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Chapter 46.37 RCW

VEHICLE LIGHTING AND OTHER EQUIPMENT

RCW Sections

46.37.005State patrol -- Additional powers and duties.
46.37.010Scope and effect of regulations -- General penalty.
46.37.020When lighted lamps and signaling devices are required.
46.37.030Visibility distance and mounted height of lamps.
46.37.040Head lamps on motor vehicles.
46.37.050Tail lamps.
46.37.060Reflectors.
46.37.070Stop lamps and electric turn signals required.
46.37.080Application of succeeding sections.
46.37.090Additional equipment required on certain vehicles.
46.37.100Color of clearance lamps, side marker lamps, backup lamps, and reflectors.
46.37.110Mounting of reflectors, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and side marker lamps.
46.37.120Visibility of reflectors, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and side marker lamps.
46.37.130Obstructed lights not required.
46.37.140Lamps, reflectors, and flags on projecting load.
46.37.150Lamps on vehicles -- Parked or stopped vehicles, lighting requirements.
46.37.160Hazard warning lights and reflectors on farm equipment -- Slow-moving vehicle emblem.
46.37.170Lamps and reflectors on other vehicles and equipment -- Slow-moving vehicle emblem on animal-drawn vehicles.
46.37.180Spot lamps and auxiliary lamps.
46.37.184Red flashing lights on fire department vehicles.
46.37.185Green light on firefighters' private cars.
46.37.186Fire department sign or plate on private car.
46.37.187Green light, sign or plate -- Identification card required.
46.37.188Penalty for violation of RCW 46.37.184 through 46.37.188.
46.37.190Warning devices on vehicles -- Other drivers yield and stop.
46.37.191Implementing rules.
46.37.193Signs on buses.
46.37.194Authorized emergency vehicles -- State patrol authority, maintenance, and applicant and driver screening.
46.37.195Sale of emergency vehicle lighting equipment restricted -- Removal of emergency vehicle equipment, when required -- Exception.
46.37.196Red lights on emergency tow trucks.
46.37.200Stop lamps and electric turn signals displayed.
46.37.210Additional lighting equipment.
46.37.215Hazard warning lamps.
46.37.220Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment.
46.37.230Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment.
46.37.240Single-beam road-lighting equipment.
46.37.260Alternate road lighting equipment.
46.37.270Number of lamps required -- Number of additional lamps permitted.
46.37.280Special restrictions on lamps.
46.37.290Special lighting equipment on school buses and private carrier buses.
46.37.300Standards for lights on snow-removal or highway maintenance and service equipment.
46.37.310Selling or using lamps or equipment.
46.37.320Authority of state patrol regarding lighting devices or other safety equipment.
46.37.330Revocation of certificate of approval on devices -- Reapproval, conditions.
46.37.340Braking equipment required.
46.37.351Performance ability of brakes.
46.37.360Maintenance of brakes -- Brake system failure indicator.
46.37.365Hydraulic brake fluid -- Defined -- Standards and specifications.
46.37.369Wheels and front suspension.
46.37.375Steering and suspension systems.
46.37.380Horns, warning devices, and theft alarms.
46.37.390Mufflers required -- Smoke and air contaminant standards -- Definitions -- Penalty, exception.
46.37.395Compression brakes (Jake brakes).
46.37.400Mirrors, backup devices.
46.37.410Windshields required, exception -- Must be unobstructed and equipped with wipers.
46.37.420Tires -- Restrictions.
46.37.4215Lightweight and retractable studs -- Certification by sellers.
46.37.4216Lightweight and retractable studs -- Sale of tires containing.
46.37.423Pneumatic passenger car tires -- Standards -- Exception for off-highway use -- Penalty.
46.37.424Regrooved tires -- Standards -- Exception for off-highway use -- Penalty.
46.37.425Tires -- Unsafe -- State patrol's authority -- Penalty.
46.37.430Safety glazing -- Sunscreening or coloring.
46.37.435Sunscreening, unlawful installation, penalty.
46.37.440Flares or other warning devices required on certain vehicles.
46.37.450Disabled vehicle -- Display of warning devices.
46.37.465Fuel system.
46.37.467Alternative fuel source -- Placard required.
46.37.470Air conditioning equipment.
46.37.480Television viewers -- Earphones.
46.37.490Safety load chains and devices required.
46.37.495Safety chains for towing.
46.37.500Fenders or splash aprons.
46.37.505Child passenger restraint systems.
46.37.510Seat belts and shoulder harnesses.
46.37.513Bumpers.
46.37.517Body and body hardware.
46.37.518Street rod, custom, and kit vehicles -- Optional and required equipment.
46.37.5185Street rod and custom vehicles -- Blue dot taillights.
46.37.519Kit vehicles.
46.37.520Beach vehicles with soft tires -- "Dune buggies" -- Inspection and approval required -- Fee.
46.37.522Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- When head lamps and tail lamps to be lighted.
46.37.523Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Head lamps.
46.37.524Motor-driven cycles -- Head lamps.
46.37.525Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Tail lamps, reflectors, and stop lamps.
46.37.527Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Brake requirements.
46.37.528Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Performance ability of brakes.
46.37.529Motor-driven cycles -- Braking system inspection.
46.37.530Motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, mopeds, electric-assisted bicycles -- Helmets, other equipment -- Children -- Rules.
46.37.535Motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, or mopeds -- Helmet requirements when rented.
46.37.537Motorcycles -- Exhaust system.
46.37.539Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Additional requirements and limitations.
46.37.540Odometers -- Disconnecting, resetting, or turning back prohibited.
46.37.550Odometers -- Selling motor vehicle knowing odometer turned back unlawful.
46.37.560Odometers -- Selling motor vehicle knowing odometer replaced unlawful.
46.37.570Odometers -- Selling, advertising, using, or installing device registering false mileage.
46.37.590Odometers -- Purchaser plaintiff to recover costs and attorney's fee, when.
46.37.600Liability of operator, owner, lessee for violations.
46.37.610Wheelchair conveyance standards.
46.37.620School buses -- Crossing arms.
46.37.630Private school buses.
46.37.640Air bags -- Definitions.
46.37.650Air bags -- Installation of previously deployed -- Penalty.
46.37.660Air bags -- Replacement requirements.
46.37.670Signal preemption devices--Prohibited--Exceptions.
46.37.671Signal preemption device--Possession--Penalty.
46.37.672Signal preemption device--Use, sale, purchase--Penalty.
46.37.673Signal preemption device--Accident--Property damage or less than substantial bodily harm--Penalty.
46.37.674Signal preemption device--Accident--Substantial bodily harm--Penalty.
46.37.675Signal preemption device--Accident--Death--Penalty.
46.37.680Sound system attachment.
46.37.685License plate flipping device -- Unlawful use, display, sale -- Penalty.

