Chapter 296-155 WAC

Last Update: 4/19/16

SAFETY STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION WORK

WAC Sections

PART A
GENERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROVISIONS
296-155-001Foreword.
296-155-003Subsections, subdivisions, items, subitems, and segments.
296-155-005Purpose and scope.
296-155-006Equipment approval by nonstate agency or organization.
296-155-007Incorporation of standards of national organization.
296-155-008Incorporation of standards of federal agency.
296-155-009Equipment whether or not owned by, or under control of the employer.
296-155-010Variance and procedure.
296-155-012Definitions applicable to all sections of this chapter.
296-155-015Education and first-aid standards.
296-155-020Housekeeping.
296-155-030Acceptable certifications.
296-155-035General requirements.
296-155-040Safe place standards.
PART B-1
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
296-155-100Management's responsibility.
296-155-105Employee's responsibility.
296-155-110Accident prevention program.
296-155-115Safety bulletin board.
296-155-120First-aid training and certification.
296-155-125First-aid supplies.
296-155-130First-aid station.
296-155-140Sanitation.
296-155-145Occupational noise exposure.
296-155-150Ionizing radiation.
296-155-155Nonionizing radiation.
296-155-160Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.
296-155-165Lighting and illumination.
296-155-170Ventilation.
296-155-173Methylenedianiline.
296-155-17301Scope and application.
296-155-17303Definitions.
296-155-17305Permissible exposure limits.
296-155-17307Communication among employers.
296-155-17309Emergency situations.
296-155-17311Exposure monitoring.
296-155-17313Regulated areas.
296-155-17315Methods of compliance.
296-155-17317Respiratory protection.
296-155-17319Protective work clothing and equipment.
296-155-17321Hygiene facilities and practices.
296-155-17323Communication of hazards.
296-155-17325Housekeeping.
296-155-17327Medical surveillance.
296-155-17329Medical removal.
296-155-17331Recordkeeping.
296-155-17333Observation of monitoring.
296-155-17337Appendices.
296-155-17339Startup dates.
296-155-17341Appendix A to WAC 296-155-173—Substance data sheet, for 4-4'-methylenedianiline.
296-155-17343Appendix B to WAC 296-155-173—Substance technical guidelines, MDA.
296-155-17345Appendix C to WAC 296-155-173—Medical surveillance guidelines for MDA.
296-155-17347Appendix D to WAC 296-155-173—Sampling and analytical methods for MDA monitoring and measurement procedures.
296-155-174Cadmium.
296-155-176Lead.
296-155-17603Scope.
296-155-17605Definitions.
296-155-17607Permissible exposure limit.
296-155-17609Exposure assessment.
296-155-17611Methods of compliance.
296-155-17613Respiratory protection.
296-155-17615Protective work clothing and equipment.
296-155-17617Housekeeping.
296-155-17619Hygiene facilities and practices.
296-155-17621Medical surveillance.
296-155-17623Medical removal protection.
296-155-17625Communication of hazards.
296-155-17627Signs—General.
296-155-17629Recordkeeping.
296-155-17631Observation of monitoring.
296-155-17650Appendix A to WAC 296-155-176—Substance data sheet for occupational exposure to lead.
296-155-17652Appendix B to WAC 296-155-176—Employee standard summary.
296-155-17654Appendix C to WAC 296-155-176—Medical surveillance guidelines.
PART B-2
HAZARD COMMUNICATION
296-155-180Hazard communication.
PART C
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE AND LIFE SAVING EQUIPMENT
296-155-200General requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE).
296-155-201Definitions applicable to this chapter.
296-155-203Confined spaces.
296-155-20301Definitions applicable to confined spaces.
296-155-20307Confined space work on sewer systems under construction.
296-155-205Head protection.
296-155-210Hearing protection.
296-155-211Leg protection.
296-155-212Foot protection.
296-155-215Eye and face protection.
296-155-220Respiratory protection.
296-155-235Working over or adjacent to water.
296-155-240Sterilization of protective equipment.
PART C-1
FALL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION
296-155-24601Scope and application.
296-155-24603Definitions.
296-155-24605General requirements.
296-155-24607Fall protection required regardless of height.
296-155-24609Fall protection required at four feet or more.
296-155-24611Fall protection required at ten feet or more.
296-155-24613Fall arrest specifications.
296-155-24615Fall restraint specifications.
296-155-24617Positioning device system specifications.
296-155-24619Other specifications.
296-155-24621Training.
296-155-24623Appendix A—Determining roof widths—Nonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24615.
296-155-24624Appendix B—Calculating fall clearance distance using a shock-absorbing lanyard and D-ring anchorage connector—Nonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24613 (1)(d).
PART D
FIRE PROTECTION AND PREVENTION
296-155-250Definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-260Fire protection.
296-155-265Fire prevention.
296-155-270Flammable liquids.
296-155-275Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas).
296-155-280Temporary heating devices.
PART E
SIGNALING AND FLAGGERS
296-155-305Signaling and flaggers.
296-155-310Barricades.
296-155-315Definitions applicable to this part.
PART F
STORAGE, USE, AND DISPOSAL
296-155-325General requirements for storage.
296-155-335Disposal of waste materials.
PART F-1
RIGGING REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING
296-155-336Rigging requirements for material handling.
296-155-33600Scope.
296-155-33605Definitions.
296-155-337Rigging—General requirements.
296-155-33700Rigger qualifications.
296-155-33705General requirements.
296-155-338Slings.
296-155-33800Chain slings.
296-155-33805Wire rope slings.
296-155-33810Metal mesh slings.
296-155-33815Synthetic rope slings.
296-155-33820Synthetic webbing slings.
296-155-33825Synthetic roundslings.
296-155-339Rigging hardware and lifting devices other than slings and rigging hardware.
296-155-33900General requirements.
296-155-33905Shackles.
296-155-33910Adjustable hardware.
296-155-33915Compression hardware.
296-155-33920Links, rings, and swivels.
296-155-33925Rigging blocks.
296-155-340Lifting devices other than slings and rigging hardware.
296-155-34005Structural and mechanical lifters.
296-155-34010Vacuum lifters.
296-155-34015Close proximity lifting magnets.
296-155-34020Remotely operated lifting magnets.
296-155-34025Scrap and material handling grapples.
PART G
TOOLS—HAND AND POWER
296-155-350General requirements.
296-155-355Hand tools.
296-155-360Power-operated hand tools.
296-155-363Safety requirements for powder actuated fastening systems, in accordance with ANSI A10.3-1985, Safety Requirements for Powder Actuated Fastening Systems.
296-155-36301Scope.
296-155-36303Purpose.
296-155-36305Definitions applicable to this section.
296-155-36307Requirements.
296-155-36309Power loads.
296-155-36311Fasteners.
296-155-36313Operation.
296-155-36315Limitations of use.
296-155-36317Maintenance and storage.
296-155-36319Authorized instructor.
296-155-36321Qualified operator.
296-155-365Abrasive wheels and tools.
296-155-367Masonry saws.
296-155-370Woodworking tools.
296-155-375Jacks—Lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.
296-155-380Air receivers.
PART H
WELDING AND CUTTING
296-155-400Gas welding and cutting.
296-155-405Arc welding and cutting.
296-155-407Protective clothing.
296-155-410Fire prevention.
296-155-415Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating.
296-155-420Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings.
PART I
ELECTRICAL
296-155-426Introduction.
296-155-428General requirements.
296-155-429Lockout and tagging of circuits.
296-155-432Maintenance of equipment.
296-155-434Environmental deterioration of equipment.
296-155-437Batteries and battery charging.
296-155-441Applicability.
296-155-444General requirements.
296-155-447Wiring design and protection.
296-155-449Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.
296-155-452Specific purpose equipment and installations.
296-155-456Hazardous (classified) locations.
296-155-459Special systems.
296-155-462Definitions applicable to this part.
PART J
STAIRWAYS
Note: Requirements relating to portable ladders and fixed ladders have been moved to chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed.
296-155-475Scope and application.
296-155-47501Definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-476General requirements.
296-155-477Stairways.
PART J-1
SCAFFOLDS
Note: Requirements relating to scaffolds have been moved to chapter 296-869 WAC.
PART L
CRANES, RIGGING, AND PERSONNEL LIFTING
296-155-529Scope and definitions.
296-155-52900Scope.
296-155-52901Certification and proof load testing—Requirement.
296-155-52902Definitions.
296-155-531Crane certifier accreditation process.
296-155-53100Accreditation of crane certifiers of cranes and derricks—Requirements.
296-155-53102Accreditation—Application form and applicant qualifications.
296-155-53104Issuance of accreditation.
296-155-53106Accreditation application—Processing time.
296-155-53108Duration and renewal of an accreditation.
296-155-53110Revocation or suspension of an accreditation.
296-155-53112Monitoring of accredited crane certifiers.
296-155-53114Issuance of temporary and annual certificates of operation.
296-155-532Crane certification requirements for cranes.
296-155-53200General inspection criteria, wire rope inspection and removal criteria, and preproof load test requirements for all cranes.
296-155-53202Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Mobile cranes.
296-155-53204Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Articulating boom cranes.
296-155-53206Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Tower cranes.
296-155-53208Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Self-erecting tower cranes.
296-155-53210Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Overhead/bridge and gantry bridge cranes.
296-155-53212Additional inspection criteria and proof load testing—Derricks.
296-155-53214Crane decertification and reinstatement.
296-155-533Qualifications and certification.
296-155-53300Operator qualifications and certification.
296-155-53302Signal person qualifications.
296-155-53304Repair, inspection, and maintenance employee qualifications.
296-155-53306Rigger qualifications.
296-155-534General requirements for all cranes and derricks.
296-155-53400General requirements.
296-155-53401Duties of assigned personnel.
296-155-53402Assembly/disassembly.
296-155-53403Fall protection.
296-155-53404Wire rope.
296-155-53405Inspections.
296-155-53406Signals.
296-155-53408Power line safety.
296-155-53409Training.
296-155-53410Safety devices.
296-155-53412Operational aids.
296-155-53414Cranes/derricks with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.
296-155-537Mobile cranes.
296-155-53700Mobile cranes—General.
296-155-53715Mobile cranes—Operations.
296-155-538Articulating boom cranes.
296-155-53800Articulating boom cranes—General.
296-155-53815Articulating boom cranes—Operations.
296-155-539Tower cranes.
296-155-53900Tower cranes—General.
296-155-53905Tower cranes—Additional inspection criteria.
296-155-53915Tower cranes—Operations.
296-155-541Self-erecting tower cranes.
296-155-54100Self-erecting tower cranes—General.
296-155-54115Self-erecting tower cranes—Operations.
296-155-542Overhead/bridge and gantry cranes.
296-155-54200Overhead/bridge and gantry cranes—General.
296-155-54215Overhead/bridge and gantry cranes—Operations.
296-155-543Derricks.
296-155-54300Derricks—General.
296-155-54305Derricks—Construction.
296-155-54320Derricks—Operations.
296-155-544Additional requirements for other types of cranes/derricks.
296-155-54400Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.
296-155-54405Dedicated pile drivers.
296-155-54410Sideboom cranes.
296-155-547Personnel lifting platforms (attached and suspended)—Scope.
296-155-548Design and installation requirements for personnel lifting systems.
296-155-54800Design of platforms and suspension systems.
296-155-549Personnel lifting hoisting equipment.
296-155-54900Crane or derrick requirements for personnel lifting.
296-155-551Inspections, maintenance and testing.
296-155-55100Inspections on cranes and personnel platforms.
296-155-55105Adjustments and repairs on personnel platforms.
296-155-55110Proof load test platforms and rigging.
296-155-55115Trial lift.
296-155-552Employer responsibilities.
296-155-55200Employer responsibilities for lifting personnel.
296-155-55205Responsibilities of the personnel lift supervisor.
296-155-55210Crane or derrick operation requirements for personnel lifting.
296-155-553Lifting personnel.
296-155-55300Personnel lifting requirements.
296-155-55305Lifting personnel near electrical power lines.
296-155-554Boatswain's chairs.
296-155-55400Use boatswain's chairs as a last resort.
296-155-55405Lifting personnel using a boatswain's chair.
296-155-556Rigging—General requirements.
296-155-55600General requirements.
296-155-558Slings.
296-155-55800Chain slings.
296-155-55805Wire rope slings.
296-155-55810Metal mesh slings.
296-155-55815Synthetic rope slings.
296-155-55820Synthetic webbing slings.
296-155-55825Synthetic roundslings.
296-155-561Rigging hardware.
296-155-56100General requirements.
296-155-56105Shackles.
296-155-56110Adjustable hardware.
296-155-56115Compression hardware.
296-155-56120Links, rings, and swivels.
296-155-56125Rigging blocks.
296-155-562Lifting devices other than slings and rigging hardware.
296-155-56200Structural and mechanical lifters.
296-155-56205Vacuum lifters.
296-155-56210Close proximity lifting magnets.
296-155-56215Remotely operated lifting magnets.
296-155-56220Scrap and material handling grapples.
296-155-564Appendices.
296-155-56400Mobile crane hand signal chart.
296-155-56405Examples of types of cranes.
296-155-56410Personnel platform lift planning and authorization form.
296-155-56415Qualifications for operators of below-the-hook lifting devices.
296-155-56420Operator certification—Written examination—Technical knowledge criteria.
296-155-56425Sample declaration form for hours of experience.
296-155-56430Assembly/disassembly—Working under the boom, jib or other components—Sample procedures for minimizing the risk of unintended dangerous boom movement.
296-155-56435Work area chart.
PART M
MOTOR VEHICLES, MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT, AND MARINE OPERATIONS
296-155-600Definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-605Equipment.
296-155-610Motor vehicles on construction sites.
296-155-615Material handling equipment.
296-155-620Pile driving equipment.
296-155-625Site clearing.
296-155-630Marine operations and equipment.
PART N
EXCAVATION, TRENCHING, AND SHORING
296-155-650Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-655General protection requirements.
296-155-657Requirements for protective systems.
296-155-66103Reserved.
296-155-66105Reserved.
296-155-66109Reserved.
296-155-664Appendices.
296-155-66401Appendix A—Soil classification.
296-155-66403Appendix B—Sloping and benching.
296-155-66405Appendix C—Timber shoring for trenches.
296-155-66407Appendix D—Aluminum hydraulic shoring for trenches.
296-155-66409Appendix E—Alternatives to timber shoring.
296-155-66411Appendix F—Selection of protective systems.
PART O
CONCRETE, CONCRETE FORMS, SHORING, AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
296-155-675Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-680General provisions.
296-155-681Safe walking surfaces on concrete structural members.
296-155-682Requirements for equipment and tools.
296-155-683Concrete finishing.
296-155-684Requirements for cast in place concrete.
296-155-685Tubular welded frame shoring.
296-155-686Tube and coupler shoring.
296-155-687Single post shores.
296-155-688Vertical slip forms.
296-155-689Placing and removal of forms.
296-155-690Appendix to WAC 296-155-684 cast in place concrete.
296-155-691Precast concrete and tilt-up operations.
296-155-694Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.
296-155-695Miscellaneous concrete construction.
296-155-697Requirements for masonry construction.
296-155-699Appendix A to Part O—References to Part O of chapter 296-155 WAC.
PART P
STEEL ERECTION
296-155-701Scope.
296-155-702Definitions.
296-155-703Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.
296-155-704Hoisting and rigging.
296-155-706Structural steel assembly.
296-155-707Column anchorage.
296-155-708Beams and columns.
296-155-709Open web steel joists.
296-155-711Systems-engineered metal buildings.
296-155-714Falling object protection.
296-155-716Fall protection.
296-155-717Training.
PART Q
UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION
296-155-725Definitions applicable to this part.
296-155-730Tunnels and shafts.
296-155-735Caissons.
296-155-740Cofferdams.
296-155-745Compressed air.
296-155-74501Appendix A—Decompression tables.
PART R
MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
296-155-755Roofing, insulating and waterproofing.
296-155-765Rock crushing, gravel washing, and hot mix plants.
296-155-770Moving of structures.
296-155-77100Hoists, elevators, excavators, and conveyors.
296-155-77105Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators.
296-155-77110Base-mounted drum hoists.
296-155-77115Overhead hoists.
296-155-77120Conveyors.
296-155-77125Aerial cableways.
296-155-77130Concrete bucket towers.
296-155-77135Hoisting engines.
PART S
DEMOLITION
296-155-775Preparatory operations.
296-155-780Stairs, passageways, and ladders.
296-155-785Chutes.
296-155-790Removal of materials through floor openings.
296-155-795Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.
296-155-800Manual removal of floors.
296-155-805Removal of walls, floors, and material with equipment.
296-155-810Catch platforms.
296-155-815Storage.
296-155-820Removal of steel construction.
296-155-825Mechanical demolition.
296-155-830Selective demolition by explosives.
PART U
POWER DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSMISSION LINES
Refer to chapter 296-45 WAC, "Safety standards for electrical workers."
PART V
ROLLOVER PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES AND OVERHEAD PROTECTION
296-155-950Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.
296-155-955Minimum performance criteria for rollover protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders, dozers, graders, and crawler tractors.
296-155-960Protective frame (ROPS) test procedures and performance requirements for wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.
296-155-965Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors.
DISPOSITION OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS TITLE
296-155-135First-aid room. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-135, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 00-01-038, filed 12/7/99, effective 2/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17335Effective date. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17335, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17349Appendix E to WAC 296-155-173—Methylenedianiline—Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17349, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17351Appendix E-1—Qualitative protocols. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17351, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17353Appendix E-1-a—Isoamyl acetate (banana oil) protocol. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17353, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17355Appendix E-1-b—Saccharin solution aerosol protocol. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17355, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17357Appendix E-1-c—Irritant fume protocol. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17357, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17359Appendix E-2—Quantitative fit test procedures. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17359, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-175Scope and application. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-175, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17505Definitions. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17505, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17510Permissible exposure limits (pel). [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17510, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17515Communication among employers. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17515, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17520Identification. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17520, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17525Regulated areas. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17525, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17530Exposure monitoring. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17530, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17532Methods of compliance. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17532, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17535Respiratory protection. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17535, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17540Protective clothing. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17540, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17545Hygiene facilities and practices. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17545, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17550Communication of hazards to employees. [ Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17550, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17555Housekeeping. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17555, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87.Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17560Medical surveillance. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17560, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87 -24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17565Recordkeeping. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17565, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17570Dates. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17570, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17575Appendices. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-17575, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-17635Startup dates. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17635, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-17656Appendix D to WAC 296-155-176—Qualitative and quantitative fit test protocols. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17656, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.] Repealed by WSR 99-10-071, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050.
296-155-177Appendix A—WISHA reference method —Mandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-177, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-179Appendix B—Detailed procedure for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite sampling and analysis —Nonmandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-179, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-181Appendix C—Qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures—Mandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-181, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-183Appendix D—Medical questionnaires—Mandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-183, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-185Appendix E—Interpretation and classification of chest roentgenograms—Mandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-185, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24 -051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-187Appendix F—Work practices and engineering controls for major asbestos removal, renovation, and demolition operations—Nonmandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-187, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-189Appendix G—Work practices and engineering controls for small-scale, short-duration asbestos renovation and maintenance operations—Nonmandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-189, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-191Appendix H—Substance technical information for asbestos—Nonmandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-191, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-193Appendix I—Medical surveillance guidelines for asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite—Nonmandatory. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-193, filed 4/27/87.] Repealed by WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-225Safety belts, droplines, lifelines, and lanyards. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-225, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, § 296-155-225, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-225, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-229Qualified person—Rigging. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-13-069, § 296-155-229, filed 6/15/98, effective 8/15/98.] Decodified by WSR 98-16-067, filed 8/4/98, effective 8/4/98. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-329.
296-155-230Safety nets. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-230, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-230, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-245Reserve. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-245, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-245, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24501Scope and application. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24501, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24501, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24501, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24501, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24503Definitions. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24503, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24503, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24503, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24503, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24505Fall protection work plan. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24505, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24505, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24505, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24505, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24507Reserve. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24507, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24507, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24510Fall restraint, fall arrest systems. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24510, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24510, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24510, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 95-04-007, § 296-155-24510, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-155-24510, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-24510, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24510, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24515Guarding of low pitched roof perimeters. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24515, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24515, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24515, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-24515, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24515, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24519Reserve. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24519, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24519, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24520Leading edge control zone. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24520, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24520, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24520, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-24520, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24520, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24521Safety monitor system. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24521, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24521, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24521, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24521, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24522Reserve. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24522, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24522, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24523Appendix A to Part C-1—Determining roof widths nonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24515 (2)(b). [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24523, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24523, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24524Reserve. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24524, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24524, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-24525Appendix B to Part C-1—Fall restraint and fall arrest (employer information only). [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. WSR 12-01-086, § 296-155-24525, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. WSR 02-12-098, § 296-155-24525, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02; WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-24525, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-24525, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-24525, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-24525, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-24525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-300Accident prevention signs and tags. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-06-075, § 296-155-300, filed 3/4/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-19-142 (Order 93-04), § 296-155-300, filed 9/22/93, effective 11/1/93; WSR 93-01-067 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-300, filed 12/11/92, effective 1/15/93. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-300, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-300, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 04-18-080, filed 8/31/04, effective 11/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-800-11045.
296-155-329Qualified person—Rigging. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. WSR 12-01-086, § 296-155-329, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. WSR 98-16-067, recodified as § 296-155-329, filed 8/4/98, effective 8/4/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-13-069, § 296-155-229, filed 6/15/98, effective 8/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 13-02-068, filed 12/31/12, effective 2/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-330Rigging equipment for material handling. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-13-069, § 296-155-330, filed 6/15/98, effective 8/15/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-330, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-330, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150, and 49.17.240. WSR 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), § 296-155-330, filed 7/31/79; Order 76-29, § 296-155-330, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-330, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34901Table F-1. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-1 (codified as WAC 296-155-34901), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34902Table F-2. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-2 (codified as WAC 296-155-34902), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34903Table F-3. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-3 (codified as WAC 296-155-34903), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34904Table F-4. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-4 (codified as WAC 296-155-34904), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34905Table F-5. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-5 (codified as WAC 296-155-34905), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34906Table F-6. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-6 (codified as WAC 296-155-34906), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34907Table F-7. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-7 (codified as WAC 296-155-34907), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34908Table F-8. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-8 (codified as WAC 296-155-34908), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34909Table F-9. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-9 (codified as WAC 296-155-34909), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34910Table F-10. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-10 (codified as WAC 296-155-34910), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34911Table F-11. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-34911, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-11 (codified as WAC 296-155-34911), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34912Table F-12. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-34912, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-12 (codified as WAC 296-155-34912), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34913Table F-13. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-34913, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-13 (codified as WAC 296-155-34913), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34914Table F-14. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-34914, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-14 (codified as WAC 296-155-34914), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34915Table F-15. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-15 (codified as WAC 296-155-34915), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34916Table F-16. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-16 (codified as WAC 296-155-34916), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34917Table F-17. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-17 (codified as WAC 296-155-34917), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34918Table F-18. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-18 (codified as WAC 296-155-34918), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34919Table F-19. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-19 (codified as WAC 296-155-34919), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-34920Table F-20. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-34920, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-34920, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-335 (part), Table F-20 (codified as WAC 296-155-34920), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-425Definitions applicable to this part. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-425, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-425, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-430General requirements. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-430, filed 1/21/86; Order 77-20, § 296-155-430, filed 10/18/77; Order 77-12, § 296-155-430, filed 7/11/77; Order 74-26, § 296-155-430, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-435Grounding and bonding. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-435, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-435, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-440Equipment installation and maintenance. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296 -155-440, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-440, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-450Battery rooms and battery charging. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-450, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-455Hazardous locations. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-455, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-480Fixed ladders. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-20-068, § 296-155-480, filed 10/4/05, effective 1/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-480, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-480, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-480, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-480, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-480, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 90-09-026 (Order 90-01), § 296-155-480, filed 4/10/90, effective 5/25/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-480, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150, and 49.17.240. WSR 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), § 296-155-480, filed 7/31/79; Order 76-29, § 296-155-480, filed 9/30/76; Order 76-6, § 296-155-480, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-480, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 06-16-020, filed 7/24/06, effective 12/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-48060Training requirements. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-48060, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.] Repealed by WSR 06-16-020, filed 7/24/06, effective 12/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-48080Appendix A. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-20-068, § 296-155-48080, filed 10/4/05, effective 1/1/06. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-48080, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.] Repealed by WSR 06-16-020, filed 7/24/06, effective 12/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-48090Reserved. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-48090, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 76-29, Table J-18 (codified as WAC 296-155-48090), filed 9/30/76; Order 76-6, Table J-18, filed 3/1/76. Formerly 296-155-480 (part).] Repealed by WSR 06-16-020, filed 7/24/06, effective 12/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-481Scope and application. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-481, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-481, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-482Definitions applicable to this part. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-482, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-483General requirements. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-483, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-483, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-483, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-484Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-484, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-485Reserved. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-485, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-485, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-485, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-485, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-485, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-485, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), § 296-155-485, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-485, filed 1/21/86; WSR 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), § 296-155-485, filed 3/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.150, and 49.17.240. WSR 79-08-115 (Order 79-9), § 296-155-485, filed 7/31/79; Order 76-29, § 296-155-485, filed 9/30/76; Order 76-6, § 296-155-485, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-48501Figure J-1. [Order 76-29, Figure J-1 (codified as WAC 296-155-48501), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Figure J-1, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), filed 3/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-48502Figure J-2. [Order 76-29, Figure J-2 (codified as WAC 296-155-48502), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Figure J-2, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), filed 3/30/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-48503Table J-1. [Order 76-29, Table J-1 (codified as WAC 296-155-48503), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-1, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48504Table J-2. [Order 76-29, Table J-2 (codified as WAC 296-155-48504), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-2, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48505Table J-3. [Order 76-29, Table J-3 (codified as WAC 296-155-48505), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-3, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48506Table J-4. [Order 76-29, Table J-4 (codified as WAC 296-155-48506), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-4, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48507Table J-5. [Order 76-29, Table J-5 (codified as WAC 296-155-48507), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-5, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48508Table J-6. [Order 76-29, Table J-6 (codified as WAC 296-155-48508), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-6, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48509Table J-7. [Order 76-29, Table J-7 (codified as WAC 296-155-48509), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-7, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48510Table J-8. [Order 76-29, Table J-8 (codified as WAC 296-155-48510), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-8, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48511Table J-9. [Order 76-29, Table J-9 (codified as WAC 296-155-48511), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-9, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48512Table J-10. [Order 76-29, Table J-10 (codified as WAC 296-155-48512), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-10, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48513Table J-11. [Order 76-29, Table J-11 (codified as WAC 296-155-48513), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-11, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48514Table J-12. [Order 76-29, Table J-12 (codified as WAC 296-155-48514), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-12, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48515Table J-13. [Order 76-29, Table J-13 (codified as WAC 296-155-48515), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-55-485 (part), Table J-13, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48516Table J-14. [Order 76-29, Table J-14 (codified as WAC 296-155-48516), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-14, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48517Table J-15. [Order 76-29, Table J-15 (codified as WAC 296-155-48517), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-15, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48518Table J-16. [Order 76-29, Table J-16 (codified as WAC 296-155-48518), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-16, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48519Table J-17. [Order 76-29, Table J-17 (codified as WAC 296-155-48519), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-485 (part), Table J-17, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48523Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers). [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-48523, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-48523, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48525Manually propelled elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-48525, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48527Self propelled elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 92-17-022 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-48527, filed 8/10/92, effective 9/10/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-48527, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48529Boom supported elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 92-17-022 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-48529, filed 8/10/92, effective 9/10/92; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-48529, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-48529, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-48529, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48531Vehicle mounted elevating and rotating aerial devices. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-48531, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-48531, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 92-17-022 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-48531, filed 8/10/92, effective 9/10/92; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-48531, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-155-48531, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86 -14), § 296-155-48531, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48533Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-48533, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-48533, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-48533, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-48533, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), § 296-155-48533, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-48533, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-48533, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-48536Forklift elevated work platforms. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-155-48536, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-48536, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.] Repealed by WSR 98-05-046, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-155-487Manually propelled elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 04-14-028, § 296-155-487, filed 6/29/04, effective 1/1/05; WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-487, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-488Self propelled elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 04-14-028, § 296-155-488, filed 6/29/04, effective 1/1/05; WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-488, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-489Boom supported elevating work platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-489, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-490Aerial lifts. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-490, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-493Training. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-493, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-494Non-Mandatory Appendix A to Part J-1, Scaffold Specifications. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-494, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-496Non-Mandatory Appendix C to Part J-1, List of National Consensus Standards. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-496, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 06-19-073, filed 9/19/06, effective 1/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-497Non-Mandatory Appendix D to Part J-1, List of Training Topics for Scaffold Erectors and Dismantlers. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-497, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-498Non-Mandatory Appendix E to Part J-1, Drawings and Illustrations. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-498, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 05-01-054, filed 12/7/04, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060.
296-155-500Definitions applicable to this part. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-500, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-500, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-500, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-500, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-500, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-500, filed 6/17/81; Order 74-26, § 296-155-500, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-505Guardrails, handrails and covers. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-14-058, § 296-155-505, filed 7/3/00, effective 10/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-505, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-505, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-505, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-505, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-505, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; WSR 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), § 296-155-505, filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-505, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-505, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, § 296-155-505, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-505, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-50501Appendix—Roofs. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-50501, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-50503Roofing brackets. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-50503, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-50503, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-50503, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-50503, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-50505Reserved. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-50505, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-50505, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-50505, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-510Reserved. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-510, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-510, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-510, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-510, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-515Ramps, runways, and inclined walkways. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-515, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-515, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-515, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 13-04-073, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-24601 through 296-155-24624.
296-155-525Cranes and derricks. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-20-055, § 296-155-525, filed 10/3/05, effective 12/1/05; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-525, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; WSR 04-14-028, § 296-155-525, filed 6/29/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. WSR 02-12-098, § 296-155-525, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02; WSR 01-17-033, § 296-155-525, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-17-036, § 296-155-525, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-525, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91; Order 76-29, § 296-155-525, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-525, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-526Crane attached personnel platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17.]040 and [49.17.]050. WSR 00-15-028, § 296-155-526, filed 7/12/00, effective 10/1/00.] Repealed by WSR 12-09-058, filed 4/17/12, effective 5/18/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-547 through 296-155-55405.
296-155-527Appendix A to WAC 296-155-525. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 97-11-055, § 296-155-527, filed 5/20/97, effective 8/1/97; WSR 95-17-036, § 296-155-527, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-528Crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-528, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98.] Repealed by WSR 12-09-058, filed 4/17/12, effective 5/18/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. Later promulgation, see WAC 296-155-547 through 296-155-55405.
296-155-530Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050. WSR 02-12-098, § 296-155-530, filed 6/5/02, effective 8/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-530, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-530, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-530, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-530, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-535Base-mounted drum hoists. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-535, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-540Overhead hoists. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-540, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-545Conveyors. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 06-05-027, § 296-155-545, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-545, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-545, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-545, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-550Aerial cableways. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-550, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-555Gin poles. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-555, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-560Concrete bucket towers. [Order 74-26, § 296-l55-560, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-565Hoisting engines. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-565, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-565, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-570Rigging—Wire rope. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-570, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-570, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-575Helicopters and helicopter cranes. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-155-575, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-575, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-575, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-28, § 296-155-575, filed 9/28/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-575, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 04-09-099, filed 4/20/04, effective 9/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-829 WAC.
296-155-576Figure L-1. [Order 74-26, Figure L-1 (codified as WAC 296-155-576), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74. Formerly WAC 296-155-575 (part).] Repealed by WSR 04-09-099, filed 4/20/04, effective 9/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-829 WAC.
296-155-580Aerial lifts. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-580, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-580, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-59901Table 1. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 1 (codified as WAC 296-155-59901), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59902Table 2. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 2 (codified as WAC 296-155-59902), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59903Table 3. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 3 (codified as WAC 296-155-59903), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59904Table 4. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-59904, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 4 (codified as WAC 296-155-59904), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59905Table 5. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 5 (codified as WAC 296-155-59905), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59906Table 6. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 6 (codified as WAC 296-155-59906), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59907Table 7. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 7 (codified as WAC 296-155-59907), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59908Table 8. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 8 (codified as WAC 296-155-59908), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59909Table 9. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 9 (codified as WAC 296-155-59909), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59910Table 10. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 10 (codified as WAC 296-155-59910), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59911Table 11. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 11 (codified as WAC 296-155-59911), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59912Table 12. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 12 (codified as WAC 296-155-59912), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59913Table 13. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 13 (codified as WAC 296-155-59913), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59914Table 14. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 14 (codified as WAC 296-155-59914), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59915Table 15. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 15 (codified as WAC 296-155-59915), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59916Table 16. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 16 (codified as WAC 296-155-59916), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59917Table 17. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 17 (codified as WAC 296-155-59917), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59918Table 18. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 18 (codified as WAC 296-155-59918), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59919Table 19. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 19 (codified as WAC 296-155-59919), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-59920Table 20. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-580 (part), Table 20 (codified as WAC 296-155-59920), filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 12-01-086, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC.
296-155-617Servicing multipiece and single-piece rim wheels. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-617, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61701Scope. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61701, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61703Definitions. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61703, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61705Employee training. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-61705, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61705, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61707Tire servicing equipment. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61707, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61709Wheel component acceptability. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61709, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61711Safe operating procedure—Multipiece rim wheels. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-61711, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61711, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-61713Safe operating procedure—Single-piece rim wheels. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-61713, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-61713, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 04-20-079, filed 10/5/04, effective 2/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. Later promulgation, see chapter 296-864 WAC.
296-155-65505Sewage piping system. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-65505, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-660Specific excavation requirements. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-660, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-660, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, § 296-155-660, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-660, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66005Borrow pits. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-66005, filed 1/21/86.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-665Specific trenching requirements. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-665, filed 1/21/86; WSR 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-155-665, filed 4/19/85. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-665, filed 6/17/81; Order 77-12, § 296-155-665, filed 7/11/77; Order 76-29, § 296-155-665, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66501Table N-1. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-66501, filed 1/21/86; 82 -13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-155-66501, filed 6/11/82; Order 76-29, Table N-1 (codified as WAC 296-155-66501), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665 (part), Table N-1, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66502Table N-2. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-66502, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, Table N-2 (codified as WAC 296-155-66502), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665 (part), Table N-2, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66503Table N-3. [Order 76-29, Table N-3 (codified as WAC 296-155-66503), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665 (part), Table N-3, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66504Table N-4. [Order 76-29, Table N-4 (codified as WAC 296-155-66504), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665 (part), Table N-4, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-66505Table N-5. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-155-66505, filed 6/17/81; Order 76-29, Table N-5 (codified as WAC 296-155-66505), filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-665 (part), Table N-5, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90 -18), filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-692Requirements for lift-slab operations. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-692, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.] Repealed by WSR 90-03-029 (Order 89-20), filed 1/11/90, effective 2/26/90. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-700General requirements. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-05-046, § 296-155-700, filed 2/13/98, effective 4/15/98. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-700, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-700, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-700, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, § 296-155-700, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-700, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
296-155-705Flooring requirements. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-705, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-705, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, § 296-155-705, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-705, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
296-155-710Structural steel assembly. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-710, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
296-155-715Bolting, riveting, fitting-up, and plumbing-up. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 96-24-051, § 296-155-715, filed 11/27/96, effective 2/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-155-715, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-715, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 76-29, § 296-155-715, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-715, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
296-155-720Safe walking surfaces on structural members. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-03-044 (Order 90-18), § 296-155-720, filed 1/10/91, effective 2/12/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-720, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-720, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 02-13-115, filed 6/19/02, effective 9/1/02. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050.
296-155-750Masonry construction. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-750, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-750, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-155-760Concrete finishing. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-760, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-850Definitions applicable to this part. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-850, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-855General provisions. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-855, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-860Blaster qualifications. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-860, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-865Surface transportation of explosives. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-865, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-870Underground transportation of explosives. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-870, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-875Storage of explosives and blasting agents. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-875, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-880Loading of explosives or blasting agents. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-880, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-885Initiation of explosive charges—Electric blasting. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-885, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-890Use of safety fuse. [Order 76-29, § 296-155-890, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-890, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-895Use of detonating cord. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-895, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-900Firing the blast. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-900, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-905Inspection after blasting. [Order 74-26. § 296-155-905, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-910Misfires. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-910, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-915Underwater blasting. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-915, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.
296-155-920Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. [Order 74-26, § 296-155-920, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.] Repealed by WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050.


296-155-001
Foreword.

(1) This chapter has been compiled with the purpose of consolidating safety and health construction safety standards into one chapter of the Washington Administrative Code, by the promulgation of the standards contained herein. It is also the intent that the safety standards of the Washington state department of labor and industries, will be at least as effective as those adopted by the U.S. Department of Labor and administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as published in the Code of Federal Regulations. The department of labor and industries is incorporating many of the preexisting construction safety standards and adding new standards under this chapter.
(2) Attention is called to the fact that certain Washington state standards contain standards and/or regulations applicable to all industries. These include, but are not limited to: The code for boilers and pressure vessels; the code for pressure piping; the general industrial safety and health standards; the general occupational health standards; regulations of the department of social and health services.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-001, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 76-29, § 296-155-001, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-001, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-003
Subsections, subdivisions, items, subitems, and segments.

(1) That portion of section numeration appearing after the chapter designation appears in either a three digit or a five digit format (e.g. WAC 296-24-330 and 296-24-30002). The final two digits of the section number are implied decimal extensions of the first three digits and represent a further division of the three digit enumeration.
(2) Sections of this chapter may be divided into subsections (1), (2), (3), etc., which may in turn be divided into subdivisions (a), (b), (c), etc., which may be further divided into items (i), (ii), (iii), etc., which may be further divided into subitems (A), (B), (C), etc., which may be further divided into segments (aa) [(I)], (bb) [(II)], (cc) [(III)], etc., all according to the following hierarchy, e.g.
Sections
Subsections
(1)
(2)
Subdivisions
(a)
(b)
Items
(i)
(ii)
Subitems
(A)
(B)
Segments
I
II
Note:
"Part" as used in this standard means a major division of this chapter relating to a specific topic or topics and containing various related sections.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-003, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-003, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-005
Purpose and scope.

(1) The standards included in this chapter apply throughout the state of Washington, to any and all work places subject to the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (chapter 49.17 RCW), where construction, alteration, demolition, related inspection, and/or maintenance and repair work, including painting and decorating, is performed. These standards are minimum safety requirements with which all industries must comply when engaged in the above listed types of work.
(2) If a provision of this chapter conflicts with a provision of the general safety and health standard (chapter 296-24 WAC), the general occupational health standard (chapter 296-62 WAC), or the safety and health core rules (chapter 296-800 WAC), the provision of this chapter will prevail. When a provision of this chapter conflicts with a provision of another vertical safety standard applying to the place of work, the provisions of the vertical standard of specific application will prevail.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-005, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-005, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-005, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.240, chapters 42.30 and 43.22 RCW. WSR 80-17-014 (Order 80-20), § 296-155-005, filed 11/13/80; Order 76-29, § 296-155-005, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-005, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-006
Equipment approval by nonstate agency or organization.

Whenever a provision of this chapter states that only that equipment or those processes approved by an agency or organization other than the department of labor and industries, such as the Underwriters Laboratories or the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), must be utilized, that provision must be construed to mean that approval of such equipment or process by the designated agency or group must be prima facie evidence of compliance with the provisions of this chapter.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-006, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-006, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-006, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-007
Incorporation of standards of national organization.

Whenever a provision of this chapter incorporates by reference a national code or portion thereof which has been adopted by and is currently administered by another state agency, compliance with those provisions adopted and administered by such other state agency, if from a more recent edition of such national code, will be deemed to be prima facie evidence of compliance with the provisions of this chapter.
[Order 74-26, § 296-155-007, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-008
Incorporation of standards of federal agency.

(1) Whenever a provision of this chapter incorporates therein provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.) and changes thereto, or any other regulations adopted by an agency of the federal government, that provision of this chapter must be construed to mean that compliance with such regulations must be prima facie evidence of compliance with the provisions of this chapter.
(2) Whenever a provision of this chapter incorporates therein provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations, the provisions so incorporated must be those in effect on the date of effectiveness of this chapter, unless the content of the incorporating section specifies otherwise.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-008, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; Order 76-29, § 296-155-008, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-008, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-009
Equipment whether or not owned by, or under control of the employer.

(1) It is the employer's responsibility to ensure that any defective equipment or tools are not used.
(2) When any tool or piece of equipment fails to meet the requirements of any safety standard or recognized safe practice, you must not use the tool or equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-009, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-009, filed 1/21/86.]



296-155-010
Variance and procedure.

Realizing that conditions may exist in operations under which certain state standards will not have practical application, the director of the department of labor and industries or authorized representative may, pursuant to this section, sections 8 or 9 of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (chapter 80, Laws of 1973, RCW 49.17.080 and 49.17.090) and appropriate administrative rules of this state and the department of labor and industries and upon receipt of application and after adequate investigation by the department, permit a variation from these requirements when other means of providing an equivalent measure of protection are afforded. Such variation granted must be limited to the particular case or cases covered in the application for variance and may be revoked for cause. The order granting a variance must be conspicuously posted on the premises and must remain posted during the time it is in effect. A copy of the variance must be available at the work site. All requests for variances from safety and health standards included in this chapter, must be made in writing to the director of the department of labor and industries at Olympia, Washington, or duly authorized representative, Department of Labor and Industries, P.O. Box 44600, Olympia, Washington 98504-4600.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-010, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-010, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-010, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-010, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-012
Definitions applicable to all sections of this chapter.

