authority.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-146, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-146, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-146 (Rule 146), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-14601
Financial institutions—Income apportionment.

(1) Introduction.
(a) This section provides tax reporting instructions for financial institutions doing business both inside and outside the state of Washington, and applies to tax liability incurred through May 31, 2010. Chapter 23, Laws of 2010 sp. sess. (2ESSB 6143) changed the apportionment reporting requirements for financial institutions effective June 1, 2010. Refer to WAC 458-20-19404 (Financial institutions—Income apportionment) for tax liability incurred on and after June 1, 2010.
Financial businesses that do not meet the definition of "financial institution" in subsection (3)(j) of this section and other businesses taxable under RCW 82.04.290 should refer to WAC 458-20-194 (Doing business inside and outside the state) for tax liability incurred on or before May 31, 2010.
(b) Financial institutions engaged in making interstate sales of tangible personal property should also refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property).
(2) Apportionment and allocation.
(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, a financial institution taxable under RCW 82.04.290 and taxable in another state shall allocate and apportion its apportionable income as provided in this section. All gross income that is not includable in apportionable income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of chapter 82.04 RCW. A financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a territory or possession of the United States, except such institutions that are exempt under RCW 82.04.315, whose effectively connected income (as defined under the Federal Internal Revenue Code) is taxable both in this state and another state, other than the state in which it is organized, shall allocate and apportion its gross income as provided in this section.
(b) The apportionment percentage is determined by adding the taxpayer's receipts factor (as described in subsection (4) of this section), property factor (as described in subsection (5) of this section), and payroll factor (as described in subsection (6) of this section) together and dividing the sum by three. If one of the factors is missing, the two remaining factors are added together and the sum is divided by two. If two of the factors are missing, the remaining factor is the apportionment percentage. A factor is missing if both its numerator and denominator are zero, but it is not missing merely because its numerator is zero.
(c) Each factor shall be computed according to the method of accounting (cash or accrual basis) used by the taxpayer for Washington state tax purposes for the taxable period. Persons should refer to WAC 458-20-197 (When tax liability arises) and WAC 458-20-199 (Accounting methods) for further guidance on the requirements of each accounting method. Generally, financial institutions are required to file returns on a monthly basis. To enable financial institutions to more easily comply with the provisions of this section, financial institutions will file returns using factors calculated based on the most recent calendar year for which information is available. A reconciliation shall be filed for each year within thirty days of the time that the taxpayer files its federal income tax returns for that year, but not later than October 30th of the following year. For example, for returns filed for taxable activities occurring during calendar [year] 1998, a taxpayer would use factors calculated based on its 1996 information. A reconciliation would be filed for 1998 using factors based on 1998 information as soon as the information was available to the taxpayer, but not later than thirty days after the time federal income tax returns were due for 1998, or October 30, 1999. In the case of consolidations, mergers, or divestitures, a taxpayer shall make the appropriate adjustments to the factors to reflect its changed operations.
(d) If the allocation and apportionment provisions of this section do not fairly represent the extent of its business activity in this state, the taxpayer may petition for, or the department may require, in respect to all or any part of the taxpayer's business activity:
(i) Separate accounting;
(ii) A calculation of tax liability utilizing the cost of doing business method outlined in RCW 82.04.460(1);
(iii) The exclusion of any one or more of the factors;
(iv) The inclusion of one or more additional factors which will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in this state; or
(v) The employment of any other method to effectuate an equitable allocation and apportionment of the taxpayer's receipts.
(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply throughout this section:
(a) "Apportionable income" means the gross income of the business taxable under RCW 82.04.290, including income received from activities outside this state if the income would be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if received from activities in this state, less the exemptions and deductions allowable under chapter 82.04 RCW.
(b) "Billing address" means the location indicated in the books and records of the taxpayer on the first day of the taxable period (or on such later date in the taxable period when the customer relationship began) as the address where any notice, statement and/or bill relating to a customer's account is mailed.
(c) "Borrower or credit card holder located in this state" means:
(i) A borrower, other than a credit card holder, that is engaged in a trade or business which maintains its commercial domicile in this state; or
(ii) A borrower that is not engaged in a trade or business or a credit card holder, whose billing address is in this state.
(d) "Commercial domicile" means:
(i) The headquarters of the trade or business, that is, the place from which the trade or business is principally managed and directed; or
(ii) If a taxpayer is organized under the laws of a foreign country, or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States, such taxpayer's commercial domicile is deemed for the purposes of this section to be the state of the United States or the District of Columbia from which such taxpayer's trade or business in the United States is principally managed and directed. It is presumed, subject to rebuttal by a preponderance of the evidence, that the location from which the taxpayer's trade or business is principally managed and directed is the state of the United States or the District of Columbia to which the greatest number of employees are regularly connected or out of which they are working, irrespective of where the services of such employees are performed, as of the last day of the taxable period.
(e) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services that are included in such employee's gross income under the Federal Internal Revenue Code. In the case of employees not subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code, e.g., those employed in foreign countries, the determination of whether such payments would constitute gross income to such employees under the Federal Internal Revenue Code shall be made as though such employees were subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code.
(f) "Credit card" means credit, travel or entertainment card.
(g) "Credit card issuer's reimbursement fee" means the fee a taxpayer receives from a merchant's bank because one of the persons to whom the taxpayer has issued a credit card has charged merchandise or services to the credit card.
(h) "Department" means the department of revenue.
(i) "Employee" means, with respect to a particular taxpayer, any individual who, under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee of that taxpayer.
(j) "Financial institution" means:
(i) Any corporation or other business entity chartered under Titles 30, 31, 32, 33 RCW, or registered under the Federal Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or registered as a savings and loan holding company under the Federal National Housing Act, as amended;
(ii) A national bank organized and existing as a national bank association pursuant to the provisions of the National Bank Act, 12 U.S.C. §§21 et seq.;
(iii) A savings association or federal savings bank as defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. §1813 (b)(1);
(iv) Any bank or thrift institution incorporated or organized under the laws of any state;
(v) Any corporation organized under the provisions of 12 U.S.C. §§611 to 631;
(vi) Any agency or branch of a foreign depository as defined in 12 U.S.C. §3101 that is not exempt under RCW 82.04.315;
(vii) Any credit union, other than a state or federal credit union exempt under state or federal law;
(viii) A production credit association organized under the Federal Farm Credit Act of 1933, all of whose stock held by the Federal Production Credit Corporation has been retired;
(ix) Any corporation or other business entity who receives gross income taxable under RCW 82.04.290, and whose voting interests are more than fifty percent owned, directly or indirectly, by any person or business entity described in (j)(i) through (viii) of this subsection other than an insurance company liable for the insurance premiums tax under RCW 48.14.020 or any other company taxable under chapter 48.14 RCW;
(x) A corporation or other business entity that derives more than fifty percent of its total gross income for federal income tax purposes from finance leases. For purposes of this subsection, a "finance lease" means a lease which meets two requirements:
(A) It is the type of lease permitted to be made by national banks (see 12 U.S.C. 24(7), 12 U.S.C. 24(10), Comptroller of the Currency-Regulations, Part 23-Leasing (added by 56 Fed. Reg. 28314, June 20, 1991, effective July 22, 1991), and Regulation Y of the Federal Reserve System 12 C.F.R. 225.25, as amended); and
(B) It is the economic equivalent of an extension of credit, i.e., the lease is treated by the lessor as a loan for federal income tax purposes. In no event does a lease qualify as an extension of credit where the lessor takes depreciation on such property for federal income tax purposes.
For this classification to apply, the average of the gross income in the current tax year and immediately preceding two tax years must satisfy the more than fifty percent requirement;
(xi) Any other person or business entity, other than an insurance general agent taxable under RCW 82.04.280(5), an insurance business exempt from the business and occupation tax under RCW 82.04.320, a real estate broker taxable under RCW 82.04.255, a securities dealer or international investment management company taxable under RCW 82.04.290(2), that derives more than fifty percent of its gross receipts from activities that a person described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection is authorized to transact. For purposes of this subparagraph, the computation of apportionable income shall not include income from nonrecurring, extraordinary items;
(xii) The department is authorized to exclude any person from the application of (j)(xi) of this subsection upon such person proving, by clear and convincing evidence, that the activity producing the receipts of such person is not in substantial competition with those persons described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection.
(k) "Gross income of the business," "gross income," or "income" has the same meaning as in RCW 82.04.080 and means the value proceeding or accruing by reason of the transaction of the business engaged in and includes gross proceeds of sales, compensation for the rendition of services, gains realized from trading in stocks, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness, interest, discount, rents, royalties, fees, commissions, dividends, and other emoluments however designated, all without any deduction on account of the cost of tangible property sold, the cost of materials used, labor costs, interest, discount, delivery costs, taxes, or any other expense whatsoever paid or accrued and without any deduction on account of losses.
(l) "Gross rents" means the actual sum of money or other consideration payable for the use or possession of real property. "Gross rents" includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Any amount payable for the use or possession of real property whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of receipts, profits or otherwise;
(ii) Any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rent, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other amount required to be paid by the terms of a lease or other arrangement; and
(iii) A proportionate part of the cost of any improvement to real property made by or on behalf of the taxpayer which reverts to the owner or grantor upon termination of a lease or other arrangement. The amount to be included in gross rents is the amount of amortization or depreciation allowed in computing the taxable income base for the taxable period. However, where a building is erected on leased land by or on behalf of the taxpayer, the value of the land is determined by multiplying the gross rent by eight and the value of the building is determined in the same manner as if owned by the taxpayer.
(iv) The following are not included in the term "gross rents":
(A) Reasonable amounts payable as separate charges for water and electric service furnished by the lessor;
(B) Reasonable amounts payable as service charges for janitorial services furnished by the lessor;
(C) Reasonable amounts payable for storage, provided such amounts are payable for space not designated and not under the control of the taxpayer; and
(D) That portion of any rental payment which is applicable to the space subleased from the taxpayer and not used by it.
(m) "Loan" means any extension of credit resulting from direct negotiations between the taxpayer and its customer, and/or the purchase, in whole or in part, of such extension of credit from another. "Loan" includes participations, syndications, and leases treated as loans for federal income tax purposes. "Loan" does not include: Properties treated as loans under Section 595 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code; futures or forward contracts; options; notional principal contracts such as swaps; credit card receivables, including purchased credit card relationships; noninterest bearing balances due from depository institutions; cash items in the process of collection; federal funds sold; securities purchased under agreements to resell; assets held in a trading account; securities; interests in a REMIC, or other mortgage-backed or asset-backed security; and other similar items.
(n) "Loan secured by real property" means that fifty percent or more of the aggregate value of the collateral used to secure a loan or other obligation was real property, when valued at fair market value as of the time the original loan or obligation was incurred.