Notes:

Emission control program: Chapter 70.120 RCW.

Lowering vehicle below legal clearance: RCW 46.61.680.

Moving defective vehicle: RCW 46.32.060.



46.37.005
State patrol — Additional powers and duties.

In addition to those powers and duties elsewhere granted, the chief of the Washington state patrol shall have the power and the duty to adopt, apply, and enforce such reasonable rules and regulations (1) relating to proper types of vehicles or combinations thereof for hauling passengers, commodities, freight, and supplies, (2) relating to vehicle equipment, and (3) relating to the enforcement of the provisions of this title with regard to vehicle equipment, as may be deemed necessary for the public welfare and safety in addition to but not inconsistent with the provisions of this title.

     The chief of the Washington state patrol is authorized to adopt by regulation, federal standards relating to motor vehicles and vehicle equipment, issued pursuant to the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or any amendment to said act, notwithstanding any provision in Title
46 RCW inconsistent with such standards. Federal standards adopted pursuant to this section shall be applicable only to vehicles manufactured in a model year following the adoption of such standards.

[1987 c 330 § 706; 1985 c 165 § 1; 1982 c 106 § 1; 1967 ex.s. c 145 § 56; 1967 c 32 § 49; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.005. Prior: 1943 c 133 § 1; 1937 c 189 § 6; Rem. Supp. 1943 § 6360-6; 1927 c 309 § 14, part; RRS § 6362-14, part. Formerly RCW 46.36.010.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1967 ex.s. c 145: See RCW 47.98.043.

Towing operators, appointment of: RCW 46.55.115.




46.37.010
Scope and effect of regulations — General penalty.

(1) It is a traffic infraction for any person to drive or move, or for a vehicle owner to cause or knowingly permit to be driven or moved, on any highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles that:

     (a) Is in such unsafe condition as to endanger any person;

     (b) Is not at all times equipped with such lamps and other equipment in proper working condition and adjustment as required by this chapter or by rules issued by the Washington state patrol;

     (c) Contains any parts in violation of this chapter or rules issued by the Washington state patrol.

     (2) It is a traffic infraction for any person to do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required under this chapter or rules issued by the Washington state patrol.

     (3) Nothing contained in this chapter or the state patrol's regulations shall be construed to prohibit the use of additional parts and accessories on any vehicle not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter or the state patrol's regulations.

     (4) The provisions of the chapter and the state patrol's regulations with respect to equipment on vehicles shall not apply to implements of husbandry, road machinery, road rollers, or farm tractors except as herein made applicable.

     (5) No owner or operator of a farm tractor, self-propelled unit of farm equipment, or implement of husbandry shall be guilty of a crime or subject to penalty for violation of RCW
46.37.160 as now or hereafter amended unless such violation occurs on a public highway.

     (6) It is a traffic infraction for any person to sell or offer for sale vehicle equipment which is required to be approved by the state patrol as prescribed in RCW 46.37.005 unless it has been approved by the state patrol.

     (7) The provisions of this chapter with respect to equipment required on vehicles shall not apply to:

     (a) Motorcycles or motor-driven cycles except as herein made applicable;

     (b) Golf carts, as defined in RCW 46.04.1945, operating within a designated golf cart zone as described in RCW 46.08.175, except as provided in RCW 46.08.175(8).

     (8) This chapter does not apply to off-road vehicles used on nonhighway roads or used on streets, roads, or highways as authorized under RCW 46.09.360.

     (9) This chapter does not apply to vehicles used by the state parks and recreation commission exclusively for park maintenance and operations upon public highways within state parks.

     (10) Notices of traffic infraction issued to commercial drivers under the provisions of this chapter with respect to equipment required on commercial motor vehicles shall not be considered for driver improvement purposes under chapter 46.20 RCW.

     (11) Whenever a traffic infraction is chargeable to the owner or lessee of a vehicle under subsection (1) of this section, the driver shall not be arrested or issued a notice of traffic infraction unless the vehicle is registered in a jurisdiction other than Washington state, or unless the infraction is for an offense that is clearly within the responsibility of the driver.

     (12) Whenever the owner or lessee is issued a notice of traffic infraction under this section the court may, on the request of the owner or lessee, take appropriate steps to make the driver of the vehicle, or any other person who directs the loading, maintenance, or operation of the vehicle, a codefendant. If the codefendant is held solely responsible and is found to have committed the traffic infraction, the court may dismiss the notice against the owner or lessee.

[2011 c 171 § 79; 2010 c 217 § 6. Prior: 2006 c 306 § 1; 2006 c 212 § 5; 2005 c 213 § 7; 1997 c 241 § 14; 1989 c 178 § 22; 1987 c 330 § 707; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 69; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 1; 1963 c 154 § 1; 1961 c 12 §46.37.010 ; prior: 1955 c 269 § 1; prior: 1937 c 189 § 14, part; RRS § 6360-14, part; RCW 46.40.010, part; 1929 c 178 § 2; 1927 c 309 § 19; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part; RRS § 6362-19.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2011 c 171: See notes following RCW 4.24.210.

     Findings--Construction--Effective date -- 2005 c 213: See notes following RCW 46.09.300.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1989 c 178: See RCW 46.25.900 and 46.25.901.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: "If any provision of this 1977 amendatory act, or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act, or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1977 ex.s. c 355 § 57.]

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: "This act shall take effect on January 1, 1964." [1963 c 154 § 32.]

Moving defective vehicle: RCW 46.32.060.