Note:
Unless the context indicates otherwise, words used in this chapter must have the meaning given in this section. Certain parts of this chapter contain definitions as they apply to that particular part.
Approved. Approved by the director of the department of labor and industries or authorized representative: Provided, however, That should a provision of this chapter state that approval by an agency or organization other than the department of labor and industries is required, such as Underwriters' Laboratories or the bureau of mines, the provisions of WAC 296-155-006 must apply.
Assistant director. The individual in charge of the division of consultation and compliance, department of labor and industries, or an authorized representative.
Authorized person. A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or be at a specific location or locations at the workplace.
Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective action to eliminate them.
Confined space. A space that:
(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and
(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Construction work. All or any part of excavation, construction, erection, alteration, repair, demolition, and dismantling, of buildings and other structures and all operations in connection therewith; the excavation, construction, alteration and repair of sewers, trenches, caissons, conduits, pipe lines, roads and all operations pertaining thereto; the moving of buildings and other structures, and to the construction, alteration, repair, or removal of wharfs, docks, bridges, culverts, trestles, piers, abutments or any other construction, alteration, repair or removal work related thereto.
Defect. Any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength of the tool, object, or structure of which it is a part.
Department. The department of labor and industries.
Designated person. "Authorized person" as defined in this section.
Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, or his/her designated representative.
Division. The division of consultation and compliance of the department.
Employer. Any person, firm, corporation, partnership, business trust, legal representative, or other business entity which engages in any business, industry, profession, or activity in this state and employs one or more employees or who contracts with one or more persons, the essence of which is the personal labor of such person or persons and includes the state, counties, cities, and all municipal corporations, public corporations, political subdivisions of the state, and charitable organizations: Provided, that any person, partnership, or business entity not having employees, and who is covered by the Industrial Insurance Act must be considered both an employer and an employee.
Equipment. All machinery, devices, tools, facilities, safeguards, and protective construction used in connection with construction operations.
Ground fault circuit interrupter. A fast acting circuit breaker that is sensitive to very low levels of current leakage to ground. The device is designed to limit the electric shock to a current and time duration below that which can cause serious injury.
Hazard. A condition, potential or inherent, which is likely to cause injury, death, or occupational disease.
Hazardous substance. A substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury.
Maintenance. The work of keeping a building, machine, roadway, etc., in a state of good repair.
Must. The provision(s) of the standard are mandatory.
Part. A major division, of this chapter, relating to a specific topic or topics and containing various sections, subsections, etc.
Permit-required confined space (permit space). A confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
(1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
(2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;
(3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or
(4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.
Qualified. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated their ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Repair. To restore a building, machine, roadway, etc., to an original state after damage or decay.
Safety factor. The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use.
Safety and health standard. A standard which requires the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment.
Substantial. Constructed of such strength, of such material, and of such workmanship, that the object referred to will withstand all normal wear, shock and usage.
Standard safeguard. A device designed and constructed with the object of removing the hazard of accident incidental to the machine, appliance, tool, building, or equipment to which it is attached.
Standard safeguards must be constructed of either metal or wood or other suitable material or a combination of these. The final determination of the sufficiency of any safeguard rests with the director of the department of labor and industries through the division of consultation and compliance.
Suitable. That which fits, or has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function, or circumstance.
Working day. A calendar day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays as set forth in RCW 1.16.050, as now or hereafter amended, and for the purposes of the computation of time within which an act is to be done under the provisions of this chapter, must be computed by excluding the first working day and including the last working day.
Worker, personnel, man, person, employee, and other terms of like meaning, unless the context of the provision containing such term indicates otherwise. An employee of an employer who is employed in the business of their employer whether by way of manual labor or otherwise and every person in this state who is engaged in the employment of or who is working under an independent contract the essence of which is their personal labor for an employer whether by manual labor or otherwise.
Work place. Any plant, yard, premises, room, or other place where an employee or employees are employed for the performance of labor or service over which the employer has the right of access or control, and includes, but is not limited to, all work places covered by industrial insurance under Title 51 RCW, as now or hereafter amended.
Abbreviations used in this chapter:
ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
API. American Petroleum Institute.
ASA. American Standards Association.
ASAE. American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
ASHRE. American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers.
ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM. American Society of Testing and Materials.
AWS. American Welding Society.
BTU. British thermal unit.
BTUH. British thermal unit per hour.
CFM. Cubic feet per minute.
C.F.R. Code of Federal Register.
CGA. Compressed Gas Association.
CIE. Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage.
DOT. Department of transportation.
DOSH. Division of Occupational Safety and Health.
FRP. Fiberglass reinforced plastic.
GPM. Gallons per minute.
ICC. Interstate Commerce Commission.
ID. Inside diameter.
LPG. Liquefied petroleum gas.
MCA. Manufacturing Chemist Association.
MSHA. United States Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration.
NBFU. National Board of Fire Underwriters.
NEMA. National Electrical Manufacturing Association.
NFPA. National Fire Protection Association.
NTP. Normal temperature and pressure.
OD. Outside diameter.
PSI. Pounds per square inch.
PSIA. Pounds per square inch absolute.
PSIG. Pounds per square inch gauge.
RMA. Rubber Manufacturers Association.
SAE. Society of Automotive Engineers.
TFI. The Fertilizer Institute.
TSC. Trailer Standard Code.
UL. Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.
USASI. United States of America Standards Institute.
U.S.C. United States Code.
USCG. United States Coast Guard.
WAC. Washington Administrative Code.
WISHA. Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-012, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-007, § 296-155-012, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-012, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-012, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-015
Education and first-aid standards.

You must comply with such standards and systems of education for safety as is, from time to time, prescribed for such employer by the director of labor and industries or by statute. Refer to WAC 296-155-100 through 296-155-135 for additional requirements.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-015, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-015, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-015, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-020
Housekeeping.

(1) You must keep all places of employment clean to the extent that the nature of the work allows.
(2) To facilitate cleaning, you must keep every floor, working surface, and passageway free from protruding nails, splinters, loose boards or openings.
(3) You must perform cleaning and sweeping in such a manner as to minimize the contamination of the air with dust.
(4) In areas where workers may pass or perform duties, you must remove all debris and accumulations of material. You must cover hoses and electrical conductors across aisles or passageways or suspend them overhead so that there is no tripping hazard.
(5) Where mechanical handling equipment is used, you must allow sufficient safe clearances for aisles, at loading docks, through doorways and wherever turns or passages must be made. You must mark such aisles and passageways.
(6) Storage of material must not create a hazard. You must store bags, containers, bundles, construction materials and other equipment in tiers, stacked, blocked or interlocked. They must be limited in height so that they are stable and secure against falling, sliding, or collapse.
(7) You must maintain free access at all times to all exits, fire alarm boxes, fire extinguishing equipment, and any other emergency equipment. Free access means clear of all obstructions.
(8) You must keep working and storage areas free from accumulation of materials that pose hazards of tripping, fire, explosion, or pest harborage. You must exercise vegetation control.
(9) You must keep all lunchrooms, washrooms and restrooms in a clean and sanitary condition. Garbage cans in lunchrooms and restrooms must be equipped with fitted covers and the contents disposed of daily.
(10) During the course of construction, alteration, repair or demolition of buildings and structures, you must ensure continuous clean-up of your work area, including removal of all rubble, scrap, boxes, crates and excess material to trash disposal areas.
(11) You must provide containers for the collection and separation of waste, trash, oily or used rags, and other refuse. Containers used for garbage and other oily, flammable or hazardous wastes, such as caustics, acids, harmful dusts or similar materials must be equipped with covers. You must dispose of common garbage and other waste at frequent and regular intervals. You must store and dispose of chemical agents or substances which might react to create a hazardous condition separately. You must handle, accumulate and dispose of all hazardous wastes which are subject to the requirements of chapter 173-303 WAC in accordance with that chapter.
(12) You must maintain all floors and walkways in good condition. You must repair or replace loose or broken components. You must ensure secure footing on all floors and walkways.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-020, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-020, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-020, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-030
Acceptable certifications.

(1) Pressure vessels. You must deem current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority as acceptable evidence of safe installation, inspection, testing of pressure vessels provided by the employer.
(2) Boilers. You must deem boilers provided by the employer to be in compliance with the requirements of this section when evidence of current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection, and testing is presented.
(3) Other requirements. Regulations prescribing specific requirements for other types of pressure vessels and similar equipment are contained in Parts D and M of this chapter.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-030, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; Order 74-26, § 296-155-030, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-035
General requirements.

(1) The use of any machinery, tool, material, or equipment which is not in compliance with any applicable requirements of this chapter is prohibited. You must either identify such machine, tool, material, or equipment as unsafe by tagging or locking the controls to render them inoperable or you must physically remove it from its place of operation.
(2) You must permit only those employees qualified by training or experience to operate equipment and machinery.
(3) You must use safeguards provided for employee protection.
(4) You must wear suitable clothing for the job. You must wear sufficient and proper clothing to assist in preventing scratches, abrasions, slivers, sunburn, hot liquid burns, or similar hazards. You must not wear loose or ragged clothing, scarfs or ties while working around moving machinery.
(5) Where work is in progress above workers, you must provide a catch platform or other means to protect those working below. You must notify all workers. You must maintain one completed floor between workers and steel or concrete work above.
(6) Employees must report to their employers the existence of any unsafe equipment or method or any other hazard which, to their knowledge is unsafe and where such unsafe equipment or method or other hazard exists in violation of this chapter you must correct it.
(7) Nothing herein contained prevents the use of existing equipment during its lifetime provided it is properly safeguarded, maintained in good condition, in conformity with applicable safety and health standards, and conforms to safety factors for the material used, as herein provided.
(8) As construction progresses, you must secure or brace the component parts of structures to prevent collapse or failure.
(9) You must ensure prompt and safe removal of injured employees from elevated work locations, trenches and excavations prior to commencement of work.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-035, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-035, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-035, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-040
Safe place standards.

(1) You must furnish to each employee a place of employment free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause serious injury or death to employees.
(2) You must require safety devices, furnish safeguards, and you must adopt and use practices, methods, operations, and processes which are reasonably adequate to render such employment and place of employment safe. You must do everything reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.
(3) You must not require any employee to go or be in any employment or place of employment which is hazardous to the employee.
(4) You must not fail or neglect:
(a) To provide and use safety devices and safeguards.
(b) To adopt and use methods and processes reasonably adequate to render the employment and place of employment safe.
(c) To do everything reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.
(5) No employer, owner, or lessee of any real property is permitted to construct or cause to be constructed any place of employment that is hazardous to the employee.
(6) You must not do any of the following:
(a) Remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off any safety device, safeguard, notice, or warning, furnished for use in any employment or place of employment.
(b) Interfere in any way with the use thereof by any other person.
(c) Interfere with the use of any method or process adopted for the protection of any employee, including themselves, in such employment, or place of employment.
(d) Fail or neglect to do everything reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.
(7) The use of intoxicants or debilitating drugs while on duty is prohibited. Employees under the influence of intoxicants or drugs must not be permitted in or around worksites. This subsection (7) does not apply to employees taking prescription drugs or narcotics as directed and prescribed by a physician, provided such use does not endanger the employee or others.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-040, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-040, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-040, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-100
Management's responsibility.

(1) It is the responsibility of management to establish, supervise, and enforce, in a manner which is effective in practice:
(a) A safe and healthful working environment.
(b) An accident prevention program as required by these standards.
(c) Training programs to improve the skill and competency of all employees in the field of occupational safety and health.
(2) You must instruct employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful substances regarding the safe handling and use, and be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures required.
(3) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, you must instruct employees who may be exposed regarding the potential hazards, and how to avoid injury, and the first-aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.
(4) You must instruct employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic materials in the safe handling and use of these materials and made aware of the specific requirements contained in Parts B, D, and other applicable parts of this standard.
(5) Permit-required confined spaces. The requirements of chapters 296-24, 296-62 and 296-155 WAC apply.
(6) You must ensure that work assignments place no employee in a position or location not within ordinary calling distance of another employee able to render assistance in case of emergency.
Note:
This subsection does not apply to operators of motor vehicles, watchpersons or other jobs which, by their nature, are single employee assignments. However, a definite procedure for checking the welfare of all employees during working hours should be instituted and all employees so advised.
(7) You must post and keep posted a notice or notices (Job Safety and Health Protection - Form F416-081-909) to be furnished by the department of labor and industries, informing employees of the protections and obligations provided for in the act and that for assistance and information, including copies of the act, and of specific safety and health standards employees should contact the employer or the nearest office of the department of labor and industries. You must post such notice or notices at each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are customarily posted. You must take steps to ensure that such notices are not altered, defaced, or covered by other material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-100, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 06-05-027, § 296-155-100, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-007, § 296-155-100, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-100, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-100, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-100, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-6, § 296-155-100, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-100, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-105
Employee's responsibility.

(1) Employees must coordinate and cooperate with all other employees in an attempt to eliminate accidents.
(2) Employees must study and observe all safety standards governing their work.
(3) Employees must apply the principles of accident prevention in their daily work and must use proper safety devices and protective equipment as required by their employment or employer.
(4) Employees must properly care for all personal protective equipment.
(5) Employees must make a report, on the day of the incident, to their immediate supervisor, of each industrial injury or occupational illness, regardless of the degree of severity.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-105, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; Order 74-26, § 296-155-105, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-110
Accident prevention program.

(1) Exemptions. Workers of employers whose primary business is other than construction, who are engaged solely in maintenance and repair work, including painting and decorating, are exempt from the requirement of this section provided:
(a) The maintenance and repair work, including painting and decorating, is being performed on the employer's premises, or facility.
(b) The length of the project does not exceed one week.
(c) The employer is in compliance with the requirements of WAC 296-800-140 Accident prevention program, and WAC 296-800-130, Safety committees and safety meetings.
(2) You must develop a formal accident-prevention program, tailored to the needs of the particular plant or operation and to the type of hazard involved. The department may be contacted for assistance in developing appropriate programs.
(3) The following are the minimal program elements for all employers:
A safety orientation program describing the employer's safety program and including:
(a) How, where, and when to report injuries, including instruction as to the location of first-aid facilities.
(b) How to report unsafe conditions and practices.
(c) The use and care of required personal protective equipment.
(d) The proper actions to take in event of emergencies including the routes of exiting from areas during emergencies.
(e) Identification of the hazardous gases, chemicals, or materials involved along with the instructions on the safe use and emergency action following accidental exposure.
(f) A description of the employer's total safety program.
(g) An on-the-job review of the practices necessary to perform the initial job assignments in a safe manner.
(4) You must outline each accident-prevention program in written format.
(5) You must conduct crew leader-crew safety meetings as follows:
(a) You must hold crew leader-crew safety meetings at the beginning of each job, and at least weekly thereafter.
(b) You must tailor crew leader-crew meetings to the particular operation.
(6) Crew leader-crew safety meetings must address the following:
(a) A review of any walk-around safety inspection conducted since the last safety meeting.
(b) A review of any citation to assist in correction of hazards.
(c) An evaluation of any accident investigations conducted since the last meeting to determine if the cause of the unsafe acts or unsafe conditions involved were properly identified and corrected.
(d) You must document attendance.
(e) You must document subjects discussed.
Note:
Subcontractors and their employees may, with the permission of the general contractor, elect to fulfill the requirements of subsection (5)(a) and (b) of this section by attending the prime contractors crew leader-crew safety meeting. Any of the requirements of subsections (6)(a), (b), (c), and (7) of this section not satisfied by the prime contractors safety meetings must be the responsibility of the individual employers.
(7) You must prepare minutes of each crew leader-crew meeting and you must maintain a copy at the location where the majority of the employees of each construction site report for work each day.
(8) You must retain minutes of crew leader-crew safety meetings by the employer for at least one year and you must make them available for review by personnel of the department, upon request.
(9) You must conduct walk-around safety inspections as follows:
(a) At the beginning of each job, and at least weekly thereafter, you must conduct a walk-around safety inspection jointly by one member of management and one employee, elected by the employees, as their authorized representative.
(b) You must document walk-around safety inspections and such documentation must be available for inspection by personnel of the department.
(c) You must maintain records of walk-around inspections until the completion of the job.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-110, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-110, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 00-08-078, § 296-155-110, filed 4/4/00, effective 7/1/00. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-110, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 92-09-148 (Order 92-01), § 296-155-110, filed 4/22/92, effective 5/25/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-110, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-110, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-115
Safety bulletin board.

You must install and maintain in every fixed establishment (the place where employees regularly report to work) employing 8 or more persons, a safety bulletin board sufficient in size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-115, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; Order 74-26, § 296-155-115, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-120
First-aid training and certification.

This section is designed to ensure that all employees in this state are afforded quick and effective first-aid attention in the event of an on the job injury. To achieve this purpose the presence of personnel trained in first-aid procedures at or near those places where employees are working is required. Compliance with the provisions of this section may require the presence of more than one first-aid trained person.
(1) You must have available at all worksites, where a crew is present, a person or persons holding a valid first-aid certificate.
(2) All crew leaders, supervisors or persons in direct charge of one or more employees must have a valid first-aid certificate.
(3) For the purposes of this section, a crew means a group of two or more employees working at any worksite.
Note:
The requirement that all crew leaders, supervisors or person in direct charge of one or more employees (subsection (3) of this section) applies even if other first-aid trained person(s) are available. In emergencies, crew leaders will be permitted to work up to thirty days without having the required certificate, providing an employee in the crew or another crew leaders in the immediate work area has the necessary certificate.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-120, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 04-07-160, § 296-155-120, filed 3/23/04, effective 5/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-120, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 00-01-038, § 296-155-120, filed 12/7/99, effective 2/1/00. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-120, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-120, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-120, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-125
First-aid supplies.

(1) The first-aid kits and supplies requirements of the safety and health core rules, chapter 296-800 WAC, apply within the scope of chapter 296-155 WAC.
(2) All vehicles used to transport work crews must be equipped with first-aid supplies.
(3) When practical, a poster must be fastened and maintained either on or in the cover of each first-aid kit and at or near all phones plainly stating the worksite address or location, and the phone numbers of emergency medical responders for the worksite.
(4) Requirements of WAC 296-800-15030, Make sure emergency washing facilities are functional and readily accessible, apply within the scope of chapter 296-155 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 06-05-027, § 296-155-125, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-125, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 00-01-038, § 296-155-125, filed 12/7/99, effective 2/1/00. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-125, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-125, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-125, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-130
First-aid station.

Employers with 50 or more employees per shift at one location must establish a first-aid station in accordance with the requirements in chapter 296-800 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-130, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-130, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 00-01-038, § 296-155-130, filed 12/7/99, effective 2/1/00. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-130, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-130, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-140
Sanitation.

(1) Potable water.
(a) You must provide an adequate supply of potable water in all places of employment.
(b) Portable containers used to dispense drinking water must be capable of being tightly closed and equipped with a tap. Water must not be dipped from containers.
(c) You must clearly mark any container used to distribute drinking water as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other purpose.
(d) The common drinking cup is prohibited.
(e) Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, you must provide both a sanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for disposing of the used cups.
(f) You must thoroughly clean all water containers used to furnish drinking water at least once each week or more often as conditions require.
(g) The requirements of this subsection do not apply to mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations as long as employees working at these locations have transportation immediately available, within the normal course of their duties, to nearby facilities otherwise meeting the requirements of this section.
(h) The following definitions apply:
(i) Mobile crew. A work crew that routinely moves to a different work location periodically. Normally a mobile crew is not at the same location all day.
(ii) Normally unattended work location. An unattended site that is visited occasionally by one or more employees.
(iii) Nearby facility. A sanitary facility that is within three minutes travel by the transportation provided.
(iv) Potable water. Water that is suitable for drinking by the public and meets the requirements of chapter 246-290 or 246-291 WAC.
(2) Wash water.
(a) You must provide clean, tepid wash water, between 70 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit, at all construction sites.
(b) You must provide individual hand towels. You must provide both a sanitary container for the unused towels and a receptacle for disposal of used towels.
(c) You must provide hand soap, industrial hand cleaner or similar cleansing agents. Cleansing agents must be adequate to remove any paints, coatings, herbicides, insecticides or other contaminants.
(d) The requirements of this subsection do not apply to mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations as long as employees working at these locations have transportation immediately available, within the normal course of their duties, to nearby facilities otherwise meeting the requirements of this section.
(e) You must not use gasoline or solvents for personal cleaning.
(f) Wash water areas will be maintained in a dry condition. You must eliminate slipping or other hazards from the wash water area before it is acceptable for use.
(3) Nonpotable water.
(a) You must identify outlets for nonpotable water, such as water for industrial or firefighting purposes only, by signs meeting the requirements of Part E of this chapter, to indicate clearly that the water is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing or cooking purposes.
(b) You must ensure that there is no cross-connection, open or potential, between a system furnishing potable water, a system furnishing nonpotable water or a system furnishing wash water.
(4) Toilets.
(a) The provisions of this section apply to both portable chemical toilets and to flush toilets, except where flush toilets are used the requirements of WAC 296-800-230 apply instead of (b) of this subsection.
(b) You must provide accessible toilets for employees according to the following table:
TABLE B-1
Number of
Employees
Toilets Required
1 - 10
1
11 - 25
2
26 - 40
3
41 - 60
4
61 - 80
5
Over 80
 
one additional toilet for each additional 20 employees or any fraction thereof.
 
 
 
(c) When the employer provides both flush and portable chemical toilets, the number of employees allowed to be served by the flush toilets, per WAC 296-800-230 will be calculated. That number will be subtracted from the total number of employees and the employer will be required to provide an adequate number of portable chemical toilets for the number of remaining employees, as required by (b) of this subsection.
(d) You must maintain toilets in clean, sanitary and functional condition. You must provide internal latches to secure the units from inadvertent entry. Where there are 20 or more employees consisting of both sexes, you must provide facilities for each sex.
(i) You must properly clean each unit on a routine basis.
(ii) You must maintain chemicals, toilet tissue and sanitary seat covers in a supply sufficient for use during the entire shift.
(iii) You must immediately remove any defective or inadequate unit from service.
(e) Specifications. The following specifications apply:
(i) A noncaustic chemical toilet (portable chemical toilet is) a self-contained unit equipped with a waste receiving chemical holding container.
(ii) Portable chemical toilets consisting of only a holding tank, commonly referred to as "elevator units" or "elevator toilets" are not acceptable. "Elevator units" may be used if they are individually located in a lockable room which affords privacy. When this type unit is used in a private individual lockable room the entire room will be considered a toilet facility, as such the room will meet all requirements of toilet facilities and be inspected in accordance with subsection (5)(b)(iii) of this section.
(iii) Rooms, buildings or shelters housing toilets must be of sound construction, easy to clean, provide shelter and provide privacy. The toilet rooms must be ventilated to the outside and adequately lighted. All openings into the toilet room must be covered with 16-mesh screen.
(iv) You must service toilets on a regular schedule. Servicing must include the use of a disinfectant for cleaning urinals and seats, removing waste from containers, recharging containers with an odor controlling chemical and installing an adequate supply of toilet tissue and seat covers.
(v) You must perform service in accordance with local codes by approved servicing organizations. You must dispose of or discharge waste in accordance with requirements of local health department regulations.
(vi) Waste containers must be fabricated from impervious materials, e.g. plastic, steel, fiberglass or their equivalent. Containers must be water tight and capable of containing the chemical waste in a sanitary manner. The container must be fitted to the building in a manner so as to prevent insects from entering from the exterior of the building. Containers must be adequate in size to be used by the number of persons, according to the schedule for minimum requirements, without filling the container to more than half of its volume before regularly scheduled servicing.
(vii) Removal of waste must be handled in a clean and sanitary manner by means of a vacuum hose and received by a leak-proof tank truck. All valves on the tank must be leak-proof.
(viii) You must make provisions so service trucks have a clear approach and convenient access to the toilets to be serviced.
(ix) Disposal of waste from tank trucks must be in accordance with local health department requirements. In the absence of provisions by local health departments, waste must be disposed of through municipal or district sanitary sewage systems. Municipal or area sanitary sewage districts must provide sewage disposal locations and facilities which are adequate and convenient for duly authorized toilet service organizations.
(f) The requirements of this subsection do not apply to mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations as long as employees working at these locations have transportation immediately available, within the normal course of their duties, to nearby facilities otherwise meeting the requirements of this section.
(5) Employer responsibilities.
(a) On multiemployer worksites, the prime contractor must ensure that the requirements of this section are met. Each employer is responsible for seeing that facilities for their own employees are provided.
(b) You must ensure, at the beginning of each shift, that the sanitation facilities required by this section are inspected. If any facility or unit fails to meet the following requirements, you must take immediate corrective action. You must document and maintain such action at the site for at least 72 hours. Inspection must establish:
(i) Potable water: Sufficient supply of water, sufficient supply of cups, container integrity, cleanliness of unit and area, capacity of trash receptacle (empty).
(ii) Wash water: Sufficient supply of clean water, proper temperature, sufficient supply of towels, sufficient supply of cleansing agents, container integrity, cleanliness of unit and area without the presence of physical hazards, capacity of trash receptacle (empty).
(iii) Toilets: Sufficient supply of toilet tissue and sanitary seat covers, capacity and condition of chemical agent, capacity and condition of holding tank, cleanliness of unit and area without the presence of physical hazards, physical and structural condition of unit, condition of lock, condition of toilet seat and tissue holder, absence of all foreign debris.
(c) The location of the facilities required by subsections (1), (2) and (4) of this section must be as close as practical to the highest concentration of employees.
(i) On multistory structures they must be furnished on every third floor.
(ii) At all sites they must be located within 200 feet horizontally of all employees.
(iii) The requirements of subsection (5)(c)(i) and (ii) do not apply to mobile crews or to normally unattended work locations as long as employees working at these locations have transportation immediately available, within the normal course of their duties, to nearby facilities otherwise meeting the requirements of this section.
(6) Food handling. All employees' food service facilities and operations must meet the applicable laws, ordinances and regulations of the jurisdictions in which they are located.
(7) Temporary sleeping quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they must be heated, ventilated and lighted.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-140, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-155-140, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-140, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-140, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-140, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-140, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-140, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-145
Occupational noise exposure.

The occupational noise exposure requirements of chapter 296-817 WAC, Hearing loss prevention (noise), apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-11-060, § 296-155-145, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-155-145, filed 12/11/84; WSR 83-15-017 (Order 83-19), § 296-155-145, filed 7/13/83, effective 9/12/83; Order 76-29, § 296-155-145, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-145, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-150
Ionizing radiation.

(1) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, apply.
(2) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive material or X-ray, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, must be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee are permitted to perform such work.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-150, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-150, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-150, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-155
Nonionizing radiation.

(1) Only qualified and trained employees must be assigned to install, adjust, and operate laser equipment.
(2) Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator must be available and in possession of operator at all times.
(3) You must provide employees, when working in areas in which a potentially hazardous exposure (see WAC 296-62-09005(4)) to direct or reflected laser radiation exists, with antilaser eye protection devices specified in Part C of this chapter.
(4) Areas in which Class II and III lasers are used must be posted with standard laser warning placards.
(5) You must utilize beam shutters or caps, or the laser turned off, when laser transmission is not actually required. When the laser is left unattended for a substantial period of time, such as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of shifts, the laser must be turned off.
(6) You must use only mechanical or electronic means as a detector for guiding the internal alignment of the laser.
(7) The laser beam must not be directed at employees.
(8) When it is raining or snowing, or when there is dust or fog in the air, and it is impracticable to cease laser system operation, you must keep employees out of range of the area of source and target during such weather conditions.
(9) Laser equipment must bear a conspicuously displayed label to indicate hazard classification. This label must be prepared in accordance with 21 C.F.R. 1040.10.
(10) You must use only Class I, II, or III laser equipment. You must not use Class IV laser equipment.
(11) You must set up laser unit in operation above the heads of the employees, when possible.
(12) You must not expose employees to radiofrequency/microwave radiation in excess of the permissible exposure limits specified in WAC 296-62-09005.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-155, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-155, filed 1/21/86; WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-155-155, filed 12/11/84; Order 74-26, § 296-155-155, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-160
Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists.

(1) You must avoid exposure of employees to inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption, or contact with any material or substance at a concentration above those specified in chapter 296-841 WAC.
(2) To achieve compliance with subsection (1) of this section, administrative or engineering controls must first be implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, you must use protective equipment or other protective measures to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in WAC 296-62-07515 [ 296-841-20025]. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, you must comply with WAC 296-155-220.
(3) Whenever internal combustion equipment exhausts in enclosed spaces, you must make and record tests to ensure that employees are not exposed to unsafe concentrations of toxic gases or oxygen deficient atmospheres. See chapter 296-62 WAC, the general occupational health standards and chapter 296-841 WAC, identifying and controlling respiratory hazards.
(4) Whenever any employee is exposed to asbestos, the provisions of the general occupational health standards, chapter 296-62 WAC apply.
(5) Subsections (1) and (2) of this section do not apply to the exposure of employees to formaldehyde. Whenever any employee is exposed to formaldehyde, the requirements of chapter 296-856 WAC apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-160, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 07-03-163, § 296-155-160, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 06-08-087, § 296-155-160, filed 4/4/06, effective 9/1/06; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-160, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-160, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 88-14-108 (Order 88-11), § 296-155-160, filed 7/6/88; WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-155-160, filed 11/30/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.050(2) and 49.17.040. WSR 87-10-008 (Order 87-06), § 296-155-160, filed 4/27/87. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-160, filed 1/21/86. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-155-160, filed 11/30/83; Order 74-26, § 296-155-160, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-165
Lighting and illumination.

For lighting and illumination requirements, see WAC 296-800-210, Lighting.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 04-24-089, § 296-155-165, filed 12/1/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-165, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-165, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-170
Ventilation.

(1) General. Whenever hazardous substances such as dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases exist or are produced in the course of construction work, their concentrations shall not exceed the limits specified in WAC 296-155-160(1). When ventilation is used as an engineering control method, the system shall be installed and operated according to the requirements of this section.
(2) Local exhaust ventilation. Local exhaust ventilation when used as described in (1) shall be designed to prevent dispersion into the air of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of employees.
(3) Design and operation. Exhaust fans, jets, ducts, hoods, separators, and all necessary appurtenances, including refuse receptacles, shall be so designed, constructed, maintained and operated as to ensure the required protection by maintaining a volume and velocity of exhaust air sufficient to gather dusts, fumes, vapors, or gases from said equipment or process, and to convey them to suitable points of safe disposal, thereby preventing their dispersion in harmful quantities into the atmosphere where employees work.
(4) Duration of operations.
(a) The exhaust system shall be in operation continually during all operations which it is designed to serve. If the employee remains in the contaminated zone, the system shall continue to operate after the cessation of said operations, the length of time to depend upon the individual circumstances and effectiveness of the general ventilation system.
(b) Since dust capable of causing disability is, according to the best medical opinion, of microscopic size, tending to remain for hours in suspension in still air, it is essential that the exhaust system be continued in operation for a time after the work process or equipment served by the same shall have ceased, in order to ensure the removal of the harmful elements to the required extent.
Note:
For the same reason, employees wearing respiratory equipment should not remove same immediately until a clear atmosphere has been established.
(5) Disposal of exhaust materials. The air outlet from every dust separator, and the dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases collected by an exhaust or ventilating system shall discharge to the outside atmosphere. Collecting systems which return air to work area may be used if concentrations which accumulate in the work area air do not result in harmful exposure to employees. Dust and refuse discharged from an exhaust system shall be disposed of in such a manner that it will not result in harmful exposure to employees.
[Order 74-26, § 296-155-170, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-173
Methylenedianiline.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-173, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17301
Scope and application.

(1) This section applies to all construction work as defined in WAC 296-155-005, in which there is exposure to MDA, including but not limited to the following:
(a) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain MDA;
(b) Installation or the finishing of surfaces with products containing MDA;
(c) MDA spill/emergency cleanup at construction sites; and
(d) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of MDA or products containing MDA on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section and WAC 296-155-17311(5), this standard does not apply to the processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where initial monitoring indicates that the product is not capable of releasing MDA in excess of the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
(3) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, this standard does not apply to the processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where objective data are reasonably relied upon which demonstrate the product is not capable of releasing MDA under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
(4) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, this standard does not apply to the storage, transportation, distribution, or sale of MDA in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to contain the MDA dusts, vapors, or liquids, except for the provisions of WAC 296-62-054 and 296-155-17309.
(5) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, this standard does not apply to materials in any form which contain less than 0.1% MDA by weight or volume.
(6) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, this standard does not apply to "finished articles containing MDA."
(7) Where products containing MDA are exempted under subsections (2) and (6) of this section, you must maintain records of the initial monitoring results or objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in the recordkeeping provision of WAC 296-155-17331.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17301, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17301, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17303
Definitions.

For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions apply:
Action level. A concentration of airborne MDA of 5 ppb as an 8-hour time-weighted average.
Authorized person. Any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any person entering such an area as a designated representative of employees for the purpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuring procedures under WAC 296-155-17333, or any other person authorized by the act or regulations issued under the act.
Container. Any barrel, bottle, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, commercial packaging, or the like, but does not include piping systems.
Decontamination area. An area outside of, but as near as practical to, the regulated area, consisting of an equipment storage area, wash area, and clean change area, which is used for the decontamination of workers, materials, and equipment contaminated with MDA.
Dermal exposure to MDA. Occurs where employees are engaged in the handling, application, or use of mixtures or materials containing MDA, with any of the following nonairborne forms of MDA:
(a) Liquid, powdered, granular, or flaked mixtures containing MDA in concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume; and
(b) Materials other than "finished articles" containing MDA in concentrations greater than 0.1% by weight or volume.
Director. The director of the department of labor and industries.
Emergency. Any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which results in an unexpected and potentially hazardous release of MDA.
Employee exposure. Exposure to MDA which would occur if the employee were not using respirators or protective work clothing and equipment.
Finished article containing MDA. A manufactured item:
(a) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture;
(b) Which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or part upon its shape or design during end use; and
(c) Where applicable, is an item which is fully cured by virtue of having been subjected to the conditions (temperature, time) necessary to complete the desired chemical reaction.
Historical monitoring data. Monitoring data for construction jobs that meet the following conditions:
(a) The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and precise;
(b) The processes and work practices that were in use when the historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
(c) The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
(d) Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed; and
(e) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exception are substantially similar. The data must be scientifically sound, the characteristics of the MDA containing material must be similar, and the environmental conditions comparable.
4,4' methylenedianiline or MDA. The chemical 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 101-77-9, in the form of a vapor, liquid, or solid. The definition also includes the salts of MDA.
Regulated areas. Areas where airborne concentrations of MDA exceed or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure limits, or where "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
STEL. Short-term exposure limit as determined by any 15-minute sample period.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17303, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17303, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17305
Permissible exposure limits.

You must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of MDA in excess of 10 parts per billion (10 ppb) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and a STEL of 100 parts per billion (100 ppb).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17305, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17305, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17307
Communication among employers.

On multiemployer worksites, an employer performing work involving the application of MDA or materials containing MDA for which establishment of one or more regulated areas must inform other employers on the site of the nature of the employer's work with MDA and of the existence of, and requirements pertaining to, regulated areas.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17307, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17307, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17309
Emergency situations.

(1) Written plan.
(a) You must develop a written plan for emergency situations for each construction operation where there is a possibility of an emergency. The plan must include procedures where the employer identifies emergency escape routes for her or his employees at each construction site before the construction operation begins. You must implement appropriate portions of the plan in the event of an emergency.
(b) The plan must specifically provide that employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions are equipped with the appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing as required in WAC 296-155-17317 and 296-155-17319 until the emergency is abated.
(c) The plan must specifically include provisions for alerting and evacuating affected employees as well as the applicable elements prescribed in WAC 296-24-567, "Employee emergency plans and fire prevention plans."
(2) Alerting employees. Where there is the possibility of employee exposure to MDA due to an emergency, you must develop means to promptly alert employees who have the potential to be directly exposed. You must immediately evacuate affected employees not engaged in correcting emergency conditions in the event that an emergency occurs. You must also develop means for alerting other employees who may be exposed as a result of the emergency.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17309, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17309, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17311
Exposure monitoring.

(1) General.
(a) You must make a determination of employee exposure from breathing zone air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to airborne MDA over an eight-hour period. You must make a determination of employee exposure to the STEL from breathing zone air samples collected over a 15 minute sampling period.
(b) You must determine representative employee exposure on the basis of one or more samples representing full shift exposure for each shift for each job classification in each work area where exposure to MDA may occur.
(c) Where the employer can document that exposure levels are equivalent for similar operations in different work shifts, you must only be required to determine representative employee exposure for that operation during one shift.
(2) Initial monitoring. Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard must perform initial monitoring to determine accurately the airborne concentrations of MDA to which employees may be exposed unless:
(a) The employer can demonstrate, on the basis of objective data, that the MDA-containing product or material being handled cannot cause exposures above the standard's action level, even under worst-case release conditions; or
(b) The employer has historical monitoring or other data demonstrating that exposures on a particular job will be below the action level.
(3) Periodic monitoring and monitoring frequency.
(a) If the monitoring required by subsection (2)(b) of this section reveals employee exposure at or above the action level, but at or below the PELs, you must repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every 6 months.
(b) If the monitoring required by subsection (2)(b) of this section reveals employee exposure above the PELs, you must repeat such monitoring for each such employee at least every 3 months.
(c) Employers who are conducting MDA operations within a regulated area can forego periodic monitoring if the employees are all wearing supplied-air respirators while working in the regulated area.
(d) The employer may alter the monitoring schedule from every 3 months to every 6 months for any employee for whom two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart indicate that the employee exposure has decreased to below the PELs but above the action level.
(4) Termination of monitoring.
(a) If the initial monitoring required by subsection (2)(b) of this section reveals employee exposure to be below the action level, the employer may discontinue the monitoring for that employee, except as otherwise required by subsection (5) of this section.
(b) If the periodic monitoring required by subsection (3) of this section reveals that employee exposures, as indicated by at least two consecutive measurements taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level the employer may discontinue the monitoring for that employee, except as otherwise required by subsection (5) of this section.
(5) Additional monitoring. You must institute the exposure monitoring required under subsections (2)(b) and (c) of this section when there has been a change in production process, chemicals present, control equipment, personnel, or work practices which may result in new or additional exposures to MDA, or when the employer has any reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposures.
(6) Accuracy of monitoring. Monitoring must be accurate, to a confidence level of 95%, to within plus or minus 25% for airborne concentrations of MDA.
(7) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(a) You must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this standard, notify each employee of these results, in writing, either individually or by posting of results in an appropriate location that is accessible to affected employees.
(b) The written notification required by subdivision (a) of this subsection must contain the corrective action being taken by the employer or any other protective measures which have been implemented to reduce the employee exposure to or below the PELs, wherever the PELs are exceeded.
(8) Visual monitoring. You must make routine inspections of employee hands, face, and forearms potentially exposed to MDA. Other potential dermal exposures reported by the employee must be referred to the appropriate medical personnel for observation. If the employer determines that the employee has been exposed to MDA you must:
(a) Determine the source of exposure;
(b) Implement protective measures to correct the hazard; and
(c) Maintain records of the corrective actions in accordance with WAC 296-155-17327.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17311, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 06-05-027, § 296-155-17311, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17311, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17313
Regulated areas.

(1) Establishment.
(a) Airborne exposures. You must establish regulated areas where airborne concentrations of MDA exceed, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the permissible exposure limits.
(b) Dermal exposures. Where employees are subject to "dermal exposure to MDA" you must establish those work areas as regulated areas.
(2) Demarcation. You must demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in a manner that minimizes the number of persons potentially exposed.
(3) Access. You must limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.
(4) Personal protective equipment and clothing. You must supply each person entering a regulated area with the appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-155-17317 and 296-155-17319 and require that they use it.
(5) Prohibited activities. You must ensure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17313, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17313, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17315
Methods of compliance.

(1) Engineering controls and work practices and respirators.
(a) You must use one or any combination of the following control methods to achieve compliance with the permissible exposure limits prescribed by WAC 296-155-17317.
(i) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;
(ii) General ventilation systems;
(iii) Use of work practices; or
(iv) Other engineering controls such as isolation and enclosure that the director can show to be feasible.
(b) Wherever the feasible engineering controls and work practices which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs, you must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels achievable by these controls and you must supplement them by the use of respiratory protective devices which comply with the requirements of WAC 296-155-17317.
(2) Special provisions. For workers engaged in spray application methods, respiratory protection must be used in addition to feasible engineering controls and work practices to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs.
(3) Prohibitions. Compressed air must not be used to remove MDA unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.
(4) Employee rotation. You must not use employee rotation as a means of compliance with the exposure limits prescribed in WAC 296-155-17305.
(5) Compliance program.
(a) You must establish and implement a written program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs by means of engineering and work practice controls, as required by subsection (1) of this section, and by use of respiratory protection where permitted under this section.
(b) Upon request you must furnish this written program for examination and copying to the director, affected employees, and designated employee representatives. You must review and, as necessary, update such plans at least once every 12 months to make certain they reflect the current status of the program.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17315, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17315, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17317
Respiratory protection.

(1) General. You must provide each employee who uses a respirator required by this section with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:
(a) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls.
(b) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities and spray application processes, for which engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible.
(c) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work-practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PELs.
(d) Emergencies.
(2) Respirator program. You must develop, implement and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(3) Respirator selection.
(a) You must select and provide to employees appropriate respirators as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(b) An employee who cannot use a negative-pressure respirator must be given the option of using a positive-pressure respirator, or a supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous-flow or pressure-demand mode.
(c) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.
(d) Provide to employees, for escape, one of the following respirator options:
(i) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece or hood, operated in the positive-pressure or continuous-flow mode
or
(ii) A full facepiece air-purifying respirator.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17317, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 09-15-145, § 296-155-17317, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; WSR 07-05-072, § 296-155-17317, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-17317, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17317, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17317, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17319
Protective work clothing and equipment.

(1) Provision and use. Where employees are subject to dermal exposure to MDA, where liquids containing MDA can be splashed into the eyes, or where airborne concentrations of MDA are in excess of the PEL, the employer must provide, at no cost to the employee, and ensure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment which prevent contact with MDA such as, but not limited to:
(a) Aprons, coveralls, or other full-body work clothing;
(b) Gloves, head coverings, and foot coverings; and
(c) Face shields, chemical goggles; or
(d) Other appropriate protective equipment which comply with WAC 296-24-078.
(2) Removal and storage.
(a) You must ensure that, at the end of their work shift, employees remove MDA-contaminated protective work clothing and equipment that is not routinely removed throughout the day in change areas provided in accordance with the provisions in WAC 296-155-17321.
(b) You must ensure that, during their work shift, employees remove all other MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or equipment before leaving a regulated area.
(c) You must ensure that no employee takes MDA-contaminated work clothing or equipment out of the decontamination areas, except those employees authorized to do so for the purpose of laundering, maintenance, or disposal.
(d) You must place, store, and transport MDA-contaminated work clothing or equipment in sealed, impermeable bags, or other closed impermeable containers.
(e) You must label containers of MDA-contaminated protective work clothing or equipment which are to be taken out of decontamination areas or the workplace for cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, warning of the hazards of MDA.
(3) Cleaning and replacement.
(a) You must provide the employee with clean protective clothing and equipment. The employer must ensure that protective work clothing or equipment required by this section is cleaned, laundered, repaired, or replaced at intervals appropriate to maintain its effectiveness.
(b) You must prohibit the removal of MDA from protective work clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any methods which allow MDA to reenter the workplace.
(c) You must ensure that laundering of MDA-contaminated clothing is done so as to prevent the release of MDA in the workplace.
(d) Any employer who gives MDA-contaminated clothing to another person for laundering must inform such person of the requirement to prevent the release of MDA.
(e) You must inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with MDA of the potentially harmful effects of exposure.
(4) Visual examination.
(a) You must ensure that employees' work clothing is examined periodically for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.
(b) When rips or tears are detected, you must repair and replace the protective equipment or clothing immediately.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17319, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17319, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17321
Hygiene facilities and practices.

(1) General.
(a) You must provide decontamination areas for employees required to work in regulated areas or required by WAC 296-155-17319 to wear protective clothing. Exception: In lieu of the decontamination area requirement specified in this subsection, the employer may permit employees engaged in small scale, short duration operations, to clean their protective clothing or dispose of the protective clothing before such employees leave the area where the work was performed.
(b) Change areas. You must ensure that change areas are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective clothing and street clothing, in accordance with WAC 296-24-12011.
(c) Equipment area. You must supply the equipment area with impermeable, labeled bags and containers for the containment and disposal of contaminated protective clothing and equipment.
(2) Shower area.
(a) Where feasible, you must provide shower facilities which comply with WAC 296-24-12010 wherever the possibility of employee exposure to airborne levels of MDA in excess of the permissible exposure limit exists.
(b) Where dermal exposure to MDA occurs, you must ensure that materials spilled or deposited on the skin are removed as soon as possible by methods which do not facilitate the dermal absorption of MDA.
(3) Lunch areas.
(a) Whenever food or beverages are consumed at the worksite and employees are exposed to MDA you must provide clean lunch areas were MDA levels are below the action level and where no dermal exposure to MDA can occur.
(b) You must ensure that employees wash their hands and faces with soap and water prior to eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics.
(c) You must ensure that employees do not enter lunch facilities with contaminated protective work clothing or equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17321, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-17321, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17321, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17323
Communication of hazards.