(o) "Merchant discount" means the fee (or negotiated discount) charged to a merchant by the taxpayer for the privilege of participating in a program whereby a credit card is accepted in payment for merchandise or services sold to the card holder.
(p) "Participation" means an extension of credit in which an undivided ownership interest is held on a pro rata basis in a single loan or pool of loans and related collateral. In a loan participation, the credit originator initially makes the loan and then subsequently resells all or a portion of it to other lenders. The participation may or may not be known to the borrower.
(q) "Person" has the meaning given in RCW 82.04.030.
(r) "Principal base of operations" with respect to transportation property means the place of more or less permanent nature from which said property is regularly directed or controlled. With respect to an employee, the "principal base of operations" means the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee regularly:
(i) Starts his or her work and to which he or she customarily returns in order to receive instructions from his or her employer; or
(ii) Communicates with his or her customers or other persons; or
(iii) Performs any other functions necessary to the exercise of his or her trade or profession at some other point or points.
(s) "Real property owned" and "tangible personal property owned" mean real and tangible personal property, respectively:
(i) On which the taxpayer may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes; or
(ii) Property to which the taxpayer holds legal title and on which no other person may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes (or could claim depreciation if subject to federal income tax).
Real and tangible personal property do not include coin, currency, or property acquired in lieu of or pursuant to a foreclosure.
(t) "Regular place of business" means an office at which the taxpayer carries on its business in a regular and systematic manner and which is continuously maintained, occupied and used by employees of the taxpayer.
(u) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States or any foreign country.
(v) "Syndication" means an extension of credit in which two or more persons fund and each person is at risk only up to a specified percentage of the total extension of credit or up to a specified dollar amount.
(w) "Taxable in another state" means either:
(i) That a taxpayer is subject in another state to a gross receipts or franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, a franchise tax measured by net income, a corporate stock tax (including a bank shares tax), a single business tax, or an earned surplus tax, or any other tax which is imposed upon or measured by gross or net income; or
(ii) That another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to any of such taxes regardless of whether, in fact, the state does or does not.
(x) "Taxable period" means the calendar year during which tax liability is incurred.
(y) "Transportation property" means vehicles and vessels capable of moving under their own power, such as aircraft, trains, water vessels and motor vehicles, as well as any equipment or containers attached to such property, such as rolling stock, barges, trailers or the like.
(4) Receipts factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the receipts factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer in this state during the taxable period and the denominator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The method of calculating receipts for purposes of the denominator is the same as the method used in determining receipts for purposes of the numerator.
(b) Receipts from the lease of real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of real property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state or income from the sublease of real property if the property is located within this state.
(c) Receipts from the lease of tangible personal property.
(i) Except as described in (c)(ii) of this subsection, the numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state when it is first placed in service by the lessee.
(ii) Income from the lease or rental of transportation property owned by the taxpayer is included in the numerator of the receipts factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft is used in this state and the amount of income that is to be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor is determined by multiplying all the income from the lease or rental of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered.
(d) Interest from loans secured by real property.
(i) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property if the property is located within this state. If the property is located both within this state and one or more other states, the income described in this subparagraph is included in the numerator of the receipts factor if more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is located within this state. If more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is not located within any one state, then the income described in this subparagraph shall be included in the numerator of the receipts factor if the borrower is located in this state.
(ii) The determination of whether the real property securing a loan is located within this state shall be made as of the time the original agreement was made and any and all subsequent substitutions of collateral shall be disregarded.
(e) Interest from loans not secured by real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property if the borrower is located in this state.
(f) Net gains from the sale of loans. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains from the sale of loans. Net gains from the sale of loans includes income recorded under the coupon stripping rules of Section 1286 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code.
(i) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to subsection (4)(d) and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.
(ii) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans not secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.
(g) Receipts from credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and income from fees charged to card holders, such as annual fees, if the billing address of the card holder is in this state.
(h) Net gains from the sale of credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of credit card receivables multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.
(i) Credit card issuer's reimbursement fees. The numerator of the receipts factor includes all credit card issuer's reimbursement fees multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.
(j) Receipts from merchant discount. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from merchant discount if the commercial domicile of the merchant is in this state. Such receipts shall be computed net of any cardholder charge backs, but shall not be reduced by any interchange transaction fees or by any issuer's reimbursement fees paid to another for charges made by its card holders.
(k) Loan servicing fees.
(i)(A) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (d) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.
(B) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans not secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.
(ii) If the taxpayer receives loan servicing fees for servicing either the secured or the unsecured loans of another, the numerator of the receipts factor includes such fees if the borrower is located in this state.
(l) Receipts from services. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this subsection if the service is performed in this state. If the service is performed both inside and outside this state, the numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this section, if a greater proportion of the activity producing the receipts is performed in this state based on cost of performance.
(m) Receipts from investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities.
(i) Interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities are included in the receipts factor. Investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities include but are not limited to: Investment securities; trading account assets; federal funds; securities purchased and sold under agreements to resell or repurchase; options; futures contracts; forward contracts; notional principal contracts such as swaps; equities; and foreign currency transactions. With respect to the investment and trading assets and activities described in (m)(i)(A) and (B) of this subsection, the receipts factor includes the following:
(A) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest from federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements exceeds interest expense on federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements.
(B) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book, and foreign currency transactions, exceed amounts paid in lieu of interest, amounts paid in lieu of dividends, and losses from such assets and activities.
(ii) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other receipts from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities described in (m)(i) of this subsection that are attributable to this state.
(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.
(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such funds and such securities.
(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other income from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(A) or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such trading assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.
(D) For purposes of this paragraph, average value shall be determined using the rules for determining the average value of tangible personal property set forth in subsection (5) of this section.
(iii) In lieu of using the method set forth in (m)(ii) of this subsection, the taxpayer may elect, or the department may require in order to fairly represent the business activity of the taxpayer in this state, the use of the method set forth in this paragraph.
(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross receipts from such assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.
(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such funds and such securities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such funds and such securities.
(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(a)[(A)] or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such trading assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.
(iv) If the taxpayer elects or is required by the department to use the method set forth in (m)(iii) of this subsection, it shall use this method on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department to use, or the department requires a different method.
(v) The taxpayer has the burden of proving that an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity was properly assigned to a regular place of business outside of this state by demonstrating that the day-to-day decisions regarding the asset or activity occurred at a regular place of business outside this state. If the day-to-day decisions regarding an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity occur at more than one regular place of business and one such regular place of business is in this state and one such regular place of business is outside this state, such asset or activity is considered to be located at the regular place of business of the taxpayer where the investment or trading policies or guidelines with respect to the asset or activity are established. Such policies and guidelines are presumed, subject to rebuttal by preponderance of the evidence, to be established at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.
(n) Attribution of certain receipts to commercial domicile. All receipts which would be assigned under this section to a state in which the taxpayer is not taxable are included in the numerator of the receipts factor, if the taxpayer's commercial domicile is in this state.
(5) Property factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, the average value of the real and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, and the average value of the taxpayer's loans and credit card receivables that are located within this state during the taxable period, and the denominator of which is the average value of all such property located or used inside and outside this state during the taxable period.
(b) Value of property owned by the taxpayer.
(i) The value of real property and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer is the original cost or other basis of such property for federal income tax purposes without regard to depletion, depreciation or amortization.
(ii) Loans are valued at their outstanding principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a loan is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the loan charged off is not outstanding. A specifically allocated reserve established under regulatory or financial accounting guidelines which is treated as charged-off for federal income tax purposes shall be treated as charged-off for purposes of this section.
(iii) Credit card receivables are valued at their out-standing principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a credit card receivable is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the receivable charged-off is not outstanding.
(c) Average value of property owned by the taxpayer. The average value of property owned by the taxpayer is computed on an annual basis by adding the value of the property on the first day of the taxable period and the value on the last day of the taxable period and dividing the sum by two. If averaging on this basis does not properly reflect average value, the department may require averaging on a more frequent basis. The taxpayer may elect to average on a more frequent basis. When averaging on a more frequent basis is required by the department or is elected by the taxpayer, the same method of valuation must be used consistently by the taxpayer with respect to property inside and outside this state and on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department or the department requires a different method of determining average value.
(d) Average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer.
(i) The average value of real property and tangible personal property that the taxpayer has rented from another and which is not treated as property owned by the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes, shall be determined annually by multiplying the gross rents payable during the taxable year by eight.
(ii) Where the use of the general method described in this subsection results in inaccurate valuations of rented property, any other method which properly reflects the value may be adopted by the department or by the taxpayer when approved in writing by the department. Once approved, such other method of valuation must be used on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior approval from the department or the department requires a different method of valuation.
(e) Location of real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer.
(i) Except as described in (e)(ii) of this subsection, real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer is considered to be located within this state if it is physically located, situated or used within this state.
(ii) Transportation property is included in the numerator of the property factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft will be deemed to be used in this state and the amount of value that is to be included in the numerator of this state's property factor is determined by multiplying the average value of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft everywhere during the tax reporting period. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered. Thus, a motor vehicle will not be considered as used in Washington if there is no requirement for the vehicle to be licensed or registered in Washington.
(f) Location of loans.
(i)(A) A loan is located within this state if it is properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state.
(B) A loan is properly assigned to the regular place of business with which it has a majority of substantive contacts. A loan assigned by the taxpayer to a regular place of business outside the state shall be presumed to have been properly assigned if:
(I) The taxpayer has assigned, in the regular course of its business, such loan on its records to a regular place of business consistent with federal or state regulatory requirements;
(II) Such assignment on its records is based upon substantive contacts of the loan to such regular place of business; and
(III) The taxpayer uses said records reflecting assignment of loans for the filing of all state and local tax returns for which an assignment of loans to a regular place of business is required.
(ii) The presumption of proper assignment of a loan provided in (f)(i)(A) of this subsection may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence, showing that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur at the regular place of business to which it was assigned on the taxpayer's records. When such presumption has been rebutted, the loan is located within this state if: The taxpayer had a regular place of business within this state at the time the loan was made; and the taxpayer fails to show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur within this state.
(A) If a loan is assigned by the taxpayer to a place outside this state which is not a regular place of business, it is presumed, subject to rebuttal on a preponderance of evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding the loan occurred within this state if, at the time the loan was made the taxpayer's commercial domicile, as defined in subsection (3)(d) of this section, was within this state.
(B) To determine the state in which the majority of substantive contacts relating to a loan have occurred, the facts and circumstances regarding the loan at issue shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis and consideration shall be given to such activities as the solicitation, investigation, negotiation, approval and administration of the loan. The terms "solicitation," "investigation," "negotiation," "approval" and "administration" are defined as follows:
(I) Solicitation. Solicitation is either active or passive. Active solicitation occurs when an employee of the taxpayer initiates the contact with the customer. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employee is regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employee were actually performed. Passive solicitation occurs when the customer initiates the contact with the taxpayer. If the customer's initial contact was not at a regular place of business of the taxpayer, the regular place of business, if any, where the passive solicitation occurred is determined by the facts in each case.