46.37.020
When lighted lamps and signaling devices are required.

Every vehicle upon a highway within this state at any time from a half hour after sunset to a half hour before sunrise and at any other time when, due to insufficient light or unfavorable atmospheric conditions, persons and vehicles on the highway are not clearly discernible at a distance of one thousand feet ahead shall display lighted headlights, other lights, and illuminating devices as hereinafter respectively required for different classes of vehicles, subject to exceptions with respect to parked vehicles, and such stop lights, turn signals, and other signaling devices shall be lighted as prescribed for the use of such devices.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 2; 1974 ex.s. c 124 § 2; 1963 c 154 § 2; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.020. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 2; prior: 1937 c 189 § 14, part; RRS § 6360-14, part; RCW 46.40.010, part; 1929 c 178 § 2; 1927 c 309 § 19; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part; RRS § 6362-19.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Local twenty-four hour headlight policy: RCW 47.04.180.

Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- When headlamps and tail lamps to be lighted: RCW 46.37.522.




46.37.030
Visibility distance and mounted height of lamps.

(1) Whenever requirement is hereinafter declared as to distance from which certain lamps and devices shall render objects visible or within which such lamps or devices shall be visible, said provisions shall apply during the times stated in RCW 46.37.020 in respect to a vehicle without load when upon a straight, level, unlighted highway under normal atmospheric conditions unless a different time or condition is expressly stated.

     (2) Whenever requirement is hereinafter declared as to the mounted height of lamps or devices it shall mean from the center of such lamp or device to the level ground upon which the vehicle stands when such vehicle is without a load.

     (3) No additional lamp, reflective device, or other motor vehicle equipment shall be added which impairs the effectiveness of this standard.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 3; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.030. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 3; prior: 1937 c 189 § 14, part; RRS § 6360-14, part; RCW 46.40.010, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.040
Head lamps on motor vehicles.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with at least two head lamps with at least one on each side of the front of the motor vehicle, which head lamps shall comply with the requirements and limitations set forth in this chapter.

     (2) Every head lamp upon every motor vehicle shall be located at a height measured from the center of the head lamp of not more than fifty-four inches nor less than twenty-four inches to be measured as set forth in RCW
46.37.030(2).

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 4; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.040. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 4; prior: 1937 c 189 § 15; RRS § 6360-15; RCW 46.40.020; 1933 c 156 § 1, part; 1929 c 178 § 3, part; 1927 c 309 §§ 20, part, 24; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part; RRS §§ 6362-20, part, 6362-24.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.050
Tail lamps.

(1) After January 1, 1964, every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer, and any other vehicle which is being drawn at the end of a combination of vehicles, shall be equipped with at least two tail lamps mounted on the rear, which, when lighted as required in RCW 46.37.020, shall emit a red light plainly visible from a distance of one thousand feet to the rear, except that passenger cars manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1939, shall have at least one tail lamp. On a combination of vehicles only the tail lamps on the rearmost vehicle need actually be seen from the distance specified. On vehicles equipped with more than one tail lamp, the lamps shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable.

     (2) Every tail lamp upon every vehicle shall be located at a height of not more than seventy-two inches nor less than fifteen inches.

     (3) Either a tail lamp or a separate lamp shall be so constructed and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear registration plate and render it clearly legible from a distance of fifty feet to the rear. Any tail lamp or tail lamps, together with any separate lamp or lamps for illuminating the rear registration plate, shall be so wired as to be lighted whenever the head lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are lighted.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 5; 1963 c 154 § 3; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.050. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 5; prior: 1947 c 267 § 2, part; 1937 c 189 § 16, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-16, part; RCW 46.40.030, part; 1929 c 178 § 7; 1927 c 309 § 27; RRS § 6362-27; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.060
Reflectors.

(1) Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer shall carry on the rear, either as a part of the tail lamps or separately, two or more red reflectors meeting the requirements of this section: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That vehicles of the types mentioned in RCW 46.37.090 shall be equipped with reflectors meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.110 and 46.37.120.

     (2) Every such reflector shall be mounted on the vehicle at a height not less than fifteen inches nor more than seventy-two inches measured as set forth in RCW 46.37.030(2), and shall be of such size and characteristics and so mounted as to be visible at night from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet from such vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper beams of head lamps, except that reflectors on vehicles manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1970, shall be visible at night from all distances within three hundred and fifty feet to one hundred feet when directly in front of lawful upper beams of head lamps.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 6; 1963 c 154 § 4; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.060. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 6; prior: 1947 c 267 § 2, part; 1937 c 189 § 16, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-16, part; RCW 46.40.030, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.070
Stop lamps and electric turn signals required.

(1) After January 1, 1964, every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer shall be equipped with two or more stop lamps meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.200, except that passenger cars manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1964, shall be equipped with at least one such stop lamp. On a combination of vehicles, only the stop lamps on the rearmost vehicle need actually be seen from the distance specified in RCW 46.37.200(1).

     (2) After January 1, 1960, every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer shall be equipped with electric turn signal lamps meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.200(2), except that passenger cars, trailers, semitrailers, pole trailers, and trucks less than eighty inches in width, manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1953, need not be equipped with electric turn signal lamps.

     (3) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after September 1, 1985; and every passenger truck, passenger van, or passenger sports [sport] utility vehicle manufactured or assembled after September 1, 1993, must be equipped with a rear center high-mounted stop lamp meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.200(3).

[2006 c 306 § 2; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 7; 1963 c 154 § 5; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.070. Prior: 1959 c 319 § 32; 1955 c 269 § 7; prior: 1953 c 248 § 2, part; 1947 c 267 § 4, part; 1937 c 189 § 23, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-23, part; RCW 46.40.090, part; 1929 c 178 § 1, part; 1927 c 309 § 15, part; RRS § 6362-15, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.080
Application of succeeding sections.

Those sections of this chapter which follow immediately, including RCW 46.37.090, 46.37.100, 46.37.110, 46.37.120, and 46.37.130, relating to clearance lamps, marker lamps, and reflectors, shall apply as stated in said sections to vehicles of the type therein enumerated, namely buses, trucks, truck tractors, and trailers, semitrailers, and pole trailers, respectively, when operated upon any highway, and said vehicles shall be equipped as required and all lamp equipment required shall be lighted at the times mentioned in RCW 46.37.020. For purposes of the sections enumerated above, a camper, when mounted upon a motor vehicle, shall be considered part of the permanent structure of that motor vehicle.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 8; 1963 c 154 § 6; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.080. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 8; prior: 1947 c 267 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 17, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-17, part; RCW 46.40.040, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.090
Additional equipment required on certain vehicles.