(1) Hazard communication - General.
(a) Chemical manufacturers, importers, distributors and employers must comply with all requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140 for MDA.
(b) In classifying the hazards for MDA at least the following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; liver effects; and skin sensitization.
(c) You must include MDA in the hazard communication program established to comply with the HCS, WAC 296-901-140. You must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of MDA and to safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the requirements of HCS and subsection (4) of this section.
(2) Signs and labels.
(a) Signs.
(i) You must post and maintain legible signs demarcating regulated areas and entrances or accessways to regulated areas that bear the following legend:
DANGER MDA MAY CAUSE CANCER CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE LIVER
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
MAY BE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(ii) Prior to June 1, 2016, you may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (a)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER MDA MAY CAUSE CANCER LIVER TOXIN
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED TO BE WORN IN THIS AREA
(b) Labels. Prior to June 1, 2015, you may include the following information workplace labels in lieu of the labeling requirements in subsection (1) of this section:
(i) For pure MDA:
DANGER CONTAINS MDA MAY CAUSE CANCER LIVER TOXIN
(ii) For mixtures containing MDA:
DANGER CONTAINS MDA CONTAINS MATERIALS
WHICH MAY CAUSE CANCER LIVER TOXIN
(3) Safety data sheets (SDS).
In meeting the obligation to provide safety data sheets, you must make appropriate use of the information found in Appendices A and B to WAC 296-62-076.
(4) Information and training.
(a) You must provide employees with information and training on MDA, in accordance with WAC 296-901-14016, at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
(b) In addition to the information required under WAC 296-901-140, you must:
(i) Provide an explanation of the contents of this section, including Appendices A and B of this section, and indicate to employees where a copy of the standard is available;
(ii) Describe the medical surveillance program required under WAC 296-155-17327, and explain the information contained in Appendix C of this standard; and
(iii) Describe the medical removal provision required under WAC 296-155-17327.
(5) Access to training materials.
(a) You must make readily available to all affected employees, without cost, all written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this regulation.
(b) You must provide to the director, upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information and training program.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17323, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17323, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-17323, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17323, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17325
Housekeeping.

(1) You must maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of visible accumulations of MDA.
(2) You must institute a program for detecting MDA leaks, spills, and discharges, including regular visual inspections of operations involving liquid or solid MDA.
(3) You must repair all leaks and clean up liquid or dust spills promptly.
(4) Surfaces contaminated with MDA may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air.
(5) Shoveling, dry sweeping, and other methods of dry clean-up of MDA may be used where HEPA-filtered vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not feasible or practical.
(6) You must collect waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and clothing contaminated with MDA and dispose of it in a manner to prevent the reentry of MDA into the workplace.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17325, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17325, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17327
Medical surveillance.

(1) General.
(a) You must make available a medical surveillance program for employees exposed to MDA under the following circumstances:
(i) Employees exposed at or above the action level for 30 or more days per year;
(ii) Employees who are subject to dermal exposure to MDA for 15 or more days per year;
(iii) Employees who have been exposed in an emergency situation;
(iv) Employees whom the employer, based on results from compliance with WAC 296-155-17311(8) has reason to believe are being dermally exposed; and
(v) Employees who show signs or symptoms of MDA exposure.
(b) You must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician at a reasonable time and place, and provided without cost to the employee.
(2) Initial examinations.
(a) Within 150 days of the effective date of this standard, or before the time of initial assignment, you must provide each employee covered by subsection (1)(a) of this section with a medical examination including the following elements:
A detailed history which includes:
(i) Past work exposure to MDA or any other toxic substances;
(ii) A history of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and medication routinely taken (duration and quantity); and
(iii) A history of dermatitis, chemical skin sensitization, or previous hepatic disease.
(iv) A physical examination which includes all routine physical examination parameters, skin examination, and examination for signs of liver disease.
(v) Laboratory tests including:
(A) Liver function tests; and
(B) Urinalysis.
(vi) Additional tests as necessary in the opinion of the physician.
(b) No initial medical examination is required if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of this section within the previous six months prior to the effective date of this standard or prior to the date of initial assignment.
(3) Periodic examinations.
(a) You must provide each employee covered by this section with a medical examination at least annually following the initial examination. These periodic examinations must include at least the following elements:
(i) A brief history regarding any new exposure to potential liver toxins, changes in drug, tobacco, and alcohol intake, and the appearance of physical signs relating to the liver and the skin;
(ii) The appropriate tests and examinations including liver function tests and skin examinations; and
(iii) Appropriate additional tests or examinations as deemed necessary by the physician.
(b) If in the physician's opinion the results of liver function tests indicate an abnormality, the employee must be removed from further MDA exposure in accordance with WAC 296-155-17329. Repeat liver function tests must be conducted on advice of the physician.
(4) Emergency examinations. If the employer determines that the employee has been exposed to a potentially hazardous amount of MDA in an emergency situation under WAC 296-155-17309, you must provide medical examinations in accordance with subsection (3)(a) and (b). If the results of liver function testing indicate an abnormality, the employee must be removed in accordance with WAC 296-155-17329. Repeat liver function tests must be conducted on the advice of the physician. If the results of the tests are normal, tests must be repeated 2 to 3 weeks from the initial testing. If the results of the second set of tests are normal and on the advice of the physician, no additional testing is required.
(5) Additional examinations. Where the employee develops signs and symptoms associated with exposure to MDA, you must provide the employee with an additional medical examination including liver function tests. Repeat liver function tests must be conducted on the advice of the physician. If the results of the tests are normal, tests must be repeated 2 to 3 weeks from the initial testing. If the results of the second set of tests are normal and on the advice of the physician, no additional testing is required.
(6) Multiple physician review mechanism.
(a) If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, and the employee has signs or symptoms of occupational exposure to MDA (which could include an abnormal liver function test), and the employee disagrees with the opinion of the examining physician, and this opinion could affect the employee's job status, the employee may designate an appropriate and mutually acceptable second physician:
(i) To review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; and
(ii) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(b) You must promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within 15 days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
(i) The employee informing the employer that he or she intends to seek a second medical opinion; and
(ii) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
(c) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee must ensure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
(d) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians must designate a third physician:
(i) To review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the prior physicians; and
(ii) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
(e) You must act consistent with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the second physician, unless the employer and the employee reach a mutually acceptable agreement.
(f) Information provided to the examining physician.
(i) You must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(A) A copy of this regulation and its appendices;
(B) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's potential exposure to MDA;
(C) The employee's current actual or representative MDA exposure level;
(D) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used; and
(E) Information from previous employment related medical examinations of the affected employee.
(ii) You must provide the foregoing information to a second physician under this section upon request either by the second physician, or by the employee.
(g) Physician's written opinion.
(i) For each examination under this section, you must obtain, and provide the employee with a copy of, the examining physician's written opinion within 15 days of its receipt. The written opinion must include the following:
(A) The occupationally pertinent results of the medical examination and tests;
(B) The physician's opinion concerning whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of health from exposure to MDA;
(C) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to MDA or upon the employee's use of protective clothing or equipment and respirators; and
(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and any medical conditions resulting from MDA exposure which require further explanation or treatment.
(ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer must not reveal specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17327, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17327, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17329
Medical removal.

(1) Temporary medical removal of an employee.
(a) Temporary removal resulting from occupational exposure. You must remove the employee from work environments in which exposure to MDA is at or above the action level or where dermal exposure to MDA may occur, following an initial examination (WAC 296-155-17327(2)), periodic examinations (WAC 296-155-17327(3)), an emergency situation (WAC 296-155-17327(4)), or an additional examination (WAC 296-155-17327(5)) in the following circumstances:
(i) When the employee exhibits signs and/or symptoms indicative of acute exposure to MDA; or
(ii) When the examining physician determines that an employee's abnormal liver function tests are not associated with MDA exposure but that the abnormalities may be exacerbated as a result of occupational exposure to MDA.
(b) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination.
(i) You must remove an employee from work having an exposure to MDA at or above the action level or where the potential for dermal exposure exists on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
(ii) For the purposes of this section, the phrase "final medical determination" means the outcome of the physician review mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section.
(iii) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to MDA, you must implement and act consistent with the recommendation.
(2) Return of the employee to former job status.
(a) You must return an employee to her or his former job status:
(i) When the employee no longer shows signs or symptoms of exposure to MDA, or upon the advice of the physician.
(ii) When a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to MDA.
(b) For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer return an employee to his or her former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
(3) Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations. You must remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.
(4) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where the physician review mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of this section has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, you must act as follows:
(a) Removal. The employer may remove the employee from exposure to MDA, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of the physician who has reviewed the employee's health status.
(b) Return. The employer may return the employee to her or his former job status, and end any special protective measures provided to the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions:
(i) If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; or
(ii) The employee has been on removal status for the preceding 6 months as a result of exposure to MDA, then the employer must await a final medical determination.
(5) Medical removal protection benefits.
(a) Provisions of medical removal protection benefits. You must provide to an employee up to 6 months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to MDA or otherwise limited pursuant to this section.
(b) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the purposes of this section, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that you must maintain the earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits of an employee as though the employee had not been removed from normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited.
(c) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitations. During the period of time that an employee is removed from normal exposure to MDA or otherwise limited, the employer may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to this section.
(d) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for an MDA-related disability, then you must continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation must be reduced by such amount. You must receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment-related expenses.
(e) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee must be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with any employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
(f) Employees who do not recover within the 6 months of removal. You must take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to MDA:
(i) You must make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section to obtain a final medical determination with respect to the employee;
(ii) You must ensure that the final medical determination obtained indicates whether or not the employee may be returned to her or his former job status, and, if not, what steps should be taken to protect the employee's health;
(iii) Where the final medical determination has not yet been obtained, or once obtained indicates that the employee may not yet be returned to her or his former job status, you must continue to provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee until either the employee is returned to former job status, or a final medical determination is made that the employee is incapable of ever safely returning to her or his former job status; and
(iv) Where the employer acts pursuant to a final medical determination which permits the return of the employee to her or his former job status despite what would otherwise be an unacceptable liver function test, later questions concerning removing the employee again must be decided by a final medical determination. The employer need not automatically remove such an employee pursuant to the MDA removal criteria provided by this section.
(6) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to MDA or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of MDA exposure on the employee's medical condition, you must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by subsection (5) of this section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17329, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17329, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17331
Recordkeeping.

(1) Objective data for exempted operations.
(a) Where the employer has relied on objective data that demonstrate that products made from or containing MDA are not capable of releasing MDA or do not present a dermal exposure problem under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling to exempt such operations from the initial monitoring requirements under WAC 296-155-17311(2), you must establish and maintain an accurate record of objective data reasonably relied upon in support of the exemption.
(b) The record must include at least the following information:
(i) The product qualifying for exemption;
(ii) The source of the objective data;
(iii) The testing protocol, results of testing, and/or analysis of the material for the release of MDA;
(iv) A description of the operation exempted and how the data support the exemption; and
(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exemption.
(c) You must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such objective data.
(2) Historical monitoring data.
(a) Where the employer has relied on historical monitoring data that demonstrate that exposures on a particular job will be below the action level to exempt such operations from the initial monitoring requirements under WAC 296-155-17311(2), you must establish and maintain an accurate record of historical monitoring data reasonably relied upon in support of the exception.
(b) The record must include information that reflect the following conditions:
(i) The data upon which judgments are based are scientifically sound and were collected using methods that are sufficiently accurate and precise;
(ii) The processes and work practices that were in use when the historical monitoring data were obtained are essentially the same as those to be used during the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
(iii) The characteristics of the MDA-containing material being handled when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed;
(iv) Environmental conditions prevailing when the historical monitoring data were obtained are the same as those on the job for which initial monitoring will not be performed; and
(v) Other data relevant to the operations, materials, processing, or employee exposures covered by the exception.
(c) You must maintain this record for the duration of the employer's reliance upon such historical monitoring data.
(3) You may utilize the services of competent organizations such as industry trade associations and employee associations to maintain the records required by this section.
(4) Exposure measurements.
(a) You must keep an accurate record of all measurements taken to monitor employee exposure to MDA.
(b) This record must include at least the following information:
(i) The date of measurement;
(ii) The operation involving exposure to MDA;
(iii) Sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(iv) Number, duration, and results of samples taken;
(v) Type of protective devices worn, if any; and
(vi) Name, Social Security number, and exposure of the employees whose exposures are represented.
(c) You must maintain this record for at least 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.
(5) Medical surveillance.
(a) You must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance by WAC 296-155-17327 in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.
(b) The record must include at least the following information:
(i) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(ii) A copy of the employee's medical examination results, including the medical history, questionnaire responses, results of any tests, and physician's recommendations;
(iii) Physician's written opinions;
(iv) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to MDA; and
(v) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by WAC 296-155-17327.
(c) You must ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years in accordance with chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.
(d) A copy of the employee's medical removal and return to work status.
(6) Training records. You must maintain all employee training records for one year beyond the last date of employment.
(7) Availability.
(a) You must, upon written request, make all records required to be maintained by this section available to the assistant secretary and the director for examination and copying.
(b) You must, upon request, make any exposure records required by WAC 296-155-17311 and 296-155-17327 available for examination and copying to affected employees, former employees, designated representatives, and the director, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(c) You must, upon request, make employee medical records required by WAC 296-155-17327 and this section available for examination and copying to the subject employee, anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and the director in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(8) Transfer of records.
(a) You must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.
(b) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and retain the records for the prescribed period, you must notify the director at least 90 days prior to disposal and, upon request, transmit them to the director.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17331, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 04-10-026, § 296-155-17331, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17331, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17333
Observation of monitoring.

(1) Employee observation. You must provide affected employees, or their designated representatives, an opportunity to observe the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to MDA conducted pursuant to WAC 296-155-17311.
(2) Observation procedures. When observation of the measuring or monitoring of employee exposure to MDA requires entry into areas where the use of protective clothing and equipment or respirators is required, you must provide the observer with personal protective clothing and equipment or respirators required to be worn by employees working in the area, assure the use of such clothing and equipment or respirators, and require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17333, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17333, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17337
Appendices.

The information contained in Appendices A, B, C, and D of this standard is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17337, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17337, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17339
Startup dates.

Compliance with all obligations of this standard commence March 3, 1993, except as follows:
(1) Initial monitoring under WAC 296-155-17311(2) must be completed as soon as possible but no later than June 3, 1993.
(2) Medical examinations under WAC 296-155-17327, must be completed as soon as possible but no later than August 14, 1993.
(3) Emergency plans required by WAC 296-155-17309 must be provided and available for inspection and copying as soon as possible but no later than July 13, 1993.
(4) Initial training and education must be completed as soon as possible but no later than July 13, 1993.
(5) Decontamination and lunch areas under WAC 296-155-17321 must be in operation as soon as possible but no later than March 3, 1993.
(6) Respiratory protection required by WAC 296-155-17317 must be provided as soon as possible but no later than July 13, 1993.
(7) Written compliance plans required by WAC 296-155-17315(5) must be completed and available for inspection and copying as soon as possible but no later than July 13, 1993.
(8) DOSH must enforce the permissible exposure limits in WAC 296-155-17305 no earlier than July 13, 1993.
(9) Engineering controls needed to achieve the PELs must be in place March 3, 1993.
(10) Personal protective clothing required by WAC 296-155-17317 must be available July 13, 1993.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17339, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17339, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17341
Appendix A to WAC 296-155-173—Substance data sheet, for 4-4'-methylenedianiline.

(1) Substance identification.
(a) Substance: Methylenedianiline (MDA).
(b) Permissible exposure:
(i) Airborne: 10 parts per billion parts of air (10 ppb), time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8 hour workday and an action level of 5 parts per billion parts of air (5 ppb).
(ii) Dermal: Eye contact and skin contact with MDA are not permitted.
(c) Appearance and odor: White to tan solid; amine odor.
(2) Health hazard data.
(a) Ways in which MDA affects your health. MDA can affect your health if you inhale it or if it comes in contact with your skin or eyes. MDA is also harmful if you happen to swallow it. Do not get MDA in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
(b) Effects of overexposure.
(i) Short-term (acute) overexposure: Overexposure to MDA may produce fever, chills, loss of appetite, vomiting, jaundice. Contact may irritate skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Sensitization may occur.
(ii) Long-term (chronic) exposure. Repeated or prolonged exposure to MDA, even at relatively low concentrations, may cause cancer. In addition, damage to the liver, kidneys, blood, and spleen may occur with long-term exposure.
(iii) Reporting signs and symptoms: You should inform your employer if you develop any signs or symptoms which you suspect are caused by exposure to MDA including yellow staining of the skin.
(3) Protective clothing and equipment.
(a) Respirators. Respirators are required for those operations in which engineering controls or work practice controls are not adequate or feasible to reduce exposure to the permissible limit. If respirators are worn, they must be certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 C.F.R. part 84, and cartridges or canisters must be replaced as necessary to maintain the effectiveness of the respirator. If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, you may request a positive-pressure respirator from your employer. You must be thoroughly trained to use the assigned respirator, and the training will be provided by your employer. MDA does not have a detectable odor except at levels well above the permissible exposure limits. Do not depend on odor to warn you when a respirator canister is exhausted. If you can smell MDA while wearing a respirator, proceed immediately to fresh air. If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, tell your employer.
(b) Protective clothing. You may be required to wear coveralls, aprons, gloves, face shields, or other appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin contact with MDA. Where protective clothing is required, your employer is required to provide clean garments to you, as necessary, to assure that the clothing protects you adequately. Replace or repair impervious clothing that has developed leaks. MDA should never be allowed to remain on the skin. Clothing and shoes which are not impervious to MDA should not be allowed to become contaminated with MDA, and if they do, the clothing and shoes should be promptly removed and decontaminated. The clothing should be laundered to remove MDA or discarded. Once MDA penetrates shoes or other leather articles, they should not be worn again.
(c) Eye protection. You must wear splashproof safety goggles in areas where liquid MDA may contact your eyes. Contact lenses should not be worn in areas where eye contact with MDA can occur. In addition, you must wear a face shield if your face could be splashed with MDA liquid.
(4) Emergency and first-aid procedures.
(a) Eye and face exposure. If MDA is splashed into the eyes, wash the eyes for at least 15 minutes. See a doctor as soon as possible.
(b) Skin exposure. If MDA is spilled on your clothing or skin, remove the contaminated clothing and wash the exposed skin with large amounts of soap and water immediately. Wash contaminated clothing before you wear it again.
(c) Breathing. If you or any other person breathes in large amounts of MDA, get the exposed person to fresh air at once. Apply artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. Call for medical assistance or a doctor as soon as possible. Never enter any vessel or confined space where the MDA concentration might be high without proper safety equipment and at least one other person present who will stay outside. A life line should be used.
(d) Swallowing. If MDA has been swallowed and the patient is conscious, do not induce vomiting. Call for medical assistance or a doctor immediately.
(5) Medical requirements. If you are exposed to MDA at a concentration at or above the action level for more than 30 days per year, or exposed to liquid mixtures more than 15 days per year, your employer is required to provide a medical examination, including a medical history and laboratory tests, within 60 days of the effective date of this standard and annually thereafter. These tests must be provided without cost to you. In addition, if you are accidentally exposed to MDA (either by ingestion, inhalation, or skin/eye contact) under conditions known or suspected to constitute toxic exposure to MDA, your employer is required to make special examinations and tests available to you.
(6) Observation of monitoring. Your employer is required to perform measurements that are representative of your exposure to MDA and you or your designated representative are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. You are entitled to observe the steps taken in the measurement procedure and to record the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place in an area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment are required to be worn; you and your representative must also be provided with, and must wear, the protective clothing and equipment.
(7) Access to records. You or your representative are entitled to see the records of measurements of your exposure to MDA upon written request to your employer. Your medical examination records can be furnished to your physician or designated representative upon request by you to your employer.
(8) Precautions for safe use, handling, and storage.
(a) Material is combustible. Avoid strong acids and their anhydrides. Avoid strong oxidants. Consult supervisor for disposal requirements.
(b) Emergency clean-up. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and fully clothe the body in the appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17341, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17341, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17341, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17343
Appendix B to WAC 296-155-173—Substance technical guidelines, MDA.

(1) Identification.
(a) Substance identification.
(i) Synonyms: CAS No. 101-77-9. 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 4,4'-methylenebisaniline; methylenedianiline; dianilinomethane.
(ii) Formula: C13H14N2.
(b) Physical data.
(2) Appearance and odor: White to tan solid; amine odor.
(a) Molecular weight: 198.26.
(b) Boiling point: 398-399 degrees C. at 760 mm Hg.
(c) Melting point: 88-93 degrees C. (190-100 degrees F.).
(d) Vapor pressure: 9 mm Hg at 232 degrees C.
(e) Evaporation rate (n-butyl acetate=1): Negligible.
(f) Vapor density (Air=1): Not applicable.
(g) Volatile fraction by weight: Negligible.
(h) Specific gravity (Water=1): Slight.
(i) Heat of combustion: -8.40 kcal/g.
(j) Solubility in water: Slightly soluble in cold water, very soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether, and many organic solvents.
(3) Fire, explosion, and reactivity hazard data.
(a) Flash point: 190 degrees C. (374 degrees F.) Setaflash closed cup.
(b) Flash point: 226 degrees C. (439 degrees F.) Cleveland open cup.
(c) Extinguishing media: Water spray; dry chemical; carbon dioxide.
(d) Special firefighting procedures: Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes.
(e) Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Fire or excessive heat may cause production of hazardous decomposition products.
(4) Reactivity data.
(a) Stability: Stable.
(b) Incompatibility: Strong oxidizers.
(c) Hazardous decomposition products: As with any other organic material, combustion may produce carbon monoxide. Oxides of nitrogen may also be present.
(d) Hazardous polymerization: Will not occur.
(5) Spill and leak procedures.
(a) Sweep material onto paper and place in fiber carton.
(b) Package appropriately for safe feed to an incinerator or dissolve in compatible waste solvents prior to incineration.
(c) Dispose of in an approved incinerator equipped with afterburner and scrubber or contract with licensed chemical waste disposal service.
(d) Discharge treatment or disposal may be subject to federal, state, or local laws.
(e) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
(6) Special storage and handling precautions.
(a) High exposure to MDA can occur when transferring the substance from one container to another. Such operations should be well ventilated and good work practices must be established to avoid spills.
(b) Pure MDA is a solid with a low vapor pressure. Grinding or heating operations increase the potential for exposure.
(c) Store away from oxidizing materials.
(d) Employers must advise employees of all areas and operations where exposure to MDA could occur.
(7) Housekeeping and hygiene facilities.
(a) The workplace should be kept clean, orderly, and in a sanitary condition. The employer should institute a leak and spill detection program for operations involving MDA in order to detect sources of fugitive MDA emissions.
(b) Adequate washing facilities with hot and cold water are to be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition. Suitable cleansing agents should also be provided to assure the effective removal of MDA from the skin.
(8) Common operations. Common operations in which exposure to MDA is likely to occur include the following: Manufacture of MDA; manufacture of methylene diisocyanate; curing agent for epoxy resin structures; wire coating operations; and filament winding.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17343, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17343, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17345
Appendix C to WAC 296-155-173—Medical surveillance guidelines for MDA.

(1) Route of entry. Inhalation; skin absorption; ingestion. MDA can be inhaled, absorbed through the skin, or ingested.
(2) Toxicology. MDA is a suspect carcinogen in humans. There are several reports of liver disease in humans and animals resulting from acute exposure to MDA. A well documented case of an acute cardiomyopathy secondary to exposure to MDA is on record. Numerous human cases of hepatitis secondary to MDA are known. Upon direct contact MDA may also cause damage to the eyes. Dermatitis and skin sensitization have been observed. Almost all forms of acute environmental hepatic injury in humans involve the hepatic parenchyma and produce hepatocellular jaundice. This agent produces intrahepatic cholestasis. The clinical picture consists of cholestatic jaundice, preceded or accompanied by abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Onset in about 60% of all observed cases is abrupt with severe abdominal pain. In about 30% of observed cases, the illness presented and evolved more slowly and less dramatically, with only slight abdominal pain. In about 10% of the cases only jaundice was evident. The cholestatic nature of the jaundice is evident in the prominence of itching, the histologic predominance of bile stasis, and portal inflammatory infiltration, accompanied by only slight parenchymal injury in most cases, and by the moderately elevated transaminase values. Acute, high doses, however, have been known to cause hepatocellular damage resulting in elevated SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin. Absorption through the skin is rapid. MDA is metabolized and excreted over a 48-hour period. Direct contact may be irritating to the skin, causing dermatitis. Also MDA which is deposited on the skin is not thoroughly removed through washing. MDA may cause bladder cancer in humans. Animal data supporting this assumption is not available nor is conclusive human data. However, human data collected on workers at a helicopter manufacturing facility where MDA is used suggests a higher incidence of bladder cancer among exposed workers.
(3) Signs and symptoms. Skin may become yellow from contact with MDA. Repeated or prolonged contact with MDA may result in recurring dermatitis (red-itchy, cracked skin) and eye irritation. Inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through the skin at high concentrations may result in hepatitis, causing symptoms such as fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, dark urine, anorexia, rash, right upper quadrant pain, and jaundice. Corneal burns may occur when MDA is splashed in the eyes.
(4) Treatment of acute toxic effects/emergency situation. If MDA gets into the eyes, immediately wash eyes with large amounts of water. If MDA is splashed on the skin, immediately wash contaminated skin with mild soap or detergent. Employee should be removed from exposure and given proper medical treatment. Medical tests required under the emergency section of the medical surveillance (WAC 296-155-17327(4)) must be conducted. If the chemical is swallowed do not induce vomiting but remove by gastric lavage.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17345, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17345, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-17347
Appendix D to WAC 296-155-173—Sampling and analytical methods for MDA monitoring and measurement procedures.

Measurements taken for the purpose of determining employee exposure to MDA are best taken so that the representative average eight-hour exposure may be determined from a single eight-hour sample or two four-hour samples. Short-time interval samples (or grab samples) may also be used to determine average exposure level if a minimum of 5 measurements are taken in a random manner over the 8 hour work shift. Random sampling means that any portion of the work shift has the same chance of being sampled as any other. The arithmetic average of all such random samples taken on one work shift is an estimate of an employee's average level of exposure for that work shift. Air samples should be taken in the employee's breathing zone (air that would most nearly represent that inhaled by the employee). There are a number of methods available for monitoring employee exposures to MDA. The method OSHA currently uses is included below. The employer however has the obligation of selecting any monitoring method which meets the accuracy and precision requirements of the standard under her or his unique field conditions. The standard requires that the method of monitoring must have an accuracy, to a 95% confidence level, of not less than plus or minus 25% for the select PEL.
DOSH methodology.
Sampling procedure.
Apparatus:
Samples are collected by use of a personal sampling pump that can be calibrated within +/-5% of the recommended flow rate with the sampling filter in line. Samples are collected on 37 mm Gelman type A/E glass fiber filters treated with sulfuric acid. The filters are prepared by soaking each filter with 0.5 mL of 0.26N H2SO4. (0.26 N H2SO4 can be prepared by diluting 1.5 mL of 36N H2SO4 to 200 mL with deionized water.) The filters are dried in an oven at 100 degrees C. for one hour and then assembled into 3-piece 37 mm polystyrene cassettes without backup pads. The front filter is separated from the back filter by a polystyrene spacer. The cassettes are sealed with shrink bands and the ends are plugged with plastic plugs. After sampling, the filters are carefully removed from the cassettes and individually transferred to small vials containing approximately 2 mL deionized water. The vials must be tightly sealed. The water can be added before or after the filters are transferred. The vials must be sealable and capable of holding at least 7 mL of liquid. Small glass scintillation vials with caps containing Teflon liners are recommended.
Reagents:
Deionized water is needed for addition to the vials.
Sampling technique:
Immediately before sampling, remove the plastic plugs from the filter cassettes. Attach the cassette to the sampling pump with flexible tubing and place the cassette in the employee's breathing zone. After sampling, seal the cassettes with plastic plugs until the filters are transferred to the vials containing deionized water. At some convenient time within 10 hours of sampling, transfer the sample filters to vials. Seal the small vials lengthwise. Submit at least one blank filter with each sample set. Blanks should be handled in the same manner as samples, but no air is drawn through them. Record sample volumes (in L of air) for each sample, along with any potential interferences.
Retention efficiency:
A retention efficiency study was performed by drawing 100 L of air (80% relative humidity) at one L/min through sample filters that had been spiked with 0.814 micro-g MDA. Instead of using backup pads, blank acid-treated filters were used as backups in each cassette. Upon analysis, the top filters were found to have an average of 91.8% of the spiked amount. There was no MDA found on the bottom filters, so the amount lost was probably due to the slight instability of the MDA salt.
Extraction efficiency:
The average extraction efficiency for 6 filters spiked at the target concentration is 99.6%. The stability of extracted and derivatized samples was verified by reanalyzing the above 6 samples the next day using fresh standards. The average extraction efficiency for the reanalyzed samples is 98.7%.
Recommended air volume and sampling rate. The recommended air volume is 100 L. The recommended sampling rate is one L/min.
Interferences (sampling):
MDI appears to be a positive interference. It was found that when MDI was spiked onto an acid-treated filter, the MDI converted to MDA after air was drawn through it. Suspected interferences should be reported to the laboratory with submitted samples.
Safety precautions (sampling):
Attach the sampling equipment to the employees so that it will not interfere with work performance or safety. Follow all safety procedures that apply to the work area being sampled.
Analytical procedure:
Apparatus:
The following are required for analysis. A GC equipped with an electron capture detector. For this evaluation a Hewlett Packard 5880 Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Nickel 63 High Temperature Electron Capture Detector and a Linearizer was used. A GC column capable of separating the MDA derivative from the solvent and interferences. A 6 ft x 2 mm ID glass column packed with 3% OV-101 coated on 100/120 Gas Chrom Q or a 25 meter DB-1 or DB-5 capillary column is recommended for this evaluation. An electronic integrator or some other suitable means of measuring peak areas or heights. Small resealable vials with Teflon-lined caps capable of holding 4 mL. A dispenser or pipet for toluene capable of delivering 2.9 mL. Pipets (or repipets with plastic or Teflon tips) capable of delivering 1 mL for the sodium hydroxide and buffer solutions. A repipet capable of delivering 25 micro-L HFAA. Syringes for preparation of standards and injection of standards and samples into a GC. Volumetric flasks and pipets to dilute the pure MDA in preparation of standards. Disposable pipets to transfer the toluene layers after the samples are extracted.
Reagents:
0.5 NaOH prepared from reagent grade NaOH. Toluene, pesticide grade. Burdick and Jackson distilled in glass toluene was used. Heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFAA). HFAA from Pierce Chemical Company was used. pH 7.0 phosphate buffer, prepared from 136 g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1 L deionized water. The pH is adjusted to 7.0 with saturated sodium hydroxide solution. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), reagent grade.
Standard preparation:
Concentrated stock standards are prepared by diluting pure MDA with toluene. Analytical standards are prepared by injecting micro-L amounts of diluted stock standards into vials that contain 2.0 mL toluene. 25 micro-L HFAA are added to each vial and the vials are capped and shaken for 10 seconds. After 10 min, one mL of buffer is added to each vial. The vials are recapped and shaken for 10 seconds. After allowing the layers to separate, aliquots of the toluene (upper) layers are removed with a syringe and analyzed by GC. Analytical standard concentrations should bracket sample concentrations. Thus, if samples fall out of the range of prepared standards, additional standards must be prepared to ascertain detector response.
Sample preparation:
The sample filters are received in vials containing deionized water. One mL of 0.5N NaOH and 2.0 mL toluene are added to each vial. The vials are recapped and shaken for 10 min. After allowing the layers to separate, approximately one mL aliquots of the toluene (upper) layers are transferred to separate vials with clean disposable pipets. The toluene layers are treated and analyzed.
Analysis:
GC conditions.
Zone temperatures: Column—220 degrees C. Injector—235 degrees C. Detector—335 degrees C. Gas flows, N2 Column—30 mL/min He Purge—Column 0.9 mL/min. (capillary) with 30 mL/min. ArCH4 (95/5) make up gas Injection volume: 5.0 uL Column: 6 ft x 1/8 in ID glass, 3% OV-101 on 100/120 Gas Chrom Q or 25 Retention time of MDA derivative: 2.5 to 3.5, depending on column and flow.
Chromatogram. Peak areas or heights are measured by an integrator or other suitable means. A calibration curve is constructed by plotting response (peak areas or heights) of standard injections versus micro-g of MDA per sample. Sample concentrations must be bracketed by standards.
Interferences (analytical):
Any compound that gives an electron capture detector response and has the same general retention time as the HFAA derivative of MDA is a potential interference. Suspected interferences reported to the laboratory with submitted samples by the industrial hygienist must be considered before samples are derivatized. GC parameters may be changed to possibly circumvent interferences. Retention time on a single column is not considered proof of chemical identity. Analyte identity should be confirmed by GC/MS if possible.
Calculations:
The analyte concentration for samples is obtained from the calibration curve in terms of micro-g MDA per sample. The extraction efficiency is 100%. If any MDA is found on the blank, that amount is subtracted from the sample amounts. The air concentrations are calculated using the following formulae. micro-µg/m3 = (micro-µg MDA per sample) (1000)/(L of air sampled) ppb = (micro-µg/m3) (24.46)/(198.3) = (micro-µg/m3)(0.1233) where 24.46 is the molar volume at 25 degrees C. and 760 mm Hg.
Safety precautions (analytical). Avoid skin contact and inhalation of all chemicals. Restrict the use of all chemicals to a fume hood if possible. Wear safety glasses and a lab coat at all times while in the lab area.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17347, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-04-111 (Order 92-15), § 296-155-17347, filed 2/3/93, effective 3/15/93.]



296-155-174
Cadmium.