(II) Investigation. Investigation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer determine the credit worthiness of the customer as well as the degree of risk involved in making a particular agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.
(III) Negotiation. Negotiation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer and its customer determine the terms of the agreement (e.g., the amount, duration, interest rate, frequency of repayment, currency denomination and security required). Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.
(IV) Approval. Approval is the procedure whereby employees or the board of directors of the taxpayer make the final determination whether to enter into the agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed. If the board of directors makes the final determination, such activity is located at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.
(V) Administration. Administration is the process of managing the account. This process includes bookkeeping, collecting the payments, corresponding with the customer, reporting to management regarding the status of the agreement and proceeding against the borrower or the security interest if the borrower is in default. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which oversees this activity.
(g) Location of credit card receivables. For purposes of determining the location of credit card receivables, credit card receivables are treated as loans and are subject to the provisions of (f) of this subsection.
(h) Period for which properly assigned loan remains assigned. A loan that has been properly assigned to a state shall remain assigned to that state for the length of the original term of the loan, absent any change in material fact. If the original term of the loan is modified (extended or reduced), the loan may be properly assigned to another state if the loan has a majority of substantive contact to a regular place of business there.
(6) Payroll factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid in this state during the taxable period by the taxpayer for compensation of employees and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid both inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The payroll factor shall include all compensation paid to employees.
(b) Compensation relating to independent contractors. Payments made to any independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee is excluded from both the numerator and denominator of the factor.
(c) When compensation paid in this state. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests, applied consecutively, is met:
(i) The employee's services are performed entirely within this state.
(ii) The employee's services are performed both inside and outside the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The term "incidental" means any service which is temporary or transitory in nature, or which is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.
(iii) If the employee's services are performed both inside and outside this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:
(A) If the employee's principal base of operations is inside this state; or
(B) If there is no principal base of operations in any state in which some part of the services are performed, but the place from which the services are directed or controlled is in this state; or
(C) If the principal base of operations and the place from which the services are directed or controlled are not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.
(7) Alternative factor calculation.
(a) General. A taxpayer may elect to use the alternative factors calculation as provided in this subsection. The alternative factors calculation requires the use of all three factors provided below. A taxpayer making such an election must keep books and records sufficient to explain the calculations. Such an election, once made, must continue for a full calendar year.
(b) Receipts factor. The alternative receipts factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the receipts factor as calculated in subsection (4) of this section gross income attributable to items that would not be subject to tax under the provisions of RCW 82.04.290, whether from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property in Washington from the numerator and all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property, wherever located, in the denominator.
(c) Property factor. The alternative property factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the property factor as calculated in subsection (5) of this section property, the income from which would be considered wholesale or retail sales under chapter 82.04 RCW, whether from activities inside or outside the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all tangible personal property rented to customers in Washington from the numerator and all tangible personal property rented to customers, wherever located, in the denominator.
(d) Payroll factor. The alternative payroll factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the payroll factor as calculated in subsection (6) of this section that amount paid to employees in connection with earning gross income which would not be subject to tax under RCW 82.04.290, whether earned from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all compensation paid to employees in connection with activities that are not taxable under RCW 82.04.290 from the numerator and all compensation paid to employees wherever located that would not be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if it had been earned in Washington.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 10-22-089, § 458-20-14601, filed 11/1/10, effective 12/2/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.04.460(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 97-11-033, § 458-20-14601, filed 5/15/97, effective 7/1/97.]



458-20-148
Barber and beauty shops.

Business and Occupation Tax
Barber and beauty shops are subject to the business and occupation tax as follows:
Retailing. Taxable under the retailing classification upon charges for styling of wigs or hairpieces and upon the gross proceeds of sales of shoe shines and of packaged cosmetics, etc., sold apart from the rendition of personal services.
Service and other business activities. Taxable under the service and other business activities classification upon the gross income from charges for the rendition of personal services, such as hair cutting, shaving, shampooing, tinting, bleaching, setting and the like.
Retail Sales Tax
Barber and beauty shops primarily render personal services as to hair cutting, shaving, shampooing, tinting, bleaching, setting and the like and, therefore are not required to collect the retail sales tax from the customers paying for such services. Sales by supply houses to barber and beauty shops of such articles of equipment as clippers, razors, barber chairs, hair waving machines, etc., and of such supplies as soaps, hair tonics, lotions, cosmetics, dyes, etc., which are used incidentally in the rendering of such personal services are taxable retail sales upon which the retail sales tax must be collected. Shops must collect retail sales tax upon sales and charges shown as taxable under retailing above.
Sales by barber and beauty shops of packaged cosmetics, hair tonics, lotions and like articles are taxable retail sales when sold apart from the rendition of personal services and are subject to the retail sales tax. Sales of such articles by supply houses to barber and beauty shops are sales for resale and are not taxable under the retail sales tax.
Barber shops operating shoe shine stands are required to collect the retail sales tax upon the charges made for shoe shines rendered to customers. Sales by supply houses of shoe polish, dyes, cleaners, etc., which are resold in rendering a shoe shine service are sales for resale and not taxable under the retail sales tax. However, sales to shoe shine stands of brushes, chairs and other equipment which are not resold in rendering such services are taxable retail sales and the retail sales tax must be collected thereon.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-148, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-148 (Rule 148), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-150
Optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the application of Washington's business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to the business activities of optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians. It explains the tax liability resulting from the rendering of professional services and the sale of prescription lenses, frames, and other optical merchandise. It also discusses the retail sales tax exemption for the sale and repair of prescription lenses and frames, and the B&O tax deduction for prescription drugs administered by a medical service provider.
(a) Examples. Examples found in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(b) Other rules that may be relevant. The department of revenue (department) has adopted other rules dealing with the taxability of various activities relating to the provision of health care. Readers may want to refer to the rules in the following list for additional information.
(i) WAC 458-20-102 Reseller permits;
(ii) WAC 458-20-151 Dentists, audiologists, and other health care providersDental laboratories and dental technicians;
(iii) WAC 458-20-168 Hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, adult family homes and similar health care facilities;
(iv) WAC 458-20-178 Use tax and the use of tangible personal property;
(v) WAC 458-20-18801 Medical substances, devices, and supplies for humansDrugs prescribed for human useMedically prescribed oxygenProsthetic devicesMobility enhancing equipmentDurable medical equipment.
(c) Definitions for the purpose of this rule are:
(i) Optical merchandise. "Optical merchandise" includes prescription lenses, frames, springs, temples, cases, and other items or accessories to be worn or used with lenses. It also includes nonprescription lenses or eyeglasses.
(ii) Prescription lens. "Prescription lens" means any lens, including contact lens, with power or prism correction for human vision, which has been prescribed in writing by a physician or optometrist. The term includes all ingredients and component parts of the lens itself, including color, scratch resistant or ultraviolet coating, and fashion tints.
(iii) Professional services. "Professional services" includes the examination of the human eye, the examination, identification, and treatment of any defects of the human vision system, and the analysis of the process of vision. It includes the use of any diagnostic instruments or devices for the measurement of the powers or range of vision, or the determination of the refractive powers of the eye or its functions. It does not include the preparation or dispensing of lenses or eyeglasses.
(2) Taxability of professional services. Optometrists and ophthalmologists are subject to service and other activities B&O tax on their gross income from providing professional services.
(3) Purchases and sales of optical merchandise by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians. Purchases of optical merchandise by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians for resale without intervening use as a consumer are not subject to retail sales tax. Thus, optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians are not required to pay retail sales or use tax on items which will be given to customers as part of a sale of eyeglasses or contact lenses, such as cleaning supplies, carrying cases, and the like. The department considers these items to be sold along with the eyeglasses or contact lenses. An optometrist, ophthalmologist, or optician purchasing tangible personal property for resale must furnish a reseller permit to the seller to document the wholesale nature of the sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102.
Sales of optical merchandise to consumers are subject to retailing B&O tax. The seller must collect retail sales tax unless the sale is specifically exempt by law.
(a) Are sales of prescription lenses and frames subject to retail sales tax? No, sales of prescription lenses and frames for prescription lenses are exempt from retail sales tax as prosthetic devices under RCW 82.08.0283.
(b) Are repairs of prescription lenses and frames subject to retail sales tax? No, charges for the repair of prescription lenses or to prescription eyeglass frames, whether the frames are the original frames or replacement frames, are exempt from retail sales tax as labor and services rendered in respect to prosthetic devices under RCW 82.08.0283.
(c) Segregation of income from different sources. To claim a retail sales tax exemption under RCW 82.08.0281 or 82.08.0283, persons providing or selling any combination of professional services, prescription lenses, prescription eyeglass frames, or other optical merchandise must segregate and separately account for the income derived from each source.
(d) Examples.
(i) Example 1. Taxpayer is an optometrist who performs eye examinations and sells prescription eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other optical merchandise. All sales of prescription lenses are made under written prescription. Income attributable to the eye examinations, the sale of prescription lenses, and the sale of other optical merchandise is segregated in Taxpayer's books of account.
The income derived from the eye examinations is subject to service and other activities B&O tax. The gross proceeds of sales of the prescription lenses, eyeglass frames with prescription lenses, contact lenses, and other optical merchandise are subject to retailing B&O tax. The sales of prescription lenses, eyeglass frames with prescription lenses, including contact lenses, are exempt from retail sales tax. Taxpayer must collect retail sales tax on sales of other optical merchandise and remit the tax to the department.
(ii) Example 2. Taxpayer is a retail drugstore that sells preassembled "off-the-shelf" reading glasses. These eyeglasses have lenses with power or prism correction and are sold without a prescription. In addition, Taxpayer sells magnifiers, binoculars, monoculars, and sunglasses. These items are also sold without a prescription.
The gross proceeds of sales of these items are subject to retailing B&O tax. In addition, Taxpayer must collect retail sales tax on sales of these items and remit the tax to the department. Because these items are not sold under a prescription, nor are they prescribed, fitted, or furnished for the buyer by a person licensed under the laws of this state to prescribe, fit, or furnish prosthetic devices, they are not exempt from retail sales tax under either RCW 82.08.0281 or 82.08.0283.
(4) Equipment and supplies used by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians. Purchases of equipment and supplies used by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians are purchases at retail and are subject to retail sales tax unless specifically exempt by law. If the seller does not collect retail sales tax, the optometrist, ophthalmologist, or optician must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law. Deferred sales or use tax liability should be reported on the use tax line of the buyer's excise tax return. For detailed information about use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178.
(a) Prescription drugs. "Prescription drugs," as defined in RCW 82.08.0281, may be purchased without payment of retail sales or use tax by optometrists and ophthalmologists if all requirements for the exemption are met. For additional information regarding prescription drugs, refer to WAC 458-20-18801.
