(1) A qualified signal person that meets the requirements in WAC 296-155-53302
must be provided in each of the following situations:
(a) The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the crane/derrick operator.
(b) When the crane is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed.
(c) Due to site specific safety concerns, either the crane/derrick operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary.
(2) Types of signals. Signals to crane/derrick operators must be by hand, voice, audible, or other means at least as effective.
(3) Hand signals.
(a) When using hand signals, the standard method as established in the applicable ASME B30 standards must be used. Where use of the standard method for hand signals is infeasible, or where an operation or use of an attachment is not covered in the standard method, nonstandard hand signals may be used in accordance with (b) of this subsection.
(b) Nonstandard hand signals. When using nonstandard hand signals, the signal person, operator, and lift director must contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the nonstandard hand signals that will be used.
(4) Signals other than hand, voice or audible signals may be used where the employer demonstrates that the signals provided are at least equally effective communications as voice, audible, or standard method hand signals.
(5) Use and suitability.
(a) Prior to beginning operations, the operator, signal person, and lift director, must contact each other and agree on the voice signals that will be used. Once the voice signals are agreed upon, these employees need not meet again to discuss voice signals unless another employee is added or substituted, there is confusion about the voice signals, or a voice signal is to be changed.
(b) Each voice signal must contain the following three elements, given in the following order: Function (such as hoist, boom, etc.) and direction; distance and/or speed; function stop.
(c) The operator, signal person and lift director, must be able to effectively communicate in the language used.
(d) The signals used (hand, voice, audible, or other effective means), and means of transmitting the signals to the operator (such as direct line of sight, video, radio, etc.) must be appropriate for the site conditions.
(e) Signals must be discernible or audible at all times. The crane operator must not respond unless signals are clearly understood.
(6) During operations requiring signals, the ability to transmit signals between the operator and signal person must be maintained. If that ability is interrupted at any time, the operator must safely stop operations requiring signals until it is reestablished and a proper signal is given and understood.
(7) If the operator becomes aware of a safety problem and needs to communicate with the signal person, the operator must safely stop operations. Operations must not resume until the operator and signal person agree that the problem has been resolved.
(8) Only one person gives signals to a crane/derrick at a time, except in circumstances covered by subsection (9) of this section.
(9) Anyone who becomes aware of a safety problem must alert the operator or signal person by giving the stop or emergency stop signal. The operator must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal, irrespective of who gives it.
(10) All directions given to the operator by the signal person must be given from the operator's direction perspective.
(11) Communication with multiple cranes/derricks. Where a signal person(s) is in communication with more than one crane/derrick, a system for identifying the crane/derrick for which each signal is intended must be used, as follows:
(a) For each signal, prior to giving the function/direction, the signal person must identify the crane/derrick for which the signal is intended; or
(b) An equally effective method of identifying which crane/derrick the signal is intended for must be used.
(12) Hand signal chart. Hand signal charts must be either posted on the crane/derrick or conspicuously posted in the vicinity of the hoisting operations.
(13) Radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.
(a) The device(s) used to transmit signals must be tested on site before beginning operations to ensure that the signal transmission is effective, clear, and reliable.
(b) Signal transmission must be through a dedicated channel except:
(i) Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more signal persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations.
(ii) Where a crane is being operated on or adjacent to railroad tracks, and the actions of the crane operator need to be coordinated with the movement of other equipment or trains on the same or adjacent tracks.
(c) The operator's reception of signals must be made by a hands-free system.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and chapter 49.17 RCW, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. 13-02-068, § 296-155-53406, filed 12/31/12, effective 2/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. 12-01-086, § 296-155-53406, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12.]