(1) Scope. This standard applies to all occupational exposures to cadmium and cadmium compounds, in all forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium. Construction work is defined as work involving construction, alteration, and/or repair, including but not limited to the following:
(a) Wrecking, demolition, or salvage of structures where cadmium or materials containing cadmium are present;
(b) Use of cadmium containing-paints and cutting, brazing, burning, grinding, or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints;
(c) Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain cadmium, or materials containing cadmium;
(d) Cadmium welding; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys;
(e) Installation of products containing cadmium;
(f) Electrical grounding with cadmium-welding, or electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit;
(g) Maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment;
(h) Cadmium contamination/emergency cleanup; and
(i) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction activities are performed.
(2) Definitions.
Action level (AL). An airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
Authorized person. Any person authorized by the employer and required by work duties to be present in regulated areas or any person authorized by DOSH or regulations issued under it to be in regulated areas.
Competent person. A person designated by the employer to act on the employer's behalf who is capable of identifying existing and potential cadmium hazards in the workplace and the proper methods to control them in order to protect workers, and has the authority necessary to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or control such hazards. The duties of a competent person include at least the following: Determining prior to the performance of work whether cadmium is present in the workplace; establishing, where necessary, regulated areas and assuring that access to and from those areas is limited to authorized employees; assuring the adequacy of any employee exposure monitoring required by this standard; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal protective equipment and are trained in the use of appropriate methods of exposure control; assuring that proper hygiene facilities are provided and that workers are trained to use those facilities; and assuring that the engineering controls required by this standard are implemented, maintained in proper operating condition, and functioning properly.
Director. The director of the department of labor and industries or authorized representative.
Employee exposure and similar language referring to the air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed. The exposure to airborne cadmium that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
Final medical determination. The written medical opinion of the employee's health status by the examining physician under subsection (12)(c) through (l) of this section or, if multiple physician review under subsection (12)(m) of this section or the alternative physician determination under subsection (12)(n) of this section is invoked, it is the final, written medical finding, recommendation or determination that emerges from that process.
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. A filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.
Regulated area. An area demarcated by the employer where an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium exceeds, or can reasonably be expected to exceed the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
This section. This cadmium standard.
(3) Permissible exposure limit (PEL). You must assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of cadmium in excess of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m3), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure (TWA).
(4) Exposure monitoring.
(a) General.
(i) Prior to the performance of any construction work where employees may be potentially exposed to cadmium, you must establish the applicability of this standard by determining whether cadmium is present in the workplace and whether there is the possibility that employee exposures will be at or above the action level. You must designate a competent person who must make this determination. You must use investigation and material testing techniques, as appropriate, in the determination. Investigation must include a review of relevant plans, past reports, safety data sheets, and other available records, and consultations with the property owner and discussions with appropriate individuals and agencies.
(ii) Where cadmium has been determined to be present in the workplace, and it has been determined that there is a possibility the employee's exposure will be at or above the action level, the competent person must identify employees potentially exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.
(iii) Determinations of employee exposure must be made from breathing-zone air samples that reflect the monitored employee's regular, daily 8-hour TWA exposure to cadmium.
(iv) You must determine 8-hour TWA exposures for each employee on the basis of one or more personal breathing-zone air samples reflecting full shift exposure on each shift, for each job classification, in each work area. Where several employees perform the same job tasks, in the same job classification, on the same shift, in the same work area, and the length, duration, and level of cadmium exposures are similar, you may sample a representative fraction of the employees instead of all employees in order to meet this requirement. In representative sampling, you must sample the employee(s) expected to have the highest cadmium exposures.
(b) Specific.
(i) Initial monitoring. Except as provided for in (b)(iii) of this subsection, where a determination conducted under (a)(i) of this subsection shows the possibility of employee exposure to cadmium at or above the action level, you must conduct exposure monitoring as soon as practicable that is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is or may be exposed to cadmium at or above the action level.
(ii) In addition, if the employee periodically performs tasks that may expose the employee to a higher concentration of airborne cadmium, you must monitor the employee while performing those tasks.
(iii) Where you have objective data, as defined in subsection (14)(b) of this section, demonstrating that employee exposure to cadmium will not exceed airborne concentrations at or above the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling, you may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.
(iv) Where a determination conducted under (a) or (b) of this subsection is made that a potentially exposed employee is not exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level, you must make a written record of such determination. The record must include at least the monitoring data developed under (b)(i) through (iii) of this subsection, where applicable, and must also include the date of determination, and the name and Social Security number of each employee.
(c) Monitoring frequency (periodic monitoring).
(i) If the initial monitoring or periodic monitoring reveals employee exposures to be at or above the action level, you must monitor at a frequency and pattern needed to assure that the monitoring results reflect with reasonable accuracy the employee's typical exposure levels, given the variability in the tasks performed, work practices, and environmental conditions on the job site, and to assure the adequacy of respiratory selection and the effectiveness of engineering and work practice controls.
(ii) If the initial monitoring or the periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level and that result is confirmed by the results of another monitoring taken at least seven days later, you may discontinue the monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
(d) Additional monitoring. You must also institute the exposure monitoring required under (b)(i) and (c) of this subsection whenever there has been a change in the raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or finished products that may result in additional employees being exposed to cadmium at or above the action level or in employees already exposed to cadmium at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, or whenever the employer or competent person has any reason to suspect that any other change might result in such further exposure.
(e) Employee notification of monitoring results.
(i) No later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, you must notify each affected employee individually in writing of the results. In addition, within the same time period, you must post the results of the exposure monitoring in an appropriate location that is accessible to all affected employees.
(ii) Wherever monitoring results indicate that employee exposure exceeds the PEL, you must include in the written notice a statement that the PEL has been exceeded and a description of the corrective action being taken by the employer to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL.
(f) Accuracy of measurement. You must use a method of monitoring and analysis that has an accuracy of not less than plus or minus 25% (± 25%), with a confidence level of 95%, for airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level and the permissible exposure limit.
(5) Regulated areas.
(a) Establishment. You must establish a regulated area wherever an employee's exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium is, or can reasonably be expected to be in excess of the permissible exposure limit (PEL).
(b) Demarcation. You must demarcate regulated areas from the rest of the workplace in any manner that adequately establishes and alerts employees of the boundaries of the regulated area, including employees who are or may be incidentally in the regulated areas, and that protects persons outside the area from exposure to airborne concentrations of cadmium in excess of the PEL.
(c) Access. You must limit access to regulated areas to authorized persons.
(d) Provision of respirators. You must supply each person entering a regulated area with and required to use a respirator, selected in accordance with subsection (7)(b) of this section.
(e) Prohibited activities. You must assure that employees do not eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in regulated areas, or carry the products associated with any of these activities into regulated areas or store such products in those areas.
(6) Methods of compliance.
(a) Compliance hierarchy.
(i) Except as specified in (a)(ii) of this subsection, you must implement engineering and work practice controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to cadmium at or below the PEL, except to the extent that the employer can demonstrate that such controls are not feasible.
(ii) The requirement to implement engineering controls to achieve the PEL does not apply where the employer demonstrates the following:
(A) The employee is only intermittently exposed; and
(B) The employee is not exposed above the PEL on 30 or more days per year (12 consecutive months).
(iii) Wherever engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL, the employer nonetheless must implement such controls to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable. The employer must supplement such controls with respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section and the PEL.
(iv) The employer must not use employee rotation as a method of compliance.
(b) Specific operations.
(i) Abrasive blasting. Abrasive blasting on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials must be conducted in a manner that will provide adequate protection.
(ii) Heating cadmium and cadmium-containing materials. Welding, cutting, and other forms of heating of cadmium or cadmium-containing materials must be conducted in accordance with the requirements of WAC 296-155-415 and 296-155-420, where applicable.
(c) Prohibitions.
(i) High speed abrasive disc saws and similar abrasive power equipment must not be used for work on cadmium or cadmium-containing materials unless they are equipped with appropriate engineering controls to minimize emissions, if the exposure levels are above the PEL.
(ii) Materials containing cadmium must not be applied by spray methods, if exposures are above the PEL, unless employees are protected with supplied-air respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet, suit, operated in positive pressure mode and measures are instituted to limit overspray and prevent contamination of adjacent areas.
(d) Mechanical ventilation.
(i) When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure must be made as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.
(ii) Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling exposure must be made as necessary within 5 working days of any change in production, process, or control that might result in a significant increase in employee exposure to cadmium.
(iii) Recirculation of air. If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the workplace, the system must have a high efficiency filter and be monitored to assure effectiveness.
(iv) Procedures must be developed and implemented to minimize employee exposure to cadmium when maintenance of ventilation systems and changing of filters is being conducted.
(e) Compliance program.
(i) Where employee exposure to cadmium exceeds the PEL and the employer is required under (a) of this subsection to implement controls to comply with the PEL, prior to the commencement of the job you must establish and implement a written compliance program to reduce employee exposure to or below the PEL. To the extent that engineering and work practice controls cannot reduce exposures to or below the PEL, you must include in the written compliance program the use of appropriate respiratory protection to achieve compliance with the PEL.
(ii) You must review and update written compliance programs as often and as promptly as necessary to reflect significant changes in the employer's compliance status or significant changes in the lowest air cadmium level that is technologically feasible.
(iii) A competent person must review the comprehensive compliance program initially and after each change.
(iv) You must provide written compliance programs upon request for examination and copying to the director, or authorized representatives, affected employees, and designated employee representatives.
(7) Respirator protection.
(a) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:
(i) Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work-practice controls when employee exposures exceed the PEL.
(ii) Maintenance and repair activities, and brief or intermittent operations, for which employee exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work-practice controls are not feasible or are not required.
(iii) Work operations in regulated areas specified in subsection (5) of this section.
(iv) Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work-practice controls, and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL.
(v) Emergencies.
(vi) Work operations for which an employee, who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level, requests a respirator.
(vii) Work operations for which engineering controls are not required under (a)(ii) of this subsection to reduce employee exposures that exceed the PEL.
(b) Respirator program.
(i) You must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, except WAC 296-842-14005, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(ii) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by subsection (12)(f)(ii) of this section to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.
(iii) No employees must use a respirator when, based on their recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of the employee's inability to use a respirator, the job limitation or removal must be conducted as required by (k) and (l) of this subsection.
(c) Respirator selection. You must:
(i) Select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
• Provide employees with full facepiece respirators when they experience eye irritation.
• Make sure high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters or N-, R-, or P-100 series filters are provided for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.
(ii) You must provide a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) instead of a negative-pressure respirator when an employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator and such a respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.
(8) Emergency situations. You must develop and implement a written plan for dealing with emergency situations involving substantial releases of airborne cadmium. The plan must include provisions for the use of appropriate respirators and personal protective equipment. In addition, employees not essential to correcting the emergency situation must be restricted from the area and normal operations halted in that area until the emergency is abated.
(9) Protective work clothing and equipment.
(a) Provision and use. If an employee is exposed to airborne cadmium above the PEL or where skin or eye irritation is associated with cadmium exposure at any level, you must provide at no cost to the employee, and assure that the employee uses, appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments. Protective work clothing and equipment includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
(ii) Gloves, head coverings, and boots or foot coverings; and
(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment that complies with WAC 296-155-215.
(b) Removal and storage.
(i) You must assure that employees remove all protective clothing and equipment contaminated with cadmium at the completion of the work shift and do so only in change rooms provided in accordance with subsection (10)(a) of this section.
(ii) You must assure that no employee takes cadmium-contaminated protective clothing or equipment from the workplace, except for employees authorized to do so for purposes of laundering, cleaning, maintaining, or disposing of cadmium-contaminated protective clothing and equipment at an appropriate location or facility away from the workplace.
(iii) You must assure that contaminated protective clothing and equipment, when removed for laundering, cleaning, maintenance, or disposal, is placed and stored in sealed, impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers that are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium dust.
(iv) You must assure that containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment that are to be taken out of the change rooms or the workplace for laundering, cleaning, maintenance or disposal must bear labels in accordance with subsection (13)(c)(ii) of this section.
(c) Cleaning, replacement, and disposal.
(i) You must provide the protective clothing and equipment required by (a) of this subsection in a clean and dry condition as often as necessary to maintain its effectiveness, but in any event at least weekly. The employer is responsible for cleaning and laundering the protective clothing and equipment required by this subsection to maintain its effectiveness and is also responsible for disposing of such clothing and equipment.
(ii) The employer also is responsible for repairing or replacing required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain its effectiveness. When rips or tears are detected while an employee is working they must be immediately mended, or the worksuit must be immediately replaced.
(iii) You must prohibit the removal of cadmium from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that disperses cadmium into the air.
(iv) You must assure that any laundering of contaminated clothing or cleaning of contaminated equipment in the workplace is done in a manner that prevents the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the permissible exposure limit prescribed in subsection (3) of this section.
(v) You must inform any person who launders or cleans protective clothing or equipment contaminated with cadmium of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to cadmium, and that the clothing and equipment should be laundered or cleaned in a manner to effectively prevent the release of airborne cadmium in excess of the PEL.
(10) Hygiene areas and practices.
(a) General. For employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL, you must provide clean change rooms, handwashing facilities, showers, and lunchroom facilities that comply with WAC 296-155-140.
(b) Change rooms. You must ensure that change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities for street clothes and for protective clothing and equipment, which are designed to prevent dispersion of cadmium and contamination of the employee's street clothes.
(c) Showers and handwashing facilities.
(i) You must ensure that employees whose airborne exposure to cadmium is above the PEL shower during the end of the work shift.
(ii) You must ensure that employees who are exposed to cadmium above the PEL wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, or applying cosmetics.
(d) Lunchroom facilities.
(i) You must ensure that the lunchroom facilities are readily accessible to employees, that tables for eating are maintained free of cadmium, and that no employee in a lunchroom facility is exposed at any time to cadmium at or above a concentration of 2.5 µg/m3.
(ii) You must ensure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface cadmium has been removed from the clothing and equipment by HEPA vacuuming or some other method that removes cadmium dust without dispersing it.
(11) Housekeeping.
(a) You must maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of cadmium.
(b) You must clean up all spills and sudden releases of material containing cadmium as soon as possible.
(c) You must clean surfaces contaminated with cadmium must, wherever possible, by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne.
(d) You must use HEPA-filtered vacuuming equipment or equally effective filtration methods for vacuuming. You must use the equipment and empty it in a manner that minimizes the reentry of cadmium into the workplace.
(e) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of cadmium becoming airborne have been tried and found not to be effective.
(f) You must not use compressed air to remove cadmium from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air.
(g) You must collect and dispose of waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, personal protective equipment, and clothing contaminated with cadmium and consigned for disposal in sealed impermeable bags or other closed, impermeable containers. These bags and containers must be labeled in accordance with subsection (13)(c)(ii) of this section.
(12) Medical surveillance.
(a) General.
(i) Scope.
(A) Currently exposed - You must institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be exposed at or above the action level and all employees who perform the following tasks, operations, or jobs: Electrical grounding with cadmium-welding; cutting, brazing, burning, grinding, or welding on surfaces that were painted with cadmium-containing paints; electrical work using cadmium-coated conduit; use of cadmium containing paints; cutting and welding cadmium-plated steel; brazing or welding with cadmium alloys; fusing of reinforced steel by cadmium welding; maintaining or retrofitting cadmium-coated equipment; and, wrecking and demolition where cadmium is present. A medical surveillance program will not be required if the employer demonstrates that the employee:
(I) Is not currently exposed by the employer to airborne concentrations of cadmium at or above the action level on 30 or more days per year (12 consecutive months); and
(II) Is not currently exposed by the employer in those tasks on 30 or more days per year (12 consecutive months).
(B) Previously exposed - You must also institute a medical surveillance program for all employees who might previously have been exposed to cadmium by the employer prior to the effective date of this section in tasks specified under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection, unless the employer demonstrates that the employee did not in the years prior to the effective date of this section work in those tasks for the employer with exposure to cadmium for an aggregated total of more than 12 months.
(ii) To determine an employee's fitness for using a respirator, you must provide the limited medical examination specified in (f) of this subsection.
(iii) You must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures required by this section are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician, who has read and is familiar with the health effects WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A, the regulatory text of this section, the protocol for sample handling and lab selection in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F, and the questionnaire of WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D.
(iv) You must provide the medical surveillance required by this section, including multiple physician review under (m) of this subsection without cost to employees, and at a time and place that is reasonable and convenient to employees.
(v) You must ensure that the collecting and handling of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M) taken from employees under this section is done in a manner that assures their reliability and that analysis of biological samples of cadmium in urine (CdU), cadmium in blood (CdB), and beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M) taken from employees under this section is performed in laboratories with demonstrated proficiency to perform the particular analysis. (See WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F.)
(b) Initial examination.
(i) For employees covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, you must provide an initial medical examination. The examination must be provided to those employees within 30 days after initial assignment to a job with exposure to cadmium or no later than 90 days after the effective date of this section, whichever date is later.
(ii) The initial medical examination must include:
(A) A detailed medical and work history, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, reproductive, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; current usage of medication with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; and smoking history and current status; and
(B) Biological monitoring that includes the following tests:
(I) Cadmium in urine (CdU), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr);
(II) Beta-2 microglobulin in urine (B2-M), standardized to grams of creatinine (g/Cr), with pH specified, as described in WAC 296-62-07451, Appendix F; and
(III) Cadmium in blood (CdB), standardized to liters of whole blood (lwb).
(iii) Recent examination: An initial examination is not required to be provided if adequate records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (b)(ii) of this subsection within the past 12 months. In that case, you must maintain such records as part of the employee's medical record and the prior exam must be treated as if it were an initial examination for the purposes of (c) and (d) of this subsection.
(c) Actions triggered by initial biological monitoring.
(i) If the results of the biological monitoring tests in the initial examination show the employee's CdU level to be at or below 3 µg/g Cr, B2-M level to be at or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level to be at or below 5 µg/lwb, then:
(A) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, you must provide the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance in accordance with the requirements in (d)(i) of this subsection; and
(B) For employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i)(B) of this subsection because of prior but not current exposure, you must provide biological monitoring for CdU, B2-M, and CdB one year after the initial biological monitoring and then you must comply with the requirements of (d)(vi) of this subsection.
(ii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to exceed 3 µg/g Cr, the level of B2-M to be in excess of 300 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 5 µg/lwb, you must:
(A) Within two weeks after receipt of biological monitoring results, reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium as follows:
(I) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene;
(II) Reevaluate the employee's respirator use, if any, and the respirator program;
(III) Review the hygiene facilities;
(IV) Reevaluate the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls;
(V) Assess the employee's smoking history and status;
(B) Within 30 days after the exposure reassessment, specified in (c)(ii)(A) of this subsection, take reasonable steps to correct any deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium; and
(C) Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. If the physician determines that medical removal is not necessary, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, you must:
(I) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a semiannual basis; and
(II) Provide annual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.
(iii) For all employees who are subject to medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection, if the results of the initial biological monitoring tests show the level of CdU to be in excess of 15 µg/g Cr, or the level of CdB to be in excess of 15 µg/lwb, or the level of B2-M to be in excess of 1,500 µg/g Cr, you must comply with the requirements of (c)(ii)(A) and (B) of this subsection. Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, you must provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 15 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 15 µg/lwb; or B2-M exceeds 1500 µ/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician must medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, you must:
(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;
(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a quarterly basis; and
(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.
(iv) For all employees to whom medical surveillance is provided, beginning on January 1, 1999, and in lieu of (c)(iii) of this subsection, whenever the results of initial biological monitoring tests show the employee's CdU level to be in excess of 7 µg/g Cr, or B2-M level to be in excess of 750 µg/g Cr, or CdB level to be in excess of 10 µg/lwb, you must comply with the requirements of (c)(ii)(A) and (B) of this subsection. Within 90 days after receipt of biological monitoring results, you must provide a full medical examination to the employee in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection. After completing the medical examination, the examining physician must determine in a written medical opinion whether to medically remove the employee. However, if the initial biological monitoring results and the biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination both show that: CdU exceeds 7 µg/g Cr; or CdB exceeds 10 µg/lwb; or B2-M exceeds 750 µg/g Cr, and in addition CdU exceeds 3 µg/g Cr or CdB exceeds 5 µg/liter of whole blood, then the physician must medically remove the employee from exposure to cadmium at or above the action level. If the second set of biological monitoring results obtained during the medical examination does not show that a mandatory removal trigger level has been exceeded, then the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section. If the employee is not required to be removed by the mandatory provisions of this section or by the physician's determination, then until the employee's CdU level falls to or below 3 µg/g Cr, B2-M level falls to or below 300 µg/g Cr and CdB level falls to or below 5 µg/lwb, you must:
(A) Periodically reassess the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;
(B) Provide biological monitoring in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection on a quarterly basis; and
(C) Provide semiannual medical examinations in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection.
(d) Periodic medical surveillance.
(i) For each employee who is covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i)(A) of this subsection because of current or anticipated exposure to cadmium, you must provide at least the minimum level of periodic medical surveillance, which consists of periodic medical examinations and periodic biological monitoring. A periodic medical examination must be provided within one year after the initial examination required by (b) of this subsection and thereafter at least biennially. You must provide biological sampling at least annually either as part of a periodic medical examination or separately as periodic biological monitoring.
(ii) The periodic medical examination must include:
(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past, present, and anticipated future exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; reproductive history; current use of medications with potential nephrotoxic side-effects; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; and as part of the medical and work history, for employees who wear respirators, questions 3 through 11 and 25 through 32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;
(B) A complete physical examination with emphasis on: Blood pressure, the respiratory system, and the urinary system;
(C) A 14 inch by 17 inch, or a reasonably standard sized posterior-anterior chest X-ray (after the initial X-ray, the frequency of chest X-rays is to be determined by the examining physician);
(D) Pulmonary function tests, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1);
(E) Biological monitoring, as required in (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection;
(F) Blood analysis, in addition to the analysis required under (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, including blood urea nitrogen, complete blood count, and serum creatinine;
(G) Urinalysis, in addition to the analysis required under (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, including the determination of albumin, glucose, and total and low molecular weight proteins;
(H) For males over 40 years old, prostate palpation, or other at least as effective diagnostic test(s); and
(I) Any additional tests or procedures deemed appropriate by the examining physician.
(iii) Periodic biological monitoring must be provided in accordance with (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection.
(iv) If the results of periodic biological monitoring or the results of biological monitoring performed as part of the periodic medical examination show the level of the employee's CdU, B2-M, or CdB to be in excess of the levels specified in (c)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection; or, beginning on January 1, 1999, in excess of the levels specified in (c)(ii) or (iv) of this subsection, you must take the appropriate actions specified in (c)(ii) through (iv) of this subsection, respectively.
(v) For previously exposed employees under (a)(i)(B) of this subsection:
(A) If the employee's levels of CdU did not exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB did not exceed 5 µg/lwb, and B2-M did not exceed 300 µg/g Cr in the initial biological monitoring tests, and if the results of the follow-up biological monitoring required by (c)(i)(B) of this subsection one year after the initial examination confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
(B) If the initial biological monitoring results for CdU, CdB, or B2-M were in excess of the levels specified in (c)(i) of this subsection, but subsequent biological monitoring results required by (c)(ii) through (iv) of this subsection show that the employee's CdU levels no longer exceed 3 µg/g Cr, CdB levels no longer exceed 5 µg/lwb, and B2-M levels no longer exceed 300 µg/g Cr, you must provide biological monitoring for CdU, CdB, and B2-M one year after these most recent biological monitoring results. If the results of the follow-up biological monitoring specified in this section, confirm the previous results, the employer may discontinue all periodic medical surveillance for that employee.
(C) However, if the results of the follow-up tests specified in (d)(v)(A) or (B) of this subsection indicate that the level of the employee's CdU, B2-M, or CdB exceeds these same levels, the employer is required to provide annual medical examinations in accordance with the provisions of (d)(ii) of this subsection until the results of biological monitoring are consistently below these levels or the examining physician determines in a written medical opinion that further medical surveillance is not required to protect the employee's health.
(vi) A routine, biennial medical examination is not required to be provided in accordance with (c)(i) and (d) of this subsection if adequate medical records show that the employee has been examined in accordance with the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection within the past 12 months. In that case, you must maintain such records as part of the employee's medical record, and the next routine, periodic medical examination must be made available to the employee within two years of the previous examination.
(e) Actions triggered by medical examinations. If the results of a medical examination carried out in accordance with this section indicate any laboratory or clinical finding consistent with cadmium toxicity that does not require employer action under (b), (c), or (d) of this subsection, you must take the following steps and continue to take them until the physician determines that they are no longer necessary.
(i) Periodically reassess: The employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's smoking history and status; the respiratory protection program; the hygiene facilities; the maintenance and effectiveness of the relevant engineering controls; and take all reasonable steps to correct the deficiencies found in the reassessment that may be responsible for the employee's excess exposure to cadmium.
(ii) Provide semiannual medical reexaminations to evaluate the abnormal clinical sign(s) of cadmium toxicity until the results are normal or the employee is medically removed; and
(iii) Where the results of tests for total proteins in urine are abnormal, provide a more detailed medical evaluation of the toxic effects of cadmium on the employee's renal system.
(f) Examination for respirator use.
(i) To determine an employee's fitness for respirator use, you must provide a medical examination that includes the elements specified in (f)(i)(A) through (D) of this subsection. This examination must be provided prior to the employee's being assigned to a job that requires the use of a respirator or no later than 90 days after this section goes into effect, whichever date is later, to any employee without a medical examination within the preceding 12 months that satisfies the requirements of this section.
(A) A detailed medical and work history, or update thereof, with emphasis on: Past exposure to cadmium; smoking history and current status; any history of renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, hematopoietic, and/or musculo-skeletal system dysfunction; a description of the job for which the respirator is required; and questions 3 through 11 and 25 through 32 in WAC 296-62-07447, Appendix D;
(B) A blood pressure test;
(C) Biological monitoring of the employee's levels of CdU, CdB and B2-M in accordance with the requirements of (b)(ii)(B) of this subsection, unless such results already have been obtained within the 12 months; and
(D) Any other test or procedure that the examining physician deems appropriate.
(ii) After reviewing all the information obtained from the medical examination required in (f)(i) of this subsection, the physician must determine whether the employee is fit to wear a respirator.
(iii) Whenever an employee has exhibited difficulty in breathing during a respirator fit test or during use of a respirator, you must, as soon as possible, provide the employee with a periodic medical examination in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection to determine the employee's fitness to wear a respirator.
(iv) Where the results of the examination required under (f)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this subsection are abnormal, you must consider medical limitation or prohibition of respirator use. If the employee is allowed to wear a respirator, the employee's ability to continue to do so must be periodically evaluated by a physician.
(g) Emergency examinations.
(i) In addition to the medical surveillance required in (b) through (f) of this subsection, you must provide a medical examination as soon as possible to any employee who may have been acutely exposed to cadmium because of an emergency.
(ii) The examination must include the requirements of (d)(ii), of this subsection, with emphasis on the respiratory system, other organ systems considered appropriate by the examining physician, and symptoms of acute overexposure, as identified in Appendix A, WAC 296-62-07441 (2)(b)(i) and (ii) and (4).
(h) Termination of employment examination.
(i) At termination of employment, you must provide a medical examination in accordance with (d)(ii) of this subsection, including a chest X-ray where necessary, to any employee to whom at any prior time the employer was required to provide medical surveillance under (a)(i) or (g) of this subsection. However, if the last examination satisfied the requirements of (d)(ii) of this subsection and was less than six months prior to the date of termination, no further examination is required unless otherwise specified in (c) or (e) of this subsection;
(ii) In addition, if the employer has discontinued all periodic medical surveillance under (d)(v) of this subsection, no termination of employment medical examination is required.
(i) Information provided to the physician. You must provide the following information to the examining physician:
(i) A copy of this standard and appendices;
(ii) A description of the affected employee's former, current, and anticipated duties as they relate to the employee's occupational exposure to cadmium;
(iii) The employee's former, current, and anticipated future levels of occupational exposure to cadmium;
(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment, including respirators, used or to be used by the employee, including when and for how long the employee has used that equipment; and
(v) Relevant results of previous biological monitoring and medical examinations.
(j) Physician's written medical opinion.
(i) You must promptly obtain a written, signed, medical opinion from the examining physician for each medical examination performed on each employee. This written opinion must contain:
(A) The physician's diagnosis for the employee;
(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition(s) that would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from further exposure to cadmium, including any indications of potential cadmium toxicity;
(C) The results of any biological or other testing or related evaluations that directly assess the employee's absorption of cadmium;
(D) Any recommended removal from, or limitation on the activities or duties of the employee or on the employee's use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators;
(E) A statement that the physician has clearly and carefully explained to the employee the results of the medical examination, including all biological monitoring results and any medical conditions related to cadmium exposure that require further evaluation or treatment, and any limitation on the employee's diet or use of medications.
(ii) You must promptly obtain a copy of the results of any biological monitoring provided by an employer to an employee independently of a medical examination under (b) and (d) of this subsection, and, in lieu of a written medical opinion, an explanation sheet explaining those results.
(iii) You must instruct the physician not to reveal orally or in the written medical opinion given to the employer specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure to cadmium.
(k) Medical removal protection (MRP).
(i) General.
(A) You must temporarily remove an employee from work where there is excess exposure to cadmium on each occasion that medical removal is required under (c), (d), or (f) of this subsection and on each occasion that a physician determines in a written medical opinion that the employee should be removed from such exposure. The physician's determination may be based on biological monitoring results, inability to wear a respirator, evidence of illness, other signs or symptoms of cadmium-related dysfunction or disease, or any other reason deemed medically sufficient by the physician.
(B) You must medically remove an employee in accordance with (k) of this subsection regardless of whether at the time of removal a job is available into which the removed employee may be transferred.
(C) Whenever an employee is medically removed under (k) of this subsection, you must transfer the removed employee to a job where the exposure to cadmium is within the permissible levels specified in subsection (12) of this section as soon as one becomes available.
(D) For any employee who is medically removed under the provisions of (k)(i) of this subsection, you must provide follow-up medical examinations semiannually until, in a written medical opinion, the examining physician determines that either the employee may be returned to his/her former job status or the employee must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure.
(E) You may not return an employee who has been medically removed for any reason to their former job status until a physician determines in a written medical opinion that continued medical removal is no longer necessary to protect the employee's health.
(ii) Where an employee is found unfit to wear a respirator under (f)(ii) of this subsection, you must remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is above the PEL.
(iii) Where removal is based upon any reason other than the employee's inability to wear a respirator, you must remove the employee from work where exposure to cadmium is at or above the action level.
(iv) Except as specified in (k)(v) of this subsection, no employee who was removed because their level of CdU, CdB and/or B2-M exceeded the trigger levels in (c) or (d) of this subsection may be returned to work with exposure to cadmium at or above the action level until the employee's levels of CdU fall to or below 3 µg/g Cr, CdB fall to or below 5 µg/lwb, and B2-M fall to or below 300 µg/g Cr.
(v) However, when in the examining physician's opinion continued exposure to cadmium will not pose an increased risk to the employee's health and there are special circumstances that make continued medical removal an inappropriate remedy, the physician must fully discuss these matters with the employee, and then in a written determination may return a worker to their former job status despite what would otherwise be unacceptably high biological monitoring results. Thereafter and until such time as the employee's biological monitoring results have decreased to levels where they could have been returned to their former job status, the returned employee must continue medical surveillance as if they were still on medical removal. Until such time, the employee is no longer subject to mandatory medical removal. Subsequent questions regarding the employee's medical removal must be decided solely by a final medical determination.
(vi) Where an employer, although not required by this section to do so, removes an employee from exposure to cadmium or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of cadmium exposure on the employee's medical condition, you must provide the same medical removal protection benefits to that employee under (l) of this subsection as would have been provided had the removal been required under (k) of this subsection.
(l) Medical removal protection benefits.
(i) You must provide medical removal protection benefits to an employee for up to a maximum of 18 months each time, and while the employee is temporarily medically removed under (k) of this subsection.
(ii) For purposes of this section, the requirement that the employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that you must maintain the total normal earnings, seniority, and all other employee rights and benefits of the removed employee, including the employee's right to their former job status, as if the employee had not been removed from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.
(iii) Where, after 18 months on medical removal because of elevated biological monitoring results, the employee's monitoring results have not declined to a low enough level to permit the employee to be returned to their former job status:
(A) You must make available to the employee a medical examination pursuant to this section in order to obtain a final medical determination as to whether the employee may be returned to their former job status or must be permanently removed from excess cadmium exposure; and
(B) You must assure that the final medical determination indicates whether the employee may be returned to their former job status and what steps, if any, should be taken to protect the employee's health.
(iv) You may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in medical surveillance provided in accordance with this section.
(m) Multiple physician review.
(i) If the employer selects the initial physician to conduct any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee under this section, the employee may designate a second physician to:
(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician; and
(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(ii) You must promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician provided by the employer conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to this section. The employer may condition its participation in, and payment for, multiple physician review upon the employee doing the following within 15 days after receipt of this notice, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
(A) Informing the employer that they intend to seek a medical opinion; and
(B) Initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
(iii) If the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee must assure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
(iv) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee, through their respective physicians, must designate a third physician to:
(A) Review any findings, determinations, or recommendations of the other two physicians; and
(B) Conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests, and discussions with the other two physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement among them.
(v) You must act consistently with the findings, determinations, and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement that is consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the other two physicians.
(n) Alternate physician determination. The employer and an employee or designated employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate form of physician determination in lieu of the multiple physician review provided by (m) of this subsection, so long as the alternative is expeditious and at least as protective of the employee.
(o) Information the employer must provide the employee.
(i) You must provide a copy of the physician's written medical opinion to the examined employee within 5 working days after receipt thereof.
(ii) You must provide the employee with a copy of the employee's biological monitoring results and an explanation sheet explaining the results within 5 working days after receipt thereof.
(iii) Within 30 days after a request by an employee, you must provide the employee with the information the employer is required to provide the examining physician under (i) of this subsection.
(p) Reporting. In addition to other medical events that are required to be reported on the OSHA Form No. 300, you must report any abnormal condition or disorder caused by occupational exposure to cadmium associated with employment as specified in Chapter (V)(E) of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.
(13) Communication of cadmium hazards to employees.
(a) Hazard communication. You must include cadmium in the program established to comply with the requirements of DOSH's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140. You must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of cadmium safety data sheets (SDSs), and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and (d) of this subsection. You must provide information on at least the following hazards: Cancer; lung effects; kidney effects; and acute toxicity effects.
(b) Warning signs.
(i) You must provide and display warning signs in regulated areas. In addition, you must post warning signs at all approaches to regulated areas so that an employee may read the signs and take necessary protective steps before entering the area.
(ii) Warning signs required by (b)(i) of this subsection must bear the following legend:
DANGER
CADMIUM
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
(iii) You must ensure that signs required by this section are illuminated, cleaned, and maintained as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.
(iv) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in (b)(i) of this subsection:
DANGER
CADMIUM
CANCER HAZARD
CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS REQUIRED IN THIS AREA
(c) Warning labels.
(i) Shipping and storage containers containing cadmium or cadmium compounds must bear appropriate warning labels, as specified in (a) of this subsection.
(ii) The warning labels for containers of cadmium-contaminated protective clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris must include at least the following information:
DANGER
CONTAINS CADMIUM
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS AND KIDNEYS
AVOID CREATING DUST
(iii) Where feasible, installed cadmium products must have a visible label or other indication that cadmium is present.
(iv) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers may include the following information on shipping and storage containers containing cadmium, cadmium compounds, or cadmium-contaminated clothing, equipment, waste, scrap, or debris in lieu of the labeling requirements specified in (c)(i) and (ii) of this subsection:
DANGER
CONTAINS CADMIUM
CANCER HAZARD
AVOID CREATING DUST
CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE
(d) Employee information and training.
(i) You must institute a training program for all employees who are potentially exposed to cadmium, assure employee participation in the program, and maintain a record of the contents of such program.
(ii) You must provide training prior to or at the time of initial assignment to a job involving potential exposure to cadmium and at least annually thereafter.
(iii) You must make the training program understandable to the employee and you must ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) The health hazards associated with cadmium exposure, with special attention to the information incorporated in WAC 296-62-07441, Appendix A;
(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of cadmium in the workplace and the specific nature of operations that could result in exposure to cadmium, especially exposures above the PEL;
(C) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;
(D) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from exposure to cadmium, including modification of such habits as smoking and personal hygiene, and specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to cadmium such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and the provision of personal protective equipment;
(E) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing;
(F) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by subsection (12) of this section;
(G) The contents of this section and its appendices; and
(H) The employee's rights of access to records under chapter 296-62 WAC, Part B.
(iv) Additional access to information and training program and materials.
(A) You must make a copy of this section and its appendices readily available to all affected employees and you must provide a copy without cost if requested.
(B) Upon request, you must provide to the director or authorized representative, all materials relating to the employee information and the training program.
(e) Multiemployer workplace. In a multiemployer workplace, an employer who produces, uses, or stores cadmium in a manner that may expose employees of other employers to cadmium must notify those employers of the potential hazard in accordance with WAC 296-901-140 of the hazard communication standard.
(14) Recordkeeping.
(a) Exposure monitoring.
(i) You must establish and keep an accurate record of all air monitoring for cadmium in the workplace.
(ii) This record must include at least the following information:
(A) The monitoring date, shift, duration, air volume, and results in terms of an 8-hour TWA of each sample taken, and if cadmium is not detected, the detection level;
(B) The name, Social Security number, and job classification of all employees monitored and of all other employees whose exposures the monitoring result is intended to represent, including, where applicable, a description of how it was determined that the employee's monitoring result could be taken to represent other employee's exposures;
(C) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(D) The type of respiratory protective device, if any, worn by the monitored employee and by any other employee whose exposure the monitoring result is intended to represent;
(E) A notation of any other conditions that might have affected the monitoring results;
(F) Any exposure monitoring or objective data that were used and the levels.
(iii) You must maintain this record for at least 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(iv) You must also provide a copy of the results of an employee's air monitoring prescribed in subsection (4) of this section to an industry trade association and to the employee's union, if any, or, if either of such associations or unions do not exist, to another comparable organization that is competent to maintain such records and is reasonably accessible to employers and employees in the industry.
(b) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring.
(i) For purposes of this section, objective data are information demonstrating that a particular product or material containing cadmium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving cadmium cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the action level even under the worst-case release conditions. Objective data can be obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test results from manufacturers of cadmium-containing products or materials. The data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.
(ii) The employer must maintain the record for at least 30 years of the objective data relied upon.
(c) Medical surveillance.
(i) You must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee covered by medical surveillance under (a)(i) of this subsection.
(ii) The record must include at least the following information about the employee:
(A) Name, Social Security number, and description of duties;
(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions and of the explanation sheets for biological monitoring results;
(C) A copy of the medical history, and the results of any physical examination and all test results that are required to be provided by this section, including biological tests, X-rays, pulmonary function tests, etc., or that have been obtained to further evaluate any condition that might be related to cadmium exposure;
(D) The employee's medical symptoms that might be related to exposure to cadmium; and
(E) A copy of the information provided to the physician as required by subsection (12)(i) of this section.
(iii) You must ensure that this record is maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years, in accordance with chapter 296-802 WAC.
(iv) At the employee's request, you must promptly provide a copy of the employee's medical record, or update as appropriate, to a medical doctor or a union specified by the employee.
(d) Training. You must certify that employees have been trained by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training, and the date the training was completed. The certification records must be prepared at the completion of training and must be maintained on file for one year beyond the date of training of that employee.
(e) Availability.
(i) Except as otherwise provided for in this section, access to all records required to be maintained by (a) through (d) of this subsection must be in accordance with the provisions of chapter 296-802 WAC.
(ii) Within 15 days after a request, you must make an employee's medical records required to be kept by (c) of this subsection available for examination and copying to the subject employee, to designated representatives, to anyone having the specific written consent of the subject employee, and after the employee's death or incapacitation, to the employee's family members.
(f) Transfer of records. Whenever an employer ceases to do business and there is no successor employer or designated organization to receive and retain records for the prescribed period, you must comply with the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in chapter 296-802 WAC.
(15) Observation of monitoring.
(a) Employee observation. You must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to cadmium.
(b) Observation procedures. When observation of monitoring requires entry into an area where the use of protective clothing or equipment is required, you must provide the observer with that clothing and equipment and you must ensure that the observer uses such clothing and equipment and complies with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(16) Appendices.
(a) Compliance with the fit testing requirements in WAC 296-842-15005 are mandatory.
(b) Except where portions of WAC 296-62-07441, 296-62-07443, 296-62-07447, 296-62-07449, and 296-62-07451, Appendices A, B, D, E, and F, respectively, to this section are expressly incorporated in requirements of this section, these appendices are purely informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-174, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-174, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 09-15-145, § 296-155-174, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; WSR 07-05-072, § 296-155-174, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-174, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05; WSR 04-10-026, § 296-155-174, filed 4/27/04, effective 8/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-174, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-174, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-174, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 93-21-075 (Order 93-06), § 296-155-174, filed 10/20/93, effective 12/1/93; WSR 93-07-044 (Order 93-01), § 296-155-174, filed 3/13/93, effective 4/27/93.]



296-155-176
Lead.

[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-176, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17603
Scope.

WAC 296-155-176, Lead, applies to all construction work where an employee may be occupationally exposed to lead. All construction work excluded from coverage in the general industry standard for lead by WAC 296-62-07521 (1)(b) is covered by this standard. Construction work is defined as work for construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating. It includes but is not limited to the following:
(1) Demolition or salvage of structures where lead or materials containing lead are present;
(2) Removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead;
(3) New construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain lead, or materials containing lead;
(4) Installation of products containing lead;
(5) Lead contamination/emergency cleanup;
(6) Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead or materials containing lead on the site or location at which construction activities are performed; and
(7) Maintenance operations associated with the construction activities described in this section.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17603, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17605
Definitions.

Action level. Employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).
Competent person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable lead hazards in the surroundings or working conditions and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
Director. The director of labor and industries, or designated representative.
Lead. Metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.
This section. WAC 296-155-176 through 296-155-17656.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17605, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17605, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17607
Permissible exposure limit.

(1) You must ensure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3) averaged over an 8-hour period.
(2) If an employee is exposed to lead for more than 8 hours in any work day the employees' allowable exposure, as a time weighted average (TWA) for that day, must be reduced according to the following formula:
Allowable employee exposure (in µg/m3) = 400 divided by hours worked in the day.
(3) When respirators are used to limit employee exposure as required by this section and all the requirements of WAC 296-155-17611(1) and 296-155-17613 have been met, employee exposure may be considered to be at the level provided by the protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the employee's daily TWA exposure.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17607, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17607, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17609
Exposure assessment.

(1) General.
(a) Each employer who has a workplace or operation covered by this standard must initially determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level.
(b) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
(c) With the exception of monitoring under subsection (3) of this section, where monitoring is required by this standard, you must collect personal samples representative of a full shift including at least one sample for each job classification in each work area either for each shift or for the shift with the highest exposure level.
(d) Full shift personal samples must be representative of the monitored employee's regular, daily exposure to lead.
(2) Protection of employees during assessment of exposure.
(a) With respect to the lead related tasks listed in this subdivision, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in this section and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed above the PEL, you must treat the employee as if the employee were exposed above the PEL, and not in excess of 10 times the PEL, and you must implement employee protective measures prescribed in subdivision (e) of this subsection. The tasks covered by this requirement are:
(i) Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: Manual demolition of structures (e.g, dry wall), manual scraping, manual sanding, heat gun applications, and power tool cleaning with dust collection systems;
(ii) Spray painting with lead paint.
(b) In addition, with regard to tasks not listed in subdivision (a), where the employer has any reason to believe that an employee performing the task may be exposed to lead in excess of the PEL, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required by this section and documents that the employee's lead exposure is not above the PEL you must treat the employee as if the employee were exposed above the PEL and you must implement employee protective measures as prescribed in subdivision (e) of this subsection.
(c) With respect to the tasks listed in this subdivision, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in this section, and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed in excess of 500 µg/m3, you must treat the employee as if the employee were exposed to lead in excess of 500 µg/m3 and you must implement employee protective measures as prescribed in subdivision (e) of this subsection. Where the employer does establish that the employee is exposed to levels of lead below 500 µg/m3, the employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate respirator prescribed for such use at such lower exposures, in accordance with Table 1 of WAC 296-155-17613. The tasks covered by this requirement are:
(i) Using lead containing mortar; lead burning;
(ii) Where lead containing coatings or paint are present: Rivet busting; power tool cleaning without dust collection systems; cleanup activities where dry expendable abrasives are used; and abrasive blasting enclosure movement and removal.
(d) With respect to the tasks listed in this subdivision, where lead is present, until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required in this section and documents that the employee performing any of the listed tasks is not exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 µg/m3 (50xPEL), you must treat the employee as if the employee were exposed to lead in excess of 2,500 µg/m3 and you must implement employee protective measures as prescribed in (e) of this subsection. Where the employer does establish that the employee is exposed to levels of lead below 2,500 µg/m3, the employer may provide the exposed employee with the appropriate respirator prescribed for use at such lower exposures, in accordance with Table I of this WAC 296-155-17613. Protection described in this section is required where lead containing coatings or paint are present on structures when performing:
(i) Abrasive blasting;
(ii) Welding;
(iii) Cutting; and
(iv) Torch burning.
(e) Until the employer performs an employee exposure assessment as required by this section and determines actual employee exposure, you must provide to employees performing the tasks described in (a) through (d) of this subsection with interim protection as follows:
(i) Appropriate respiratory protection in accordance with WAC 296-155-17613.
(ii) Appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with WAC 296-155-17615.
(iii) Change areas in accordance with WAC 296-155-17619(2).
(iv) Hand washing facilities in accordance with WAC 296-155-17619(5).
(v) Biological monitoring in accordance with WAC 296-155-17621 (1)(a), to consist of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels, and
(vi) Training as required by WAC 296-155-17625 (1)(a) regarding WAC 296-901-140, Hazard communication; training as required by WAC 296-155-17625 (2)(c), regarding use of respirators; and training in accordance with WAC 296-155-100.
(3) Basis of initial determination.
(a) Except as provided by (c) and (d) of this subsection you must monitor employee exposures and you must base initial determinations on the employee exposure monitoring results and any of the following, relevant considerations:
(i) Any information, observations, or calculations which would indicate employee exposure to lead;
(ii) Any previous measurements of airborne lead; and
(iii) Any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead.
(b) Monitoring for the initial determination where performed may be limited to a representative sample of the exposed employees who the employer reasonably believes are exposed to the greatest airborne concentrations of lead in the workplace.
(c) Where the employer has previously monitored for lead exposures, and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of subdivision (a) of this subsection and subsection (5) of this section if the sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subsection (9) of this section.
(d) Where the employer has objective data, demonstrating that a particular product or material containing lead or a specific process, operation or activity involving lead cannot result in employee exposure to lead at or above the action level during processing, use, or handling, the employer may rely upon such data instead of implementing initial monitoring.
(i) You must establish and maintain an accurate record documenting the nature and relevancy of objective data as specified in WAC 296-155-17629(4), where used in assessing employee exposure in lieu of exposure monitoring.
(ii) Objective data, as described in subdivision (d) of this subsection, is not permitted to be used for exposure assessment in connection with subsection (2) of this section.
(4) Positive initial determination and initial monitoring.
(a) Where a determination conducted under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of this section shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or above the action level you must conduct monitoring which is representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace who is exposed to lead.
(b) Where the employer has previously monitored for lead exposure, and the data were obtained within the past 12 months during work operations conducted under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the employer may rely on such earlier monitoring results to satisfy the requirements of (a) of this subsection if the sampling and analytical methods meet the accuracy and confidence levels of subsection (9) of this section.
(5) Negative initial determination. Where a determination, conducted under subsections (1), (2), and (3) of this section is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at or above the action level you must make a written record of such determination. The record must include at least the information specified in subsection (3)(a) of this section and must also include the date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and Social Security number of each employee monitored.
(6) Frequency.
(a) If the initial determination reveals employee exposure to be below the action level further exposure determination need not be repeated except as otherwise provided in subsection (7) of this section.
(b) If the initial determination or subsequent determination reveals employee exposure to be at or above the action level but at or below the PEL you must perform monitoring in accordance with this section at least every 6 months. You must continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in subsection (7) of this section.
(c) If the initial determination reveals that employee exposure is above the PEL you must perform monitoring quarterly. You must continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at or below the PEL but at or above the action level at which time the employer must repeat monitoring for that employee at the frequency specified in subdivision (b) of this subsection, except as otherwise provided in subsection (7) of this section. You must continue monitoring at the required frequency until at least two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinue monitoring for that employee except as otherwise provided in subsection (7) of this section.
(7) Additional exposure assessments. Whenever there has been a change of equipment, process, control, personnel or a new task has been initiated that may result in additional employees being exposed to lead at or above the action level or may result in employees already exposed at or above the action level being exposed above the PEL, you must conduct additional monitoring in accordance with this section.
(8) Employee notification.
(a) Within 5 working days after completion of the exposure assessment you must notify each employee in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.
(b) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without regard to respirators, is at or above the PEL you must include in the written notice a statement that the employees exposure was at or above that level and a description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to below that level.
(9) Accuracy of measurement. You must use a method of monitoring and analysis which has an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95%) of not less than plus or minus 25% for airborne concentrations of lead equal to or greater than 30 µg/m3.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17609, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17609, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-17609, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17609, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17611
Methods of compliance.

(1) Engineering and work practice controls. You must implement engineering and work practice controls, including administrative controls, to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead to or below the permissible exposure limit to the extent that such controls are feasible. Wherever all feasible engineering and work practices controls that can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit prescribed in WAC 296-155-17607, you must nonetheless use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest feasible level and you must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-155-17613.
(2) Compliance program.
(a) Prior to commencement of the job you must establish and implement a written compliance program to achieve compliance with WAC 296-155-17607.
(b) Written plans for these compliance programs must include at least the following:
(i) A description of each activity in which lead is emitted; e.g., equipment used, material involved, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices;
(ii) A description of the specific means that will be employed to achieve compliance and, where engineering controls are required engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to lead;
(iii) A report of the technology considered in meeting the PEL;
(iv) Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;
(v) A detailed schedule for implementation of the program, including documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction contracts, etc.;
(vi) A work practice program which includes under requirements in WAC 296-155-17615, 296-155-17617, and 296-155-17619, and incorporates other relevant work practices such as those specified in subsection (5) of this section;
(vii) An administrative control schedule required by subsection (4) of this section, if applicable;
(viii) Other relevant information.
(c) The compliance program must provide for frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by a competent person.
(d) You must submit written programs upon request to any affected employee or authorized employee representatives, and the director, and you must make them available at the worksite for examination and copying by the director.
(e) You must revise and update written programs at least every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.
(3) Mechanical ventilation. When ventilation is used to control lead exposure, you must evaluate the mechanical performance of the system in controlling exposure as necessary to maintain its effectiveness.
(4) Administrative controls. If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, you must establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:
(a) Name or identification number of each affected employee;
(b) Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is located; and
(c) Any other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative controls to reduce exposure to lead.
(5) You must ensure that, to the extent relevant, employees follow good work practices such as described in Appendix B, WAC 296-155-17652.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17611, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17611, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17613
Respiratory protection.

(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by WAC 296-155-176, you must provide each employee with an appropriate respirator that complies with the requirements of this section. Respirators must be used during:
(a) Periods when an employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL.
(b) Work operations for which engineering controls and work-practices are not sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL.
(c) Periods when an employee requests a respirator.
(d) Periods when respirators are required to provide interim protection of employees while they perform the operations as specified in WAC 296-155-17609(2).
(2) Respirator program.
(a) You must develop, implement, and maintain a respiratory protection program as required by chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators, which covers each employee required by this chapter to use a respirator.
(b) If an employee has breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, you must provide the employee with a medical examination as required by WAC 296-155-17621 (3)(a)(ii) to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.
(3) Respirator selection. You must:
(a) Select and provide for employees appropriate respirators according to this section and WAC 296-842-13005 in the respirator rule.
(b) Provide employees with a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) when an employee chooses to use a PAPR and it provides adequate protection to the employee.
(c) Provide employees with full facepiece respirators instead of half facepiece respirators for protection against lead aerosols that may cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentration.
(d) Provide HEPA filters or N-, R-, or P-100 filters for powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and negative-pressure air-purifying respirators.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17613, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 09-15-145, § 296-155-17613, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; WSR 07-05-072, § 296-155-17613, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-17613, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17613, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17613, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17615
Protective work clothing and equipment.