(b) Prescription drugs administered by the medical service provider. RCW 82.04.620 allows a deduction from the service and other activities classification of the B&O tax (RCW 82.04.290(2)) for amounts received by physicians or clinics for drugs for infusion or injection by licensed physicians or their agents for human use pursuant to a prescription. This deduction only applies to amounts that:
(i) Are separately stated on invoices or other billing statements;
(ii) Do not exceed the then current federal rate; and
(iii) Are covered or required under a health care service program subsidized by the federal or state government.
For purposes of this deduction only, amounts that "are covered or required under a health care service program subsidized by the federal or state government" include any required drug copayments made directly from the patient to the physician or clinic.
(A) "Federal rate" means the rate at or below which the federal government or its agents reimburse providers for prescription drugs administered to patients as provided for in the medicare, Part B drugs average sales price information resource as published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, or any index that succeeds it. RCW 82.04.620.
(B) The deduction is available on an "all or nothing" basis against the total of amounts received for a specific drug charge. If the total amount received by the physician or clinic for a specific drug exceeds the federal reimbursement rate, none of the total amount received qualifies for the deduction (including any required copayment received directly from the patient). In other words, a physician or clinic may not simply take an "automatic" deduction equal to the federal reimbursement rate for each drug.
(c) Samples. Optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians are required to pay use tax on any samples, with the exception of prescription drug samples, that they acquire unless retail sales or use tax has been previously paid on these samples.
(d) Examples.
(i) Example 3. Taxpayer is an ophthalmologist who performs eye examinations, laser surgery, and cataract surgery. Taxpayer purchases equipment and supplies that are used in performing these services such as surgical instruments, eye shields, cotton swabs, sterile dressings, bandages, and gauze. Taxpayer also purchases a computer, technical publications, and magazines by mail order and over the internet.
Taxpayer is subject to retail sales tax on these purchases. If the seller does not collect sales tax, Taxpayer is liable for deferred sales tax or use tax and must remit the tax directly to the department.
(ii) Example 4. Taxpayer is an optometrist who performs eye examinations and sells prescription eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other optical merchandise. Taxpayer purchases nonprescription saline and cleaning solutions for contact lenses and carrying cases for eyeglasses and contact lenses. The saline and cleaning solutions are consumed when Taxpayer performs eye examinations. The eyeglass and contact lens carrying cases are provided to customers at the time they purchase eyeglasses or contact lenses.
The purchases of the eyeglass and contact lens carrying cases are purchases for resale and are not subject to sales tax if Taxpayer provides the seller with a reseller permit. The purchases of the saline and cleaning solutions are subject to retail sales tax. These solutions are consumed while providing professional services and cannot be considered to be purchased for resale. They also do not qualify for a sales tax exemption under RCW 82.08.0281 as prescription drugs. If retail sales tax was not paid on the saline and cleaning solutions at the time of purchase, Taxpayer must remit deferred sales tax or use tax directly to the department.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-12-069, § 458-20-150, filed 5/27/16, effective 6/27/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-150, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 08-16-055, § 458-20-150, filed 7/30/08, effective 8/30/08; WSR 04-17-023, § 458-20-150, filed 8/9/04, effective 9/9/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 93-19-020, § 458-20-150, filed 9/2/93, effective 10/3/93; WSR 83-07-034 (Order ET 83-17), § 458-20-150, filed 3/15/83; Order 74-2, § 458-20-150, filed 6/24/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-150 (Rule 150), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-151
Dentists, audiologists, and other health care providersDental laboratories and dental technicians.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains the application of business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to the business activities of dentists, audiologists, dental laboratories, dental technicians, and other health care providers.
(a) Examples. Examples found in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a conclusion. These examples should be used only as a general guide. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all facts and circumstances.
(b) Other rules that may apply. Readers may also want to refer to other rules for additional information, including those in the following list:
(i) WAC 458-20-102 Reseller permits;
(ii) WAC 458-20-150 Optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians;
(iii) WAC 458-20-168 Hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, adult family homes and similar health care facilities;
(iv) WAC 458-20-178 Use tax and the use of tangible personal property; and
(v) WAC 458-20-18801 Medical substances, devices, and supplies for humansDrugs prescribed for human useMedically prescribed oxygenProsthetic devicesMobility enhancing equipmentDurable medical equipment.
(c) Definitions. For the purposes of this rule the following definitions apply:
(i) Audiologists. "Audiologists" diagnose, manage, and treat a patient's hearing, balance, or related ear problems.
(ii) Gross income. "Gross income" means compensation for the rendition of health care services, and includes any separate charge for drugs, medicines, and other substances administered or provided to a patient as part of the health care services delivered to the patient. Gross income also includes any separate charges for prosthetic devices, including dental prostheses and hearing aids that are provided as part of the health care services delivered to patients.
(iii) Health care provider. A "health care provider" is a person licensed under the provisions of Title 18 RCW to provide health care services to humans in the ordinary course of business or practice of a profession.
(iv) Prosthetic device. "Prosthetic device" means a replacement, corrective, or supportive device, including repair and replacement parts for a prosthetic device, worn on or in the body to artificially replace a missing portion of the body, prevent or correct a physical deformity or malfunction, or support a weak or deformed portion of the body. RCW 82.08.0283. Dental appliances, devices, restorations, substitutes, or other dental laboratory products are also referred to as "dental prostheses" throughout this rule.
(2) Tax-reporting information for dentists, audiologists, and other health care providers. This subsection provides specific tax-reporting information for dentists, audiologists, and more generalized tax-reporting information for other health care providers. Dentists who employ dental technicians to produce or fabricate dental appliances, devices, restorations, substitutes, or other dental laboratory products should refer to subsection (3) of this rule for additional information.
(a) Business and occupation tax. Dentists, audiologists, and other health care providers are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax on their gross income from performing dental and other health care services. RCW 82.04.290.
(b) Sales of tangible personal property. A dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider may make sales of tangible personal property such as hearing aid batteries, drugs, medicines, and bandages as a convenience to a buyer apart from any health care services provided to the buyer. These are sales of tangible personal property only when the dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider does not supply or administer the drug, medicine, or other item in the course of delivering health care services to the buyer. The gross proceeds of these retail sales of tangible personal property are subject to the retailing B&O tax. In addition, the dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider must collect and remit retail sales tax, unless the sale is specifically exempt by law. For detailed information regarding retail sales tax exemptions available for sales of items commonly associated with health care services refer to WAC 458-20-18801. Adequate records must be kept by the dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider to distinguish items of tangible personal property supplied or administered to patients as part of health care services from those sold apart from health care services delivered to the buyer.
Purchases of tangible personal property for resale without intervening use are not subject to the retail sales tax. A dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider purchasing tangible personal property for resale must furnish a reseller permit to the seller to document the wholesale nature of the sale. For information on reseller permits, see WAC 458-20-102.
(c) Equipment and supplies used by dentists, audiologists, and other health care providers. Purchases of equipment and supplies used by dentists, audiologists, and other health care providers in performing diagnostic, dental, or other health care services are purchases at retail and subject to retail sales tax unless specifically exempt by law. If the seller does not collect retail sales tax, the dentist, audiologist, or other health care provider must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law. Deferred sales or use tax liability should be reported on the use tax line of the buyer's excise tax return. For detailed information regarding the use tax, see WAC 458-20-178.
Dental prostheses are exempt from retail sales and use taxes if the dental prosthesis meets the definition of "prosthetic device." Exempt items include, but are not limited to, full and partial dentures, crowns, inlays, fillings, braces, retainers, collars, wire, screws, bands, splints, night guards, gold, silver, alloys, acrylic materials, filling material, reline material, cement, cavity liners, pins, and endo posts.
(d) Itemization of gross income. Audiologists who itemize invoices to their patients showing charges for tests and evaluations separate from charges for sales of hearing aids may separately report their income under the service and other activities B&O tax classification and the retailing B&O tax classification, respectively. Audiologists who do not separately charge for their services and sales of hearing aids must report their gross income under the service and other activities B&O tax classification.
(e) Examples.
(i) Example 1. Dr. A is a physician who specializes in the treatment of allergies. Dr. A treats many patients with injections of allergy extracts (antigens). Dr. A separately itemizes the charges for the antigen, the administration of the injection, and the office call in patients' billings. Dr. A is subject to service and other activities B&O tax on the entire charge for the antigen, administration of the injection, and office call. Even though Dr. A separately itemizes the charges for antigens, these are not retail sales because Dr. A administers the antigens to the patients.
(ii) Example 2. Dr. B made mail-order purchases of a computer, books, and magazines for use in Dr. B's dental practice. Dr. B did not pay retail sales tax to the sellers on these purchases. Therefore, Dr. B must remit to the department deferred retail sales or use tax on the computer, books, and magazines.
(3) Tax-reporting information for dental laboratories and dental technicians. This subsection provides tax-reporting information for dental laboratories and dental technicians.
(a) Producing or fabricating dental prostheses for sale. The production or fabrication of dental appliances, devices, restorations, substitutes, or other dental laboratory products by dental laboratories and dental technicians is a manufacturing activity. RCW 82.04.120. Thus, dental laboratories and dental technicians are subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the dental prostheses they manufacture. The value of products manufactured is generally the gross proceeds of sales of such manufactured products. For additional information about the manufacturing B&O tax, see WAC 458-20-136.
(i) Sales of dental prostheses manufactured by dental laboratories and dental technicians. Dental laboratories and dental technicians that make sales within this state of dental prostheses they have manufactured are subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases, the dental laboratory or dental technician must report under the manufacturing B&O tax classification as well as the wholesaling or retailing B&O tax classification. However, a multiple activities tax credit (MATC) may be claimed. For detailed information about the MATC, see WAC 458-20-19301. Dental laboratories or dental technicians making wholesale sales must obtain a reseller permit from the buyer to document the wholesale nature of the sale.
As noted in subsection (2)(c) of this rule, sales of dental prostheses including, but not limited to, full and partial dentures, crowns, inlays, fillings, braces, and retainers are exempt from retail sales tax if the dental prosthesis meets the definition of a "prosthetic device."
(ii) Dental casts, models, and other articles of tangible personal property manufactured by dental laboratories and dental technicians for commercial or industrial use. Dental laboratories and dental technicians may manufacture dental casts, models, or other articles of tangible personal property that they use to produce or fabricate dental prostheses. In such cases, the dental laboratory or dental technician is manufacturing a product for commercial or industrial use and is subject to the manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the dental cast, model, or other article of tangible personal property. For information regarding the value of products, see RCW 82.04.450 and WAC 458-20-112. As the consumer of the dental cast, model, or other article of tangible personal property manufactured for commercial or industrial use, the dental laboratory or dental technician is also liable for use tax on the value of the dental cast, model, or other article of tangible personal property, unless the use is specifically exempt by law.