In addition to other equipment required in RCW 46.37.040, 46.37.050, 46.37.060, and 46.37.070, the following vehicles shall be equipped as herein stated under the conditions stated in RCW 46.37.080, and in addition, the reflectors elsewhere enumerated for such vehicles shall conform to the requirements of RCW 46.37.120(1).

     (1) Buses, trucks, motor homes, and motor vehicles with mounted campers eighty inches or more in over-all width:

     (a) On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and on vehicles manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivision (6) [(7)] of this section;

     (b) On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and after January 1, 1964, three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivision (6) [(7)] of this section;

     (c) On each side, two side marker lamps, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear;

     (d) On each side, two reflectors, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear.

     (2) Trailers and semitrailers eighty inches or more in over-all width:

     (a) On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side;

     (b) On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and after January 1, 1964, three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivision (6) [(7)] of this section;

     (c) On each side, two side marker lamps, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear;

     (d) On each side, two reflectors, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear: PROVIDED, That a mobile home as defined by RCW 46.04.302 need not be equipped with two side marker lamps or two side reflectors as required by subsection (2) (c) and (d) of this section while operated under the terms of a special permit authorized by RCW 46.44.090.

     (3) Truck tractors:

     On the front, two cab clearance lamps, one at each side, and on vehicles manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivision (6) [(7)] of this section.

     (4) Trailers, semitrailers, and pole trailers thirty feet or more in over-all length:

     On each side, one amber side marker lamp and one amber reflector, centrally located with respect to the length of the vehicle: PROVIDED, That a mobile home as defined by RCW 46.04.302 need not be equipped with such side marker lamp or reflector while operated under the terms of a special permit authorized by RCW 46.44.090.

     (5) Pole trailers:

     (a) On each side, one amber side marker lamp at or near the front of the load;

     (b) One amber reflector at or near the front of the load;

     (c) On the rearmost support for the load, one combination marker lamp showing amber to the front and red to the rear and side, mounted to indicate maximum width of the pole trailer.

     (6) Boat trailers eighty inches or more in overall width:

     (a) One on each side, at or near the midpoint, one clearance lamp performing the function of both a front and rear clearance lamp;

     (b) On the rear, after June 1, 1978, three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subsection (7) of this section;

     (c) One on each side, two side marker lamps, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear;

     (d) On each side, two reflectors, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear.

     (7) Whenever required or permitted by this chapter, identification lamps shall be grouped in a horizontal row, with lamp centers spaced not less than six nor more than twelve inches apart, and mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as close as practicable to the vertical centerline: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That where the cab of a vehicle is not more than forty-two inches wide at the front roof line, a single identification lamp at the center of the cab shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for front identification lamps.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 9; 1963 c 154 § 7; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.090. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 9; prior: 1947 c 267 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 17, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-17, part; RCW 46.40.040, part; 1933 c 156 §§ 5, part, 6, part; 1929 c 178 §§ 7, part, 8, part; 1927 c 309 §§ 27, part, 28, part; RRS §§ 6362-27, part, 6362-28, part; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.100
Color of clearance lamps, side marker lamps, backup lamps, and reflectors.

(1) Front clearance lamps and those marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the front or on the side near the front of a vehicle shall display or reflect an amber color.

     (2) Rear clearance lamps and those marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the rear or on the sides near the rear of a vehicle shall display or reflect a red color.

     (3) All lighting devices and reflectors mounted on the rear of any vehicle shall display or reflect a red color, except the stop lamp or other signal device, which may be red, amber, or yellow, and except that on any vehicle forty or more years old, or on any motorcycle regardless of age, the taillight may also contain a blue or purple insert of not more than one inch in diameter, and except that the light illuminating the license plate shall be white and the light emitted by a backup lamp shall be white or amber.

[2002 c 196 § 1; 1992 c 46 § 1; 1961 c 12 §46.37.100 . Prior: 1955 c 269 § 10; prior: 1947 c 267 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 17, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-17, part; RCW 46.40.040, part; 1933 c 156 §§ 5, part, 6, part; 1929 c 178 §§ 7, part, 8, part; 1927 c 309 §§ 27, part, 28, part; RRS §§ 6362-27, part, 6362-28, part; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part.]




46.37.110
Mounting of reflectors, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and side marker lamps.

(1) Reflectors when required by RCW 46.37.090 shall be mounted at a height not less than twenty-four inches and not higher than sixty inches above the ground on which the vehicle stands, except that if the highest part of the permanent structure of the vehicle is less than twenty-four inches the reflector at such point shall be mounted as high as that part of the permanent structure will permit.

     The rear reflectors on a pole trailer may be mounted on each side of the bolster or load.

     Any required red reflector on the rear of a vehicle may be incorporated with the tail lamp, but such reflector shall meet all the other reflector requirements of this chapter.

     (2) Clearance lamps shall be mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle in such a manner as to indicate the extreme height and width of the vehicle. When rear identification lamps are required and are mounted as high as is practicable, rear clearance lamps may be mounted at optional height, and when the mounting of front clearance lamps results in such lamps failing to indicate the extreme width of the trailer, such lamps may be mounted at optional height but must indicate, as near as practicable, the extreme width of the trailer. Clearance lamps on truck tractors shall be located so as to indicate the extreme width of the truck tractor cab. Clearance lamps and side marker lamps may be mounted in combination provided illumination is given as required herein with reference to both: PROVIDED, That no rear clearance lamp may be combined in any shell or housing with any tail lamp or identification lamp.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 10; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.110. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 11; prior: 1947 c 267 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 17, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-17, part; RCW 46.40.040, part; 1933 c 156 §§ 5, part, 6, part; 1929 c 178 §§ 7, part, 8, part; 1927 c 309 §§ 27, part, 28, part; RRS §§ 6362-27, part, 6362-28, part; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.120
Visibility of reflectors, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and side marker lamps.