(1) Provision and use. Where an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL without regard to the use of respirators, where employees are exposed to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), and as protection for employees performing tasks as specified in WAC 296-155-17609(2), you must provide at no cost to the employee and ensure that the employee uses appropriate protective work clothing and equipment that prevents contamination of the employee and the employee's garments such as, but not limited to:
(a) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;
(b) Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and
(c) Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment which complies with WAC 296-800-160.
(2) Cleaning and replacement.
(a) You must provide the protective clothing required in subsection (1) of this section in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 µg/m3 of lead as an 8-hour TWA.
(b) You must provide for the cleaning, laundering, and disposal of protective clothing and equipment required by subsection (1) of this section.
(c) You must repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.
(d) You must ensure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in change areas provided for that purpose as prescribed in WAC 296-155-17619(2).
(e) You must assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change area which prevents dispersion of lead outside the container.
(f) You must inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.
(g) You must ensure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required under (e) of this subsection are labeled as follows:
DANGER: CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD.
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD.
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE WHEN HANDLING.
DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR SHAKING.
DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH
APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
(h) Prior to June 1, 2015, you may include the following information on bags or containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required under (e) of this subsection in lieu of the labeling requirements stated above in this section:
Caution:
Clothing contaminated with lead. Do not remove dust by blowing or shaking. Dispose of lead contaminated wash water in accordance with applicable local, state, or federal regulations.
(i) You must prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means which disperses lead into the air.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17615, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17615, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-17615, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17615, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17617
Housekeeping.

(1) You must maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.
(2) You must perform clean-up of floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates, wherever possible, by vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of lead becoming airborne.
(3) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.
(4) Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums must be equipped with HEPA filters and used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
(5) You must not use compressed air to remove lead from any surface unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system designed to capture the airborne dust created by the compressed air.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17617, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17617, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17619
Hygiene facilities and practices.

(1) You must ensure that in areas where employees are exposed to lead above the PEL without regard to the use of respirators, food or beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied.
(2) Change areas.
(a) You must provide clean change areas for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, and as protection for employees performing tasks as specified in WAC 296-155-17609(2), without regard to the use of respirators.
(b) You must ensure that change areas are equipped with separate storage facilities for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent cross-contamination.
(c) You must ensure that employees do not leave the workplace wearing any protective clothing or equipment that is required to be worn during the work shift.
(3) Showers.
(a) You must provide shower facilities, where feasible, for use by employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL.
(b) You must ensure, where shower facilities are available, that employees shower at the end of the work shift and you must provide an adequate supply of cleansing agents and towels for use by affected employees.
(4) Eating facilities.
(a) You must provide lunchroom facilities or eating areas for employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators.
(b) You must ensure that lunchroom facilities or eating areas are as free as practicable from lead contamination and are readily accessible to employees.
(c) You must ensure that employees whose airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL, without regard to the use of a respirator, wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
(d) You must assure that employees do not enter lunchroom facilities or eating areas with protective work clothing or equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method that limits dispersion of lead dust.
(5) Handwashing facilities.
(a) You must provide adequate handwashing facilities for use by employees exposed to lead in accordance with WAC 296-155-140.
(b) Where showers are not provided you must ensure that employees wash their hands and face at the end of the work shift.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17619, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17619, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17621
Medical surveillance.

(1) General.
(a) You must make available initial medical surveillance to employees occupationally exposed on any day to lead at or above the action level. Initial medical surveillance consists of biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
(b) You must institute a medical surveillance program in accordance with subsections (2) and (3) of this section for all employees who are or may be exposed by the employer at or above the action level for more than 30 days in any consecutive 12 months;
(c) You must ensure that all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician.
(d) You must make available the required medical surveillance including multiple physician review under subsection (3)(c) without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place.
(2) Biological monitoring.
(a) Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis. You must make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered by subsection (1)(a) and (b) of this section on the following schedule:
(i) For each employee covered by subsection (1)(b) of this section, at least every two months for the first 6 months and every 6 months thereafter;
(ii) For each employee covered by subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/dl, at least every two months. This frequency must continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/dl; and
(iii) For each employee who is removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level at least monthly during the removal period.
(b) Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under WAC 296-155-17623 (1)(a), you must provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.
(c) Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this WAC 296-155-176 must have an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95%) within plus or minus 15% or 6 µg/dl, whichever is greater, and must be conducted by a laboratory approved by OSHA.
(d) Employee notification.
(i) Within 5 working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, you must notify each employee in writing of their blood lead level; and
(ii) You must notify each employee whose blood lead level is at or above 40 µg/dl that the standard requires temporary medical removal with Medical Removal Protection benefits when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the numerical criterion for medical removal under WAC 296-155-17623 (1)(a).
(3) Medical examinations and consultations.
(a) Frequency. You must make available medical examinations and consultations to each employee covered by subsection (1)(b) of this section on the following schedule:
(i) At least annually for each employee for whom a blood sampling test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/dl;
(ii) As soon as possible, upon notification by an employee either that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on the employee's ability to procreate a healthy child, that the employee is pregnant, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during use; and
(iii) As medically appropriate for each employee either removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited pursuant to a final medical determination.
(b) Content. The content of medical examinations made available pursuant to subdivision (a)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection must be determined by an examining physician and, if requested by an employee, must include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility. Medical examinations made available pursuant to subdivision (a)(i) of this subsection must include the following elements:
(i) A detailed work history and a medical history, with particular attention to past lead exposure (occupational and nonoccupational), personal habits (smoking, hygiene), and past gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurological problems;
(ii) A thorough physical examination, with particular attention to teeth, gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. Pulmonary status should be evaluated if respiratory protection will be used;
(iii) A blood pressure measurement;
(iv) A blood sample and analysis which determines:
(A) Blood lead level;
(B) Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of peripheral smear morphology;
(C) Zinc protoporphyrin;
(D) Blood urea nitrogen; and,
(E) Serum creatinine;
(v) A routine urinalysis with microscopic examination; and
(vi) Any laboratory or other test relevant to lead exposure which the examining physician deems necessary by sound medical practice.
(c) Multiple physician review mechanism.
(i) If the employer selects the initial physician who conducts any medical examination or consultation provided to an employee by WAC 296-155-176, the employee may designate a second physician:
(A) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the initial physician; and
(B) To conduct such examinations, consultations, and laboratory tests as the second physician deems necessary to facilitate this review.
(ii) You must promptly notify an employee of the right to seek a second medical opinion after each occasion that an initial physician conducts a medical examination or consultation pursuant to WAC 296-155-176. You may condition its participation in, and payment for, the multiple physician review mechanism upon the employee doing the following within 15 days after receipt of the foregoing notification, or receipt of the initial physician's written opinion, whichever is later:
(A) The employee informing the employer that they intend to seek a second medical opinion; and
(B) The employee initiating steps to make an appointment with a second physician.
(iii) If the findings, determinations or recommendations of the second physician differ from those of the initial physician, then the employer and the employee must ensure that efforts are made for the two physicians to resolve any disagreement.
(iv) If the two physicians have been unable to quickly resolve their disagreement, then the employer and the employee through their respective physicians must designate a third physician:
(A) To review any findings, determinations or recommendations of the prior physicians; and
(B) To conduct such examinations, consultations, laboratory tests and discussions with the prior physicians as the third physician deems necessary to resolve the disagreement of the prior physicians.
(v) You must act consistent with the findings, determinations and recommendations of the third physician, unless the employer and the employee reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendations of at least one of the three physicians.
(d) Information provided to examining and consulting physicians.
(i) You must provide an initial physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under WAC 296-155-176 with the following information:
(A) A copy of this regulation for lead including all Appendices;
(B) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to the employee's exposure;
(C) The employee's exposure level or anticipated exposure level to lead and to any other toxic substance (if applicable);
(D) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;
(E) Prior blood lead determinations; and
(F) All prior written medical opinions concerning the employee in the employer's possession or control.
(ii) You must provide the foregoing information to a second or third physician conducting a medical examination or consultation under WAC 296-155-176 upon request either by the second or third physician, or by the employee.
(e) Written medical opinions.
(i) You must obtain and furnish the employee with a copy of a written medical opinion from each examining or consulting physician which contains only the following information:
(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical condition which would place the employee at increased risk of material impairment of the employee's health from exposure to lead;
(B) Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to the employee, or limitations to be placed upon the employee's exposure to lead;
(C) Any recommended limitation upon the employee's use of respirators, including a determination of whether the employee can wear a powered air purifying respirator if a physician determines that the employee cannot wear a negative pressure respirator; and
(D) The results of the blood lead determinations.
(ii) You must instruct each examining and consulting physician to:
(A) Not reveal either in the written opinion or orally, or in any other means of communication with the employer, findings, including laboratory results, or diagnoses unrelated to an employee's occupational exposure to lead; and
(B) Advise the employee of any medical condition, occupational or nonoccupational, which dictates further medical examination or treatment.
(f) Alternate physician determination mechanisms. The employer and an employee or authorized employee representative may agree upon the use of any alternate physician determination mechanism in lieu of the multiple physician review mechanism provided by subdivision (c) of this subsection so long as the alternate mechanism is as expeditious and protective as the requirements contained in this section.
(4) Chelation.
(a) You must ensure that any person whom he retains, employs, supervises or controls does not engage in prophylactic chelation of any employee at any time.
(b) If therapeutic or diagnostic chelation is to be performed by any person in subdivision (a) of this subsection, you must ensure that it be done under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring and that the employee is notified in writing prior to its occurrence.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17621, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-155-17621, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17621, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17623
Medical removal protection.

(1) Temporary medical removal and return of an employee.
(a) Temporary removal due to elevated blood lead level. You must remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to WAC 296-155-176 indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 µg/dl; and
(b) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination.
(i) You must remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.
(ii) For the purposes of WAC 296-155-176, the phrase "final medical determination" means the written medical opinion on the employees' health status by the examining physician or, where relevant, the outcome of the multiple physician review mechanism or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of WAC 296-155-176.
(iii) Where a final medical determination results in any recommended special protective measures for an employee, or limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, you must implement and act consistent with the recommendation.
(c) Return of the employee to former job status.
(i) You must return an employee to their former job status:
(A) For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 50 µg/dl when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the employee's blood lead level is below 40 µg/dl;
(B) For an employee removed due to a final medical determination, when a subsequent final medical determination results in a medical finding, determination, or opinion that the employee no longer has a detected medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead.
(ii) For the purposes of WAC 296-155-176, the requirement that an employer return an employee to their former job status is not intended to expand upon or restrict any rights an employee has or would have had, absent temporary medical removal, to a specific job classification or position under the terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
(d) Removal of other employee special protective measure or limitations. You must remove any limitations placed on an employee or end any special protective measures provided to an employee pursuant to a final medical determination when a subsequent final medical determination indicates that the limitations or special protective measures are no longer necessary.
(e) Employer options pending a final medical determination. Where the multiple physician review mechanism, or alternate medical determination mechanism used pursuant to the medical surveillance provisions of WAC 296-155-176, has not yet resulted in a final medical determination with respect to an employee, you must act as follows:
(i) Removal. You may remove the employee from exposure to lead, provide special protective measures to the employee, or place limitations upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status.
(ii) Return. You may return the employee to their former job status, end any special protective measures provided to the employee, and remove any limitations placed upon the employee, consistent with the medical findings, determinations, or recommendations of any of the physicians who have reviewed the employee's health status, with two exceptions.
(A) If the initial removal, special protection, or limitation of the employee resulted from a final medical determination which differed from the findings, determinations, or recommendations of the initial physician or;
(B) If the employee has been on removal status for the preceding 18 months due to an elevated blood lead level, then you must await a final medical determination.
(2) Medical removal protection benefits.
(a) Provision of medical removal protection benefits. You must provide an employee up to 18 months of medical removal protection benefits on each occasion that an employee is removed from exposure to lead or otherwise limited pursuant to WAC 296-155-176.
(b) Definition of medical removal protection benefits. For the purposes of WAC 296-155-176, the requirement that an employer provide medical removal protection benefits means that, as long as the job the employee was removed from continues, you must maintain the total normal earnings, seniority and other employment rights and benefits of an employee, including the employee's right to their former job status as though the employee had not been medically removed from the employee's job or otherwise medically limited.
(c) Follow-up medical surveillance during the period of employee removal or limitation. During the period of time that an employee is medically removed from their job or otherwise medically limited, you may condition the provision of medical removal protection benefits upon the employee's participation in follow-up medical surveillance made available pursuant to WAC 296-155-176.
(d) Workers' compensation claims. If a removed employee files a claim for workers' compensation payments for a lead-related disability, then you must continue to provide medical removal protection benefits pending disposition of the claim. To the extent that an award is made to the employee for earnings lost during the period of removal, the employer's medical removal protection obligation must be reduced by such amount. You must receive no credit for workers' compensation payments received by the employee for treatment-related expenses.
(e) Other credits. The employer's obligation to provide medical removal protection benefits to a removed employee must be reduced to the extent that the employee receives compensation for earnings lost during the period of removal either from a publicly or employer-funded compensation program, or receives income from employment with another employer made possible by virtue of the employee's removal.
(f) Voluntary removal or restriction of an employee. Where an employer, although not required by WAC 296-155-176 to do so, removes an employee from exposure to lead or otherwise places limitations on an employee due to the effects of lead exposure on the employee's medical condition, you must provide medical removal protection benefits to the employee equal to that required by subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subsection.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17623, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-155-17623, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17623, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17625
Communication of hazards.

(1) General.
(a) Hazard communication. You must include lead in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), WAC 296-901-140. You must ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of lead and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of HCS and subsection (1) of this section. You must ensure that at least the following hazards are addressed:
(i) Reproductive/developmental toxicity;
(ii) Central nervous system effects;
(iii) Kidney effects;
(iv) Blood effects; and
(v) Acute toxicity effects.
(b) You must train each employee who is subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level on any day or who is subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. You must institute a training program in accordance with subsection (2) of this section and ensure employee participation.
(c) You must provide the training program as initial training prior to the time of job assignment or prior to the start up date for this requirement, whichever comes last.
(d) You must also provide the training program at least annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above the action level on any day.
(2) Training program. You must assure that each employee is trained in the following:
(a) The content of this standard and its appendices;
(b) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;
(c) The training requirements for respiratory protection as required by WAC 296-842-110, 296-842-19005, and 296-842-16005;
(d) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant);
(e) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment including training of employees to follow relevant good work practices described in Appendix B, WAC 296-155-17652;
(f) The contents of any compliance plan in effect;
(g) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician; and
(h) The employee's right of access to records under Part B, chapter 296-62 WAC and chapter 296-800 WAC.
(3) Access to information and training materials.
(a) You must make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.
(b) You must provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to affected employees and their designated representatives, and the director.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17625, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17625, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 09-15-145, § 296-155-17625, filed 7/21/09, effective 9/1/09; WSR 05-20-055, § 296-155-17625, filed 10/3/05, effective 12/1/05; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-17625, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-17625, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17625, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17625, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17627
SignsGeneral.

(1) You must post the following warning signs in each work area where an employee's exposure to lead is above the PEL.
DANGER LEAD WORK AREA
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS AREA
(2) You must ensure that no statement appears on or near any sign required by this section which contradicts or detracts from the meaning of the required sign.
(3) You must ensure that signs required by this section are illuminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.
(4) You may use signs required by other statutes, regulations or ordinances in addition to, or in combination with, signs required by this section.
(5) Prior to June 1, 2016, you may use the following legend in lieu of that specified in subsection (1) of this section:
WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17627, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17627, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17627, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17629
Recordkeeping.

(1) Exposure assessment.
(a) You must establish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring and other data used in conducting employee exposure assessments as required in WAC 296-155-17609.
(b) Exposure monitoring records must include:
(i) The date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of the samples taken if any, including a description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee exposure where applicable;
(ii) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy;
(iii) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;
(iv) Name, Social Security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent; and
(v) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure.
(c) You must maintain monitoring and other exposure assessment records in accordance with the provisions of part B, chapter 296-62 WAC.
(2) Medical surveillance.
(a) You must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as required by WAC 296-155-17621.
(b) This record must include:
(i) The name, Social Security number, and description of the duties of the employee;
(ii) A copy of the physician's written opinions;
(iii) Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done on or for that employee and provided to the physician; and
(iv) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.
(c) You must keep, or assure that the examining physician keeps, the following medical records:
(i) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history required by WAC 296-155-17621;
(ii) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to that information;
(iii) A copy of the results of biological monitoring.
(d) You must maintain or assure that the physician maintains medical records in accordance with the provisions of part B, chapter 296-62 WAC.
(3) Medical removals.
(a) You must establish and maintain an accurate record for each employee removed from current exposure to lead pursuant to WAC 296-155-17623.
(b) Each record must include:
(i) The name and Social Security number of the employee;
(ii) The date of each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to lead as well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to their former job status;
(iii) A brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and
(iv) A statement with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level.
(c) The employer must maintain each medical removal record for at least the duration of an employee's employment.
(4) Objective data for exemption from requirement for initial monitoring.
(a) For purposes of WAC 296-155-176, objective data are information demonstrating that a particular product or material containing lead or a specific process, operation, or activity involving lead cannot release dust or fumes in concentrations at or above the action level under any expected conditions of use. Objective data can be obtained from an industry-wide study or from laboratory product test results from manufacturers of lead containing products or materials. The data the employer uses from an industry-wide survey must be obtained under workplace conditions closely resembling the processes, types of material, control methods, work practices and environmental conditions in the employer's current operations.
(b) You must maintain the record of the objective data relied upon for at least 30 years.
(5) Availability. You must make available upon request all records required to be maintained by this section to affected employees, former employees, and their designated representatives, and to the director for examination and copying.
(6) Transfer of records. You must comply with requirements involving the transfer of records set forth in WAC 296-802-60005.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17629, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 12-24-071, § 296-155-17629, filed 12/4/12, effective 1/4/13. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17629, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17631
Observation of monitoring.

(1) Employee observation. You must provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead conducted pursuant to WAC 296-155-17609.
(2) Observation procedures.
(a) Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators, protective clothing or equipment is required, you must provide the observer with and assure the use of such respirators, clothing and equipment, and you must require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(b) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers must be entitled to:
(i) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;
(ii) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at the place of exposure; and
(iii) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned by the laboratory.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17631, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17631, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17650
Appendix A to WAC 296-155-176—Substance data sheet for occupational exposure to lead.

The information contained in the appendices to WAC 296-155-176 is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.
(1) Substance identification.
(a) Substance: Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure and is a basic chemical element. It can combine with various other substances to form numerous lead compounds.
(b) Compounds covered by the standard: The word "lead" when used in this standard means elemental lead, all inorganic lead compounds and a class of organic lead compounds called lead soaps. This standard does not apply to other organic lead compounds.
(c) Uses: Exposure to lead occurs in several different occupations in the construction industry, including demolition or salvage of structures where lead or lead-containing materials are present; removal or encapsulation of lead-containing materials, new construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of structures that contain lead or materials containing lead; installation of products containing lead. In addition, there are construction related activities where exposure to lead may occur, including transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead or materials containing lead on construction sites, and maintenance operations associated with construction activities.
(d) Permissible exposure: The permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the standard is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday.
(e) Action level: The standard establishes an action level of 30 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (30 µg/m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday. The action level triggers several ancillary provisions of the standard such as exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, and training.
(2) Health hazard data.
(a) Ways in which lead enters your body. When absorbed into your body in certain doses, lead is a toxic substance. The object of the lead standard is to prevent absorption of harmful quantities of lead. The standard is intended to protect you not only from the immediate toxic effects of lead, but also from the serious toxic effects that may not become apparent until years of exposure have passed. Lead can be absorbed into your body by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion (eating). Lead (except for certain organic lead compounds not covered by the standard, such as tetraethyl lead) is not absorbed through your skin. When lead is scattered in the air as a dust, fume respiratory tract. Inhalation of airborne lead is generally the most important source of occupational lead absorption. You can also absorb lead through your digestive system if lead gets into your mouth and is swallowed. If you handle food, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up which have lead on them or handle them with hands contaminated with lead, this will contribute to ingestion. A significant portion of the lead that you inhale or ingest gets into your blood stream. Once in your blood stream, lead is circulated throughout your body and stored in various organs and body tissues. Some of this lead is quickly filtered out of your body and excreted, but some remains in the blood and other tissues. As exposure to lead continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting. Even though you may not be aware of any immediate symptoms of disease, this lead stored in your tissues can be slowly causing irreversible damage, first to individual cells, then to your organs and whole body systems.
(b) Effects of overexposure to lead.
(i) Short term (acute) overexposure. Lead is a potent, systemic poison that serves no known useful function once absorbed by your body. Taken in large enough doses, lead can kill you in a matter of days. A condition affecting the brain called acute encephalopathy may arise which develops quickly to seizures, coma, and death from cardiorespiratory arrest. A short term dose of lead can lead to acute encephalopathy. Short term occupational exposures of this magnitude are highly unusual, but not impossible. Similar forms of encephalopathy may, however, arise from extended, chronic exposure to lower doses of lead. There is no sharp dividing line between rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and chronic effects which take longer to acquire. Lead adversely affects numerous body systems, and causes forms of health impairment and disease which arise after periods of exposure as short as days or as long as several years.
(ii) Long-term (chronic) overexposure. Chronic overexposure to lead may result in severe damage to your blood-forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems. Some common symptoms of chronic overexposure include loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In lead colic there may be severe abdominal pain. Damage to the central nervous system in general and the brain (encephalopathy) in particular is one of the most severe forms of lead poisoning. The most severe, often fatal, form of encephalopathy may be preceded by vomiting, a feeling of dullness progressing to drowsiness and stupor, poor memory, restlessness, irritability, tremor, and convulsions. It may arise suddenly with the onset of seizures, followed by coma, and death. There is a tendency for muscular weakness to develop at the same time. This weakness may progress to paralysis often observed as a characteristic "wrist drop" or "foot drop" and is a manifestation of a disease to the nervous system called peripheral neuropathy. Chronic overexposure to lead also results in kidney disease with few, if any, symptoms appearing until extensive and most likely permanent kidney damage has occurred. Routine laboratory tests reveal the presence of this kidney disease only after about two-thirds of kidney function is lost. When overt symptoms of urinary dysfunction arise, it is often too late to correct or prevent worsening conditions, and progression to kidney dialysis or death is possible. Chronic overexposure to lead impairs the reproductive systems of both men and women. Overexposure to lead may result in decreased sex drive, impotence and sterility in men. Lead can alter the structure of sperm cells raising the risk of birth defects. There is evidence of miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead or who were exposed to lead themselves. Lead exposure also may result in decreased fertility, and abnormal menstrual cycles in women. The course of pregnancy may be adversely affected by exposure to lead since lead crosses the placental barrier and poses risks to developing fetuses. Children born of parents either one of whom were exposed to excess lead levels are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood. Overexposure to lead also disrupts the blood-forming system resulting in decreased hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells) and ultimately anemia. Anemia is characterized by weakness, pallor and fatigability as a result of decreased oxygen carrying capacity in the blood.
(iii) Health protection goals of the standard. Prevention of adverse health effects for most workers from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that a worker's blood lead level (BLL, also expressed as PbB) be maintained at or below 40 micrograms per deciliter of whole blood (40 µg/dl). The blood lead levels of workers (both male and female workers) who intend to have children should be maintained below 30 µg/dl to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and to the developing fetus. The measurement of your blood lead level (BLL) is the most useful indicator of the amount of lead being absorbed by your body. Blood lead levels are most often reported in units of milligrams (mg) or micrograms (µg) of lead (1 mg = 1000 µg) per 100 grams (100g), 100 milliliters (100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These 3 units are essentially the same. Sometime BLLs are expressed in the form of mg% or µg%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, 100 ml, or dl. (References to BLL measurements in this standard are expressed in the form of µg/dl.)
BLL measurements show the amount of lead circulating in your blood stream, but do not give any information about the amount of lead stored in your various tissues. BLL measurements merely show current absorption of lead, not the effect that lead is having on your body or the effects that past lead exposure may have already caused. Past research into lead-related diseases, however, has focused heavily on associations between BLLs and various diseases. As a result, your BLL is an important indicator of the likelihood that you will gradually acquire a lead-related health impairment or disease.
Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 µg/dl, your risk of disease increases. There is a wide variability of individual response to lead, thus it is difficult to say that a particular BLL in a given person will cause a particular effect. Studies have associated fatal encephalopathy with BLLs as low as 150 µg/dl. Other studies have shown other forms of diseases in some workers with BLLs well below 80 µg/dl. Your BLL is a crucial indicator of the risks to your health, but one other factor is also extremely important. This factor is the length of time you have had elevated BLLs. The longer you have an elevated BLL, the greater the risk that large quantities of lead are being gradually stored in your organs and tissues (body burden). The greater your overall body burden, the greater the chances of substantial permanent damage. The best way to prevent all forms of lead-related impairments and diseases—both short term and long term—is to maintain your BLL below 40 µg/dl. The provisions of the standard are designed with this end in mind.
Your employer has prime responsibility to assure that the provisions of the standard are complied with both by the company and by individual workers. You, as a worker, however, also have a responsibility to assist your employer in complying with the standard. You can play a key role in protecting your own health by learning about the lead hazards and their control, learning what the standard requires, following the standard where it governs your own actions, and seeing that your employer complies with provisions governing employee actions.
(iv) Reporting signs and symptoms of health problems. You should immediately notify your employer if you develop signs or symptoms associated with lead poisoning or if you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead or your ability to have a healthy child. You should also notify your employer if you have difficulty breathing during a respirator fit test or while wearing a respirator. In each of these cases, your employer must make available to you appropriate medical examinations or consultations. These must be provided at no cost to you and at a reasonable time and place. The standard contains a procedure whereby you can obtain a second opinion by a physician of your choice if your employer selected the initial physician.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17650, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17650, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17652
Appendix B to WAC 296-155-176Employee standard summary.

This appendix summarizes key provisions of the standard for lead in construction that you as a worker should become familiar with.
(1) Permissible exposure limit (PEL)WAC 296-62-17607.
The standard sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3), averaged over an eight-hour workday which is referred to as a time-weighted average (TWA). This is the highest level of lead in air to which you may be permissibly exposed over an eight-hour workday. However, since this is an 8-hour average, short exposures above the PEL are permitted so long as for each 8-hour work day your average exposure does not exceed this level. This standard, however, takes into account the fact that your daily exposure to lead can extend beyond a typical 8-hour workday as the result of overtime or other alterations in your work schedule. To deal with this situation, the standard contains a formula which reduces your permissible exposure when you are exposed more than 8 hours. For example, if you are exposed to lead for 10 hours a day, the maximum permitted average exposure would be 40 µg/m3.
(2) Exposure assessmentWAC 296-155-17609.
If lead is present in your workplace in any quantity, your employer is required to make an initial determination of whether any employee's exposure to lead exceeds the action level (30 µg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour day). Employee exposure is that exposure which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. This initial determination requires your employer to monitor workers' exposures unless the employee has objective data which can demonstrate conclusively that no employee will be exposed to lead in excess of the action level. Where objective data is used in lieu of actual monitoring the employer must establish and maintain an accurate record, documenting its relevancy in assessing exposure levels for current job conditions. If such objective data is available, the employer need proceed no further on employee exposure assessment until such time that conditions have changed and the determination is no longer valid.
Objective data may be compiled from various sources, e.g., insurance companies and trade associations and information from suppliers or exposure data collected from similar operations. Objective data may also comprise previously collected sampling data including area monitoring. If it cannot be determined through using objective data that worker exposure is less than the action level, your employer must conduct monitoring or must rely on relevant previous personal sampling, if available. Where monitoring is required for the initial determination, it may be limited to a representative number of employees who are reasonably expected to have the highest exposure levels. If your employer has conducted appropriate air sampling for lead in the past 12 months, they may use these results, provided they are applicable to the same employee tasks and exposure conditions and meet the requirements for accuracy as specified in the standard. As with objective data, if such results are relied upon for the initial determination, your employer must establish and maintain a record as to the relevancy of such data to current job conditions.
If there have been any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead or if there is any other information or observations which would indicate employee exposure to lead, this must also be considered as part of the initial determination. If this initial determination shows that a reasonable possibility exists that any employee may be exposed, without regard to respirator, over the action level, your employer must set up an air monitoring program to determine the exposure level representative of each employee exposed to lead at your workplace. In carrying out this air monitoring program, your employer is not required to monitor the exposure of every employee, but they must monitor a representative number of employees and job types. Enough sampling must be done to enable each employee's exposure level to be reasonably represent full shift exposure. In addition, these air samples must be taken under conditions which represent each employee's regular, daily exposure to lead. Sampling performed in the past 12 months may be used to determine exposures above the action level if such sampling was conducted during work activities essentially similar to present work conditions.
The standard lists certain tasks which may likely result in exposures to lead in excess of the PEL and, in some cases, exposures in excess of 50 times the PEL. If you are performing any of these tasks, your employer must provide you with appropriate respiratory protection, protective clothing and equipment, change areas, hand washing facilities, biological monitoring, and training until such time that an exposure assessment is conducted which demonstrates that your exposure level is below the PEL.
If you are exposed to lead and air sampling is performed, your employer is required to notify you in writing within five working days of the air monitoring results which represent your exposure. If the results indicate that your exposure exceeds the PEL (without regard to your use of a respirator), then your employer must also notify you of this in writing, and provide you with a description of the corrective action that has been taken or will be taken to reduce your exposure.
Your exposure must be rechecked by monitoring, at least every 6 months if your exposure is at or over the action level but below the PEL. Your employer may discontinue monitoring for you if two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are at or below the action level. Air monitoring must be repeated every 3 months if you are exposed over the PEL. Your employer must continue monitoring for you at this frequency until two consecutive measurements, taken at least 7 days apart, are below the PEL but above the action level, at which time your employer must repeat monitoring of your exposure every 6 months and may discontinue monitoring only after your exposure drops to or below the action level. However, whenever there is a change of equipment, process, control, or personnel or a new type of job is added at your workplace which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, your employer must perform additional monitoring.
(3) Methods of complianceWAC 296-155-17611.
Your employer is required to assure that no employee is exposed to lead in excess of the PEL as an 8-hour TWA. The standard for lead in construction requires employers to institute engineering and work practice controls including administrative controls to the extent feasible to reduce employee exposure to lead. Where such controls are feasible but not adequate to reduce exposures below the PEL they must be used nonetheless to reduce exposures to the lowest level that can be accomplished by these means and then supplemented with appropriate respiratory protection.
Your employer is required to develop and implement a written compliance program prior to the commencement of any job where employee exposures may reach the PEL as an 8-hour TWA. The standard identifies the various elements that must be included in the plan. For example, employers are required to include a description of operations in which lead is emitted, detailing other relevant information about the operation such as the type of equipment used, the type of material involved, employee job responsibilities, operating procedures and maintenance practices. In addition, your employer's compliance plan must specify the means that will be used to achieve compliance and, where engineering controls are required, include any engineering plans or studies that have been used to select the control methods. If administrative controls involving job rotation are used to reduce employee exposure to lead, the job rotation schedule must be included in the compliance plan. The plan must also detail the type of protective clothing and equipment, including respirator, housekeeping and hygiene practices that will be used to protect you from the adverse effects of exposure to lead.
The written compliance program must be made available, upon request, to affected employees and their designated representatives, and the director.
Finally, the plan must be reviewed and updated at least every 6 months to ensure it reflects the current status in exposure control.
(4) Respiratory protectionWAC 296-155-17613.
Your employer is required to select respirator from the types listed in Table I of the Respiratory Protection section of the standard (see WAC 296-155-17613). Any respirator chosen must be certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 C.F.R. part 84. This respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type of respirator that will give you a proper amount of protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than is present in your workplace. For example, a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) is much more protective than a typical negative pressure respirator, and may also be more comfortable to wear. A PAPR has a filter, cartridge, or canister to clean the air, and a power source which continuously blows filtered air into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to you to ease the burden of having to wear a respirator for long periods of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.
Your employer must also start a Respiratory Protection Program. This program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirator.
Your employer must ensure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical to your protection from airborne lead. Obtaining a proper fit on each employee may require your employer to make available several different types of respirator masks. To ensure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimal, your employer must give you either a qualitative or quantitative fit test as specified in WAC 296-842-15005.
(5) Protective work clothing and equipmentWAC 296-155-17615.
If you are exposed to lead above the PEL as an 8-hour TWA, without regard to your use of a respirator, or if you are exposed to lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide which can cause skin and eye irritation, your employer must provide you with protective work clothing and equipment appropriate for the hazard. If work clothing is provided, it must be provided in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if your airborne exposure to lead is greater than 200 µg/m3. Appropriate protective work clothing and equipment can include coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe coverlets, and face shields or vented goggles. Your employer is required to provide all such equipment at no cost to you. In addition, your employer is responsible for providing repairs and replacement as necessary, and also is responsible for the cleaning, laundering or disposal of protective clothing and equipment.
The standard requires that your employer assure that you follow good work practices when you are working in areas where your exposure to lead may exceed the PEL. With respect to protective clothing and equipment, where appropriate, the following procedures should be observed prior to beginning work:
Change into work clothing and shoe covers in the clean section of the designated changing areas;
Use work garments of appropriate protective gear, including respirator before entering the work area; and
Store any clothing not worn under protective clothing in the designated changing area.
Workers should follow these procedures upon leaving the work area:
HEPA vacuum heavily contaminated protective work clothing while it is still being worn. At no time may lead be removed from protective clothing by any means which result in uncontrolled dispersal of lead into the air;
Remove shoe covers and leave them in the work area;
Remove protective clothing and gear in the dirty area of the designated changing area. Remove protective coveralls by carefully rolling down the garment to reduce exposure to dust.
Remove respirator last; and
Wash hands and face.
Workers should follow these procedures upon finishing work for the day (in addition to procedures described above):
Where applicable, place disposal coveralls and shoe covers with the abatement waste;
Contaminated clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered or disposed of must be placed in closed containers in the change room.
Clean protective gear, including respirator, according to standard procedures;
Wash hands and face again.
If showers are available, take a shower and wash hair. If shower facilities are not available at the work site, shower immediately at home and wash hair.
(6) HousekeepingWAC 296-155-17617.
Your employer must establish a housekeeping program sufficient to maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead dust. Vacuuming is the preferred method of meeting this requirement, and the use of compressed air to clean floors and other surfaces is generally prohibited unless removal with compressed air is done in conjunction with ventilation systems designed to contain dispersal of the lead dust. Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing may not be used except where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and do not work. Vacuums must be used equipped with a special filter called a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
(7) Hygiene facilities and practicesWAC 296-155-17619.
The standard requires that hand washing facilities be provided where occupational exposure to lead occurs. In addition, change areas, showers (where feasible), and lunchrooms or eating areas are to be made available to workers exposed to lead above the PEL. Your employer must assure that except in these facilities, food and beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, where airborne exposures are above the PEL. Change rooms provided by your employer must be equipped with separate storage facilities for your protective clothing and equipment and street clothes to avoid cross-contamination. After showering, no required protective clothing or equipment worn during the shift may be worn home. It is important that contaminated clothing or equipment be removed in change areas and not be worn home or you will extend your exposure and expose your family since lead from your clothing can accumulate in your house, car, etc.
Lunchrooms or eating areas may not be entered with protective clothing or equipment unless surface dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method. Finally, workers exposed above the PEL must wash both their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
All of the facilities and hygiene practices just discussed are essential to minimize additional sources of lead absorption from inhalation or ingestion of lead that may accumulate on you, your clothes, or your possessions. Strict compliance with these provisions can virtually eliminate several sources of lead exposure which significantly contribute to excessive lead absorption.
(8) Medical surveillanceWAC 296-155-17621.
The medical surveillance program is part of the standard's comprehensive approach to the prevention of lead-related disease. Its purpose is to supplement the main thrust of the standard which is aimed at minimizing airborne concentrations of lead and sources of ingestion. Only medical surveillance can determine if the other provisions of the standard have affectively protected you as an individual. Compliance with the standard's provision will protect most workers from the adverse effects of lead exposure, but may not be satisfactory to protect individual workers:
Who have high body burdens of lead acquired over past years,
Who have additional uncontrolled sources of nonoccupational lead exposure,
Who exhibit unusual variations in lead absorption rates, or
Who have specific nonwork related medical conditions which could be aggravated by lead exposure (e.g., renal disease, anemia).
In addition, control systems may fail, or hygiene and respirator programs may be inadequate. Periodic medical surveillance of individual workers will help detect those failures. Medical surveillance will also be important to protect your reproductive abilityregardless of whether you are a man or woman.
All medical surveillance required by the standard must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. The employer must provide required medical surveillance without cost to employees and at a reasonable time and place. The standard's medical surveillance program has two partsperiodic biological monitoring and medical examinations. Your employer's obligation to offer you medical surveillance is triggered by the results of the air monitoring program. Full medical surveillance must be made available to all employees who are or may be exposed to lead in excess of the action level for more than 30 days a year and whose blood lead level exceeds 40 µg/dl. Initial medical surveillance consisting of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin must be provided to all employees exposed at any time (1 day) above the action level.
Biological monitoring under the standard must be provided at least every two months for the first 6 months and every 6 months thereafter until your blood lead level is below 40 µg/dl. A zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is a very useful blood test which measures an adverse metabolic effect of lead on your body and is therefore an indicator of lead toxicity.
If your BLL exceeds 40 µg/dl the monitoring frequency must be increased from every 6 months to at least every two months and not reduced until two consecutive BLLs indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/dl. Each time your BLL is determined to be over 40 µg/dl, your employer must notify you of this in writing within 5 working days of their receipt of the test results. The employer must also inform you that the standard requires temporary medical removal with economic protection when your BLL exceeds 50 µg/dl. (See Discussion of medical removal protectionWAC 296-155-17623.) Anytime your BLL exceeds 50 µg/dl your employer must make available to you within two weeks of receipt of these test results a second follow-up BLL test to confirm your BLL. If the two tests both exceed 50 µg/dl, and you are temporarily removed, then your employer must make successive BLL tests available to you on a monthly basis during the period of your removal.
Medical examinations beyond the initial one must be made available on an annual basis if your blood lead level exceeds 40 µg/dl at any time during the preceding year and you are being exposed above the airborne action level of 30 µg/m3 for 30 or more days per year. The initial examination will provide information to establish a baseline to which subsequent data can be compared.
An initial medical examination to consist of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin must also be made available (prior to assignment) for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area where the airborne concentration of lead equals or exceeds the action level at any time. In addition, a medical examination or consultation must be made available as soon as possible if you notify your employer that you are experiencing signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning or that you have difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator or during a respirator fit test. You must also be provided a medical examination or consultation if you notify your employer that you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to procreate a healthy child.
Finally, appropriate follow-up medical examinations or consultations may also be provided for employees who have been temporarily removed from exposure under the medical removal protection provisions of the standard. (See subsection (9), below.)
The standard specifies the minimum content of preassignment and annual medical examinations. The content of other types of medical examinations and consultations is left up to the sound discretion of the examining physician. Preassignment and annual medical examinations must include:
A detailed work history and medical history;
A thorough physical examination, including an evaluation of your pulmonary status if you will be required to use a respirator;
A blood pressure measurement; and
A series of laboratory tests designed to check your blood chemistry and your kidney function.
In addition, at any time upon your request, a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will be made (microscopic examination of a sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be given.
The standard does not require that you participate in any of the medical procedures, tests, etc. which your employer is required to make available to you. Medical surveillance can, however, play a very important role in protecting your health. You are strongly encouraged, therefore, to participate in a meaningful fashion. The standard contains a multiple physician review mechanism which will give you a chance to have a physician of your choice directly participate in the medical surveillance program. If you are dissatisfied with an examination by a physician chosen by your employer, you can select a second physician to conduct an independent analysis. The two doctors would attempt to resolve any differences of opinion, and select a third physician to resolve any firm dispute. Generally your employer will choose the physician who conducts medical surveillance under the lead standard-unless you and your employer can agree on the choice of a physician or physicians. Some companies and unions have agreed in advance, for example, to use certain independent medical laboratories or panels of physicians. Any of these arrangements are acceptable so long as required medical surveillance is made available to workers.
The standard requires your employer to provide certain information to a physician to aid in their examination of you. This information includes:
The standard and its appendices,
A description of your duties as they relate to occupational lead exposure,
Your exposure level or anticipated exposure level,
A description of any personal protective equipment you wear,
Prior blood lead level results, and
Prior written medical opinions concerning you that the employer has.
After a medical examination or consultation the physician must prepare a written report which must contain:
The physician's opinion as to whether you have any medical condition which places you at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead,
Any recommended special protective measures to be provided to you,
Any blood lead level determinations, and
Any recommended limitation on your use of respirator.
This last element must include a determination of whether you can wear a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) if you are found unable to wear a negative pressure respirator.
The medical surveillance program of the lead standard may at some point in time serve to notify certain workers that they have acquired a disease or other adverse medical condition as a result of occupational lead exposure. If this is true, these workers might have legal rights to compensation from public agencies, their employers, firms that supply hazardous products to their employers, or other persons. Some states have laws, including worker compensation laws, that disallow a worker who learns of a job-related health impairment to sue, unless the worker sues within a short period of time after learning of the impairment. (This period of time may be a matter of months or years.) An attorney can be consulted about these possibilities. It should be stressed that DOSH is in no way trying to either encourage or discourage claims or lawsuits. However, since results of the standard's medical surveillance program can significantly affect the legal remedies of a worker who has acquired a job-related disease or impairment, it is proper for DOSH to make you aware of this.
The medical surveillance section of the standard also contains provisions dealing with chelation. Chelation is the use of certain drugs (administered in pill form or injected into the body) to reduce the amount of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience accumulated by the medical and scientific communities has largely confirmed the effectiveness of this type of therapy for the treatment of very severe lead poisoning. On the other hand, it has also been established that there can be a long list of extremely harmful side effects associated with the use of chelating agents. The medical community has balanced the advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of chelating agents in various circumstances and has established when the use of these agents is acceptable. The standard includes these accepted limitations due to a history of abuse of chelation therapy by some lead companies. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium EDTA, (Ca Na2 EDTA), Calcium Disodium Versenate (Versenate), and d-penicillamine (penicillamine or Cupramine).
The standard prohibits "prophylactic chelation" of any employee by any person the employer retains, supervises or controls. "Prophylactic chelation" is the routine use of chelating or similarly acting drugs to prevent elevated blood levels in workers who are occupationally exposed to lead, or the use of these drugs to routinely lower blood lead levels to predesignated concentrations believed to be "safe." It should be emphasized that where an employer takes a worker who has no symptoms of lead poisoning and has chelation carried out by a physician (either inside or outside of a hospital) solely to reduce the worker's blood lead level, that will generally be considered prophylactic chelation. The use of a hospital and a physician does not mean that prophylactic chelation is not being performed. Routine chelation to prevent increased or reduce current blood lead levels is unacceptable whatever the setting.
The standard allows the use of "therapeutic" or "diagnostic" chelation if administered under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring. Therapeutic chelation responds to severe lead poisoning where there are marked symptoms. Diagnostic chelation involved giving a patient a dose of the drug then collecting all urine excreted for some period of time as an aid to the diagnosis of lead poisoning.
In cases where the examining physician determines that chelation is appropriate, you must be notified in writing of this fact before such treatment. This will inform you of a potentially harmful treatment, and allow you to obtain a second opinion.
(9) Medical removal protectionWAC 296-155-17623.
Excessive lead absorption subjects you to increased risk of disease. Medical removal protection (MRP) is a means of protecting you when, for whatever reasons, other methods, such as engineering controls, work practices, and respirator, have failed to provide the protection you need. MRP involves the temporary removal of a worker from their regular job to a place of significantly lower exposure without any loss of earnings, seniority, or other employment rights or benefits. The purpose of this program is to cease further lead absorption and allow your body to naturally excrete lead which has previously been absorbed. Temporary medical removal can result from an elevated blood lead level, or a medical opinion. For up to 18 months, or for as long as the job the employee was removed from lasts, protection is provided as a result of either form of removal. The vast majority of removed workers, however, will return to their former jobs long before this 18 month period expires.
You may also be removed from exposure even if your blood lead level is below 50 µ/dl if a final medical determination indicates that you temporarily need reduced lead exposure for medical reasons. If the physician who is implementing your employers medical program makes a final written opinion recommending your removal or other special protective measures, your employer must implement the physician's recommendation. If you are removed in this manner, you may only be returned when the doctor indicates that it is safe for you to do so.
The standard does not give specific instructions dealing with what an employer must do with a removed worker. Your job assignment upon removal is a matter for you, your employer and your union (if any) to work out consistent with existing procedures for job assignments. Each removal must be accomplished in a manner consistent with existing collective bargaining relationships. Your employer is given broad discretion to implement temporary removals so long as no attempt is made to override existing agreements. Similarly, a removed worker is provided no right to veto an employer's choice which satisfies the standard.
In most cases, employers will likely transfer removed employees to other jobs with sufficiently low lead exposure. Alternatively, a worker's hours may be reduced so that the time weighted average exposure is reduced, or they may be temporarily laid off if no other alternative is feasible.
In all of these situation, MRP benefits must be provided during the period of removali.e., you continue to receive the same earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits you would have had if you had not been removed. Earnings includes more than just your base wage; it includes overtime, shift differentials, incentives, and other compensation you would have earned if you had not been removed. During the period of removal you must also be provided with appropriate follow-up medical surveillance. If you were removed because your blood lead level was too high, you must be provided with a monthly blood test. If a medical opinion caused your removal, you must be provided medical tests or examinations that the doctor believes to be appropriate. If you do not participate in this follow up medical surveillance, you may lose your eligibility for MRP benefits.
When you are medically eligible to return to your former job, your employer must return you to your "former job status." This means that you are entitled to the position, wages, benefits, etc., you would have had if you had not been removed. If you would still be in your old job if no removal had occurred that is where you go back. If not, you are returned consistent with whatever job assignment discretion your employer would have had if no removal had occurred. MRP only seeks to maintain your rights, not expand them or diminish them.
If you are removed under MRP and you are also eligible for worker compensation or other compensation for lost wages, your employer's MRP benefits obligation is reduced by the amount that you actually receive from these other sources. This is also true if you obtain other employment during the time you are laid off with MRP benefits.
The standard also covers situations where an employer voluntarily removes a worker from exposure to lead due to the effects of lead on the employee's medical condition, even though the standard does not require removal. In these situations MRP benefits must still be provided as though the standard required removal. Finally, it is important to note that in all cases where removal is required, respirator cannot be used as a substitute. Respirator may be used before removal becomes necessary, but not as an alternative to a transfer to a low exposure job, or to a lay-off with MRP benefits.
(10) Employee information and trainingWAC 296-155-17625.
Your employer is required to provide an information and training program for all employees exposed to lead above the action level or who may suffer skin or eye irritation from lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide. The program must train these employees regarding the specific hazards associated with their work environment, protective measures which can be taken, including the contents of any compliance plan in effect, the danger of lead to their bodies (including their reproductive systems), and their rights under the standard. All employees must be trained prior to initial assignment to areas where there is a possibility of exposure over the action level.
This training program must also be provided at least annually thereafter unless further exposure above the action level will not occur.
(11) SignsWAC 296-155-17627.
The standard requires that the following warning sign be posted in work areas where the exposure to lead exceeds the PEL:
DANGER LEAD WORK AREA
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS AREA
Prior to June 1, 2016, you may use the following legend in lieu of that specified above:
WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING
(12) RecordkeepingWAC 296-155-17629.
Your employer is required to keep all records of exposure monitoring for airborne lead. These records must include the name and job classification of employees measured, details of the sampling and analytical techniques, the results of this sampling, and the type of respiratory protection being worn by the person sampled. Such records are to be retained for at least 30 years. Your employer is also required to keep all records of biological monitoring and medical examination results. These records must include the names of the employees, the physician's written opinion, and a copy of the results of the examination. Medical records must be preserved and maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years. However, if the employee's duration of employment is less than one year, the employer need not retain that employee's medical records beyond the period of employment if they are provided to the employee upon termination of employment.
Recordkeeping is also required if you are temporarily removed from your job under the medical removal protection program. This record must include your name and Social Security number, the date of your removal and return, how the removal was or is being accomplished, and whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level. Your employer is required to keep each medical removal record only for as long as the duration of an employee's employment.
The standard requires that if you request to see or copy environmental monitoring, blood lead level monitoring, or medical removal records, they must be made available to you or to a representative that you authorize. Your union also has access to these records. Medical records other than BLL's must also be provided upon request to you, to your physician or to any other person whom you may specifically designate. Your union does not have access to your personal medical records unless you authorize their access.
(13) Observation of monitoringWAC 296-155-17631.
When air monitoring for lead is performed at your workplace as required by this standard, your employer must allow you or someone you designate to act as an observer of the monitoring. Observers are entitled to an explanation of the measurement procedure, and to record the results obtained. Since results will not normally be available at the time of the monitoring, observers are entitled to record or receive the results of the monitoring when returned by the laboratory. Your employer is required to provide the observer with any personal protective devices required to be worn by employees working in the area that is being monitored. The employer must require the observer to wear all such equipment and to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
(14) Startup dateWAC 296-155-17635.
Employer obligations under the standard begin as of that date with full implementation of engineering controls as soon as possible but no later than within four months, and all other provisions completed as soon as possible, but no later than within two months from the effective date.
(15) For additional information.
(a) A copy of the standard for lead in construction can be obtained free of charge by calling or writing to the department of labor and industries, Post Office Box 44620, Mailstop 44620, Olympia, Washington 98504-4620: Telephone (360) 956-5527.
(b) Additional information about the standard, its enforcement, and your employer's compliance can be obtained from the nearest office listed in your telephone directory under the state of Washington, department of labor and industries.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17652, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-17652, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-17652, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-17652, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17652, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-17654
Appendix C to WAC 296-155-176Medical surveillance guidelines.