(b) In-house manufacturing of dental prostheses by dentists. As noted in this rule, the production or fabrication of dental prostheses by dental laboratories and dental technicians is a manufacturing activity. However, the production or fabrication of dental prostheses by dentists in the course of providing dental care services to their patients is not a manufacturing activity under the law and, therefore, manufacturing B&O tax does not apply to that activity. A dentist may personally produce or fabricate dental prostheses, or the dentist may have an employee who is a dental technician produce or fabricate the dental prostheses. These dental prostheses are considered a tangible representation of professional services provided to the dentist's patients. Dentists who manufacture impressions, dental casts, models, or other articles of tangible personal property that they use to produce or fabricate dental prostheses should refer to subsection (3)(a)(ii) of this rule for tax reporting instructions applicable to this activity.
(i) Example 3. Jane Doe, an employee of Dentist A, fabricates dental prostheses. Dentist A provides these products to patients in the course of rendering dental care services. Dentist A is subject to service and other activities B&O tax on the gross income received for providing dental care services, including any charge for the dental prostheses even if Dentist A separately charges patients for the dental prostheses.
(ii) Example 4. The facts are the same as in the previous example except that Dentist A also sells to Dentist B dental prostheses produced by Jane Doe in the course of Jane's employment with Dentist A. For these sales of dental prostheses to Dentist B, Dentist A is acting as a dental laboratory and, therefore, is liable for both manufacturing B&O tax and retailing B&O tax with respect to the manufacture and sale of dental prostheses to Dentist B. Dentist A may also claim a MATC. See subsection (3)(a) and (a)(i) of this rule. The sales to Dentist B are exempt from retail sales tax under RCW 82.08.0283 if the items qualify as a "prosthetic device" as defined in subsection (1)(c)(iv) of this rule.
(c) Equipment and supplies used by dental laboratories and dental technicians. Purchases of equipment and supplies by dental laboratories and dental technicians for use in manufacturing dental prostheses are generally purchases at retail and subject to retail sales tax unless specifically exempt by law. If the seller does not collect retail sales tax, the dental laboratory or dental technician must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law. Deferred sales or use tax should be reported on the use tax line of the buyer's excise tax return. For detailed information regarding use tax, see WAC 458-20-178.
(i) Components of dental prostheses produced for sale. Purchases of supplies that become components of dental prostheses produced for sale are purchases at wholesale and are not subject to retail sales tax, if the buyer provides the seller with a reseller permit to document the wholesale nature of the transaction.
(ii) Example 5. A dental lab purchases equipment and supplies including gold, silver, alloys, artificial teeth, cement, and tools. The purchases of gold, silver, alloys, artificial teeth, and cement that become components of dental prostheses are wholesale purchases and are not subject to retail sales tax if the buyer provides the seller with a reseller permit. The tools are subject to retail sales or use tax unless they qualify for the manufacturing machinery and equipment sales and use tax exemptions. Additional information about these exemptions is provided in subsection (3)(d) of this rule.
(d) Sales and use tax exemptions for manufacturing machinery and equipment. RCW 82.08.02565 and 82.12.02565 provide retail sales and use tax exemptions for sales to or use by manufacturers of certain machinery and equipment used directly in a manufacturing operation. These exemptions are limited to machinery and equipment used to manufacture products for sale as tangible personal property. Thus, dental laboratories and dental technicians manufacturing dental prostheses for sale may be eligible for these exemptions. The exemptions are not available if these products are produced or fabricated by a dentist or an employee of a dentist and are provided to patients in the course of delivering dental care services to the patients (as is the case in Example 3). See WAC 458-20-13601 for detailed information regarding these exemptions.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 16-16-002, § 458-20-151, filed 7/20/16, effective 8/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300, 82.01.060(2), chapters 82.04, 82.08, 82.12 and 82.32 RCW. WSR 10-06-069, § 458-20-151, filed 2/25/10, effective 3/28/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 04-17-022, § 458-20-151, filed 8/9/04, effective 9/9/04; WSR 02-21-080, § 458-20-151, filed 10/17/02, effective 11/17/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 91-15-023, § 458-20-151, filed 7/11/91, effective 8/11/91; WSR 83-07-032 (Order ET 83-15), § 458-20-151, filed 3/15/83; Order 74-2, § 458-20-151, filed 6/24/74; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-151 (Rule 151), filed 5/19/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-153
Funeral establishments.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains:
(a) The application of business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to the business activities of funeral establishments; and
(b) The application of tax to income derived from prearrangement funeral service contracts.
For the purposes of this rule, the term "funeral establishment" means a person licensed under RCW 18.39.145. Persons operating cemeteries should refer to WAC 458-20-154 (Cemeteries, crematories, columbaria) for tax-reporting information.
The funeral and cemetery board (board) regulates funeral establishments. For funeral establishments, refer to chapter 18.39 RCW and chapters 308-47, 308-48, and 308-49 WAC for information on the laws and administrative rules governing their business activities.
(2) General tax reporting responsibilities. The gross proceeds attributable to funeral activities are taxable when income is accrued in the books and records or when services are performed or merchandise is delivered, whichever is earlier.
The gross proceeds for funeral services are subject to tax under the service and other activities classification of the B&O tax. The gross proceeds from the retail sales of tangible personal property such as urns, caskets, clothing, outside casket cases, floral arrangements, plants, and acknowledgment cards are subject to tax under the retailing classification of the B&O tax. Funeral establishments are also responsible for collecting and remitting to the department of revenue (department) retail sales tax on retail sales of tangible personal property unless specifically exempt by law.
Funeral establishments commonly quote a lump sum price for a standard funeral service, which includes the furnishing of funeral services and tangible personal property. Where the funeral establishment quotes a lump sum price for a standard funeral service, which includes both the sale of a casket and a charge for the rendering of service, the retail sales tax is collected upon one-half of such lump sum price. Clothing, outside case (a concrete or metal box into which the casket is placed) and other tangible personal property furnished in addition to the casket must be billed separately and the retail sales tax collected thereon.
(a) Reimbursement for accommodation expenditures. Amounts received by a funeral establishment as reimbursement for goods or services provided by persons not employed by, affiliated, or associated with the funeral establishment may be deducted from the measure of the B&O tax if these amounts have been reported as gross income on the funeral establishment's excise tax return. These amounts are deductible if advanced to accommodate the customer and separately itemized on the billing statement or invoice in the exact amount of the expenditure. See RCW 82.04.4296.
(b) In-state services with out-of-state interment. A funeral establishment may perform funeral services or other services such as preparing the remains of a deceased person and placing the remains in a casket within Washington, with the remains subsequently removed to another state for interment. In these cases, the B&O and retail sales taxes generally apply to the income received from the sale of funeral merchandise and services as explained in this subsection. The merchandise (e.g., casket or urn) is delivered to the buyer within Washington when the merchandise is used in performing these services, even if interment subsequently occurs outside the state.
Neither B&O nor retail sales taxes apply to the sale of tangible personal property, without intervening use, delivered by the seller to the buyer at an out-of-state location. Refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property) for more information regarding the delivery requirements for out-of-state sales of tangible personal property.
(c) Sales to the federal government. Sales of tangible personal property directly to the federal government are exempt from the retail sales tax, though the seller remains subject to B&O tax unless a specific exemption applies. Sales of tangible personal property to other persons, whether paid with federal funds or through a reimbursement arrangement, are fully subject to the retail sales tax. For additional information about the taxability of sales to the federal government, refer to WAC 458-20-190 (Sales to and by the United StatesDoing business on federal reservationsSales to foreign governments).
(3) Funeral establishments purchasing tangible personal property. Generally, retail sales tax is due when purchasing items used or consumed by funeral establishments when providing professional services. These items generally include, but are not limited to, equipment, tools, furniture, and all preparation room supplies such as embalming fluid and other chemicals, solvents, waxes, cosmetics, eye caps, gauze, and cotton.
(a) Items purchased for resale. Tangible personal property purchased for resale without intervening use is not subject to retail sales tax. Property commonly purchased for resale by funeral establishments includes, but is not limited to, urns, caskets, clothing, outside casket cases, flowers, plants, and acknowledgment cards. A funeral establishment purchasing tangible personal property for resale must provide to the seller, a reseller permit to document the wholesale nature of the sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits).
(b) Deferred sales and use tax. If the seller does not collect retail sales tax on a retail sale, the buyer must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department unless specifically exempt by law. For detailed information regarding use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
(4) Prearrangement contracts and trusts. Funeral establishments often enter into prearrangement contracts requiring them to provide funeral services and merchandise at some future date. Unless otherwise exempt, the law requires funeral establishments to place a portion of the cash purchase price of the contract (at least ninety percent as of the effective date of this section), excluding retail sales tax, into one or more prearrangement funeral service trusts. Withdrawal of trust funds may only occur upon fulfillment or cancellation of the contract. See chapter 18.39 RCW.
(a) When does tax liability arise? Amounts placed in prearrangement funeral service trusts are subject to excise tax upon withdrawal from the trust accounts. In other words, the amounts are taxable upon fulfillment or cancellation of the contract. Refer to subsection (2) of this section (General tax reporting responsibilities) for the tax treatment of amounts related to the fulfillment of the contract.
(b) Retail sales tax - Prearrangement funeral service trust accounts. If retail sales tax paid by the buyer is placed into a prearrangement funeral service trust account, the tax is reported upon fulfillment of the contract and remitted to the department at that time.
If retail sales tax paid by the buyer is not placed into a prearrangement funeral service trust account, the tax must be reported on the excise tax return for the current reporting period and remitted to the department.
Upon cancellation of a prearrangement contract, a refund of retail sales tax remitted by a funeral establishment to the department is subject to the time limitations on refunds in RCW 82.32.060. For example, the law prohibits the department from refunding retail sales tax to a funeral establishment for a prearrangement contract that is canceled five years after the retail sales tax associated with the contract is remitted to the department. See WAC 458-20-229 (Refunds).
(c) Contract cancellation and trust administration fees. Amounts retained by the funeral establishment when a prearrangement funeral service contract is canceled are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax, except that any amounts allocable to a retail sale of merchandise are subject to retailing B&O and retail sales taxes. Administration fees deducted from a prearrangement funeral service trust by the administrator are also subject to the service and other activities B&O tax.
(5) Sourcing. In general, the place of sale occurs where the body is placed in the casket. For other sourcing information, refer to WAC 458-20-145.
(6) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and state a conclusion regarding the taxability of funeral establishments. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. Use these examples only as a general guide.
(a) John and Jane Doe contracted with ABC Funeral Home (ABC) for the funeral of a deceased relative. John and Jane also purchased a casket from ABC. Funeral services purchased from ABC included preparing the body of the deceased for viewing, arranging for the final disposition, providing facilities for the visitation and funeral service, and transporting the deceased and the mourners to the place of final disposition.