(1) Every reflector upon any vehicle referred to in RCW 46.37.090 shall be of such size and characteristics and so maintained as to be readily visible at nighttime from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet from the vehicle when directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps, except that the visibility for reflectors on vehicles manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1970, shall be measured in front of the lawful upper beams of headlamps. Reflectors required to be mounted on the sides of the vehicle shall reflect the required color of light to the sides, and those mounted on the rear shall reflect a red color to the rear.

     (2) Front and rear clearance lamps and identification lamps shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal atmospheric conditions at the times lights are required at all distances between five hundred feet and fifty feet from the front and rear, respectively, of the vehicle.

     (3) Side marker lamps shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal atmospheric conditions at the times lights are required at all distances between five hundred feet and fifty feet from the side of the vehicle on which mounted.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 11; 1963 c 154 § 8; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.120. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 12; prior: 1947 c 267 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 17, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-17, part; RCW 46.40.040, part; 1933 c 156 §§ 5, part, 6, part; 1929 c 178 §§ 7, part, 8, part; 1927 c 309 §§ 27, part, 28, part; RRS §§ 6362-27, part, 6362-28, part; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1969 ex.s. c 281: "This 1969 amendatory act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety, the support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and except for sections 32 and 54 of this 1969 amendatory act shall take effect immediately. Sections 32 and 54 of this 1969 amendatory act shall take effect January 1, 1970." [1969 ex.s. c 281 § 63.]

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.130
Obstructed lights not required.

Whenever motor and other vehicles are operated in combination during the time that lights are required, any lamp (except tail lamps) need not be lighted which, by reason of its location on a vehicle of the combination, would be obscured by another vehicle of the combination, but this shall not affect the requirement that lighted clearance lamps be displayed on the front of the foremost vehicle required to have clearance lamps, nor that all lights required on the rear of the rearmost vehicle of any combination shall be lighted.

[1961 c 12 § 46.37.130. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 13.]




46.37.140
Lamps, reflectors, and flags on projecting load.

(1) On any vehicle having a load that extends more than four inches beyond its sides or more than four feet beyond its rear, there must be displayed red or orange fluorescent warning flags, not less than eighteen inches square, marking the extremities of such loads.

     (2) Whenever the load upon any vehicle extends to the rear four feet or more beyond the bed or body of the vehicle, there must be displayed at the extreme rear end of the load at the times specified in RCW
46.37.020:

     (a) Two red lamps, visible from a distance of at least five hundred feet to the rear;

     (b) Two red reflectors, visible at night from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps, and located so as to indicate maximum width; and

     (c) A red lamp on each side, visible from a distance of at least five hundred feet to the side, and located so as to indicate maximum overhang.

[2014 c 154 § 1; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 12; 1963 c 154 § 9; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.140. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 14; prior: 1937 c 189 § 18; RRS § 6360-18; RCW 46.40.050; 1929 c 178 § 11, part; 1927 c 309 § 32, part, RRS § 6362-32, part; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.150
Lamps on vehicles — Parked or stopped vehicles, lighting requirements.

(1) Every vehicle shall be equipped with one or more lamps, which, when lighted, shall display a white or amber light visible from a distance of one thousand feet to the front of the vehicle, and a red light visible from a distance of one thousand feet to the rear of the vehicle. The location of said lamp or lamps shall always be such that at least one lamp or combination of lamps meeting the requirements of this section is installed as near as practicable to the side of the vehicle which is closest to passing traffic.

     (2) Whenever a vehicle is lawfully parked upon a street or highway during the hours between a half hour after sunset and a half hour before sunrise and in the event there is sufficient light to reveal any person or object within a distance of one thousand feet upon such street or highway, no lights need be displayed upon such parked vehicle.

     (3) Whenever a vehicle is parked or stopped upon a roadway or shoulder adjacent thereto, outside an incorporated city or town, whether attended or unattended, during the hours between a half hour after sunset and a half hour before sunrise and there is insufficient light to reveal any person or object within a distance of one thousand feet upon such highway, such vehicle so parked or stopped shall be equipped with and shall display lamps meeting the requirements of subsection (1) of this section.

     (4) Any lighted head lamps upon a parked vehicle shall be depressed or dimmed.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 13; 1963 c 154 § 10; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.150. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 15; prior: 1937 c 189 § 19; RRS § 6360-19; RCW 46.40.060; 1933 c 156 § 8; 1929 c 178 § 10; 1927 c 309 § 31; RRS § 6362-31.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.160
Hazard warning lights and reflectors on farm equipment — Slow-moving vehicle emblem.

(1) Every farm tractor and every self-propelled unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1970, shall be equipped with vehicular hazard warning lights of the type described in RCW 46.37.215 visible from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight, which shall be displayed whenever any such vehicle is operated upon a highway.

     (2) Every self-propelled unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1970, shall at all times, and every other motor vehicle shall at times mentioned in RCW 46.37.020, be equipped with lamps and reflectors as follows:

     (a) At least two headlamps meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.220, 46.37.240, or 46.37.260;

     (b) At least one red lamp visible when lighted from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the rear mounted as far to the left of center of vehicle as practicable;

     (c) At least two red reflectors visible from all distances within six hundred to one hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of headlamps.

     (3) Every combination of farm tractor and towed farm equipment or towed implement of husbandry shall at all times mentioned in RCW 46.37.020 be equipped with lamps and reflectors as follows:

     (a) The farm tractor element of every such combination shall be equipped as required in subsections (1) and (2) of this section;

     (b) The towed unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry element of such combination shall be equipped on the rear with two red lamps visible when lighted from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the rear, and two red reflectors visible to the rear from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful upper beams of head lamps. One reflector shall be so positioned to indicate, as nearly as practicable, the extreme left projection of the towed unit;

     (c) If the towed unit or its load obscures either of the vehicle hazard warning lights on the tractor, the towed unit shall be equipped with vehicle hazard warning lights described in subsection (1) of this section.

     (4) The two red lamps and the two red reflectors required in the foregoing subsections of this section on a self-propelled unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry or combination of farm tractor and towed farm equipment shall be so positioned as to show from the rear as nearly as practicable the extreme width of the vehicle or combination carrying them: PROVIDED, That if all other requirements are met, reflective tape or paint may be used in lieu of reflectors required by subsection (3) of this section.