(1) Introduction.
The primary purpose of the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973 is to assure, so far as possible, safe and healthful working conditions for every working person. The occupational health standard for lead in construction is designed to protect workers exposed to inorganic lead including metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds and organic lead soaps.
Under this standard occupational exposure to inorganic lead is to be limited to 50 µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter) based on an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). This permissible exposure limit (PEL) must be achieved through a combination of engineering, work practice and administrative controls to the extent feasible. Where these controls are in place but are found not to reduce employee exposures to or below the PEL, they must be used nonetheless, and supplemented with respirators to meet the 50 µg/m3 exposure limit.
The standard also provides for a program of biological monitoring for employees exposed to lead above the action level at any time, and additional medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of inorganic lead above 30 µg/m3 (TWA) for more than 30 days per year and whose BLL exceeds 40 µg/dl.
The purpose of this document is to outline the medical surveillance provisions of the standard for inorganic lead in construction, and to provide further information to the physician regarding the examination and evaluation of workers exposed to inorganic lead.
Subsection (2) provides a detailed description of the monitoring procedure including the required frequency of blood testing for exposed workers, provisions for medical removal protection (MRP), the recommended right of the employee to a second medical opinion, and notification and recordkeeping requirements of the employer. A discussion of the requirements for respirator use and respirator monitoring and DOSH's position on prophylactic chelation therapy are also included in this subsection.
Subsection (3) discusses the toxic effects and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning and effects of lead intoxication on enzymatic pathways in heme synthesis. The adverse effects on both male and female reproductive capacity and on the fetus are also discussed.
Subsection (4) outlines the recommended medical evaluation of the worker exposed to inorganic lead, including details of the medical history, physical examination, and recommended laboratory tests, which are based on the toxic effects of lead as discussed in subsection (3).
Subsection (5) provides detailed information concerning the laboratory tests available for the monitoring of exposed workers. Included also is a discussion of the relative value of each test and the limitations and precautions which are necessary in the interpretation of the laboratory results.
(2) Medical surveillance and monitoring requirements for workers exposed to inorganic lead.
Under the standard for inorganic lead in the construction industry, initial medical surveillance consisting of biological monitoring to include blood lead and ZPP level determination must be provided to employees exposed to lead at or above the action level on any one day. In addition, a program of biological monitoring is to be made available to all employees exposed above the action level at any time and additional medical surveillance is to be made available to all employees exposed to lead above 30 µg/m3 TWA for more than 30 days each year and whose BLL exceeds 40 µg/dl. This program consists of periodic blood sampling and medical evaluation to be performed on a schedule which is defined by previous laboratory results, worker complaints or concerns, and the clinical assessment of the examining physician.
Under this program, the blood lead level (BLL) of all employees who are exposed to lead above 30 µg/m3 for more than 30 days per year or whose blood lead is above 40 µg/dl but exposed for no more than 30 days per year is to be determined at least every two months for the first 6 months of exposure and every 6 months thereafter. The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was 40 µg/dl or above. For employees who are removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead, a new blood lead level must be measured monthly. A zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) measurement is strongly recommended on each occasion that a blood lead level measurement is made.
An annual medical examination and consultation performed under the guidelines discussed in subsection (4) is to be made available to each employee exposed above 30 µg/m3 for more than 30 days per year for whom a blood test conducted at any time during the preceding 12 months indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/dl. Also, an examination is to be given to all employees prior to their assignment to an area in which airborne lead concentrations reach or exceed the 30 µg/m3 for more than 30 days per year. In addition, a medical examination must be provided as soon as possible after notification by an employee that the employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead intoxication, that the employee desires medical advice regarding lead exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child, or that the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during respirator use. An examination is also to be made available to each employee removed from exposure to lead due to a risk of sustaining material impairment to health, or otherwise limited or specially protected pursuant to medical recommendations.
Results of biological monitoring or the recommendations of an examining physician may necessitate removal of an employee from further lead exposure pursuant to the standard's medical removal protection (MRP) program. The object of the MRP program is to provide temporary medical removal to workers either with substantially elevated blood lead levels or otherwise at risk of sustaining material health impairment from continued substantial exposure to lead.
Under the standard's ultimate worker removal criteria, a worker is to be removed from any work having an 8 hour TWA exposure to lead of 30 µg/m3 when their blood lead level reaches 50 µg/dl and is confirmed by a second follow-up blood lead level performed within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test. Return of the employee to their job status depends on a worker's blood lead level declining to 40 µg/dl.
As part of the standard, the employer is required to notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level exceeds 40 µg/dl. In addition each such employee is to be informed that the standard requires medical removal with MRP benefits, discussed below, when an employee's blood lead level exceeds the above defined limit.
In addition to the above blood lead level criterion, temporary worker removal may also take place as a result of medical determinations and recommendations. Written medical opinions must be prepared after each examination pursuant to the standard. If the examining physician includes a medical finding, determination or opinion that the employee has a medical condition which places the employee at increased risk of material health impairment from exposure to lead, then the employee must be removed from exposure to lead at or above 30 µg/m3. Alternatively, if the examining physician recommends special protective measures for an employee (e.g., use of a powered air purifying respirator) or recommends limitations on an employee's exposure to lead, then the employer must implement these recommendations.
Recommendations may be more stringent than the specific provisions of the standard. The examining physician, therefore, is given broad flexibility to tailor special protective procedures to the needs of individual employees. This flexibility extends to the evaluation and management of pregnant workers and male and female workers who are planning to raise children. Based on the history, physical examination, and laboratory studies, the physician might recommend special protective measures or medical removal for an employee who is pregnant or who is planning to conceive a child when, in the physician's judgment, continued exposure to lead at the current job would pose a significant risk. The return of the employee to their former job status, or the removal of special protections or limitations, depends upon the examining physician determining that the employee is no longer at increased risk of material impairment or that special measures are no longer needed.
During the period of any form of special protection or removal, the employer must maintain the worker's earnings, seniority, and other employment rights and benefits (as though the worker had not been removed) for a period of up to 18 months or for as long as the job the employee was removed from lasts if less than eighteen months. This economic protection will maximize meaningful worker participation in the medical surveillance program, and is appropriate as part of the employer's overall obligation to provide a safe and healthful workplace. The provisions of MRP benefits during the employee's removal period may, however, be conditioned upon participation in medical surveillance.
The lead standard provides for a multiple physician review in cases where the employee wishes a second opinion concerning potential lead poisoning or toxicity. If an employee wishes a second opinion, they can make an appointment with a physician of their choice. This second physician will review the findings, recommendations or determinations of the first physician and conduct any examinations, consultations or tests deemed necessary in an attempt to make a final medical determination. If the first and second physicians do not agree in their assessment they must try to resolve their differences. If they cannot reach an agreement then they must designate a third physician to resolve the dispute.
The employer must provide examining and consulting physicians with the following specific information: A copy of the lead regulations and all appendices, a description of the employee's duties as related to exposure, the exposure level or anticipated level to lead and any other toxic substances (if applicable), a description of personal protective equipment used, blood lead levels, and all prior written medical opinions regarding the employee in the employer's possession or control. The employer must also obtain from the physician and provide the employee with a written medical opinion containing blood lead levels, the physician's opinion as to whether the employee is at risk of material impairment to health, any recommended protective measures for the employee if further exposure is permitted, as well as any recommended limitations upon an employee's use of respirators.
Employers must instruct each physician not to reveal to the employer in writing or in any other way their findings, laboratory results, or diagnoses which are felt to be unrelated to occupational lead exposure. They must also instruct each physician to advise the employee of any occupationally or non-occupationally related medical condition requiring further treatment or evaluation.
The standard provides for the use of respirators where engineering and other primary controls are not effective. However, the use of respirator protection must not be used in lieu of temporary medical removal due to elevated blood lead levels or findings that an employee is at risk of material health impairment. This is based on the numerous inadequacies of respirators including skin rash where the facepiece makes contact with the skin, unacceptable stress to breathing in some workers with underlying cardiopulmonary impairment, difficulty in providing adequate fit, the tendency for respirators to create additional hazards by interfering with vision, hearing, and mobility, and the difficulties of assuring the maximum effectiveness of a complicated work practice program involving respirators. Respirators do, however, serve a useful function where engineering and work practice controls are inadequate by providing supplementary, interim, or short-term protection, provided they are properly selected for the environment in which the employee will be working, properly fitted to the employee, maintained and cleaned periodically, and worn by the employee when required.
In its standard on occupational exposure to inorganic lead in the construction industry, DOSH has prohibited prophylactic chelation. Diagnostic and therapeutic chelation are permitted only under the supervision of a licensed physician with appropriate medical monitoring in an acceptable clinical setting. The decision to initiate chelation therapy must be made on an individual basis and take into account the severity of symptoms felt to be a result of lead toxicity along with blood lead levels, ZPP levels, and other laboratory tests as appropriate. EDTA and penicillamine which are the primary chelating agents used in the therapy of occupational lead poisoning have significant potential side effects and their use must be justified on the basis of expected benefits to the worker. Unless frank and severe symptoms are present, therapeutic chelation is not recommended, given the opportunity to remove a worker from exposure and allow the body to naturally excrete accumulated lead. As a diagnostic aid, the chelation mobilization test using CA-EDTA has limited applicability. According to some investigators, the test can differentiate between lead-induced and other nephropathies. The test may also provide an estimation of the mobile fraction of the total body lead burden.
Employers are required to assure that accurate records are maintained on exposure assessment, including environmental monitoring, medical surveillance, and medical removal for each employee. Exposure assessment records must be kept for at least 30 years. Medical surveillance records must be kept for the duration of employment plus 30 years except in cases where the employment was less than one year. If duration of employment is less than one year, the employer need not retain this record beyond the term of employment if the record is provided to the employee upon termination of employment. Medical removal records also must be maintained for the duration of employment. All records required under the standard must be made available upon request to the director. Employers must also make environmental and biological monitoring and medical removal records available to affected employees and to former employees or their authorized employee representatives. Employees or their specifically designated representatives have access to their entire medical surveillance records.
In addition, the standard requires that the employer inform all workers exposed to lead at or above 30 µg/m3 of the provisions of the standard and all its appendices, the purpose and description of medical surveillance and provisions for medical removal protection if temporary removal is required. An understanding of the potential health effects of lead exposure by all exposed employees along with full understanding of their rights under the lead standard is essential for an effective monitoring program.
(3) Adverse health effects of inorganic lead.
Although the toxicity of lead has been known for 2,000 years, the knowledge of the complex relationship between lead exposure and human response is still being refined. Significant research into the toxic properties of lead continues throughout the world, and it should be anticipated that our understanding of thresholds of effects and margins of safety will be improved in future years. The provisions of the lead standard are founded on two prime medical judgments: First, the prevention of adverse health effects from exposure to lead throughout a working lifetime requires that worker blood lead levels be maintained at or below 40 µg/dl and second, the blood lead levels of workers, male or female, who intend to parent in the near future should be maintained below 30 µg/dl to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and developing fetus. The adverse effects of lead on reproduction are being actively researched and DOSH encourages the physician to remain abreast of recent developments in the area to best advise pregnant workers or workers planning to conceive children.
The spectrum of health effects caused by lead exposure can be subdivided into 5 developmental stages: Normal, physiological changes of uncertain significance, pathophysiological changes, overt symptoms (morbidity), and mortality. Within this process there are no sharp distinctions, but rather a continuum of effects. Boundaries between categories overlap due to the wide variation of individual responses and exposures in the working population. DOSH's development of the lead standard focused on pathophysiological changes as well as later stages of disease.
(a) Heme synthesis inhibition. The earliest demonstrated effect of lead involves its ability to inhibit at least two enzymes of the heme synthesis pathway at very low blood levels. Inhibition of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D) which catalyzes the conversion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to protoporphyrin is observed at a blood lead level below 20 µg/dl. At a blood lead level of 40 µg/dl, more than 20% of the population would have 70% inhibition of ALA-D. There is an exponential increase in ALA excretion at blood lead levels greater than 40 µg/dl.
Another enzyme, ferrochelatase, is also inhibited at low blood lead levels. Inhibition of ferrochelatase leads to increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in the blood which can then bind to zinc to yield zinc protoporphyrin. At a blood lead level of 50 µg/dl or greater, nearly 100% of the population will have an increase in FEP. There is also an exponential relationship between blood lead levels greater than 40 µg/dl and the associated ZPP level, which has led to the development of the ZPP screening test for lead exposure.
While the significance of these effects is subject to debate, it is DOSH's position that these enzyme disturbances are early stages of a disease process which may eventually result in the clinical symptoms of lead poisoning. Whether or not the effects do progress to the later stages of clinical disease, disruption of these enzyme processes over a working lifetime is considered to be a material impairment of health.
One of the eventual results of lead-induced inhibition of enzymes in the heme synthesis pathway is anemia which can be asymptomatic if mild but associated with a wide array of symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, and tachycardia when more severe. Studies have indicated that lead levels as low as 50 µg/dl can be associated with a definite decreased hemoglobin, although most cases of lead-induced anemia, as well as shortened red-cell survival times, occur at lead levels exceeding 80 µg/dl. Inhibited hemoglobin synthesis is more common in chronic cases whereas shortened erythrocyte life span is more common in acute cases.
In lead-induced anemias, there is usually a reticulocytosis along with the presence of basophilic stippling, and ringed sideroblasts, although none of the above are pathognomonic for lead-induced anemia.
(b) Neurological effects. Inorganic lead has been found to have toxic effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The earliest stages of lead-induced central nervous system effects first manifest themselves in the form of behavioral disturbances and central nervous system symptoms including irritability, restlessness, insomnia and other sleep disturbances, fatigue, vertigo, headache, poor memory, tremor, depression, and apathy. With more severe exposure, symptoms can progress to drowsiness, stupor, hallucinations, delirium, convulsions and coma.
The most severe and acute form of lead poisoning which usually follows ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of lead is acute encephalopathy which may arise precipitously with the onset of intractable seizures, coma, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death within 48 hours.
While there is disagreement about what exposure levels are needed to produce the earliest symptoms, most experts agree that symptoms definitely can occur at blood lead levels of 60 µg/dl whole blood and therefore recommend a 40 µg/dl maximum. The central nervous system effects frequently are not reversible following discontinued exposure or chelation therapy and when improvement does occur, it is almost always only partial.
The peripheral neuropathy resulting from lead exposure characteristically involves only motor function with minimal sensory damage and has a marked predilection for the extensor muscles of the most active extremity. The peripheral neuropathy can occur with varying degrees of severity. The earliest and mildest form which can be detected in workers with blood lead levels as low as 50 µg/dl is manifested by slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity often without clinical symptoms. With progression of the neuropathy there is development of painless extensor muscle weakness usually involving the extensor muscles of the fingers and hand in the most active upper extremity, followed in severe cases by wrist drop or, much less commonly, foot drop.
In addition to slowing of nerve conduction, electromyographical studies in patients with blood lead levels greater than 50 µg/dl have demonstrated a decrease in the number of acting motor unit potentials, an increase in the duration of motor unit potentials, and spontaneous pathological activity including fibrillations and fasciculations. Whether these effects occur at levels of 40 µg/dl is undetermined.
While the peripheral neuropathies can occasionally be reversed with therapy, again such recovery is not assured particularly in the more severe neuropathies and often improvement is only partial. The lack of reversibility is felt to be due in part to segmental demyelination.
(c) Gastrointestinal. Lead may also affect the gastrointestinal system producing abdominal colic or diffuse abdominal pain, constipation, obstipation, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Lead colic rarely develops at blood lead levels below 80 µg/dl.
(d) Renal. Renal toxicity represents one of the most serious health effects of lead poisoning. In the early stages of disease nuclear inclusion bodies can frequently be identified in proximal renal tubular cells. Renal function remains normal and the changes in this stage are probably reversible. With more advanced disease there is progressive interstitial fibrosis and impaired renal function. Eventually extensive interstitial fibrosis ensues with sclerotic glomeruli and dilated and atrophied proximal tubules; all represent end stage kidney disease. Azotemia can be progressive, eventually resulting in frank uremia necessitating dialysis. There is occasionally associated hypertension and hyperuricemia with or without gout.
Early kidney disease is difficult to detect. The urinalysis is normal in early lead nephropathy and the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine increase only when two-thirds of kidney function is lost. Measurement of creatinine clearance can often detect earlier disease as can other methods of measurement of glomerular filtration rate. An abnormal Ca-EDTA mobilization test has been used to differentiate between lead-induced and other nephropathies, but this procedure is not widely accepted. A form of Fanconi syndrome with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, and hyperphosphaturia indicating severe injury to the proximal renal tubules is occasionally seen in children.
(e) Reproductive effects. Exposure to lead can have serious effects on reproductive function in both males and females. In male workers exposed to lead there can be a decrease in sexual drive, impotence, decreased ability to produce healthy sperm, and sterility. Malformed sperm (teratospermia), decreased number of sperm (hypospermia), and sperm with decreased motility (asthenospermia) can all occur. Teratospermia has been noted at mean blood lead levels of 53 µg/dl and hypospermia and asthenospermia at 41 µg/dl. Furthermore, there appears to be a dose-response relationship for teratospermia in lead exposed workers.
Women exposed to lead may experience menstrual disturbances including dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia and amenorrhea. Following exposure to lead, women have a higher frequency of sterility, premature births, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths.
Germ cells can be affected by lead and cause genetic damage in the egg or sperm cells before conception and result in failure to implant, miscarriage, stillbirth, or birth defects.
Infants of mothers with lead poisoning have a higher mortality during the first year and suffer from lowered birth weights, slower growth, and nervous system disorders.
Lead can pass through the placental barrier and lead levels in the mother's blood are comparable to concentrations of lead in the umbilical cord at birth. Transplacental passage becomes detectable at 12-14 weeks of gestation and increases until birth.
There is little direct data on damage to the fetus from exposure to lead but it is generally assumed that the fetus and newborn would be at least as susceptible to neurological damage as young children. Blood lead levels of 50-60 µg/dl in children can cause significant neurobehavioral impairments and there is evidence of hyperactivity at blood levels as low as 25 µg/dl. Given the overall body of literature concerning the adverse health effects of lead in children, DOSH feels that the blood lead level in children should be maintained below 30 µg/dl with a population mean of 15 µg/dl. Blood lead levels in the fetus and newborn likewise should not exceed 30 µg/dl.
Because of lead's ability to pass through the placental barrier and also because of the demonstrated adverse effects of lead on reproductive function in both the male and female as well as the risk of genetic damage of lead on both the ovum and sperm, DOSH recommends a 30 µg/dl maximum permissible blood lead level in both males and females who wish to bear children.
(f) Other toxic effects. Debate and research continue on the effects of lead on the human body. Hypertension has frequently been noted in occupationally exposed individuals although it is difficult to assess whether this is due to lead's adverse effects on the kidney or if some other mechanism is involved. Vascular and electrocardiographic changes have been detected but have not been well characterized. Lead is thought to impair thyroid function and interfere with the pituitary-adrenal axis, but again these effects have not been well defined.
(4) Medical evaluation.
The most important principle in evaluating a worker for any occupational disease including lead poisoning is a high index of suspicion on the part of the examining physician. As discussed in section (3), lead can affect numerous organ systems and produce a wide array of signs and symptoms, most of which are non-specific and subtle in nature at least in the early stages of disease. Unless serious concern for lead toxicity is present, many of the early clues to diagnosis may easily be overlooked.
The crucial initial step in the medical evaluation is recognizing that a worker's employment can result in exposure to lead. The worker will frequently be able to define exposures to lead and lead containing materials but often will not volunteer this information unless specifically asked. In other situations the worker may not know of any exposures to lead but the suspicion might be raised on the part of the physician because of the industry or occupation of the worker. Potential occupational exposure to lead and its compounds occur in many occupations in the construction industry, including demolition and salvaging operations, removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead, construction, alteration, repair or renovation of structures containing lead, transportation, disposal, storage or containment of lead or lead-containing materials on construction sites, and maintenance operations associated with construction activities.
Once the possibility for lead exposure is raised, the focus can then be directed toward eliciting information from the medical history, physical exam, and finally from laboratory data to evaluate the worker for potential lead toxicity.
A complete and detailed work history is important in the initial evaluation. A listing of all previous employment with information on job description, exposure to fumes or dust, known exposures to lead or other toxic substances, a description of any personal protective equipment used, and previous medical surveillance should all be included in the worker's record. Where exposure to lead is suspected, information concerning on-the-job personal hygiene, smoking or eating habits in work areas, laundry procedures, and use of any protective clothing or respiratory protection equipment should be noted. A complete work history is essential in the medical evaluation of a worker with suspected lead toxicity, especially when long term effects such as neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are considered.
The medical history is also of fundamental importance and should include a listing of all past and current medical conditions, current medications including proprietary drug intake, previous surgeries and hospitalizations, allergies, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and also nonoccupational lead exposures such as hobbies (hunting, riflery). Also known childhood exposures should be elicited. Any previous history of hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, psychological, gynecological, genetic, or reproductive problems should be specifically noted.
A careful and complete review of systems must be performed to assess both recognized complaints and subtle or slowly acquired symptoms which the worker might not appreciate as being significant. The review of symptoms should include the following:
GeneralWeight loss, fatigue, decreased appetite.
Head, eyes, ears, nose, throat (HEENT)Headaches, visual disturbances or decreased visual acuity, hearing deficits or tinnitus, pigmentation of the oral mucosa, or metallic taste in mouth.
Cardio-pulmonaryShortness of breath, cough, chest pains, palpitations, or orthopnea.
GastrointestinalNausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea.
NeurologicIrritability, insomnia, weakness (fatigue), dizziness, loss of memory, confusion, hallucinations, incoordination, ataxia, decreased strength in hands or feet, disturbances in gait, difficulty in climbing stairs, or seizures.
HematologicPallor, easy fatigability, abnormal blood loss, melena.
Reproductive (male and female and spouse where relevant)History of infertility, impotence, loss of libido, abnormal menstrual periods, history of miscarriages, stillbirths, or children with birth defects.
Musculo-skeletalMuscle and joint pains.
The physical examination should emphasize the neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems. The worker's weight and blood pressure should be recorded and the oral mucosa checked for pigmentation characteristic of a possible Burtonian or lead line on the gingiva. It should be noted, however, that the lead line may not be present even in severe lead poisoning if good oral hygiene is practiced.
The presence of pallor on skin examination may indicate an anemia which, if severe, might also be associated with a tachycardia. If an anemia is suspected, an active search for blood loss should be undertaken including potential blood loss through the gastrointestinal tract.
A complete neurological examination should include an adequate mental status evaluation including a search for behavioral and psychological disturbances, memory testing, evaluation for irritability, insomnia, hallucinations, and mental clouding. Gait and coordination should be examined along with close observation for tremor. A detailed evaluation of peripheral nerve function including careful sensory and motor function testing is warranted. Strength testing particularly of extensor muscle groups of all extremities is of fundamental importance.
Cranial nerve evaluation should also be included in the routine examination.
The abdominal examination should include auscultation for bowel sounds and abdominal bruits and palpation for organomegaly, masses, and diffuse abdominal tenderness.
Cardiovascular examination should evaluate possible early signs of congestive heart failure. Pulmonary status should be addressed particularly if respirator protection is contemplated.
As part of the medical evaluation, the lead standard requires the following laboratory studies:
Blood lead level.
Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, red cell indices, and examination of the peripheral blood smear to evaluate red blood cell morphology.
Blood urea nitrogen.
Serum creatinine.
Routine urinalysis with microscopic examination.
A zinc protoporphyrin level.
In addition to the above, the physician is authorized to order any further laboratory or other tests which they deem necessary in accordance with sound medical practice. The evaluation must also include pregnancy testing or laboratory evaluation of male fertility if requested by the employee. Additional tests which are probably not warranted on a routine basis but may be appropriate when blood lead and ZPP levels are equivocal include delta aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin concentrations in the urine, and dark-field illumination for detection of basophilic stippling in red blood cells.
If an anemia is detected further studies including a careful examination of the peripheral smear, reticulocyte count, stool for occult blood, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, bilirubin, and, if appropriate, vitamin B12 and folate may be of value in attempting to identify the cause of the anemia.
If a peripheral neuropathy is suspected, nerve conduction studies are warranted both for diagnosis and as a basis to monitor any therapy.
If renal disease is questioned, a 24 hour urine collection for creatinine clearance, protein, and electrolytes may be indicated. Elevated uric acid levels may result from lead-induced renal disease and a serum uric acid level might be performed.
An electrocardiogram and chest X-ray may be obtained as deemed appropriate.
Sophisticated and highly specialized testing should not be done routinely and where indicated should be under the direction of a specialist.
(5) Laboratory evaluation.
The blood lead level at present remains the single most important test to monitor lead exposure and is the test used in the medical surveillance program under the lead standard to guide employee medical removal. The ZPP has several advantages over the blood lead level. Because of its relatively recent development and the lack of extensive data concerning its interpretation, the ZPP currently remains an ancillary test.
This section will discuss the blood lead level and ZPP in detail and will outline their relative advantages and disadvantages. Other blood tests currently available to evaluate lead exposure will also be reviewed.
The blood lead level is a good index of current or recent lead absorption when there is no anemia present and when the worker has not taken any chelating agents. However, blood lead levels along with urinary lead levels do not necessarily indicate the total body burden of lead and are not adequate measures of past exposure. One reason for this is that lead has a high affinity for bone and up to 90% of the body's total lead is deposited there. A very important component of the total lead body burden is lead in soft tissue (liver, kidney, and brain). This fraction of the lead body burden, the biologically active lead, is not entirely reflected by blood lead levels since it is a function of the dynamics of lead absorption, distribution, deposition in bone and excretion. Following discontinuation of exposure to lead, the excess body burden is only slowly mobilized from bone and other relatively stable body stores and excreted. Consequently, a high blood lead level may only represent recent heavy exposure to lead without a significant total body excess and likewise a low blood lead level does not exclude an elevated total body burden of lead.
Also due to its correlation with recent exposures, the blood lead level may vary considerably over short time intervals.
To minimize laboratory error and erroneous results due to contamination, blood specimens must be carefully collected after thorough cleaning of the skin with appropriate methods using lead-free blood containers and analyzed by a reliable laboratory. Under the standard, samples must be analyzed in laboratories which are approved by OSHA. Analysis is to be made using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, anodic stripping voltammetry or any method which meets the accuracy requirements set forth by the standard.
The determination of lead in urine is generally considered a less reliable monitoring technique than analysis of whole blood primarily due to individual variability in urinary excretion capacity as well as the technical difficulty of obtaining accurate 24 hour urine collections. In addition, workers with renal insufficiency, whether due to lead or some other cause, may have decreased lead clearance and consequently urine lead levels may underestimate the true lead burden. Therefore, urine lead levels should not be used as a routine test.
The zinc protoporphyrin test, unlike the blood lead determination, measures an adverse metabolic effect of lead and as such is a better indicator of lead toxicity than the level of blood lead itself. The level of ZPP reflects lead absorption over the preceding three to four months, and therefore is a better indicator of lead body burden. The ZPP requires more time than the blood lead to read significantly elevated levels; the return to normal after discontinuing lead exposure is also slower. Furthermore, the ZPP test is simpler, faster, and less expensive to perform and no contamination is possible. Many investigators believe it is the most reliable means of monitoring chronic lead absorption.
Zinc protoporphyrin results from the inhibition of the enzyme ferrochelatase which catalyzes the insertion of an iron molecule into the protoporphyrin molecule, which then becomes heme. If iron is not inserted into the molecule then zinc, having a greater affinity for protoporphyrin, takes the place of the iron, forming ZPP.
An elevation in the level of circulating ZPP may occur at blood lead levels as low as 20-30 µg/dl in some workers. Once the blood lead level has reached 40 µg/dl there is more marked rise in the ZPP value from its normal range of less than 100 µg/dl 100 ml. Increases in blood lead levels beyond 40 µg/100 g are associated with exponential increases in ZPP.
Whereas blood lead levels fluctuate over short time spans, ZPP levels remain relatively stable. ZPP is measured directly in red blood cells and is present for the cell's entire 120 day life-span. Therefore, the ZPP level in blood reflects the average ZPP production over the previous 3-4 months and consequently the average lead exposure during that time interval.
It is recommended that a hematocrit be determined whenever a confirmed ZPP of 50 µg/100 ml whole blood is obtained to rule out a significant underlying anemia. If the ZPP is in excess of 100 µg/100 ml and not associated with abnormal elevations in blood lead levels, the laboratory should be checked to be sure that blood leads were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry anodic stripping voltammetry, or any method which meets the accuracy requirements set forth by the standard by an OSHA approved laboratory which is experienced in lead level determinations. Repeat periodic blood lead studies should be obtained in all individuals with elevated ZPP levels to be certain that an associated elevated blood lead level has not been missed due to transient fluctuations in blood leads.
ZPP has a characteristic fluorescence spectrum with a peak at 594 nm which is detectable with a hematofluorimeter. The hematofluorimeter is accurate and portable and can provide on-site, instantaneous results for workers who can be frequently tested via a finger prick.
Careful attention must be given to calibration and quality control procedures. Limited data on blood lead-ZPP correlations and the ZPP levels which are associated with the adverse health effects discussed in subsection (3) are the major limitations of the test. Also it is difficult to correlate ZPP levels with environmental exposure and there is some variation of response with age and sex. Nevertheless, the ZPP promises to be an important diagnostic test for the early detection of lead toxicity and its value will increase as more data is collected regarding its relationship to other manifestations of lead poisoning.
Levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the urine are also used as a measure of lead exposure. Increasing concentrations of ALA are believed to result from the inhibition of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALA-D). Although the test is relatively easy to perform, inexpensive, and rapid, the disadvantages include variability in results, the necessity to collect a complete 24 hour urine sample which has a specific gravity greater than 1.010, and also the fact that ALA decomposes in the presence of light.
The pattern of porphyrin excretion in the urine can also be helpful in identifying lead intoxication. With lead poisoning, the urine concentrations of coproporphyrins I and II, porphobilinogen and uroporphyrin I rise. The most important increase, however, is that of coproporphyrin III; levels may exceed 5,000 µg/l in the urine in lead poisoned individuals, but its correlation with blood lead levels and ZPP are not as good as those of ALA. Increases in urinary porphyrins are not diagnostic of lead toxicity and may be seen in porphyria, some liver diseases, and in patients with high reticulocyte counts.
Summary. The Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act's standard for inorganic lead in the construction industry places significant emphasis on the medical surveillance of all workers exposed to levels of inorganic lead above 30 µg/m3 TWA. The physician has a fundamental role in this surveillance program, and in the operation of the medical removal protection program.
Even with adequate worker education on the adverse health effects of lead and appropriate training in work practices, personal hygiene and other control measures, the physician has a primary responsibility for evaluating potential lead toxicity in the worker. It is only through a careful and detailed medical and work history, a complete physical examination and appropriate laboratory testing that an accurate assessment can be made. Many of the adverse health effects of lead toxicity are either irreversible or only partially reversible and therefore early detection of disease is very important.
This document outlines the medical monitoring program as defined by the occupational safety and health standard for inorganic lead. It reviews the adverse health effects of lead poisoning and describes the important elements of the history and physical examinations as they relate to these adverse effects. Finally, the appropriate laboratory testing for evaluating lead exposure and toxicity is presented.
It is hoped that this review and discussion will give the physician a better understanding of the DOSH standard with the ultimate goal of protecting the health and well-being of the worker exposed to lead under their care.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-17654, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 93-22-054 (Order 93-07), § 296-155-17654, filed 10/29/93, effective 12/10/93.]



296-155-180
Hazard communication.

General.
You must develop and maintain a hazard communication program as required by WAC 296-901-14010, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-180, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-180, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-180, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-16-145, § 296-155-180, filed 8/3/94, effective 9/12/94; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-180, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]



296-155-200
General requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE).

(1) Supplying personal protective equipment.
(a) You must use personal protective equipment (PPE) wherever physical contact, absorption, or inhalation of a hazard could cause any injury or impairment to the function of any part of the body.
These hazards include:
• Hazardous processes;
• Environmental hazards;
• Chemical hazards;
• Radiological hazards;
or
• Mechanical irritants.
Note:
PPE includes:
 
• Protective equipment for eyes, face, head, hearing, and extremities;
 
• Protective clothing;
 
• Respiratory devices;
 
and
 
• Protective shields and barriers.
(b) You must maintain PPE in a sanitary and reliable condition.
Reference:
For requirements on maintaining specific personal protective equipment (PPE), see the following rules.
 
• Chapter 296-842 WAC, Respirators;
 
and
 
• Chapter 296-817 WAC, Hearing loss prevention.
(c) If employees provide their own protective equipment, then you are responsible to make sure the PPE is:
• Adequate;
• Properly maintained;
and
• Sanitary.
(d) All personal protective equipment must be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed.
(2) Minimum clothing requirements.
(a) You must ensure that employees wear at least:
• A short-sleeved shirt;
• Long pants;
and
• Shoes that meet the requirements of WAC 296-155-212, Foot protection.
Definition:
A short-sleeved shirt covers the top of the shoulder and has material extending down the arm. If a short-sleeved shirt has a seam at the end of the shoulder, the material must extend down the arm from the seam.
Long pants have legs that extend past the knee when the wearer stands and leaves no exposed skin on the lower leg.
(b) Where there is a danger of contact with moving parts of machinery, or the work process is such that a hazard exists:
• The clothing of employees must fit closely about the body.
• Dangling neck wear, bracelets, wristwatches, rings, or similar articles must not be worn by employees.
Note:
For additional related requirements see WAC 296-155-205, Head protection.
(3) You must require employees to wear appropriate PPE in all operations where:
• There is an exposure to hazardous conditions;
or
• WAC 296-155-200, General requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE), indicates a need for using such equipment to reduce the hazards to the employees.
(4) Employees must comply with job safety practices and procedures and PPE requirements that are relevant to the job site.
(5) High visibility garments.
(a) During daylight hours, when employees' duties are performed in close proximity to moving vehicles, you must make sure that employees wear a high-visibility safety vest, shirt, or jacket that is fluorescent yellow-green, fluorescent orange-red, or fluorescent red in color. This garment must always be worn as an outer garment.
Definition:
For the purpose of this rule, hours of darkness means from one-half hour before sunset to one-half hour after sunrise.
(b) During hours of darkness, when employees' duties are performed in close proximity to moving vehicles, you must make sure that employees wear, at a minimum, a high-visibility safety vest, shirt, or jacket:
• Designed according to ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 Class 2 specifications;
• Worn as an outer garment;
and
• Worn to provide 360 degrees of visibility around the employee.
Note:
A high-visibility garment meets Class 2 specifications if the garment:
 
• Has an ANSI "Class 2" label;
 
or
 
• Has at least 775 square inches of background material and 201 square inches of retroflective material that encircles the torso and is placed to provide 360 degrees of visibility around the employee.
Note:
• Fading and soiling may degrade the high-visibility characteristics of the garments.
 
• ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 is available by:
 
– Purchasing copies of ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 by writing:
 
– American National Standards Institute
 
11 West 42nd Street
 
New York, NY 10036
 
or
 
– Contacting the ANSI web site at http://web.ansi.org/.
 
or
 
• Reading a copy of ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 at any Washington state library.
(6) Payment for PPE. Except as provided in (a) through (e) of this subsection, the protective equipment, including PPE, used to comply with this chapter must be provided by the employer at no cost to employees.
(a) You are not required to pay for nonspecialty safety-toe protective footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and nonspecialty prescription safety eyewear, provided that the employer permits such items to be worn off the job site.
(b) When you provide metatarsal guards and allow the employee, at their request, to use shoes or boots with built-in metatarsal protection, you are not required to reimburse the employee for the shoes or boots.
(c) You are not required to pay for:
• Everyday clothing, such as long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes, and normal work boots;
• Ordinary clothing, skin creams, or other items used solely for protection from weather, such as winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots, hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen.
(d) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or intentionally damaged the PPE.
(e) Where an employee provides adequate protective equipment they own to meet the requirements of this chapter, you may allow the employee to use it and is not required to reimburse the employee for that equipment. You must not require an employee to provide or pay for their own PPE, unless the PPE is excepted in (a) through (d) of this subsection.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-200, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; WSR 09-05-071, § 296-155-200, filed 2/17/09, effective 4/1/09; WSR 04-24-089, § 296-155-200, filed 12/1/04, effective 1/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-200, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-200, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-200, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, § 296-155-200, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-200, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-201
Definitions applicable to this chapter.