(i) ABC owes service and other activities B&O tax for the funeral services charge.
(ii) The charge for the casket is subject to retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(b) John and Jane Doe entered into a prearrangement funeral service contract with ABC for the purchase of funeral merchandise and services to be provided upon their deaths. John and Jane made a down payment when signing the contract and agreed to pay the balance in sixty monthly installments. The merchandise and services John and Jane purchased include a casket, preparing the body of the deceased for viewing, arranging for the final disposition, providing facilities for the visitation and funeral service, and transporting the deceased and the mourners to the place of final disposition. The contract itemizes retail sales tax and provides for a finance charge on the unpaid balance of the contract. ABC places all receipts under the contract, including finance charges, into a prearrangement funeral service trust account.
ABC must report:
(i) The charges for funeral services and the finance charges under the service and other activities B&O tax classification at the time they perform the services; and
(ii) The charge for the casket is subject to retailing B&O and retail sales tax at the time it is used.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 15-21-089, § 458-20-153, filed 10/21/15, effective 11/21/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300. WSR 83-07-033 (Order ET 83-16), § 458-20-153, filed 3/15/83; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-153 (Rule 153), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-154
Cemeteries, crematories, columbaria.

(1) Introduction. This rule explains:
(a) The application of business and occupation (B&O), retail sales, and use taxes to the business activities of cemeteries;
(b) The application of B&O and retail sales taxes to amounts derived by cemeteries from prearrangement contracts (commonly referred to as "preneed" or "prepaid" arrangements) for the sale of interment rights, merchandise, and services.
For purposes of this rule, the term "cemeteries" includes cemeteries, burial parks, crematories, columbaria, and mausoleums. Refer to WAC 458-20-153 (Funeral establishments) for funeral establishment tax-reporting information.
The funeral and cemetery board regulates private cemeteries. Refer to Title 68 RCW and Title 98 WAC for information on the laws and administrative rules governing cemeteries.
(2) General tax reporting responsibilities.
(a) Sales of interment services and interment rights. The gross proceeds attributable to cemetery activities are taxable when the amounts are shown as income in the books and records or when services are performed or merchandise is delivered, whichever is earlier.
Amounts derived from interment services such as document recording, opening and closing the interment space, and placing grave liners or vaults in the interment space are subject to the service and other activities B&O tax. Sales or transfers of plots, crypts, and niches for the interment of human remains, irrespective of how the document of transfer is described (e.g., deed, certificate of ownership, or certificate of interment rights), are charges for the right of interment, an interest similar to a license to use real estate. Thus, the gross income from sales of interment rights is subject to B&O tax under the service and other activities classification.
(b) Sales of merchandise, including installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving property. The gross proceeds from retail sales of tangible personal property such as monuments, markers, memorials, nameplates, outer burial containers (e.g., vaults or grave liners), boxes, urns, vases, benches, plants, shrubs, and flowers are subject to B&O tax under the retailing classification. Retailing B&O tax also applies to charges by cemeteries for installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving tangible personal property of or for consumers. Cemeteries are also responsible for collecting and remitting to the department of revenue (the department) retail sales tax on retail sales of tangible personal property and charges for installing, repairing, cleaning, altering, or improving tangible personal property of or for consumers unless specifically exempt by law. Thus, charges for installing markers and monuments are subject to retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(c) Sales to the federal government. Sales of tangible personal property directly to the federal government are exempt from the retail sales tax, though the seller remains subject to B&O tax unless a specific exemption applies. Sales of tangible personal property to other persons, whether paid with federal funds or through a reimbursement arrangement, are fully subject to the retail sales tax. For additional information about the taxability of sales to the federal government, refer to WAC 458-20-190 (Sales to and by the United StatesDoing business on federal reservationsSales to foreign governments).
(3) Cemeteries purchasing tangible personal property. Generally, retail sales tax is due when purchasing tangible personal property such as tools and supplies used or consumed by cemeteries when providing interment services.
(a) Items purchased for resale. Tangible personal property purchased for resale without intervening use is not subject to retail sales tax. Property commonly purchased for resale by cemeteries includes, but is not limited to, monuments, markers, memorials, nameplates, liners, vaults, boxes, urns, vases, benches, plants, shrubs, and flowers. Cemeteries purchasing tangible personal property for resale must provide to the seller a reseller permit to document the wholesale nature of the sale as provided in WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits).
(b) Deferred sales and use tax. If the seller does not collect retail sales tax on a retail sale, the buyer must remit the retail sales tax (commonly referred to as "deferred sales tax") or use tax directly to the department, unless specifically exempt by law. For detailed information about use tax, refer to WAC 458-20-178 (Use tax).
(4) Prearrangement contracts. Cemeteries often enter into prearrangement contracts with customers for the purchase of merchandise and services, unconstructed crypts or niches, or undeveloped graves to be furnished at a future date. Executed contracts are paid in either a lump sum or in installments. Unless otherwise exempt, the law requires cemeteries to place a percentage of all funds collected in payment of each prearrangement contract in a prearrangement trust account. As of the effective date of this section, the amount required in a prearrangement trust account is equal to the greater of (for merchandise) fifty percent of the contract price or the wholesale cost of the item, (for services) fifty percent of the contract price, or the direct cost of providing the service. Withdrawal of trust funds may only occur upon fulfillment or cancellation of the contract. See chapter 68.46 RCW.
(a) When does tax liability arise? Amounts placed into prearrangement trust accounts are subject to excise tax upon withdrawal from the prearrangement trust accounts. In other words, the amounts are taxable upon fulfillment or cancellation of the contract. Refer to subsection (2) of this section (General tax reporting responsibilities) for the tax treatment of amounts related to the fulfillment of the prearrangement contract.
(b) Retail sales tax - Prearrangement trust accounts. If retail sales tax paid by the buyer is placed into a prearrangement trust account, the retail sales tax is reported and remitted to the department upon fulfillment of the prearrangement contract.
If retail sales tax paid by the buyer is not placed into a prearrangement trust account, the tax must be reported on the excise tax return for the current reporting period and remitted to the department.
Upon cancellation of a prearrangement contract, a refund of retail sales tax remitted by a cemetery to the department is subject to the time limitations on refunds provided by RCW 82.32.060. For example, the law prohibits the department from refunding retail sales tax to a cemetery for a prearrangement contract that is canceled five years after the retail sales tax associated with the contract is remitted to the department. See also WAC 458-20-229 (Refunds).
(c) Contract cancellation and trust administration fees. Amounts retained by a cemetery from a canceled prearrangement contract are subject to service and other activities B&O tax, except that any amount allocable to a retail sale of merchandise is subject to retailing B&O and retail sales taxes. Administration fees deducted from a prearrangement trust fund by the administrator are also subject to the B&O tax under the service and other activities classification.
(5) Examples. The following examples identify a number of facts and then state a general conclusion regarding the taxability of cemeteries. The tax results of other situations must be determined after a review of all of the facts and circumstances. Use these examples only as a general guide.
(a) John and Jane Doe contracted with ABC Cemetery Association (ABC) for the interment of a deceased relative. The interment rights, merchandise, and services provided by ABC include an interment plot, an outer burial container, burial of the decedent, a marker, and installation of the marker. In addition, ABC charges a document-recording fee.
(i) ABC is subject to service and other activities B&O tax on charges for the interment plot, burial of the decedent, and the document-recording fee.
(ii) The charges for the outer burial container, marker, and marker installation are subject to retailing B&O and retail sales taxes.
(b) John and Jane Doe entered into a prearrangement contract with ABC for the purchase of interment rights, merchandise, and services provided upon their deaths. John and Jane made a down payment when signing the contract and agreed to pay the balance in sixty monthly installments. The interment rights, merchandise, and services purchased by John and Jane include interment plots, outer burial containers, burial of their remains, markers, and installation of the markers. The contract itemizes retail sales tax and provides for a finance charge on the unpaid balance.
ABC places all receipts under prearrangement contracts, including the finance charges, into a prearrangement trust account.
ABC must report:
(i) The amounts received for the interment plots under the service and other activities B&O tax classification at the time the income is recognized on the books and records or upon fulfillment of the contract, whichever is earlier;
(ii) The amounts received for the burial of remains, the document-recording fee, and the finance charges under the service and other activities B&O tax classification at the time they perform the services; and
(iii) Retailing B&O and retail sales taxes on the sale of the outer burial containers, markers, and marker installation in the reporting period during which they deliver the merchandise and perform the installation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 15-21-089, § 458-20-154, filed 10/21/15, effective 11/21/15; WSR 78-06-083 (Order 78-3), § 458-20-154, filed 6/1/78; Order ET 70-3, § 458-20-154 (Rule 154), filed 5/29/70, effective 7/1/70.]



458-20-15501
Taxation of computer systems and hardware.

(1) Taxation of computer systems.
(a) What is a computer? A "computer" is an electronic device that accepts information in digital or similar form and manipulates it for a result based on a sequence of instructions. RCW 82.04.215. Examples of a computer include, but are not limited to, mainframe computer, laptop, workstation, and desktop computer. "Computer" also includes automatic data processing equipment, which is a computer used for data processing purposes. "Computer" does not include any computer software or peripheral devices.
(b) Computer systems and computer networks distinguished. A "computer system" is a functional unit, consisting of one computer and associated computer software, whereas a computer network is two or more computers and associated computer software that uses common storage. A computer system may or may not include peripheral devices.
(c) Wholesale sale of computer systems. Gross proceeds of sales of computer systems to persons other than consumers (e.g., sales for resale without intervening use) are subject to B&O tax under the wholesaling classification. To verify the wholesale nature of the sale, the seller should obtain a reseller permit from the buyer as provided by WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits).
(d) Retail sale of computer systems. Gross proceeds of sales of computer systems to consumers are subject to B&O tax under the retailing classification. Persons making retail sales are responsible for collecting retail sales tax at the time of sale and remitting the tax to the department, unless the sale is specifically exempt by law. If the seller is required to collect Washington sales tax (such as in the case of the seller having nexus with Washington), but does not collect Washington sales tax, the buyer is responsible for remitting retail sales tax (commonly referred to as deferred sales tax), unless the sale is specifically exempt by law. If the seller is not required to collect Washington sales tax, then the buyer is responsible for remitting use tax, unless the transaction is specifically exempt by law. Separately stated charges for custom software sold with the computer system are subject to service B&O tax.
(e) Manufacturing of computer systems. Persons manufacturing computer systems are subject to manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of the products. See WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products) and 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating). Manufacturers of computer systems who sell their products at retail or wholesale are also subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases the manufacturer must report under both the "production" (manufacturing) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) B&O tax classifications and may claim a multiple activities tax credit (MATC). See WAC 458-20-19301 (Multiple activities tax credits) for detailed information about the MATC.