     (5) After January 1, 1970, every farm tractor and every self-propelled unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry designed for operation at speeds not in excess of twenty-five miles per hour shall at all times be equipped with a slow moving vehicle emblem mounted on the rear except as provided in subsection (6) of this section.

     (6) After January 1, 1970, every combination of farm tractor and towed farm equipment or towed implement of husbandry normally operating at speeds not in excess of twenty-five miles per hour shall at all times be equipped with a slow moving vehicle emblem as follows:

     (a) Where the towed unit is sufficiently large to obscure the slow moving vehicle emblem on the farm tractor, the towed unit shall be equipped with a slow moving vehicle emblem. In such cases, the towing vehicle need not display the emblem;

     (b) Where the slow moving vehicle emblem on the farm tractor unit is not obscured by the towed unit, then either or both may be equipped with the required emblem but it shall be sufficient if either has it.

     (7) The emblem required by subsections (5) and (6) of this section shall comply with current standards and specifications as promulgated by the Washington state patrol.

[1987 c 330 § 708; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 14; 1969 ex.s. c 281 § 22; 1963 c 154 § 11; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.160. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 16.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.170
Lamps and reflectors on other vehicles and equipment — Slow-moving vehicle emblem on animal-drawn vehicles.

(1) Every vehicle, including animal-drawn vehicles and vehicles referred to in *RCW 46.37.010(3), not specifically required by the provisions of RCW 46.37.020 through 46.37.330 to be equipped with lamps, or other lighting devices, shall at all times specified in RCW 46.37.020 be equipped with at least one lamp displaying a white light visible from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the front of said vehicle, and shall also be equipped with two lamps displaying red light visible from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the rear of said vehicle, or as an alternative, one lamp displaying a red light visible from a distance of not less than one thousand feet to the rear and two red reflectors visible from all distances of six hundred to one hundred feet to the rear when illuminated by the lawful lower beams of head lamps.

     (2) After June 1, 1978, every animal-drawn vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a slow-moving vehicle emblem complying with RCW 46.37.160(7).

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 15; 1963 c 154 § 12; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.170. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 17; prior: 1937 c 189 § 21; RRS § 6360-21; RCW 46.40.080; 1927 c 309 § 34; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1917 c 40 § 1; RRS § 6362-34.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: RCW 46.37.010 was amended by 2006 c 306 § 1, changing subsection (3) to subsection (4).

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.180
Spot lamps and auxiliary lamps.

(1) Spot lamps. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two spot lamps and every lighted spot lamp shall be so aimed and used that no part of the high intensity portion of the beam will strike the windshield, or any windows, mirror, or occupant of another vehicle in use.

     (2) Fog lamps. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two fog lamps mounted on the front at a height of not less than twelve inches nor more than thirty inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands and so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the light to the left of the center of the vehicle shall at a distance of twenty-five feet ahead project higher than a level of four inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes. Lighted fog lamps meeting the above requirements may be used with lower head lamp beams as specified in RCW
46.37.220.

     (3) Auxiliary passing lamps. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary passing lamps mounted on the front at a height not less than twenty-four inches nor more than forty-two inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. The provisions of RCW 46.37.220 shall apply to any combinations of head lamps and auxiliary passing lamps.

     (4) Auxiliary driving lamps. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary driving lamps mounted on the front at a height not less than sixteen inches nor more than forty-two inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. The provisions of RCW 46.37.220 shall apply to any combination of head lamps and auxiliary driving lamps.

[1963 c 154 § 13; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.180. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 18; prior: 1949 c 157 § 1; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-22a; RCW 46.40.110, 46.40.120.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.184
Red flashing lights on fire department vehicles.

All fire department vehicles in service shall be identified by red lights of an intermittent flashing type, visible from both front and rear for a distance of five hundred feet under normal atmospheric conditions. Such red flashing lights shall be well separated from the headlights so that they will not black out when headlights are on. Such red flashing lights shall be in operation at all times when such vehicle is on emergency status.

[1961 c 12 § 46.37.184. Prior: 1953 c 161 § 1. Formerly RCW 46.40.220.]




46.37.185
Green light on firefighters' private cars.

Firefighters, when approved by the chief of their respective service, shall be authorized to use a green light on the front of their private cars when on emergency duty only. Such green light shall be visible for a distance of two hundred feet under normal atmospheric conditions and shall be of a type and mounting approved by the Washington state patrol. The use of the green light shall only be for the purpose of identification and the operator of a vehicle so equipped shall not be entitled to any of the privileges provided in RCW 46.61.035 for the operators of authorized emergency vehicles.

[2007 c 218 § 73; 1987 c 330 § 709; 1971 ex.s. c 92 § 3; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.185. Prior: 1953 c 161 § 2. Formerly RCW 46.40.230.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Finding -- 2007 c 218: See note following RCW 1.08.130.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.186
Fire department sign or plate on private car.

(1) No private vehicle, bearing a sign or plate indicating a fire department connection, shall be driven or operated on any public highway, except when the owner thereof is a bona fide member of a fire department.

     (2) Any sign or plate indicating fire department connection on a private car of any member of a fire department shall include the name of the municipality or fire department organization to which the owner belongs.

[1961 c 12 § 46.37.186. Prior: 1953 c 161 § 3. Formerly RCW 46.40.240.]




46.37.187
Green light, sign or plate — Identification card required.

Any individual displaying a green light as authorized in RCW 46.37.185, or a sign or plate as authorized in RCW 46.37.186, shall also carry attached to a convenient location on the private vehicle to which the green light or sign or plate is attached, an identification card showing the name of the owner of said vehicle, the organization to which he or she belongs and bearing the signature of the chief of the service involved.

[1971 ex.s. c 92 § 2; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.187. Prior: 1953 c 161 § 4. Formerly RCW 46.40.250.]




46.37.188
Penalty for violation of RCW 46.37.184 through 46.37.188.

Every violation of RCW 46.37.184, 46.37.185, 46.37.186, or 46.37.187 is a traffic infraction.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 70; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.188. Prior: 1953 c 161 § 5. Formerly RCW 46.40.260.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.37.190
Warning devices on vehicles — Other drivers yield and stop.