Catenary life line. A horizontal rope between two fixed anchorages, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is attached, either by tying or by means of a sliding connection. A catenary life line must be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5,400 pounds per person, applied at the midpoint of the line.
Contaminant. Any material which by reason of its action upon, within, or to a person or object is likely to cause physical harm.
Dropline. A vertical rope from a fixed anchorage, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is affixed or tied.
Fixed anchorage. A secure point of attachment, not a part of the work surface, for droplines, lifelines, catenary life lines, or lanyards. The fixed anchorage and its appurtenances must be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5,400 pounds per worker.
Lanyard. A rope, suitable for supporting one person. One end is fastened to a safety belt or harness and the other end is secured to a substantial object or a safety line.
Lifeline. A rope, suitable for supporting one person, to which a lanyard or safety belt (or harness) is attached.
O.D. Optical density and refers to the light refractive characteristics of a lens.
Radiant energy. Energy that travels outward in all directions from its source.
Safety belt. A device, usually worn around the waist which, by reason of its attachment to a lanyard and lifeline or a structure, will prevent a worker from falling.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-201, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-201, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-6, § 296-155-201, filed 3/1/76.]



296-155-203
Confined spaces.

All work conducted in a confined space must comply with the provisions of chapter 296-809 WAC, and the following sections.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-203, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-203, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-203, filed 1/21/86.]



296-155-20301
Definitions applicable to confined spaces.

Confined space. A space that:
(1) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
(2) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry); and
(3) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Corrosives. Substances which in contact with living tissue cause destruction of the tissue by chemical action.
Hazardous atmosphere. An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
(2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note:
This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52m) or less.
(3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5% or above 23.5%;
(4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in chapter 296-62 WAC, general occupational health standards, or chapter 296-841 WAC, Airborne contaminants, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note:
An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
(5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
Note:
For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as safety data sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, WAC 296-901-140, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
Irritants. Substances which on immediate, prolonged, or repeated contact with normal living tissue will induce a local inflammatory reaction.
Oxygen deficient atmospheres. Atmospheres at sea level having less than 19.5% oxygen by volume or having a partial pressure of 148 millimeters of mercury or less. This may deviate when working at higher altitudes and should be determined for an individual location. Factors such as acclimatization, physical condition of persons involved, etc., must be considered for such circumstances and conditions. (See chapter 296-809 WAC, Confined spaces.)
Toxicants. Substances which have the inherent capacity to produce personal injury or illness to persons by absorption through any body surface.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-20301, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-20301, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-05-062, § 296-155-20301, filed 2/20/07, effective 4/1/07; WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-20301, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-20301, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 95-17-036, § 296-155-20301, filed 8/9/95, effective 9/25/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-007, § 296-155-20301, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-155-20301, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-20301, filed 1/21/86.]



296-155-20307
Confined space work on sewer systems under construction.

New systems under construction or new installations which have not yet been connected to a used system, may substitute forced ventilation for the testing requirements of chapter 296-809 WAC provided:
(1) Ventilation is effectively provided at least 5 minutes prior to entry into the confined space;
(2) Ventilation is provided, as required by WAC 296-62-13610, et seq., which supplies a continuous flow of air;
(3) Ventilation exhaust is discharged so as to present no hazard to other employees;
(4) An attendant is provided at the surface when there are employees in the manhole or pipe. The attendant must not leave the manhole unattended until such time as all employees are out and the cover has been replaced; and
(5) All other requirements for confined spaces are observed. See chapter 296-809 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-20307, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-20307, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-20307, filed 1/21/86.]



296-155-205
Head protection.

(1) All employees on any construction site must be provided an individual hard hat which meets all requirements of (a) through (c) of this subsection.
(a) Hard hats for the protection of employees against impact and/or penetration of falling and flying objects must meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection.
(b) You must provide each employee with head protection that meets any of the following American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for industrial head protection:
(i) Z89.1-2009;
(ii) Z89.1-2003; or
(iii) Z89.1-1997.
(c) Hard hats for the head protection of employees exposed to high voltage electrical shock and burns must meet the specifications contained in American National Standards Institute, Z89.2-1971.
(2) All employees must have their individual hard hats on site and readily available at all times.
(3) All employees must wear a hard hat on any construction site whenever there is a potential exposure to danger of flying or falling objects to persons working or occupying the area.
Note:
The hard hat may be removed whenever there is no potential exposure to a hazard.
(4)(a) Employees working on asphalt paving crews exposed to extreme temperatures from hot mix and not exposed to falling objects do not have to wear protective hard hats.
(b) Flaggers working with asphalt paving operations must comply with the requirements of WAC 296-155-305.
(5) Caps with metal buttons or metal visors must not be worn around electrical hazards.
(6) Employees working near moving machinery or in locations which present a hair-catching or fire hazard must wear caps, nets or other head and face protection that will completely contain the hair.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-205, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060, and chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 14-03-013, § 296-155-205, filed 1/7/14, effective 2/10/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 09-05-071, § 296-155-205, filed 2/17/09, effective 4/1/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050, 2000 c 239, and chapter 34.05 RCW. WSR 01-04-015, § 296-155-205, filed 1/26/01, effective 2/28/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), § 296-155-205, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-205, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-205, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-205, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-210
Hearing protection.

The hearing protection requirements of chapter 296-817 WAC, Hearing loss prevention (noise), apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-11-060, § 296-155-210, filed 5/19/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-155-210, filed 11/30/83; Order 74-26, § 296-155-210, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-211
Leg protection.

Employees whose duties require them to operate a power chain saw must wear flexible ballistic nylon pads, sewn or otherwise fastened into the trousers, or other equivalent protection that will protect the vulnerable areas of the legs.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-211, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-211, filed 1/21/86.]



296-155-212
Foot protection.

(1) Substantial footwear, made of leather or other equally firm material, must be worn by employees in any occupation in which there is a danger of injury to the feet through falling or moving objects, or from burning, scalding, cutting, penetration, or like hazard.
(a) The soles and heels of such footwear must be of a material that will not create a slipping hazard.
(b) Shoes made of leather or other firm materials that have soft athletic-type soles which would protect employees from foot injuries and at the same time, provide soft and firm footing while working under specialty requirements or with specialty materials are acceptable if meeting safety shoe requirements established by OSHA or ANSI.
(c) Footwear that has deteriorated to a point where it does not provide the required protection must not be used.
(2) Calks or other suitable footwear, which will afford reasonable protection from slipping, must be worn while working on logs, poles, pilings, or similar forest products.
(3) Traditional tennis shoes, shoes with canvas tops, or thin or soft soled athletic shoes, open toed sandals, slippers, dress shoes or other similar type shoes must not be worn. Soft or athletic-type soles with uppers of leather or other substantial material may be used where firm footing is desired and where minimal danger of injury to feet from falling or moving objects.
(4) Safety-toe footwear for employees must meet the requirements and specifications in American National Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-212, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-212, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-155-212, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-212, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-212, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-215
Eye and face protection.

(1) General.
(a) Employees must use eye and face protection equipment when machines or operations present potential eye or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents.
(b) Eye and face protection equipment required by this part must meet the requirements specified in American National Standards Institute, Z87.1-1968, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.
(c) Employees whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in spectacles, when required by this regulation to wear eye protection, must be protected by goggles or spectacles of one of the following types:
(i) Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction;
(ii) Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the spectacles.
(iii) Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses.
(d) Face and eye protection equipment must be kept clean and in good repair. The use of this type equipment with structural or optical defects must be prohibited.
(e) Table C-1 must be used as a guide in the selection of face and eye protection for the hazards and operations noted.
(f) Protectors must meet the following minimum requirements:
(i) They must provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they are designed.
(ii) They must be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designated conditions.
(iii) They must fit snugly and must not unduly interfere with the movements of the wearer.
(iv) They must be durable.
(v) They must be capable of being disinfected.
(vi) They must be easily cleanable.
(g) Every protector must be distinctly marked to facilitate identification only of the manufacturer.
(h) When limitations or precautions are indicated by the manufacturer, they must be transmitted to the user and care taken to see that such limitations and precautions are strictly observed.
TABLE C-1
EYE AND FACE PROTECTION SELECTION GUIDE
1.
GOGGLES, flexible fitting, regular ventilation
2.
GOGGLES, flexible fitting, hooded ventilation
3.
GOGGLES, cushioned fitting, rigid body
*4.
SPECTACLES, metal frame, with sideshields
*5.
SPECTACLES, plastic frame with sideshields
*6.
SPECTACLES, metal-plastic frame, with sideshields
**7.
WELDING GOGGLES, eyecup type, tinted lenses (illustrated)
7A.
CHIPPING GOGGLES, eyecup type, clear safety lenses (not illustrated)
**8.
WELDING GOGGLES, coverspec type tinted lenses (illustrated)
8A.
CHIPPING GOGGLES, coverspec type, clear safety lenses (not illustrated)
**9.
WELDING GOGGLES, coverspec type, tinted plate lens
10.
FACE SHIELD (available with plastic or mesh window)
11.
WELDING HELMETS
*
Nonside shield spectacles are available for limited hazard use requiring only frontal protection.
**
See Table C-2 in (2) of this section, Filter lens shade numbers for protection against radiant energy.
 
APPLICATIONS
 
OPERATION
HAZARDS
 
RECOMMENDED PROTECTORS: Underscored Numbers Signify Preferred Protection
ACETYLENE-
BURNING
ACETYLENE-
CUTTING
ACETYLENE-
WELDING
SPARKS, HARMFUL
RAYS, MOLTEN
METAL, FLYING
PARTICLES
 
7, 8, 9
CHEMICAL
HANDLING
SPLASH, ACID BURNS, FUMES
 
2, 10 (for severe exposure add 10 over 2)
CHIPPING
FLYING PARTICLES
 
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A
ELECTRIC
(ARC)
WELDING
SPARKS, INTENSE
RAYS, MOLTEN
METAL
 
9, 11 (11 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses, advisable)
FURNACE
OPERATIONS
GLARE, HEAT,
MOLTEN METAL
 
7, 8, 9 (for severe exposure add 10)
GRINDING-
LIGHT
FLYING PARTICLES
 
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
GRINDING-
HEAVY
FLYING PARTICLES
 
1, 3, 7A, 8A (for severe exposure add 10)
LABORATORY
CHEMICAL SPLASH,
GLASS BREAKAGE
 
2 (10 when in combination with 4, 5, 6)
MACHINING
FLYING PARTICLES
 
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
MOLTEN
METALS
HEAT, GLARE,
SPARKS, SPLASH
 
7, 8 (10 in combination with 4, 5, 6, in tinted lenses)
SPOT WELDING
FLYING PARTICLES,
SPARKS
 
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
(2) Protection against radiant energy. (a) Selection of shade numbers for welding filter. Table C-2 must be used as a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers of filter lenses or plates used in welding. Shades more dense than those listed may be used to suit the individual's needs.
TABLE C-2
FILTER LENS SHADE NUMBERS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST
RADIANT ENERGY
Welding Operation
Shade
number
Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes. . . .
10
Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes. . . .
11
Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1/16-, 3/32-, 1/8-, 5/32-inch diameter electrodes. . . .
12
Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16-, 7/32-, 1/4-inch diameter electrodes. . . .
12
5/16-, 3/8-inch diameter electrodes. . . .
14
Atomic hydrogen welding. . . .
10-14
Carbon-arc welding. . . .
14
Soldering. . . .
2
Torch brazing. . . .
3 or 4
Light cutting, up to 1 inch. . . .
3 or 4
Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches. . . .
4 or 5
Heavy cutting, over 6 inches. . . .
5 or 6
Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-inch. . . .
4 or 5
Gas welding (medium), 1/8-inch to 1/2-inch. . . .
5 or 6
Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch. . . .
6 or 9
(b) Laser protection.
(i) Employees whose occupation or assignment requires potentially hazardous exposure (see WAC 296-62-09005(4)) to laser radiation must wear suitable laser safety goggles which will protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and be of optical density (O.D.) adequate for the energy involved. Table C-3 lists the maximum power or energy density for which adequate protection is afforded by glasses of optical densities from 5 through 8.
TABLE C-3
SELECTING LASER SAFETY GLASS
INTENSITY
ATTENUATION
CW maximum power density (watts/cm2)
Optical
density
(O.D.)
Attenuation
factor
10-2
5
105
10-1
6
106
1.0
7
107
10.0
8
108
Output levels falling between lines in this table must require the higher optical density.
(ii) All protective goggles must bear a label identifying the following data:
(a) The laser wavelengths for which use is intended;
(b) The optical density of those wavelengths.
(c) The visible light transmission.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-215, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-215, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-155-215, filed 12/11/84; Order 74-26, § 296-155-215, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-220
Respiratory protection.

The respiratory protection requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth in chapter 296-842 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-03-093, § 296-155-220, filed 1/18/05, effective 3/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040 and [49.17].050. WSR 99-10-071, § 296-155-220, filed 5/4/99, effective 9/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 83-15-017 (Order 83-19), § 296-155-220, filed 7/13/83, effective 9/12/83; Order 74-26, § 296-155-220, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-235
Working over or adjacent to water.

(1) When an employee is employed under conditions which expose them to a risk of drowning, they must wear a U.S. Coast Guard approved life saving device, unless it can be shown that conditions, such as shallow water, are such that flotation would not be achieved.
(2) Prior to and after each use, the buoyant life saving device must be inspected for defects which would alter their strength or buoyancy. Defective units must not be used.
(3) Ring buoys with at least 90 feet of line must be provided and readily available for emergency rescue operations. Distance between ring buoys must not exceed 200 feet.
(4) At least one lifesaving skiff must be immediately available at locations where employees are working over or adjacent to water. Each skiff, or skiffs, must:
(a) Be suitable for conditions where used.
(b) Be equipped with oar locks securely attached to gunwales, oars, one boat hook, and one cork ring buoy with 50 feet of suitable line attached.
(5) Whenever boats or skiffs cannot be used, due to swift currents, life lines close to the water surface must be provided and, wherever practicable, a line must be stretched across the stream with tag lines.
(6) Where workers are transported by boat or barge, only such number of persons must be carried that can be safely accommodated on fixed seats. Capacity showing number of persons must be plainly marked on vessel.
(7) All workers must be provided with a U.S. Coast Guard approved buoyant life saving device while transported in open boats and/or barges, and where deemed necessary by the department, workers must wear same while in transport.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-235, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-235, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 74-26, § 296-155-235, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-240
Sterilization of protective equipment.

Goggles, gloves, respirators and other protectors must not be interchanged among employees for use unless they have been thoroughly cleaned since last use.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-240, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16; Order 74-26, § 296-155-240, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-24601
Scope and application.

Chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1 sets forth requirements for employers to provide and enforce the use of fall protection for employees performing activities covered under this chapter.
Note:
Additional standards requiring fall protection include:
 
• Chapter 296-869 WAC, vehicle mounted aerial platforms, and boom supported elevating work platforms.
 
• Chapter 296-874 WAC, Scaffolds.
 
• Chapter 296-876 WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed.
 
• Chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J: Stairways; Part L: Cranes, rigging, and personnel lifting; Part M: Pile driving; Part O: Placing and removal of forms, and vertical slip forms; Part P: Steel erection temporary floors.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24601, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24603
Definitions.

Affected area. The distance away from the edge of an excavation equal to the depth of the excavation up to a maximum distance of 15 feet. For example, an excavation 10 feet deep has an affected area extending 10 feet from the edge of any side of the excavation.
Anchorage. A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices which is capable of withstanding the forces specified in this part.
Catch platform. A type of fall arrest system that consists of a platform installed within four vertical feet of the fall hazard, is at least 45 inches wide and is equipped with a standard guardrail system on all exposed sides.
Catenary line - See horizontal lifeline.
Competent person. An individual knowledgeable of fall protection equipment, including the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions for the proper use, inspection, and maintenance; and who is capable of identifying existing and potential fall hazards; and who has the authority to take prompt corrective action to eliminate those hazards; and who is knowledgeable of the rules contained in this part regarding the installation, use, inspection, and maintenance of fall protection equipment and systems.
Connector. A device which is used to connect parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or D-ring sewn into a harness, or a snap hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
Deceleration device. Any mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specifically woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
Deceleration distance. The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's full body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
Dropline. A vertical lifeline secured to an upper anchorage for the purpose of attaching a lanyard or device.
Equivalent. Alternative designs, materials, or methods to protect against a hazard which the employer can demonstrate and will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in this standard.
Fall arrest system. A fall protection system that will arrest a fall from elevation. Fall arrest systems include personal fall arrest systems that are worn by the user, catch platforms, and safety nets.
Fall distance. The actual distance from the worker's support to the level where a fall would stop.
Fall protection work plan. A written planning document in which the employer identifies all areas on the job site where a fall hazard of 10 feet or more exists. The plan describes the method or methods of fall protection to be used to protect employees, and includes the procedures governing the installation, use, inspection, and removal of the fall protection method or methods which are selected by the employer. See WAC 296-155-24611(2).
Fall restraint system. A system in which all necessary components function together to restrain/prevent an employee from falling to a lower level. Types of fall restraint systems include standard guardrail systems, personal fall restraint systems, warning line systems, or a warning line system and safety monitor.
Floor hole. An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than one inch in its least dimension in any floor, roof, platform, or surface through which materials but not persons may fall, such as a belt hole, pipe opening, or slot opening.
Floor opening. An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension in any floor, roof, platform, or surface through which persons may fall.
Free fall. The act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
Free fall distance. The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's full body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.
Full body harness. A configuration of connected straps that meets the requirements specified in ANSI Z359.1-2007, that may be adjustable to distribute a fall arresting force over at least the thighs, shoulders and pelvis, with provisions for attaching a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration devices.
Full body harness system. A full body harness and lanyard which is either attached to an anchorage meeting the requirements of this part; or it is attached to a horizontal or vertical lifeline which is properly secured to an anchorage(s) capable of withstanding the forces specified in this part.
Handrail. A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support.
Hardware. Snap hooks, D-rings, bucklers, carabiners, adjusters, O-rings, that are used to attach the components of a fall protection system together.
Hazardous slope. A slope where normal footing cannot be maintained without the use of devices due to the pitch of the surface, weather conditions, or surface material.
Horizontal lifeline. A rail, rope, wire, or synthetic cable that is installed in a horizontal plane between two anchorages and used for attachment of a worker's lanyard or lifeline device while moving horizontally; used to control dangerous pendulum like swing falls.
Lanyard. A flexible line of webbing, rope, or cable used to secure a positioning harness or full body harness to a lifeline or an anchorage point usually two, 4 or 6 feet long.
Leading edge. The advancing edge of a floor, roof, or formwork which changes location as additional floor, roof, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed.
Lifeline. A vertical line from a fixed anchorage or between two horizontal anchorages, independent of walking or working surfaces, to which a lanyard or device is secured. Lifeline as referred to in this text is one which is part of a fall protection system used as back-up safety for an elevated worker or as a restraint for workers on a flat or sloped surface.
Locking snap hook. A connecting snap hook that requires two separate forces to open the gate; one to deactivate the gatekeeper and a second to depress and open the gate which automatically closes when released; used to minimize roll out or accidental disengagement.
Low pitched roof. A roof having a slope equal to or less than 4 in 12.
Mechanical equipment. All motor or human propelled wheeled equipment except for wheelbarrows, mopcarts, robotic thermoplastic welders and robotic crimpers.
Personal fall arrest system. A fall arrest system that is worn by the employee to arrest the employee in a fall from elevation. It consists of an anchor point, connectors, a full body harness, and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.
Personal fall restraint system. A fall restraint system that is worn by the employee to keep the employee from reaching a fall point, such as the edge of a roof or elevated work surface. It consists of an anchor point, hardware assemblies, a full body harness and may include a lanyard, restraint lines, or suitable combinations of these.
Platform. A work surface elevated above the surrounding floor or ground.
Positioning device system. A full body harness or positioning harness that is worn by an employee, and is rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical or inclined surface, such as a wall, pole or column and work with both hands free from the body support.
Positioning harness. A body support that meets the requirements specified in ANSI Z359.3-2007 that encircles and closes around the waist and legs with attachment elements appropriate for positioning work.
Qualified person. One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his/her ability to solve or resolve problems related to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Restraint line. A line from a fixed anchorage or between two anchorages to which an employee is secured in such a way as to prevent the worker from falling to a lower level.
Roof. The exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors or formwork which, because a building has not been completed, temporarily become the top surface of a building.
Roofing work. The hoisting, storage, application, and removal of roofing materials and equipment, including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including the construction of the roof deck.
Rope grab. A fall arrester that is designed to move up or down a lifeline suspended from a fixed overhead or horizontal anchorage point, or lifeline, to which the full body harness is attached. In the event of a fall, the rope grab locks onto the lifeline rope through compression to arrest the fall. The use of a rope grab device is restricted for all restraint applications. See WAC 296-155-24615 (1)(f).
Runway. A passageway for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.
Safety line - See lifeline.
Safety monitoring system. A type of fall restraint system in which a competent person whose only job responsibility is to recognize and warn employees of their proximity to fall hazards when working between the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges, including the leading edge of a low pitch roof or other walking/working surface.
Safety net system. A type of fall arrest system, as described in WAC 296-155-24613(2).
Safety watch system. A fall protection system as described in WAC 296-155-24615(6), in which a competent person monitors one worker who is engaged in repair work or servicing equipment on low pitch roofs only.
Self-rescue device. A piece of equipment designed to allow a person, who is suspended in a personal fall arrest system, to independently rescue themselves after the fall by moving the device up or down until they reach a surface and are no longer suspended.
Self-retracting lifeline. A deceleration device which contains a wound line which may be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the device under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Shock absorbing lanyard. A flexible line of webbing, cable, or rope used to secure a full body harness to a lifeline or anchorage point that has an integral shock absorber.
Snap hook - See "locking snap hook."
Standard guardrail system. A type of fall restraint system that is a vertical barrier consisting of a top rail and mid rail, and toe board when used as falling object protection for persons who may work or pass below, that is erected along all open sides or edges of a walking/working surface, a floor opening, a floor hole, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway.
Standard strength and construction. Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of this part.
Static line - See horizontal lifeline.
Steep pitched roof. A roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12.
Toe board. A vertical barrier at floor level erected along all open sides or edges of a floor opening, platform, runway, ramp, or other walking/working surface to prevent materials, tools, or debris from falling onto persons passing through or working in the area below.
Unprotected sides and edges. Any open side or edge of a floor, roof, balcony/deck, platform, ramp, runway, or walking/working surface where there is no standard guardrail system, or parapet wall of solid strength and construction that is at least 39 inches in vertical height.
Walking/working surface. Any area including, but not limited to, floors, a roof surface, bridge, the ground, and any other surfaces whose dimensions are 45 inches or more in all directions, through which workers can pass or conduct work. A walking/working surface does not include vehicles or rolling stock on which employees must be located in order to perform their job duties.
Wall opening. An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall, such as an opening for a window, a yard arm doorway or chute opening.
Warning line system. A barrier erected on a walking and working surface or a low pitch roof (four in twelve or less), to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected fall hazard(s).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24603, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24603, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24605
General requirements.

(1) You must ensure that all surfaces on which employees will be working or walking on are structurally sound and will support them safely prior to allowing employees to work or walk on them.
(2) Inspection criteria.
(a) You must inspect all components (including hardware, lanyards, and positioning harnesses or full body harnesses depending on which system is used) of personal fall arrest systems, personal fall restraint systems and positioning device systems prior to each use according to manufacturer's specifications for mildew, wear, damage, and other deterioration. You must remove defective components from service if their function or strength has been adversely affected.
(b) You must inspect safety nets at least once a week according to manufacturer's specifications for wear, damage, and other deterioration. You must also inspect safety nets after any occurrence which could affect the integrity of the safety net system. You must remove defective components from service. You must not use defective nets.
(3) You must only use personal fall arrest systems, personal fall restraint system, positioning device systems, and their components for employee protection and not to hoist materials.
(4) Exemptions. Employees are exempt from WAC 296-155-24609 and 296-155-24611 only under the following conditions:
(a) During initial installation of the fall protection anchor (prior to engaging in any work activity), or the disassembly of the fall protection anchor after the work has been completed.
(b) An employee directly involved with inspecting or estimating roof-level conditions only on low pitched roofs prior to the actual start of construction work or after all construction work has been completed.
Examples of activities the department recognizes as inspecting or estimating include:
• Measuring a roof to determine the amount of materials needed for a project.
• Inspecting the roof for damage without removing equipment or components.
• Assessing the roof to determine what method of fall protection will be provided to employees.
Examples the department does not recognize as inspecting or estimating under this exemption include:
• Delivering, staging or storing materials on a roof.
• Persons estimating or inspecting on roofs that would be considered a "hazardous slope" by definition.
Examples of what personal fall arrest, personal fall restraint and positioning device systems look like:
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24605, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24605, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24607
Fall protection required regardless of height.

(1) Regardless of height, you must guard open sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, such as dip tanks and material handling equipment, and similar hazards with a standard guardrail system.
(2) You must guard floor holes or floor openings, into which persons can accidentally walk, by either a standard railing with standard toe board on all exposed sides, or a cover of standard strength and construction that is secured against accidental displacement. While the cover is not in place, you must protect the floor hole opening by a standard railing.
Note:
Requirements for when guarding floor openings at heights of four feet or more are located in WAC 296-155-24609(4).
(3) Regardless of height you must protect employees from falling into or onto impalement hazards, such as: Reinforcing steel (rebar), or exposed steel or wood stakes used to set forms.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24607, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24607, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24609
Fall protection required at four feet or more.

(1) You must ensure that the appropriate fall protection system is provided, installed, and implemented according to the requirements in this part when employees are exposed to fall hazards of 4 feet or more to the ground or lower level when on a walking/working surface.
(2) Guarding of walking/working surfaces with unprotected sides and edges. You must guard every open sided walking/working surface or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level by one of the following fall protection systems.
(a) A standard guardrail system, or the equivalent, as specified in WAC 296-155-24615(2), on all open sides, except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing must be provided with a standard toe board wherever, beneath the open sides, persons can pass, there is moving machinery, or there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.
(i) When employees are using stilts, the height of the top rail or equivalent member of the standard guardrail system must be increased (or additional railings may be added) an amount equal to the height of the stilts while maintaining the strength specifications of the guardrail system.
(ii) Where employees are working on platforms above the protection of the guardrail system, the employer must either increase the height of the guardrail system as specified in (a)(i) of this subsection, or select and implement another fall protection system as specified in (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this subsection.
(iii) When guardrails must be temporarily removed to perform a specific task, the area must be constantly attended by a monitor until the guardrail is replaced. The only duty the monitor must perform is to warn persons entering the area of the fall hazard.
(b) A fall restraint system;
(c) A personal fall arrest system;
(d) A safety net system;
(e) A catch platform; and
(f) A warning line.
(3) Guarding of ramps, runways, and inclined walkways.
(a) Ramps, runways, and inclined walkways that are four feet or more above the ground or lower level must be equipped with a standard guardrail system or the equivalent, as specified in WAC 296-155-24615(2), along each open side. Wherever tools, machine parts, or materials are likely to be used on the runway, a toe board must also be installed on each open side to protect persons working or passing below.
(b) Runways used exclusively for special purposes may have the railing on one side omitted where operating conditions necessitate such omission, provided the falling hazard is minimized by using a runway not less than 18 inches wide.
Note:
See WAC 296-155-24619(1) for other specific criteria for ramps, runways, and inclined walkways.
(4) Guarding of floor openings.
(a) You must guard floor openings by one of the following fall restraint systems.
(i) A standard guardrail system, or the equivalent, as specified in WAC 296-155-24615(2), on all open sides, except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing must be provided with a standard toe board wherever, beneath the open sides, persons can pass, or there is moving machinery, or there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.
(ii) A cover, as specified in WAC 296-155-24615(3).
(iii) A warning line system erected at least 15 feet from all unprotected sides or edges of the floor opening and meets the requirements of WAC 296-155-24615(4).
(iv) If it becomes necessary to remove the cover, the guardrail system, or the warning line system, then an employee must remain at the opening until the cover, guardrail system, or warning line system is replaced. The only duty the employee must perform is to prevent exposure to the fall hazard by warning persons entering the area of the fall hazard.
(b) You must guard ladderway floor openings or platforms by a standard guardrail system with standard toe boards on all exposed sides, except at entrance to opening, with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening.
(c) You must guard hatchways and chute floor openings by one of the following:
(i) Hinged covers of standard strength and construction and a standard guardrail system with only one exposed side. When the opening is not in use, the cover must be closed or the exposed side must be guarded at both top and intermediate positions by removable standard guardrail systems.
(ii) A removable standard guardrail system with toe board on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard guardrail system with toe boards on all other exposed sides. The removable railing must be kept in place when the opening is not in use and must be hinged or otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable.
(d) Wherever there is a danger of falling through an unprotected skylight opening, or the skylight has been installed and is not capable of sustaining the weight of a 200 pound person with a safety factor of 4, you must provide standard guardrails on all exposed sides in accordance with WAC 296-155-24615(2) or the skylight must be covered in accordance with WAC 296-155-24615(3). Personal fall arrest equipment may be used as an equivalent means of fall protection when worn by all employees exposed to the fall hazard.
(e) You must guard pits and trap door floor openings by floor opening covers of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap openings must be protected on all exposed sides by removable standard guardrail system.
(f) You must guard manhole floor openings by standard covers which need not be hinged in place. While the cover is not in place, the manhole opening must be protected by standard guardrail system.
(5) Guarding of wall openings.
(a) You must guard wall openings, from which there is a fall hazard of 4 feet or more, and the bottom of the opening is less than 39 inches above the working surface, as follows:
(i) When the height and placement of the opening in relation to the working surface is such that either a standard rail or intermediate rail will effectively reduce the danger of falling, one or both must be provided;
(ii) The bottom of a wall opening, which is less than 4 inches above the working surface, regardless of width, must be protected by a standard toe board or an enclosing screen either of solid construction or as specified in WAC 296-155-24615 (2)(c).
(b) An extension platform, outside a wall opening, onto which materials can be hoisted for handling must have standard guardrails on all exposed sides or equivalent. One side of an extension platform may have removable railings in order to facilitate handling materials.
(c) When a chute is attached to an opening, the provisions of subsection (5)(c) of this section apply, except that a toe board is not required.
(6) Fall protection during form and rebar work. When exposed to a fall height of 4 feet or more, employees placing or tying reinforcing steel on a vertical face are required to be protected by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems.
(7) Fall protection on steep pitched and low pitched roofs.
(a) Steep pitched roofs. Regardless of the work activity, you must ensure that employees exposed to fall hazards of 4 feet or more while working on a roof with a pitch greater than 4 in 12 use one of the following:
(i) Fall restraint system. Safety monitors and warning line systems are prohibited on steep pitched roofs;
(ii) Fall arrest system; or
(iii) Positioning device system.
(b) Low pitched roofs. You must ensure that employees exposed to fall hazards of 4 feet or more while engaged in work, other than roofing work or leading edge work, on low pitched roofs use one of the following:
(i) Fall restraint system;
(ii) Fall arrest system;
(iii) Positioning device system;
(iv) Safety monitor and warning line system; or
(v) Safety watch system.
(8) Hazardous slopes. Employees exposed to falls of 4 feet or more while working on a hazardous slope must use personal fall restraint systems or positioning device systems.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24609, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24609, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24611
Fall protection required at ten feet or more.

(1) You must ensure that the appropriate fall protection system is provided, installed, and implemented according to the requirements in this part when employees are exposed to fall hazards of 10 feet or more to the ground or lower level, while:
(a) Engaged in roofing work on a low pitched roof;
(b) Constructing a leading edge;
Note:
Employees not directly involved with constructing the leading edge, or are not performing roofing work must comply with WAC 296-155-24609, Fall protection required at four feet or more.
(c) Working on any surface that does not meet the definition of a walking/working surface not already covered in WAC 296-155-24609;
(d) Engaged in excavation and trenching operations.
(i) Exceptions. Fall protection is not required at excavations when employees are:
(A) Directly involved with the excavation process and on the ground at the top edge of the excavation; or
(B) Working at an excavation site where appropriate sloping of side walls has been implemented as the excavation protective system.
(ii) Fall protection is required for employees standing in or working in the affected area of a trench or excavation exposed to a fall hazard of 10 feet or more and:
(A) The employees are not directly involved with the excavation process; or
(B) The employees are on the protective system or any other structure in the excavation.
Note:
Persons considered directly involved in the excavation process include:
 
• Foreman of the crew.
 
• Signal person.
 
• Employee hooking on pipe or other materials.
 
• Grade person.
 
• State, county, or city inspectors inspecting the excavation or trench.
 
• An engineer or other professional conducting a quality-assurance inspection.
(2) Fall protection work plan. You must develop and implement a written fall protection work plan including each area of the work place where the employees are assigned and where fall hazards of 10 feet or more exist.
(a) The fall protection work plan must:
(i) Identify all fall hazards in the work area;
(ii) Describe the method of fall arrest or fall restraint to be provided;
(iii) Describe the proper procedures for the assembly, maintenance, inspection, and disassembly of the fall protection system to be used;
(iv) Describe the proper procedures for the handling, storage, and securing of tools and materials;
(v) Describe the method of providing overhead protection for workers who may be in, or pass through the area below the worksite;
(vi) Describe the method for prompt, safe removal of injured workers; and
(vii) Be available on the job site for inspection by the department.
(b) Prior to permitting employees into areas where fall hazards exist you must ensure employees are trained and instructed in the items described in (a)(i) through (vii) of this subsection.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24611, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24611, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24613
Fall arrest specifications.

Fall arrest protection must conform to the following provisions:
(1) Personal fall arrest system must meet the following requirements:
(a) You must use a full body harness.
(b) You must immediately remove from service full body harness systems or components subject to impact loading and you must not use them again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.
(c) Anchorages for full body harness systems must be capable of supporting (per employee):
(i) 3,000 pounds when used in conjunction with:
(A) A self-retracting lifeline that limits the maximum free fall distances to two feet or less; or
(B) A shock absorbing lanyard that restricts the forces on the body to 900 pounds or less.
(ii) 5,000 pounds for all other personal fall arrest system applications, or they must be designed, installed, and used:
(A) As a part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two; and
(B) Under the supervision of a qualified person.
(d) When stopping a fall, personal fall arrest systems must:
(i) Be rigged to allow a maximum free fall distance of 6 feet so an employee will not contact any lower level;
(ii) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN);
(iii) Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3 1/2 feet (1.07 m); and
(iv) Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a maximum distance of 6 feet (1.8 m).
Notes:
• Shock absorbers that meet the requirements of ANSI Z359.1-2007 that are used as a part of a personal fall arrest system in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations and instructions for use and installation will limit the maximum arresting forces on an employee's body to 1,800 pounds or less.
 
• To calculate fall clearance distance using a shock absorbing lanyard and D-ring anchorage connector, see WAC 296-155-24624, Appendix B.
(e) You must protect all safety lines and lanyards against being cut or abraded.
(f) The attachment point of the full body harness must be located in the center of the wearer's back near shoulder level, or above the wearer's head.
(g) Hardware must be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of materials equivalent in strength.
(h) Hardware must have a corrosion resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent damage to the attached full body harness or lanyard.
(i) When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, not more than one employee must be attached to any one lifeline.
Note:
The system strength needs in the following items are based on a total combined weight of employee and tools of no more than 310 pounds. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate allowances must be made or the system will not be in compliance. For more information on system testing see WAC 296-24-88050, Appendix C, Part II.
(j) Vertical lifelines (droplines) must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN), except that self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (.61 m) or less must have a minimum breaking strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN).
(k) Horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed, and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two.
(l) Droplines or lifelines used on rock scaling operations, or in areas where the lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, must be a minimum of 7/8 inch wire core manila rope or equivalent. For all other lifeline applications, a minimum of 3/4 inch manila rope or equivalent, with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds, must be used.
(m) Lanyards must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).
(n) All components of full body harness systems whose strength is not otherwise specified in this subsection must be capable of supporting a minimum fall impact load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied at the lanyard point of connection.
(o) D-rings and snap hooks must be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.
(p) Snap hooks must be a locking type snap hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap hook by the contact of the snap hook keeper by the connected member.
(q) Unless the snap hook is designed for the following connections, snap hooks must not be engaged:
(i) Directly to the webbing, rope or wire rope;
(ii) To each other;
(iii) To a D-ring to which another snap hook or other connector is attached;
(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or
(v) To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap hook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the snap hook keeper and release itself.
(2) Safety net systems. Safety net systems and their use must comply with the following provisions:
(a) Safety nets must be installed as close as practicable under the surface on which employees are working, but in no case more than 30 feet (9.1 m) below such level unless specifically approved in writing by the manufacturer. The potential fall area to the net must be unobstructed.
(b) Safety nets must extend outward from the outermost projection of the work surface as follows:
Vertical distance from working levels to horizontal plane of net
Minimum required horizontal distance of outer edge of net from the edge of the working surface
Up to 5 feet
8 feet
 
More than 5 feet up to 10 feet
10 feet
 
More than 10 feet
13 feet
 
(c) You must install safety nets with sufficient clearance under them to prevent contact with the surface or structures below when subjected to an impact force equal to the drop test specified in (d) of this subsection.
(d) Safety nets and their installations must be capable of absorbing an impact force equal to that produced by the drop test.
(i) Except as provided in (d)(ii) of this subsection, safety nets and safety net installations must be drop-tested at the job site after initial installation and before being used as a fall protection system, whenever relocated, after major repair, and at 6-month intervals if left in one place. The drop-test must consist of a 400 pound (180 kg) bag of sand 30 ±  two inches (76 ± 5 cm) in diameter dropped into the net from the highest walking/working surface at which employees are exposed to fall hazards, but not from less than 42 inches (1.1 m) above that level.
(ii) When the employer can demonstrate that it is unreasonable to perform the drop-test required by (d)(i) of this subsection, you (or a designated competent person) must certify that the net and net installation is in compliance with (c) and (d)(i) of this subsection by preparing a certification record prior to the net being used as a fall protection system. The certification record must include an identification of the net and net installation for which the certification record is being prepared; the date that it was determined that the identified net and net installation were in compliance with (c) of this subsection and the signature of the person making the determination and certification. The most recent certification record for each net and net installation must be available at the job site for inspection.
(e) You must remove materials, scrap pieces, equipment, and tools which have fallen into the safety net as soon as possible from the net and at least before the next work shift.
(f) The maximum size of each safety net mesh opening must not exceed 36 square inches (230 cm2) nor be longer than 6 inches (15 cm) on any side, and the opening, measured center-to-center of mesh ropes or webbing, must not be longer than 6 inches (15 cm). All mesh crossings must be secured to prevent enlargement of the mesh opening.
(g) Each safety net (or section of it) must have a border rope or webbing with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).
(h) Connections between safety net panels must be as strong as integral net components and must be spaced not more than 6 inches (15 cm) apart.
(3) Catch platforms.
(a) You must install a catch platform within 4 vertical feet of the work area.
(b) The catch platform's width must be a minimum of 45 inches wide and must be equipped with standard guardrails and toe boards on all open sides.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24613, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24613, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24615
Fall restraint specifications.

Fall restraint protection must conform to the following provisions:
(1) Personal fall restraint systems must be rigged to allow the movement of employees only as far as the unprotected sides and edges of the walking/working surface, and must consist of:
(a) A full body harness must be used.
(b) The full body harness must be attached to securely rigged restraint lines.
(c) All hardware assemblies for full body harness must be capable of withstanding a tension loading of 4,000 pounds without cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation.
(d) You must ensure component compatibility.
(e) Anchorage points used for fall restraint must be capable of supporting 4 times the intended load.
(f) Rope grab devices are prohibited for fall restraint applications unless they are part of a fall restraint system designed specifically for the purpose by the manufacturer, and used in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions.
(2) Guardrail specifications.
(a) A standard guardrail system must consist of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and must have a vertical height of 39 to 45 inches from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level. When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45 inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of this subsection. The intermediate rail must be halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails must not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.
(b) Minimum requirements for standard guardrail systems under various types of construction are specified in the following items:
(i) For wood railings, the posts must be of at least two-inch by 4-inch stock spaced not to exceed 8 feet; the top rail must be of at least two-inch by 4-inch stock and each length of lumber must be smooth surfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail must be of at least one-inch by 6-inch stock. Other configurations may be used for the top rail when the configuration meets the requirements of (b)(vii) of this subsection.
(ii) For pipe railings, posts and top and intermediate railings must be at least 1 1/2 inches nominal OD diameter with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers. Other configurations may be used for the top rail when the configuration meets the requirements of (b)(vii) of this subsection.
(iii) For structural steel railings, posts and top and intermediate rails must be of two-inch by two-inch by 3/8 inch angles or other metal shapes of equivalent bending strength, with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers. Other configurations may be used for the top rail when the configuration meets the requirements of (b)(vii) of this subsection.
(iv) For wire rope railings, the top and intermediate railings must meet the strength factor and deflection of (b)(v) of this subsection. The top railing must be flagged at not more than 6 foot intervals with high-visibility material. Posts must be spaced not more than 8 feet on centers. The rope must be stretched taut and must be between 39 and 45 inches in height at all points. Other configurations may be used for the top rail when the configuration meets the requirements of (b)(vii) of this subsection.
(v) The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types must be of such construction that the completed structure must be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail. The top rail must be between 39 and 45 inches in height at all points when this force is applied.
(vi) Railings receiving heavy stresses from employees trucking or handling materials must be provided additional strength by the use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts, bracing, or by other means.
(vii) Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable, provided they meet the following conditions:
(A) A smooth surfaced top rail at a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level between 39 and 45 inches;
(B) When the 200 pound (890 N) load specified in (b)(v) of this subsection is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail must not deflect to a height less than 39 inches (1.0 m) above the walking/working level. Guardrail system components selected and constructed in accordance with this part will be deemed to meet this requirement;
(C) Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail;
(D) Elimination of overhang of rail ends unless such overhang does not constitute a hazard.
(c) Toe board specifications.
(i) A standard toe board must be a minimum of 4 inches nominal in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. It must be securely fastened in place with not more than one-quarter inch clearance above floor level. It may be made of any substantial material, either solid, or with openings not over one inch in greatest dimension.
(ii) Where material is piled to such height that a standard toe board does not provide protection, paneling, or screening from floor to intermediate rail or to top rail must be provided.
(3) Cover specifications.
(a) Floor opening or floor hole covers must be of any material that meets the following strength requirements:
(i) Conduits, trenches, and manhole covers and their supports, when located in roadways, and vehicular aisles must be designed to carry a truck rear axle load of at least two times the maximum intended load;
(ii) All floor opening and floor hole covers must be capable of supporting the maximum potential load but never less than 200 pounds (with a safety factor of 4).
(A) All covers must be secured when installed so as to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment, or employees.
(B) All covers must be color coded or they must be marked with the word "hole" or "cover" to provide warning of the hazard.
(b) Barriers and screens used to cover wall openings must meet the following requirements:
(i) Barriers must be of such construction and mounting that, when in place at the opening, the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward), with a minimum of deflection at any point on the top rail or corresponding member.
(ii) Screens must be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied horizontally at any point on the near side of the screen. They may be of solid construction of either grill work with openings not more than 8 inches long, or of slat work with openings not more than four inches wide with length unrestricted.
(4) Warning line system specifications on pitches 4 in 12 or less for roofing work, leading edge work, and on low pitched open sided surfaces for work activities other than roofing work or leading edge work. You must ensure the following:
(a) Warning lines must be erected around all unprotected sides and edges of the work area.
(i) Warning lines used during roofing work.
(A) When roofing work is taking place or when mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line must be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the edge of the roof.
(B) When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line must be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3.1 m) from the roof edge which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation.
(ii) Warning lines erected for leading edge work.
Warning lines must be erected to separate employees who are engaged in leading edge work (between the forward edge of the warning line and the leading edge), from other work areas on the low pitched surface. You must ensure:
(A) The warning line is erected not less than 6 feet nor more than 25 feet from the leading edge; and
(B) When fall arrest systems as described in WAC 296-155-24613, or fall restraint systems as described in subsections (1) and (2) of this section are not used, you must implement a safety monitor system as described in subsection (5) of this section to protect employees engaged in constructing the leading edge who are working between the forward edge of the warning line and the leading edge.
(iii) Warning lines erected on low pitched open sided surfaces for work activities other than roofing work or leading edge work, must be erected not less than 15 feet from the unprotected sides or edges of the open sided surface.
(b) The warning line must consist of a rope, wire, or chain and supporting stanchions erected as follows:
(i) The rope, wire, or chain must be flagged at not more than 6 foot (1.8 m) intervals with high visibility material. Highly visible caution or danger tape as described in (b)(iv) of this subsection, does not need to be flagged.
(ii) The rope, wire, or chain must be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point (including sag) is no less than 36 inches from the surface and its highest point is no more than 45 inches from the surface.
(iii) After being erected, with the rope, wire or chain attached, stanchions must be capable of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds (71 N) applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches (0.76 m) above the surface, perpendicular to the warning line, and in the direction of the unprotected sides or edges of the surface.
(iv) The rope, wire, or chain must have a minimum tensile strength of 200 pounds (90 k), and after being attached to the stanchions, must be capable of supporting, without breaking, the loads applied to the stanchions.
Highly visible caution or danger tape may be used in lieu of rope, wire, or chain as long as it is at least 3 inches wide and 3 mils thick, and has a tensile strength of at least 200 pounds.
(v) The line must be attached at each stanchion in such a way that pulling on one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections before the stanchion tips over.
(c) You must erect access paths as follows:
(i) Points of access, materials handling areas, and storage areas must be connected to the work area by a clear access path formed by two warning lines.
(ii) When the path to a point of access is not in use, you must place a rope, wire, or chain, equal in strength and height to the warning line, across the path at the point where the path intersects the warning line erected around the work area.
(5) Safety monitor system specifications.
(a) A safety monitor system may be used in conjunction with a warning line system as a method of fall protection during roofing work on low pitched roofs or leading edge work on low pitched surfaces.
Note:
The warning line is not required when performing roofing work on low pitched roofs less than 50 feet wide. For information on determining roof widths, see WAC 296-155-24623, Appendix A, determining roof widths.
(b) When selected, you must ensure that the safety monitor system is addressed in the fall protection work plan, including the name of the safety monitor(s) and the extent of their training in both the safety monitor and warning line systems. You must ensure that the following requirements are met:
(i) The safety monitor system must not be used when adverse weather conditions create additional hazards.
(ii) Employees working outside of the warning line system, (between the forward edge of the warning line and the unprotected sides or edges of a low pitched surface), must be readily distinguishable from other members of the crew that are working inside the warning line system by wearing highly visible, distinctive, and uniform apparel.
(iii) Employees must promptly comply with fall hazard warnings from the safety monitor.
(iv) You must train a person acting in the capacity of safety monitor(s) in the function of both the safety monitor and warning line systems, and they must:
(A) Be a competent person as defined in WAC 296-155-24603.
(B) Have control authority over the work as it relates to fall protection.
(C) Be instantly distinguishable over members of the work crew.
(D) Perform no other duties while acting as safety monitor.
(E) Be positioned in relation to the workers under their protection, so as to have a clear, unobstructed view and be able to maintain normal voice communication.
(F) Not supervise more than 8 exposed workers at one time.
(G) Warn the employee when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner.
(6) Safety watch system specifications.
(a) When one employee is conducting any repair work or servicing equipment on a roof that has a pitch no greater than 4 in 12, employers are allowed to use a safety watch system.
(b) Ensure the safety watch system meets the following requirements:
(i) There can only be two people on the roof while the safety watch system is being used: The one employee acting as the safety watch and the one employee engaged in the repair work or servicing equipment;
(ii) The employee performing the task must comply promptly with fall hazard warnings from the safety watch;
(iii) Mechanical equipment is not used; and
(iv) The safety watch system is not used when weather conditions create additional hazards.
(c) Ensure the employee acting as the safety watch meets all of the following:
(i) Is a competent person as defined in WAC 296-155-24603;
(ii) Has full control over the work as it relates to fall protection;
(iii) Has a clear, unobstructed view of the worker;
(iv) Is able to maintain normal voice communication; and
(v) Performs no other duties while acting as the safety watch.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24615, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24615, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24617
Positioning device system specifications.