(i) Separately stated charges for custom programming sold with the computer system are not subject to manufacturing B&O tax, but are subject to service B&O tax.
(ii) Separately stated charges for computer software sold and installed after the sale of a computer system are not subject to manufacturing B&O tax.
(iii) The combining of a computer system with certain peripheral devices is considered a packaging activity not subject to manufacturing B&O tax, when the following occurs:
(A) The peripheral devices remain in the original packaging;
(B) The person does not attach its own label to the peripheral devices;
(C) The person maintains a separate inventory of the peripheral devices for sale apart from the sale of the computer system; and
(D) The charge for the sale of peripheral devices is separately stated from the charge for the sale of computer systems.
(2) Examples.
(a) ABC Computers, Inc., an in-state manufacturer, manufactures and sells at retail computer systems. ABC sells a computer system to Steve for one flat charge. The computer system includes a disk drive, memory, CPU, keyboard, mouse, monitor, and bundled prewritten computer software. ABC is subject to retailing B&O tax and must collect retail sales tax on the sale to Steve. In addition, ABC is subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the product sold (which is generally the sales price). ABC is entitled to claim a multiple activities tax credit.
(b) ADE Computers, Inc., manufactures and sells computer systems at retail to customers. ADE sells to Julie a computer system with certain peripheral devices at separate charges. The computer system without the peripheral devices consists of a disk drive, memory, CPU, and bundled prewritten computer software. The peripheral devices include a keyboard, mouse, and monitor. All peripheral devices remain in the original packaging of the manufacturers. ADE does not attach its own label to the peripheral devices. Finally, ADE maintains a separate inventory of the peripheral devices for sale apart from the sale of ADE's computer systems. ADE is subject to retailing B&O tax and must collect retail sales tax from Julie on the sales of the computer system including the peripheral devices. ADE is subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the computer system excluding the peripheral devices. ADE is entitled to claim a multiple activities tax credit. ADE is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the peripheral devices because the combining of a computer system with the peripheral devices in this case constitutes packaging activities.
(c) AFG Computers, Inc., an in-state company, manufactures and sells at retail computer systems. AFG sells a computer system to Joe for a lump sum. Joe purchases from AFG, as part of the sales package, prewritten computer software developed by a third-party software developer. AFG installs the prewritten computer software to Joe's computer. AFG is subject to retailing B&O tax and must collect retail sales tax from Joe on the sale of the computer system, including the bundled prewritten computer software. Also, AFG is subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the computer system, including the value of the prewritten computer software. AFG is entitled to claim a multiple activities tax credit.
(d) Same facts as (c) of this subsection, except that AFG sells and installs the prewritten computer software after Joe purchases and takes possession of the computer system. AFG is subject to retailing B&O tax and must collect retail sales tax from Joe on the sale of the computer system and the prewritten computer software. Also, AFG is subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the computer system. AFG is entitled to claim a multiple activities tax credit. AFG is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax on the value of the prewritten computer software because the installation of the software by AFG is not a part of AFG's manufacturing activity.
(3) Taxation of computer hardware, both internal and external peripheral devices.
(a) What is computer hardware? For purposes of this section, "computer hardware" includes, but is not limited to, the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, or electrical components of a computer system such as towers, motherboards, central processing units (CPU), hard disk drives, memory, as well as internal and external peripheral devices such as compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) drives, compact disk rewritable (CD-RW) drives, zip drives, internal and external modems, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) devices, floppy disks, compact disks (CDs), digital versatile disks (DVDs), cables, mice, keyboards, printers, monitors, scanners, web cameras, speakers, and microphones.
(b) Wholesale sale of computer hardware. Gross proceeds of sales of computer hardware to persons other than consumers (e.g., sales for resale without intervening use) are subject to B&O tax under the wholesaling classification. To verify the wholesale nature of the sale, the seller should obtain a reseller permit from the buyer as provided by WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits).
(c) Retail sale of computer hardware. Gross proceeds of sales of computer hardware to consumers are subject to B&O tax under the retailing classification. Persons making retail sales are responsible for collecting retail sales tax at the time of sale and remitting the tax to the department, unless the sale is specifically exempt by law.
(d) Manufacturing of computer hardware. Persons manufacturing computer hardware are subject to manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of the products. See WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products) and 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating). Manufacturers of computer hardware who sell their products at retail or wholesale are also subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases the manufacturer must report under both the "production" (manufacturing) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) B&O tax classifications and may claim a multiple activities tax credit (MATC). See WAC 458-20-19301 (Multiple activities tax credits) for detailed information about the MATC.
(4) Examples.
(a) ALM Computers, Inc., purchases used computers. ALM replaces a built-in CD-ROM drive with a CD-RW drive and adds a zip drive, additional memory, and an upgraded CPU. ALM is engaged in manufacturing activity subject to manufacturing B&O tax with respect to that computer.
(b) AJK Computers, Inc., acquires damaged computers for refurbishment and sale. AJK removes damaged hardware components and replaces them with new components without upgrading these components. Refurbishing computers in this manner is not a manufacturing activity. Retail sales of such refurbished computers are subject to retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax.
(c) APQ Computers, Inc., purchases computers for refurbishment and sale. APQ replaces the failed zip drive on one of the computers with an upgraded zip drive because the upgrade is the nearest version of the failed component that is available. The manufacturer has discontinued manufacturing the original version of the zip drive because of a flaw in the design. APQ is not engaged in manufacturing activity with respect to that computer. Retail sale of that refurbished computer is subject to retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax.
(d) ATV Computers, Inc., is hired by a call center company to repair damaged computers. ATV removes damaged hardware components and replaces them with new components without upgrading these components. Refurbishing computers in this manner is not a manufacturing activity; however, it is a retail service. Refurbishing computers in this manner is subject to retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax must be collected. See WAC 458-20-173 (Installing, cleaning, repairing or otherwise altering or improving personal property of consumers) for more information on repairs and maintenance.
(5) Taxation of other activities associated with computer hardware.
(a) Installing computer hardware. Gross proceeds of sales for installing computer hardware are subject to wholesaling or retailing B&O tax, as the case may be. Installation of computer hardware for consumers is subject to retail sales tax. See RCW 82.32.730 (sourcing) for more information on sourcing retail sales of computer services. See WAC 458-20-173 (Installing, cleaning, repairing or otherwise altering or improving personal property of consumers) for more information on installations.
(b) Repairing or maintaining computer hardware. Gross proceeds of sales for repair or maintenance of computer hardware are subject to wholesaling or retailing B&O tax. Repair of computer hardware for consumers is subject to retail sales tax. See RCW 82.32.730 for more information on sourcing. See WAC 458-20-173 (Installing, cleaning, repairing or otherwise altering or improving personal property of consumers) for more information on repairs and maintenance. Also, see WAC 458-20-257 (Warranties and maintenance agreements) for information about repair performed as part of a warranty or maintenance agreement.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.200 and 82.01.060. WSR 13-06-015, § 458-20-15501, filed 2/25/13, effective 3/28/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 09-01-088, § 458-20-15501, filed 12/16/08, effective 1/16/09.]



458-20-15502
Taxation of computer software.

(1) What is computer software? RCW 82.04.215 provides that "computer software" is a set of coded instructions designed to cause a computer or automatic data processing equipment to perform a task. All software is classified as either prewritten or custom. "Computer software" includes only those sets of coded instructions intended for use by an end user and specifically excludes retained rights in software and master copies of software. Computer software does not include data.
(a) How is computer software delivered? Computer software may be delivered either by intangible means such as electronically downloaded or by tangible means such as tangible storage media.
(b) What is automatic data processing equipment? "Automatic data processing equipment" includes computers used for data processing purposes and their peripheral equipment.
(c) What are retained rights? "Retained rights" means any and all rights, including intellectual property rights such as those rights arising from copyrights, patents, and trade secret laws, that are owned or are held under contract or license by a software developer, author, inventor, publisher, licensor, sublicensor, or distributor. RCW 82.04.215.
(d) What are master copies of software? "Master copies" of software means copies of software from which a software developer, author, inventor, publisher, licensor, sublicensor, or distributor makes copies for sale or license. RCW 82.04.215.
(i) Development of a master copy of software. Development of a master copy of software by a software developer, or a third party hired by the software developer, that is used to produce copies of software for sale or commercial or industrial use, is not a manufacturing activity. A third-party charge for development of a master copy of software is a charge for custom software development and is subject to service and other activities B&O tax.
(ii) Use of prewritten computer software by software developer. The internal use of prewritten computer software by the developer of that software is not subject to use tax because the software developer is not an end user of its own internally developed software. For example, VV Software, Inc., an in-state software developer, creates accounting software generally used by small businesses. VV plans to sell its newly created software to other companies. VV also plans to make a copy of this software and use it for its accounting operation. The copy of software used by VV for its accounting operation is not subject to use tax.
(2) What is custom software? "Custom software" is computer software created for a single person. RCW 82.04.215. The use of library files in software development does not preclude the developed software from being characterized as custom software, as long as the software is created for a single person. The nature of custom software does not change when ownership is transferred to a person with no rights retained by the transferor.
For purposes of this section, "library files" are a collection of precompiled and frequently used routines that a software developer can use in developing the software. The purchase or use of such "library files" may be subject to retail sales or use tax as the sale of prewritten software.
(a) Creation of custom software. Gross income received for creating custom software is subject to service and other activities B&O tax.
(b) Duplication of custom software. Duplication of custom software for the same person, or by the same person for the person's own use, does not change the character of the custom software. RCW 82.04.29001. Duplication of custom software for the same person, or by the same person for its own use, is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax.
If a person duplicates custom software for sale to or use by another person other than the original purchaser, the software becomes prewritten computer software as defined in subsection (3) of this section and is subject to manufacturing B&O tax if the prewritten computer software is delivered by tangible storage media.
(c) Sale of custom software. If custom software is sold to another person other than the original purchaser, the software loses its character as custom software and becomes prewritten computer software as defined in subsection (3) of this section.
(d) Use of custom software. Use of custom software is not subject to use tax.
(e) The examples included in this rule identify a number of facts and then state a general conclusion; they should be used only as a general guide. Additionally, each fact pattern in each example is self contained (e.g., "stands on its own") unless otherwise indicated by reference to another example. The tax consequences of all situations must be determined after a review of all the facts and circumstances. Examples requiring that sales tax be collected by the seller assume that the seller has "tax nexus" with Washington and no exclusions or exemptions apply and the sale is sourced to Washington.
(f) Example 1. PFC, Inc., develops software for its client. PFC is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax because the software is custom software. PFC's income from the sale of the custom software to the one specific client is subject to service and other activities B&O tax.
(3) What is prewritten computer software? RCW 82.04.215 provides that "prewritten computer software" is computer software, including prewritten upgrades, patches, fixes, etc., that is not designed and developed by the author or other creator to the specifications of a specific purchaser.