(1) Every authorized emergency vehicle shall, in addition to any other equipment and distinctive marking required by this chapter, be equipped with at least one lamp capable of displaying a red light visible from at least five hundred feet in normal sunlight and a siren capable of giving an audible signal.

     (2) Every school bus and private carrier bus shall, in addition to any other equipment and distinctive markings required by this chapter, be equipped with a "stop" signal upon a background not less than fourteen by eighteen inches displaying the word "stop" in letters of distinctly contrasting colors not less than eight inches high, and shall further be equipped with signal lamps mounted as high and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, which shall be capable of displaying to the front two alternately flashing red lights located at the same level and to the rear two alternately flashing red lights located at the same level and these lights shall have sufficient intensity to be visible at five hundred feet in normal sunlight.

     (3) Vehicles operated by public agencies whose law enforcement duties include the authority to stop and detain motor vehicles on the public highways of the state may be equipped with a siren and lights of a color and type designated by the state patrol for that purpose. The state patrol may prohibit the use of these sirens and lights on vehicles other than the vehicles described in this subsection.

     (4) The lights described in this section shall not be mounted nor used on any vehicle other than a school bus, a private carrier bus, or an authorized emergency or law enforcement vehicle.

     (5) The use of the signal equipment described in this section and RCW
46.37.670, except the signal preemption devices used by public transit vehicles and department of transportation, city, or county maintenance vehicles that are not used in conjunction with emergency equipment, shall impose upon drivers of other vehicles the obligation to yield right-of-way and stop as prescribed in RCW 46.61.210, 46.61.370, and 46.61.350.

[2005 c 183 § 8; 1993 c 401 § 2; 1987 c 330 § 710; 1985 c 331 § 1; 1982 c 101 § 1; 1971 ex.s. c 92 § 1; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 5; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 53; 1963 c 154 § 14; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.190. Prior: 1957 c 66 § 1; 1955 c 269 § 19.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.191
Implementing rules.

The state patrol shall adopt rules to implement RCW 46.37.190.

[1993 c 401 § 3.]




46.37.193
Signs on buses.

Every school bus and private carrier bus, in addition to any other equipment or distinctive markings required by this chapter, shall bear upon the front and rear thereof, above the windows thereof, plainly visible signs containing only the words "school bus" on a school bus and only the words "private carrier bus" on a private carrier bus in letters not less than eight inches in height, and in addition shall be equipped with visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.190. School districts may affix signs designed according to RCW 46.61.380 informing motorists of the monetary penalty for failure to stop for a school bus when the visual signals are activated.

     However, a private carrier bus that regularly transports children to and from a private school or in connection with school activities may display the words "school bus" in a manner provided in this section and need not comply with the requirements set forth in the most recent edition of "Specifications for School Buses" published by the superintendent of public instruction.

[1997 c 80 § 3; 1995 c 141 § 2; 1990 c 241 § 10.]

Notes:

School bus markings: RCW 46.61.380.



46.37.194
Authorized emergency vehicles — State patrol authority, maintenance, and applicant and driver screening.

The state patrol may make rules and regulations relating to authorized emergency vehicles and shall test and approve sirens and emergency vehicle lamps to be used on such vehicles. The equipment and standards review unit shall require a record check of all applicants and drivers for an authorized emergency vehicle permit through the Washington state patrol criminal identification section pursuant to RCW 10.97.050 and through the federal bureau of investigation before issuing an authorized emergency vehicle permit. The record check shall include a fingerprint check using a complete Washington state criminal identification fingerprint card. When necessary, applicants and drivers may be employed on a conditional basis pending completion of the investigation. Pursuant to RCW 43.43.742, the applicant, driver, or employer shall pay costs associated with the record check.

[2006 c 27 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 711; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.194. Prior: 1957 c 66 § 3.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.195
Sale of emergency vehicle lighting equipment restricted — Removal of emergency vehicle equipment, when required — Exception.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (2) of this section, a public agency, business, entity, or person shall not sell or give emergency vehicle lighting equipment or other equipment to a person who may not lawfully operate the lighting equipment or other equipment on the public streets and highways. Prior to selling or giving an emergency vehicle to a person or entity that is not a public law enforcement or emergency agency within or outside the state, public law enforcement or emergency agency in another country, or private ambulance business within or outside the state, the seller or donor must remove all emergency lighting as defined in rules by the Washington state patrol, radios, and any other emergency equipment from the vehicle, except for reflective stripes and paint on fire trucks, that was not originally installed by the original vehicle manufacturer and that visibly identifies the vehicle as an emergency vehicle from the exterior, including spotlights and confinement or rear seat safety cages. If the equipment is not retained or transferred to another public law enforcement or emergency agency within or outside the state, public law enforcement or emergency agency in another country, or private ambulance business within or outside the state, the equipment must be dismantled with the individual parts being recycled or destroyed prior to being disposed of. The agency must also remove all decals, state and local designated law enforcement colors, and stripes that were not installed by the original vehicle manufacturer.

     (2) The sale or donation to a broker specializing in the resale of emergency vehicles, or a charitable organization, intending to deliver the vehicle or equipment to a public law enforcement or emergency agency within or outside the state, public law enforcement or emergency agency in another country, or private ambulance business within or outside the state, is allowed with the emergency equipment still installed and intact. If the broker or charitable organization sells or donates the emergency vehicle to a person or entity that is not a public law enforcement or emergency agency, or private ambulance business, the broker or charitable organization must remove the equipment and designations and is accountable and responsible for the removal of the equipment and designations not installed on the vehicle by the original vehicle manufacturer. Equipment not sold or donated to a public law enforcement or emergency agency, or a private ambulance business, must be removed and transferred, destroyed, or recycled in accordance with subsection (1) of this section.

[2010 c 117 § 2; 1990 c 94 § 2.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2010 c 117: "It is the intent of the legislature to protect the public to ensure that only federal, state, and local law enforcement and emergency personnel, public or private, or other entities authorized by law to use emergency equipment have access to emergency equipment and vehicles." [2010 c 117 § 1.]