Positioning device systems and their use must conform to the following provisions:
(1) Positioning harnesses or full body harnesses must be used.
(2) Positioning devices must be rigged to prevent an employee from a free fall greater than two feet.
(3) Positioning devices must be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN), whichever is greater.
(4) Connectors must be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.
(5) Connectors must have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of this system.
(6) Connecting assemblies must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).
(7) D-rings and snap hooks must be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.
(8) Snap hooks must be a locking type snap hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap hook by the contact of the snap hook keeper by the connected member.
(9) Unless the snap hook is designed for the following connections, snap hooks must not be engaged:
(a) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope;
(b) To each other;
(c) To a D-ring to which another snap hook or other connector is attached;
(d) To a horizontal lifeline; or
(e) To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap hook such that unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the snap hook keeper and release itself.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24617, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24617, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24619
Other specifications.

(1) Ramps, runways and inclined walkways must:
(a) Be at least 18 inches wide; and
(b) Not be inclined more than 20 degrees from horizontal and when inclined, they must be cleated or otherwise treated to prevent a slipping hazard on the walking surface.
Note:
See WAC 296-155-24609(3) for guarding ramps, runways, and inclined walkways that are four feet or more above the ground or lower level.
(2) Self-rescue devices. Self-rescue devices are not a fall protection system. Self-rescue devices used to self-rescue after a fall must meet the following requirements:
(a) Use self-rescue devices according to the manufacturer's instructions; and
(b) Self-rescue devices must be addressed by the fall protection work plan.
(3) Canopy. Canopies, when used as falling object protection, must be strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by any objects which may fall onto the canopy.
(4) Roofing bracket specifications. Roofing brackets are not a fall protection system.
(a) Roofing brackets must be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof.
(b) In addition to securing brackets using the pointed metal projections, brackets must also be secured in place by nailing. When it is impractical to nail brackets, rope supports must be used. When rope supports are used, they must consist of first grade manila of at least 3/4 inch diameter, or equivalent.
(5) Crawling board and chicken ladder specifications. Crawling boards and chicken ladders are not fall protection systems.
(a) Crawling boards must be not less than 10 inches wide and one inch thick, having cleats one by 1 1/2 inches.
(i) The cleats must be equal in length to the width of the board and spaced at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches.
(ii) Nails must be driven through and clinched on the underside.
(iii) The crawling board must extend from the ridge pole to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.
(b) Crawling boards must be secured to the roof using ridge hooks or other equivalent means.
(6) Roof edge materials handling areas and materials storage specifications.
(a) When guardrails are used at hoisting areas, a minimum of 4 feet of guardrail must be erected along each side of the access point through which materials are hoisted.
(b) A chain or gate must be placed across the opening between the guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place.
(c) When guardrails are used at bitumen pipe outlet, a minimum of 4 feet of guardrail must be erected along each side of the pipe.
(d) Mechanical equipment must be used or stored only in areas where employees are protected using a fall arrest system as described in WAC 296-155-24613, or a fall restraint system as described in WAC 296-155-24615 (1), (2), or (4). Mechanical equipment may not be used or stored where the only protection is provided by the use of a safety monitor.
(e) The hoist must not be used as an attachment/anchorage point for fall arrest or fall restraint systems.
(f) Materials must not be stored within 6 feet of the roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the roof edge. Guardrails must include a toe board if employees could be working or passing below.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24619, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24619, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24621
Training.

(1) All training required by this part, must be documented and documentation kept on file.
(2) Retraining. When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required by subsection (1) of this section, you must retrain each such employee. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but are not limited to, situations where:
• Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or
• Changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete; or
• Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24621, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24621, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24623
Appendix A—Determining roof widths—Nonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24615.

(1) This appendix serves as a guideline to assist employers complying with the requirements of WAC 296-155-24615 which allows the use of a safety monitoring system alone as a means of providing fall protection during the performance of roofing operations on low-sloped roofs 50 feet (15.25 m) or less in width. Each example in the appendix shows a roof plan or plans and indicates where each roof or roof area is to be measured to determine its width. Section views or elevation views are shown where appropriate. Some examples show "correct" and "incorrect" subdivisions of irregularly shaped roofs divided into smaller, regularly shaped areas. In all examples, the dimension selected to be the width of an area is the lesser of the two primary dimensions of the area, as viewed from above. Example A shows a simple rectangular roof. The width is the lesser of the two primary overall dimensions, which is also the case with roofs sloped toward or away from the roof center, as shown in Example B.
(2) Many roofs are not simple rectangles. Such roofs may be broken down into subareas as shown in Example C. The process of dividing a roof area can produce many different configurations. Example C gives the general rule of using dividing lines of minimum length to minimize the size and number of the areas which are potentially less than 50 feet (15.25 m) wide. The intent is to minimize the number of roof areas where safety monitoring systems alone are sufficient protection.
(3) Roofs which are comprised of several separate, noncontiguous roof areas, as in Example D, may be considered as a series of individual roofs. Some roofs have penthouses, additional floors, courtyard openings, or similar architectural features; Example E shows how the rule for dividing roofs into subareas is applied to such configurations. Irregular, nonrectangular roofs must be considered on an individual basis, as shown in Example F.
Example A
Rectangular Shaped Roof
PLAN VIEW
Example B
Sloped Rectangular Shaped Roofs
Example C
Irregularly Shaped Roofs With Rectangular Shaped Sections
Such roofs are to be divided into subareas by using dividing lines of minimum length to minimize the size and number of the areas which are potentially less than or equal to 50 feet (15.25 m) in width, in order to limit the size of roof areas where the safety monitoring system alone can be used (WAC 296-155-24615 (2)(b)). Dotted lines are used in the examples to show the location of dividing lines.
denotes incorrect measurements of width.
Example D
Separate, Noncontiguous Roof Areas
Example E
Roofs with Penthouses, Open Courtyards, Additional Floors, etc.
Such roofs are to be divided into subareas by using dividing lines of minimum length to minimize the size and number of the areas which are potentially less than or equal to 50 feet (15.25 m) in width in order to limit the size of roof areas where the safety monitoring system alone can be used. Dotted lines are used in the examples to show the location of dividing lines.
denotes incorrect measurements of width.
Example F
Irregular, Nonrectangular Shaped Roofs
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24623, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24623, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-24624
Appendix BCalculating fall clearance distance using a shock-absorbing lanyard and D-ring anchorage connectorNonmandatory guidelines for complying with WAC 296-155-24613 (1)(d).

Do the following to calculate the fall clearance distance using a shock-absorbing lanyard and D-ring anchorage connector:
• First, add the length of the shock-absorbing lanyard (6 feet) to the maximum elongation of the shock absorber during deceleration (3 1/2 feet) to the average height of a worker (6 feet).
• Then, add a safety factor of 3 feet to allow for the possibility of an improperly fit full body harness, a taller than average worker and/or a miscalculation of distance.
• The suggested safe fall clearance distance for this example is 18 1/2 feet.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-24624, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-155-24624, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13.]



296-155-250
Definitions applicable to this part.

Approved. For the purpose of this part, means equipment that has been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory such as Factory Mutual Engineering Corp., or Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., federal agencies such as United States Mine Safety and Health Administration or United States Coast Guard, which issue approvals for such equipment, or the department of labor and industries.
Closed container. A container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.
Combustion. Any chemical process that involves oxidation sufficient to produce light or heat.
Fire brigade. An organized group of employees that are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in the safe evacuation of employees during emergency situations and in assisting in firefighting operations.
Fire resistance. So resistant to fire that, for specified time and under conditions of a standard heat intensity, it will not fail structurally and will not permit the side away from the fire to become hotter than a specified temperature. For purposes of this part, fire resistance must be determined by the Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-72.
Flammable. Capable of being easily ignited, burning intensely or having a rapid rate of flame spread.
Flammable liquid. Any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4°F (93°C). Flammable liquids are divided into 4 categories as follows:
(a) Category 1 includes liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below 95°F (35°C).
(b) Category 2 includes liquids having flashpoints below 73.4°F (23°C) and having a boiling point above 95°F (35°C).
(c) Category 3 includes liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4°F (23°C) and at or below 140°F (60°C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C).
(d) Category 4 includes liquids having flashpoints above 140°F (60°C) and at or below 199.4°F (93°C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
(e) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4°F (93°C) is heated for use to within 30°F (16.7°C) of its flashpoint, it must be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.
Flashpoint. The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid, and must be determined as follows:
(a) The flashpoint of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) at 100°F (37.8°C) and a flashpoint below 175°F (79.4°C) must be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Tag Closed Tester, ASTM D-56-69, or an equivalent method as defined by WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B-Physical hazard criteria.
(b) The flashpoints of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) or more at 175°F (79.4°C) or higher must be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Pensky Martens Closed Tester, ASTM D-93-69, or an equivalent method as defined by WAC 296-901-14024, Appendix B-Physical hazard criteria.
Liquified petroleum gases, LPG, and LP gas. Any material which is composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or mixtures of them, such as propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane), and butylenes.
Portable tank. A closed container having a liquid capacity more than 60 U.S. gallons, and not intended for fixed installation.
Safety can. An approved closed container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.
Salamander. A portable heating device, solid or liquid fueled, which is not vented to the outdoor atmosphere.
Vapor pressure. The pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute), exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the "Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)," (ASTM D-323-68).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-250, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-250, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-250, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-250, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-260
Fire protection.

(1) General requirements.
(a) You must be responsible for development of a fire protection program to be followed throughout all phases of construction and demolition work, and you must provide for firefighting equipment as specified in this part. As fire hazards occur, you must not delay in providing necessary equipment.
(b) Access to all available firefighting equipment must be maintained at all times.
(c) All firefighting equipment, provided by the employer, must be conspicuously located.
(d) All firefighting equipment must be periodically inspected by a competent person, and maintained in operating condition. You must immediately replace defective equipment.
(e) As warranted by the project, you must provide a trained and equipped firefighting organization (fire brigade) to assure adequate protection to life.
(2) Water supply.
(a) You must make available a temporary or permanent water supply, of sufficient volume, duration, and pressure, required to properly operate firefighting equipment as soon as combustible materials accumulate.
(b) Where underground water mains are to be provided, they must be installed, completed, and made available for use as soon as practicable.
(3) Portable firefighting equipment.
(a) You must provide a fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, for each 3,000 square feet of a combustible building area, or major fraction thereof. Travel distance from any point of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher must not exceed a horizontal distance of 100 feet.
Note:
One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire extinguisher having a 2A rating.
(b) A 1/2-inch diameter garden-type hose line, not to exceed 100 feet in length and equipped with a nozzle, may be substituted for a 2A-rated fire extinguisher, provided it is capable of discharging a minimum of 5 gallons per minute with a minimum hose stream range of 30 feet horizontally. The garden-type hose lines must be mounted on conventional racks or reels. The number and location of hose racks or reels must be such that at least one hose stream can be applied to all points in the area.
(c) You must provide one or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, on each floor. In multistory buildings, where combustibles are present, at least one fire extinguisher must be located adjacent to a stairway.
(d) You must protect extinguishers and water drums that are subject to freezing from freezing.
(e) You must provide a fire extinguisher, rated not less than 10B, within 50 feet of wherever more than 5 gallons of flammable liquids or 5 pounds of flammable gas are being used on the job site. This requirement does not apply to the integral fuel tanks of motor vehicles.
(f) Carbon tetrachloride and other toxic vaporizing liquid fire extinguishers are prohibited.
(g) You must inspect portable fire extinguishers periodically and maintain them in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. 10A-1981 and WAC 296-800-300.
(h) Fire extinguishers which have been listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, must be used to meet the requirements of this part. (See Table D-1)
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
Note:
One hundred feet, or less, of 1-1/2 inch hose, with a nozzle capable of discharging water at 25 gallons or more per minute, may be substituted for a fire extinguisher rated not more than 2A in the designated area provided that the hose line can reach all points in the area.
(i) If fire hose connections are not compatible with local firefighting equipment, the contractor must provide adapters, or equivalent, to permit connections.
(j) During demolition involving combustible materials, you must make available charged hose lines, supplied by hydrants, water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent.
(4) Fixed firefighting equipment.
(a) Sprinkler protection.
(i) If the facility being constructed includes the installation of automatic sprinkler protection, the installation must closely follow the construction and be placed in service as soon as applicable laws permit following completion of each story.
(ii) During demolition or alterations, existing automatic sprinkler installations must be retained in service as long as reasonable. The operation of sprinkler control valves must be permitted only by properly authorized persons.
Note:
Modification of sprinkler systems to permit alterations or additional demolition should be expedited so that the automatic protection may be returned to service as quickly as possible. Sprinkler control valves must be checked daily at close of work to ascertain that the protection is in service.
(b) Standpipes. In all structures in which standpipes are required, or where standpipes exist in structures being altered, they must be brought up as soon as applicable laws permit, and must be maintained as construction progresses in such a manner that they are always ready for fire protection use. The standpipes must be provided with Siamese fire department connections on the outside of the structure, at the street level, which must be conspicuously marked. There must be at least one standard hose outlet at each floor.
(5) Fire alarm devices.
(a) You must establish an alarm system, e.g., telephone system, siren, etc., whereby employees on the site and the local fire department can be alerted for an emergency.
(b) You must conspicuously post the alarm code and reporting instructions at phones and at employee entrances.
(6) Fire cutoffs.
(a) You must give fire walls and exit stairways, required for the completed buildings, construction priority. Fire doors, with automatic closing devices, must be hung on openings as soon as practical.
(b) Fire cutoffs must be retained in buildings undergoing alterations or demolition until operations necessitate their removal.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-260, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-260, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-23-060, § 296-155-260, filed 11/20/01, effective 12/1/01; WSR 01-11-038, § 296-155-260, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-260, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-260, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-6, § 296-155-260, filed 3/1/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-260, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-265
Fire prevention.

(1) Ignition hazards.
(a) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power purposes must be installed in compliance with the requirements of Part I of this standard.
(b) You must locate internal combustion engine powered equipment so that exhausts are well away from combustible materials. When exhausts are piped to outside the building under construction, a clearance of at least 6 inches must be maintained between such piping and combustible material.
(c) Smoking must be prohibited at or in the vicinity of operations which constitute a fire hazard, and must be conspicuously posted: "No smoking or open flame."
(d) Portable battery powered lighting equipment, used in connection with the storage, handling, or use of flammable gases or liquids, must be of the type approved for the hazardous locations.
(e) The nozzle of air, inert gas, and steam lines or hoses, when used in the cleaning or ventilation of tanks and vessels that contain hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors, must be bonded to the tank or vessel shell. Bonding devices must not be attached or detached in hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors.
(f) Workers must not take open lights or open flames near or in an open sewer manhole, gas main, conduit or other similar place until the absence of explosive or harmful gases has been assured. Open lights or flames must not be carried into areas and enclosures where flammable vapors or exposed low flash point solvents exist. Only approved and suitable protected lights must be used.
(2) Temporary buildings.
(a) You must not erect any temporary building where it will adversely affect any means of exit.
(b) Temporary buildings, when located within another building or structure, must be of either noncombustible construction or of combustible construction having a fire resistance of not less than 1 hour.
(c) Temporary buildings, located other than inside another building and not used for the storage, handling, or use of flammable liquids, flammable gases, explosives, or blasting agents, or similar hazardous occupancies, must be located at a distance of not less than 10 feet from another building or structure. Groups of temporary buildings, not exceeding 2,000 square feet in aggregate, must, for the purpose of this part, be considered a single temporary building.
(3) Open yard storage.
(a) You must pile combustible materials with due regard to the stability of piles and in no case higher than 20 feet.
(b) Driveways between and around combustible storage piles must be at least 15 feet wide and maintained free from accumulation of rubbish, equipment, or other articles or materials. Driveways must be so spaced that a maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet is produced.
(c) You must keep the entire storage site free from accumulation of unnecessary combustible materials. You must keep weeds and grass down and a regular procedure provided for the periodic cleanup of the entire area.
(d) When there is a danger of an underground fire, you must not use that land for combustible or flammable storage.
(e) Method of piling must be solid wherever possible and in orderly and regular piles. You must not store any combustible material outdoors within 10 feet of a building or structure.
(f) You must provide portable fire extinguishing equipment, suitable for the fire hazard involved, at convenient, conspicuously accessible locations in the yard area. You must place portable fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, so that maximum travel distance to the nearest unit must not exceed 100 feet.
(4) Indoor storage.
(a) Storage must not obstruct, or adversely affect, means of exit.
(b) You must store all materials, handled, and piled with due regard to their fire characteristics.
(c) You must segregate noncompatible materials, which may create a fire hazard, by a barrier having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour.
(d) You must pile material to minimize the spread of fire internally and to permit convenient access for firefighting. You must maintain stable piling at all times. You must maintain aisle space to safely accommodate the widest vehicle that may be used within the building for firefighting purposes.
(e) You must maintain clearance of at least 36 inches between the top level of the stored material and the sprinkler deflectors.
(f) You must maintain clearance around lights and heating units to prevent ignition of combustible materials.
(g) You must maintain a clearance of 24 inches around the path of travel of fire doors unless a barricade is provided, in which case no clearance is needed. Material must not be stored within 36 inches of a fire door opening.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-265, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-265, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-155-265, filed 11/14/88; Order 74-26, § 296-155-265, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-270
Flammable liquids.

(1) General requirements.
(a) You must use only approved containers and portable tanks for storage and handling of flammable liquids. You must use approved metal safety cans, or department of transportation approved containers for the handling and use of flammable liquids in quantities 5 gallons or less, except that this does not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less, only the original container may be used for storage, use, and handling of flammable liquids.
(b) You must not store flammable liquids in areas used for exits, stairways, or normally used for the safe passage of people.
(c) You must legibly mark flammable liquid containers to indicate their contents. Each storage container for flammable liquids, with a capacity of 50 gallons or more, must have the contents of the container identified by a sign of clearly visible contrasting colors with letters at least 3 inches high, painted on the container at the discharge valve and at the fill point.
(d) You must not use gasoline as a solvent or a cleaning agent.
(2) Indoor storage of flammable liquids.
(a) You must not store more than 25 gallons of flammable liquids in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquid petroleum gas, see WAC 296-155-275.
(b) You must store quantities of flammable liquid in excess of 25 gallons in an acceptable or approved cabinet meeting the following requirements:
(i) Acceptable wooden storage cabinets must be constructed in the following manner, or equivalent: The bottom, sides, and top must be constructed of an exterior grade of plywood at least 1 inch in thickness, which must not break down or delaminate under standard fire test conditions. All joints must be rabbeted and must be fastened in two directions with flathead wood screws, when more than one door is used, there must be a rabbeted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Steel hinges must be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to fire. Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant paint.
(ii) Approved metal storage cabinets will be acceptable.
(iii) Cabinets must be labeled in conspicuous lettering, "Flammable—Keep Away from Open Flames."
(c) You must not store more than 60 gallons of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids or 120 gallons of Category 4 flammable liquids in any one storage cabinet. Not more than 3 such cabinets may be located in a single storage area. You must store quantities in excess of this in an inside storage room.
(d)(i) Inside storage rooms must be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction must comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Material, NFPA 251-1972.
(ii) Where an automatic extinguishing system is provided, the system must be designed and installed in an approved manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings must be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area must be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. Openings must be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room must be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the room, which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other buildings are exposed, windows must be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1983, for Class E or F openings. Wood of at least one-inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations.
(iii) You must not store materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard in the same room with flammable liquids.
(iv) Storage in inside storage rooms must comply with Table D-2 following:
TABLE D-2
Fire
protection
provided
Fire
resistance
Maximum size
Total allowable quantities gals./sq. ft./floor area
 
Yes
 
2 hrs.
500 sq. ft.
10
 
No
 
2 hrs.
500 sq. ft.
4
 
Yes
 
1 hr.
150 sq. ft.
5
 
No
 
1 hr.
150 sq. ft.
2
Note:
Fire protection system must be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for this purpose.
(v) Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms must be approved for Class 1, Division 1, hazardous locations. For definition of Class 1, Division 1, hazardous locations, see WAC 296-155-456.
(vi) You must provide every inside storage room with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting system. Such system must commence not more than 12 inches above the floor and be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least 6 times per hour. If a mechanical exhausting system is used, it must be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures must be operated by the same switch. An electric pilot light must be installed adjacent to the switch if Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting outlet from the room, must be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.
(vii) In every inside storage room you must maintain one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. You must not stack containers over 30 gallons capacity one upon the other.
(viii) You must store flammable liquids in excess of that permitted in inside storage rooms outside of buildings in accordance with subsection (3) of this section.
(3) Storage outside buildings.
(a) Storage of containers (not more than 60 gallons each) must not exceed 1,100 gallons in any one pile or area. You must separate piles or groups of containers by a 5-foot clearance. Piles or groups of containers must not be nearer than 20 feet to a building.
(b) Within 200 feet of each pile of containers, there must be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(c) The storage area must be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures, or must be surrounded by a curb or earth dike at least 12 inches high. When curbs or dikes are used, you must make provisions for draining off accumulations of ground or rain water, or spills of flammable liquids. Drains must terminate at a safe location and must be accessible to operation under fire conditions.
(d) Outdoor portable tank storage.
(i) Portable tanks must not be nearer than 20 feet from any building. Two or more portable tanks, grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of 2,200 gallons, must be separated by a 5-foot-clear area. Individual portable tanks exceeding 1,100 gallons must be separated by a 5-foot-clear area.
(ii) Within 200 feet of each portable tank, there must be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit approach of fire control apparatus.
(e) You must keep storage areas free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.
(f) You must provide portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, with emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters III and IV of NFPA 30-1972, The Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.
(g) Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, must have emergency venting and other devices, as required by chapters II and III of the Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, NFPA 30-1972.
(4) Fire control for flammable liquid storage.
(a) You must locate at least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 20-B units, outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage of more than 60 gallons of flammable liquids.
(b) You must locate at least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B units not less than 25 feet, nor more than 75 feet, from any flammable liquid storage area located outside.
(c) When sprinklers are provided, they must be installed in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13-1972.
(d) You must provide at least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C units on all tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing flammable liquids.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
(5) Dispensing liquids.
(a) You must separate areas in which flammable liquids are transferred at the same time, in quantities greater than 5 gallons from one tank or container to another tank or container, from other operations by 25-feet distance or by construction having a fire-resistance of at least one hour. You must provide drainage or other means to control spills. You must provide adequate natural or mechanical ventilation to maintain the concentration of flammable vapor at or below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit.
(b) You must transfer Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids from one container to another only when containers are electrically interconnected (bonded).
(c) You must draw from or transfer flammable liquids into vessels, containers, or tanks within a building or outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable tanks, by gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. You must not transfer by means of air pressure on the container or portable tank.
(d) You must protect the dispensing units against collision damage.
(e) Dispensing devices and nozzles for Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids must be of an approved type, as required by WAC 296-24-33015.
(6) Handling liquids at point of final use.
(a) You must keep Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids in closed containers when not actually in use.
(b) You must dispose of leakage or spillage of flammable liquids promptly and safely.
(c) You must only use Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within 50 feet of the operation, unless conditions warrant greater clearance.
(7) Service and refueling areas.
(a) You must store flammable liquids in approved closed containers, in tanks located underground, or in aboveground portable tanks.
(b) The tank trucks must comply with the requirements covered in the Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 385-1977.
(c) The dispensing hose must be an approved type.
(d) The dispensing nozzle must be an approved automatic-closing type.
(e) You must not abandon underground tanks.
(f) You must provide clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) at a location remote from dispensing devices to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.
(g)(i) Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the lubrication or service area where there is no dispensing or transferring of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, provided the bottom of the heating unit is at least 18 inches above the floor and is protected from physical damage.
(ii) Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, where Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids are dispensed, must be of an approved type for garages, and must be installed at least 8 feet above the floor.
(h) You must ensure that there is no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable liquids.
(i) You must post conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking.
(j) You must shut off the motor of any equipment being fueled during the fueling operation.
(k) You must provide each service or fueling area with at least one fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20BC located so that an extinguisher will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-270, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1910 Subpart Z. WSR 14-07-086, § 296-155-270, filed 3/18/14, effective 5/1/14. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-155-270, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 99-17-094, § 296-155-270, filed 8/17/99, effective 12/1/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 88-23-054 (Order 88-25), § 296-155-270, filed 11/14/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-270, filed 1/21/86; Order 74-26, § 296-155-270, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-275
Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas).

(1) Approval of equipment and systems.
(a) Each system must have containers, valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and regulators of an approved type.
(b) All cylinders must meet the department of transportation specification identification requirements published in 49 C.F.R. Part 178, Shipping Container Specifications.
(2) Welding on LP-gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers.
(3) Container valves and container accessories.
(a) Valves, fittings, and accessories connected directly to the container, including primary shut off valves, must have a rated working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. and must be of material and design suitable for LP-gas service.
(b) Connections to containers, except safety relief connections, liquid level gauging devices, and plugged openings, must have shutoff valves located as close to the container as practicable.
(4) Safety devices.
(a) Every container and every vaporizer must be provided with one or more approved safety relief valves or devices. You must arrange these valves to afford free vent to the outer air with discharge not less than 5 feet horizontally away from any opening into a building which is below such discharge.
(b) Shutoff valves must not be installed between the safety relief device and the container, or the equipment or piping to which the safety relief device is connected, except that a shutoff valve may be used where the arrangement of this valve is such that full required capacity flow through the safety relief device is always afforded.
(c) You must not locate safety relief devices and regulator relief vents less than 5 feet in any direction from air openings into sealed combustion system appliances or mechanical ventilation air intakes.
(5) Dispensing.
(a) You must perform filling of fuel containers for trucks or motor vehicles from bulk storage containers not less than 10 feet from the nearest masonry-walled building, or not less than 25 feet from the nearest building or other construction and, in any event, not less than 25 feet from any building opening.
(b) You must perform filling of portable containers or containers mounted on skids from storage containers not less than 50 feet from the nearest building.
(6) Requirements for appliances.
(a) LP-gas consuming appliances must be approved types.
(b) Any appliance that was originally manufactured for operation with a gaseous fuel other than LP-gas, and is in good condition, may be used with LP-gas only after it is properly converted, adapted, and tested for performance with LP-gas before the appliance is placed in use.
(7) Containers and regulating equipment installed outside of buildings or structures. Containers must be upright upon firm foundations or otherwise firmly secured. You must guard against the possible effect on the outlet piping of settling by a flexible connection or special fitting.
(8) Containers and equipment used inside of buildings or structures.
(a) When operational requirements make portable use of containers necessary, and their location outside of buildings or structures is impractical, containers and equipment are permitted to be used inside of buildings or structures in accordance with (b) through (k) of this subsection. In addition, there may be provisions of this section that are applicable to the particular use or occupancy.
(b) "Containers in use" means connected for use.
(c) Systems utilizing containers having a water capacity greater than 2 1/2 pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) must be equipped with excess flow valves. Such excess flow valves must be either integral with the container valves or in the connections to the container valve outlets.
(d) Regulators, when required, must be either directly connected to the container valves or to manifolds connected to the container valves. The regulator must be suitable for use with LP-gas. Manifolds and fittings connecting containers to pressure regulator inlets must be designed for at least 250 p.s.i.g. service pressure.
(e) You must protect valves on containers having water capacity greater than 50 pounds (nominal 20 pounds LP-gas capacity) from damage while in use or storage.
(f) You must not use aluminum piping or tubing must not be used.
(g) Hose must be designed for a working pressure of at least 250 p.s.i.g. Design, construction, and performance of hose, and hose connections must have their suitability determined by listing by a nationally recognized testing agency. The hose length must be as short as practical. Hoses must be long enough to permit compliance with spacing provisions of (a) through (m) of this subsection, without kinking or straining, or causing hose to be so close to a burner as to be damaged by heat.
(h) Portable heaters, including salamanders, must be equipped with an approved automatic device to shut off the flow of gas to the mainburner, and pilot if used, in the event of flame failure. Such heaters, having inputs above 50,000 BTU per hour, must be equipped with either a pilot, which must be lighted and proved before the main burner can be turned on, or an electrical ignition system.
Note:
The provisions of this subdivision do not apply to portable heaters under 7,500 BTU per hour input when used with containers having a maximum water capacity of 2 1/2 pounds.
(i) You must not use container valves, connectors, regulators, manifolds, piping, and tubing as structural supports for heaters.
(j) You must locate containers, regulating equipment, manifolds, pipe, tubing, and hose to minimize exposure to high temperatures or physical damage.
(k) Containers having a water capacity greater than 2 1/2 pounds (nominal one pound LP-gas capacity) connected for use must stand on a firm and substantially level surface and, when necessary, must be secured in an upright position.
(l) The maximum water capacity of individual containers must be 245 pounds (nominal 100 pounds LP-gas capacity).
(m) For temporary heating, you must locate heaters (other than integral heater-container units) at least 6 feet from any LP-gas container. This does not prohibit the use of heaters specifically designed for attachment to the container or to a supporting standard, provided they are designed and installed so as to prevent direct or radiant heat application from the heater onto the containers. You must not direct blower and radiant type heaters toward any LP-gas container within 20 feet.
(n) If two or more heater-container units, of either the integral or nonintegral type, are located in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, you must separate the container or containers of each unit from the container or containers of any other unit by at least 20 feet.
(o) When heaters are connected to containers for use in an unpartitioned area on the same floor, the total water capacity of containers, manifolded together for connection to a heater or heaters, must not be greater than 735 pounds (nominal 300 pounds LP-gas capacity). You must separate such manifolds by at least 20 feet.
(p) Storage of containers awaiting use must be in accordance with subsections (10) and (11) of this section.
(9) Multiple container systems.
(a) You must arrange valves in the assembly of multiple container systems so that replacement of containers can be made without shutting off the flow of gas in the system. This provision is not to be construed as requiring an automatic changeover device.
(b) Heaters must be equipped with an approved regulator in the supply line between the fuel cylinder and the heater unit. Cylinder connectors must be provided with an excess flow valve to minimize the flow of gas in the event the fuel line becomes ruptured.
(c) Regulators and low-pressure relief devices must be rigidly attached to the cylinder valves, cylinders, supporting standards, the building walls, or otherwise rigidly secured, and must be so installed or protected from the elements.
(10) Storage of LPG containers. You must not store LPG within building.
(11) Storage outside of buildings.
(a) Storage outside of buildings, for containers awaiting use, must be located from the nearest building or group of buildings, in accordance with Table D-3:
TABLE D-3
Quantity of LP-gas stored:
Distance
(feet)
500 lbs. or less
 
0
501 to 6,000 lbs.
 
10
6,001 to 10,000 lbs.
 
20
Over 10,000 lbs.
 
25
(b) Containers must be in a suitable ventilated enclosure or otherwise protected against tampering, or possible damage by vehicular traffic.
(12) Fire protection. You must provide storage locations with at least one approved portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-275, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-155-275, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-074 (Order 86-14), § 296-155-275, filed 1/21/86; Order 76-29, § 296-155-275, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-275, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-280
Temporary heating devices.

(1) Ventilation.
(a) You must supply fresh air in sufficient quantities to maintain the health and safety of workers. Where natural means of fresh air supply is inadequate, you must provide mechanical ventilation.
(b) When heaters are used in confined spaces, you must take special care to provide sufficient ventilation in order to ensure proper combustion, maintain the health and safety of workers, and limit temperature rise in the area.
(2) Clearance and mounting.
(a) You must install temporary heating devices to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount shown in Table D-4.
(b) Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation with lesser clearances than specified in Table D-4, may be installed in accordance with their approval.
TABLE D-4
Heating appliances
Minimum clearance,
(inches)
Sides
Rear
Chimney
connector
Room heater,
circulating type
 
12
12
18
 
 
 
 
 
Room heater,
radiant type
 
36
36
18
 
 
 
 
 
(c) You must not set heaters that are not suitable for use on wood floors directly upon them or other combustible materials. When such heaters are used, you must rest them on suitable heat insulating material or at least one-inch concrete, or equivalent. The insulating material must extend beyond the heater two feet or more in all directions.
(d) You must locate heaters used in the vicinity of combustible tarpaulins, canvas, or similar coverings at least 10 feet from the coverings. You must securely fasten the coverings to prevent ignition or upsetting of the heater due to wind action on the covering or other material.
(3) Stability. You must set heaters, when in use, horizontally level, unless otherwise permitted by the manufacturer's markings.
(4) Oil-fired heaters.
(a) Flammable liquid-fired heaters must be equipped with a primary safety control to stop the flow of fuel in the event of flame failure. Barometric or gravity oil feed are not considered a primary safety control.
(b) You must only use heaters designed for barometric or gravity oil feed with the integral tanks.
(c) Heaters specifically designed and approved for use with separate supply tanks may be directly connected for gravity feed, or an automatic pump, from a supply tank.
(5) Salamanders.
(a) Coverage. You must not use solid fuel salamanders in buildings and on scaffolds.
(b) General requirements.
(i) All solid fuel salamanders must be designed and constructed for use with solid fuel, that is, coal or coke.
(ii) Solid fuel salamanders must be equipped with a cover designed as part of the unit, to prevent spillage of burning material in case of tipover.
(iii) You must assemble salamanders in accordance with the instructions issued by the manufacturer.
(iv) You must maintain the safeguards engineered into the product and ensure that any replacement is equivalent thereto.
(v) You must store salamanders in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or damage to the unit.
(c) Operation.
(i) You must follow manufacturers' instructions.
(ii) Each time a salamander is placed in operation you must check it to ensure that it is functioning properly. You must check its operation periodically thereafter.
(iii) When concentrations of carbon monoxide attain quantities greater than 35 parts per million (0.0035 percent) to air volume at employee breathing levels, you must extinguish the salamander unless additional natural or mechanical ventilation is provided to reduce the carbon monoxide content to permissible limits.
(iv) Tests for presence of carbon monoxide must be made by a qualified person within one hour after the start of each shift and at least every 3 hours thereafter. If concentrations of carbon monoxide reach 20 parts per million to air volume, tests must be made more frequently to determine if there is a continuing increase of carbon monoxide concentration.
(v) You must maintain records of all tests including the date, time, results obtained, and person making tests, for the duration of the project.
(vi) You must not permit anyone to be within the area being heated by the salamanders except under the following circumstances: When tending the salamanders; when testing the atmosphere; or in emergency situations.
(vii) You must not permit anyone to enter the heated area until notification is given to another person located outside. You must make periodic checks to ensure the health and safety of employees entering the heated area.
(viii) When a salamander is being used, you must assign the responsibility for its operation and maintenance to a qualified employee.
(ix) You must ensure that salamanders are not moved, handled, or serviced while hot or burning, or while component parts are hot to the touch.
(x) You must set salamanders, when in use, level with the horizontal unless otherwise permitted by the manufacturer's markings. Salamanders must be designed so as not to tip over when placed on a surface inclined 25° to the horizontal.
(xi) If equivalent protection and safety is afforded by alternative design, the 25° limitation may be reduced.
(xii) You must not set salamanders that are not suitable for use on wood floors directly upon them or other combustible materials. When such salamanders are used you must rest them on suitable insulating material or at least one-inch concrete or equivalent. The insulating material must extend beyond the salamander two feet or more in all directions.
(xiii) You must locate salamanders used in the vicinity of tarpaulins, canvas, or similar coverings a safe distance from coverings and other combustible materials. The coverings must be securely fastened to prevent ignition of the covering or upsetting of the salamanders due to wind action on the covering or other material.
(xiv) You must protect salamanders in use to prevent flame extinguishment.
(d) Ventilation.
(i) You must supply fresh air in sufficient quantities to maintain the health and safety of employees. Where natural means for fresh air supply is inadequate, you must provide mechanical ventilation. You must give particular attention to confined spaces and pockets where heat and fumes may accumulate and employees may be present (roof areas, peaks, basement).
(ii) When salamanders are used in confined spaces, you must take special care to provide sufficient ventilation in order to assure proper combustion, maintain the health and safety of employees, and limit temperature rise in the area.
(e) Fueling.
(i) Salamanders must be refueled only by a person trained in such operations.
(ii) Only a one day's supply of heater fuel must be stored inside a building in the vicinity of the salamander. General fuel storage must be outside the structure.
(iii) All fuel storage must be maintained a minimum of 25 feet from source of ignition.
(f) Maintenance.
(i) The user must comply with the maintenance instructions as provided by the manufacturer.
(ii) You must remove equipment showing evidence of deterioration or damage that constitutes a safety or health hazard from service.
(iii) Salamander repairs must be performed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and replacement parts must be equal to, the equivalent of, or the same as the original salamander equipment.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 16-09-085, § 296-155-280, filed 4/19/16, effective 5/20/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-155-280, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; Order 76-29, § 296-155-280, filed 9/30/76; Order 74-26, § 296-155-280, filed 5/7/74, effective 6/6/74.]



296-155-305
Signaling and flaggers.

Definition:
Flagger. A person who provides temporary traffic control.
MUTCD. The Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control as currently modified and adopted by the Washington state department of transportation.
Link:
For the current version of the MUTCD, see the department of transportation's web site at http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ and type MUTCD into the search box.
(1) General requirements for signaling and flaggers.
(a) You must first apply the requirements in this section. Then you must set up and use temporary traffic controls according to the guidelines and recommendations in Part VI of the MUTCD.
(b) Job site workers with specific traffic control responsibilities must be trained in traffic control techniques, device usage, and placement.
Note:
• You may purchase copies of the MUTCD by writing:
U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Mail Stop: SSOP,
Washington D.C. 20402-9328
• To view and print a copy of the MUTCD go to http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ and type MUTCD into the search box.
(2) When to use flaggers.
(a) You must only use flaggers when other reasonable traffic control methods will not adequately control traffic in the work zone.
(b) If signs, signals, and barricades do not provide necessary protection from traffic at work zones and construction sites on or adjacent to a highway or street, then you must use flaggers or other appropriate traffic controls.
(3) Flagger signaling.
(a) Flagger signaling must be with sign paddles approved by WSDOT and conform to guidelines and recommendations of MUTCD.
(b) Sign paddles must comply with the requirements of the MUTCD.
(c) When flagging is done during periods of darkness, sign paddles must be retroreflective or illuminated in the same manner as signs.
(d) During emergency situations, red flags, meeting the specifications of the MUTCD, may be used to draw a driver's attention to particularly hazardous conditions. In nonemergency situations, a red flag may be held in a flagger's free hand to supplement the use of a sign paddle.
(4) Adequate warning of approaching vehicles. You must:
• Position work zone flaggers so they are not exposed to traffic or equipment approaching them from behind.
– If this is not possible, then the employer, responsible contractor, and/or project owner must develop and use a method to ensure that flaggers have adequate visual warning of traffic and equipment approaching from behind.
Note:
• The following are some optional examples of methods that may be used to adequately warn or protect flaggers:
 
– Mount a mirror on the flagger's hard hat.
 
– Use an observer.
 
– Use "jersey" barriers.
• The department recognizes the importance of adequately trained flaggers and supports industry efforts to imp