The combining of two or more prewritten computer software programs or prewritten portions thereof does not result in custom software. Configuration of prewritten computer software to work with other computer software does constitute customization of prewritten computer software.
Prewritten computer software includes software designed and developed by the author or other creator to the specifications of a specific purchaser when it is sold to a person other than such purchaser.
Where a person, who is not the author or creator, modifies or enhances prewritten computer software, that person is deemed to be the author or creator only of the modifications or enhancements made. Prewritten computer software, or a portion thereof, that is modified or enhanced to any degree, remains prewritten computer software, even though the modification or enhancement is designed and developed to the specifications of a specific purchaser. Where there is a reasonable, separately stated charge or an invoice or other statement of the price given to the purchaser for the modification or enhancement, the modification or enhancement will not be considered prewritten computer software.
(a) Wholesale sales of prewritten computer software. Gross proceeds from sales of prewritten computer software to persons other than consumers (e.g., sales for resale without intervening use) are subject to B&O tax under the wholesaling classification, whether or not ownership or title passes to the buyer, and regardless of any express or implied restrictions upon the buyer. The method of delivery of prewritten computer software does not alter the wholesale nature of the transaction, whether it is through tangible storage media or any electronic means. Delivery of software manuals and backup copies of prewritten computer software does not alter the delivery of the actual copy of prewritten computer software to be used by the buyer in determining when and where the sale takes place. To verify the wholesale nature of the sale, the seller obtains a reseller permit from the buyer as provided by WAC 458-20-102 (Reseller permits).
(i) Distinction between wholesale sales of prewritten computer software and royalties received for the licensing of prewritten computer software. Sales of prewritten computer software constitute wholesale sales if the reseller, who has no right to reproduce the software for further sales, sells the same software to its customers. The true object of the sale to the reseller is the sale of the software. On the other hand, income received for granting an intangible right to reproduce and distribute copies of prewritten computer software for sale constitutes royalties. The true object of the transaction that generates royalty income is the right to reproduce and relicense the software. See subsection (8) of this section for more information on royalties.
(ii) Examples.
(A) Example 2. UM Computers, Inc., develops engineering software. UM sells the prewritten computer software at wholesale to OX Computers, Inc., in shrink-wrapped packages. UM delivers the software to OX. OX then resells the software to customers in the same shrink-wrapped packages. Sales of prewritten computer software by UM are subject to wholesaling B&O tax. Sales by OX to consumers are retail sales subject to retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax.
(B) Example 3. GB Computers, Inc., develops engineering software. GB grants SE Computers, Inc., the right to reproduce and distribute copies of the prewritten computer software for sale to end users. GB retains all of its ownership rights to the software and delivers one copy of the software to SE to reproduce and sell. Amounts received by GB from SE for granting the right to reproduce and distribute prewritten computer software are subject to royalties B&O tax. Sales by SE to consumers are retail sales subject to retailing B&O tax and retail sales tax.
(C) Example 4. DH Computers, Inc., develops engineering software. DH grants to WK Computers, Inc., the right to copy and redistribute its prewritten computer software. DH delivers the software electronically to WK. WK then sells the software to its customers, who download a copy of the software from WK. Income to DH from WK is subject to royalties B&O tax. Sales of prewritten computer software by WK to its customers are retail sales subject to retail sales tax.
(D) Example 5. AJ Soft, Inc., is a software developer of architectural drafting software. AJ Soft enters into an agreement with DJ Sales, Inc., to sell AJ Soft's drafting software. DJ Sales must pay a fee for each copy DJ Sales sells through its web site. AJ Soft does not allow DJ Sales to reproduce the drafting software. Customers download the software, but are unaware the software is downloaded directly from AJ Soft. AJ Soft is making a wholesale sale of software to DJ Sales subject to wholesaling B&O tax. DJ Sales is making a retail sale to its Washington customers subject to retail sales tax.
(E) Example 6. Same facts as Example 5, however, instead of customers downloading the prewritten software, DJ Sales' customers access the prewritten software remotely on AJ Soft's servers. AJ Soft is still making a wholesale sale of remotely accessed prewritten software to DJ Sales subject to wholesaling B&O tax. DJ Sales is making a retail sale of remotely accessed prewritten software to its Washington customers subject to retail sales tax.
(b) Retail sales of prewritten computer software. Gross proceeds of sales of prewritten computer software to consumers are subject to B&O tax under the retailing classification, whether or not ownership or title passes to the buyer, and regardless of any express or implied restrictions upon the buyer. Regardless of the method of delivery, whether through tangible media or electronic means, prewritten computer software remains subject to retail sales tax and retailing B&O tax. Delivery of software manuals and backup copies of prewritten computer software does not alter the delivery of the actual copy of prewritten computer software to be used by the buyer in determining when and where the sale takes place. Persons making retail sales are responsible for collecting retail sales tax at the time of sale and remitting the tax to the department, unless the sale is specifically exempt by law.
(c) Use of prewritten computer software. Prewritten computer software, regardless of the method of delivery, is generally subject to use tax upon use in this state if Washington retail sales tax was not previously paid. However, use of prewritten computer software is not taxable, if it is provided free of charge, or if it is provided for temporary use in viewing information, or both. RCW 82.12.020. This exception from use tax is limited to prewritten computer software provided free of charge or for temporary use in viewing information, such as free promotional software, donated software, free download of software, and software provided in beta testing to a third-party free of charge.
For purposes of this use tax exception, "beta testing" means the last stage of testing for prewritten computer software prior to its commercial release including the release to manufacturing (RTM). Beta testing may involve sending the software to a third party for the use of the third party. Beta testing is often preceded by a round of testing called alpha testing.
(i) Example 7. DS Computers, Inc., is a software developer. In order to perform beta testing of its new accounting software prior to commercial release, DS sends a copy of the software free of charge to KG Technologies, Inc. DS is not subject to use tax for the release of the beta software to KG. KG is not subject to use tax for the use of beta software free of charge.
(ii) Example 8. DH, Inc., provides free card games on-line to its customers. The customers, however, must download DH's free software in order to be able to play card games on-line at DH's web site. Wendy downloads the software free of charge. Wendy is not subject to use tax for the use of the software.
(iii) Example 9. DW, Inc., provides free software to the public for anyone to watch videos on-line. Roger downloads the software free of charge. Roger is not subject to use tax for the use of the software.
(d) Manufacturing of prewritten computer software. Persons engaged in manufacturing prewritten computer software on tangible storage media are subject to manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of the products. See WAC 458-20-112 (Value of products) and WAC 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating). Manufacturers of prewritten computer software who sell their products at retail or wholesale are also subject to either the retailing or wholesaling B&O tax, as the case may be. In such cases the manufacturer must report under both the "production" (manufacturing) and "selling" (wholesaling or retailing) B&O tax classifications and may claim a multiple activities tax credit (MATC). See WAC 458-20-19301 (Multiple activities tax credits) for detailed information about the MATC. Income from the sale of prewritten software electronically delivered or transferred is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax.
(e) Duplication of prewritten computer software. Duplication of prewritten computer software on tangible media for sales to or use by more than one person is subject to manufacturing B&O tax upon the value of products which includes both the value of the tangible media and the software. Duplication of prewritten computer software on tangible media outside this state is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax regardless of where software development takes place.
Duplication of prewritten computer software is a manufacturing activity only if the prewritten computer software is delivered from the seller to the purchaser by means of tangible storage media which is retained by the purchaser. RCW 82.04.120.
When a software developer contracts with a third party to duplicate prewritten computer software, the parties must take into account the value of all tangible and intangible materials or ingredients, including the software code, when determining the relative value of all materials or ingredients furnished by each party. If the third party furnishes less than twenty percent of the total value of all materials or ingredients that become a part of the produced product, then the third party is presumed to be a processor for hire and the software developer is presumed to be a manufacturer. See WAC 458-20-136 (Manufacturing, processing for hire, fabricating) for more information.
(4) Site license of prewritten computer software. A site license provides a consumer acquiring prewritten computer software with the right to duplicate prewritten computer software for use on its own computers, based on the number of computers, the number of workers using the computers, or some other criteria. A site license agreement may cover one site or multiple sites of a purchaser.
(a) Retail sales of a site license. Gross proceeds of sales of a site license to a consumer are subject to B&O tax under the retailing classification, whether or not ownership or title passes to the consumer, and regardless of any express or implied restrictions upon the consumer. Delivery occurs when and where the prewritten computer software subject to the site license is received by the consumer, whether it is through tangible storage media or any electronic means, regardless of the method of delivery. See RCW 82.32.730 for more information on sourcing prewritten computer software. Delivery of software manuals and backup copies of prewritten computer software does not alter the delivery of the actual copy of prewritten computer software to be used by the consumer in determining when and where the sale takes place. Persons making retail sales are responsible for collecting retail sales tax at the time of sale and remitting the tax to the department, unless the sale is specifically exempt by law.
If the prewritten software is hosted by the licensor or a third party for remote access by the licensee, then see subsection (10) of this section.
(b) Duplication of prewritten computer software by a person under a site license. A seller of a site license is subject to manufacturing B&O tax for its own duplication of prewritten computer software. Duplication of prewritten computer software is subject to manufacturing B&O tax only if the prewritten computer software is delivered from the seller to the purchaser by means of tangible storage media which is retained by the purchaser. RCW 82.04.120. Purchaser of a site license is not subject to manufacturing B&O tax for the duplication of prewritten computer software for its own use, pursuant to a site license agreement with the seller.
(c) Use of a site license partly in this state and partly outside this state. The part of the site license used by the person in this state is subject to use tax, provided Washington state sales tax was not previously paid. For example, a person purchases and takes delivery of a site license in California. Pursuant to the multiple site license agreement, this person is licensed to use one thousand copies of prewritten computer software, of which four hundred copies will be used in Washington. Use tax is due on the four hundred copies of prewritten computer software used in this state. If the prewritten software purchased by the licensee is delivered in Washington, then the entire charge for the site license is subject to retail sales tax if purchased from a seller responsible for collecting Washington's sales tax. However, a purchaser can issue a multiple points of use exemption certificate under certain circumstances to minimize Washington tax as discussed below in subsection (11) of this section.
(d) Sales and use of additional copies of prewritten computer software under the same site license. In some cases, the buyer of a site license may subsequently purchase additional copies of prewritten computer software under the same site license agreement. The seller may or may not deliver any additional copy of the software to the buyer, because the original copy of the software has already been delivered.
(i) Retail sales of additional copies of prewritten computer software under the same site license. Retail sales of the additional copies of software occurs when and where the seller delivers any additional copy of prewritten computer software to the buyer, whether it is through tangible storage media or any electronic means, regardless of the method of delivery. If the seller does not deliver any additional copy of the software to the buyer, then the sales occur when the sales agreements are made to purchase the additional copies and where the orig