     Legislative finding -- 1990 c 94: "The legislature declares that public agencies should not engage in activity that leads or abets a person to engage in conduct that is not lawful. The legislature finds that some public agencies sell emergency vehicle lighting equipment at public auctions to persons who may not lawfully use the equipment. The legislature further finds that this practice misleads well-intentioned citizens and also benefits malevolent individuals." [1990 c 94 § 1.]




46.37.196
Red lights on emergency tow trucks.

All emergency tow trucks shall be identified by an intermittent or revolving red light capable of 360° visibility at a distance of five hundred feet under normal atmospheric conditions. This intermittent or revolving red light shall be used only at the scene of an emergency or accident, and it will be unlawful to use such light while traveling to or from an emergency or accident, or for any other purposes.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 16.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.200
Stop lamps and electric turn signals displayed.

(1) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under this chapter shall be equipped with a stop lamp or lamps on the rear of the vehicle which shall display a red or amber light, or any shade of color between red and amber, visible from a distance of not less than one hundred feet and on any vehicle manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, three hundred feet to the rear in normal sunlight, and which shall be actuated upon application of a service brake, and which may but need not be incorporated with one or more other rear lamps.

     (2) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under RCW
46.37.070(2) shall be equipped with electric turn signals which shall indicate an intention to turn by flashing lights showing to the front and rear of a vehicle or on a combination of vehicles on the side of the vehicle or combination toward which the turn is to be made. The lamps showing to the front shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable and, when signaling, shall emit amber light: PROVIDED, That on any vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1969, the lamps showing to the front may emit white or amber light, or any shade of light between white and amber. The lamp showing to the rear shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and, when signaling, shall emit a red or amber light, or any shade of color between red and amber. Turn signal lamps shall be visible from a distance of not less than five hundred feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight. Turn signal lamps may, but need not be, incorporated in other lamps on the vehicle.

     (3) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under this chapter shall be equipped with a center high-mounted stop lamp mounted on the center line of the rear of the vehicle. These stop lamps shall display a red light visible from a distance of not less than three hundred feet to the rear in normal sunlight, and shall be actuated upon application of a service brake, and may not be incorporated with any other rear lamps.

[2006 c 306 § 3; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 17; 1963 c 154 § 15; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.200. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 20; prior: 1953 c 248 § 2, part; 1947 c 267 § 4, part; 1937 c 189 § 23, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-23, part; RCW 46.40.090, part; 1929 c 178 § 1, part; 1927 c 309 § 15, part; RRS § 6362-15.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.210
Additional lighting equipment.

(1) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two side cowl or fender lamps which shall emit an amber or white light without glare.

     (2) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than one running-board courtesy lamp on each side thereof which shall emit a white or amber light without glare.

     (3) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with one or more backup lamps either separately or in combination with other lamps, but any such backup lamp or lamps shall not be lighted when the motor vehicle is in forward motion.

     (4) Any vehicle may be equipped with one or more side marker lamps, and any such lamp may be flashed in conjunction with turn or vehicular hazard warning signals. Side marker lamps located toward the front of a vehicle shall be amber, and side marker lamps located toward the rear shall be red.

     (5) Any vehicle eighty inches or more in over-all width, if not otherwise required by RCW
46.37.090, may be equipped with not more than three identification lamps showing to the front which shall emit an amber light without glare and not more than three identification lamps showing to the rear which shall emit a red light without glare. Such lamps shall be mounted as specified in RCW 46.37.090(7).

     (6)(a) Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, truck tractor, and pole trailer used in the state of Washington may be equipped with an auxiliary lighting system consisting of:

     (i) One green light to be activated when the accelerator of the motor vehicle is depressed;

     (ii) Not more than two amber lights to be activated when the motor vehicle is moving forward, or standing and idling, but is not under the power of the engine.

     (b) Such auxiliary system shall not interfere with the operation of vehicle stop lamps or turn signals, as required by RCW 46.37.070. Such system, however, may operate in conjunction with such stop lamps or turn signals.

     (c) Only one color of the system may be illuminated at any one time, and at all times either the green light, or amber light or lights shall be illuminated when the stop lamps of the vehicle are not illuminated.

     (d) The green light, and the amber light or lights, when illuminated shall be plainly visible at a distance of one thousand feet to the rear.

     (e) Only one such system may be mounted on a motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, truck tractor, or pole trailer; and such system shall be rear mounted in a horizontal fashion, at a height of not more than seventy-two inches, nor less than twenty inches, as provided by RCW 46.37.050.

     (f) On a combination of vehicles, only the lights of the rearmost vehicle need actually be seen and distinguished as provided in subparagraph (d) of this subsection.

     (g) Each manufacturer's model of such a system as described in this subsection shall be approved by the state patrol as provided for in RCW 46.37.005 and 46.37.320, before it may be sold or offered for sale in the state of Washington.

[1987 c 330 § 712; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 18; 1975 1st ex.s. c 242 § 1; 1963 c 154 § 16; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.210. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 21; prior: 1937 c 189 § 24; RRS § 6360-24; RCW 46.40.100.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.215
Hazard warning lamps.

(1) Any vehicle may be equipped with lamps for the purpose of warning other operators of other vehicles of the presence of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring the exercise of unusual care in approaching, overtaking, or passing.

     (2) After June 1, 1978, every motor home, bus, truck, truck tractor, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer eighty inches or more in overall width or thirty feet or more in overall length shall be equipped with lamps meeting the requirements of this section.

     (3) Vehicular hazard warning signal lamps used to display such warning to the front shall be mounted at the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and shall display simultaneously flashing amber light: PROVIDED, That on any vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1969, the lamps showing to the front may display simultaneously flashing white or amber lights, or any shade of color between white and amber. The lamps used to display such warning to the rear shall be mounted at the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and shall show simultaneously flashing amber or red lights, or any shade of color between amber and red. These warning lights shall be visible from a distance of not less than five hundred feet in normal sunlight.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 19.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.220
Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment.

Except as hereinafter provided, the head lamps or the auxiliary driving lamp or the auxiliary passing lamp or combination thereof on motor vehicles shall be so arranged that the driver may select at will between distributions of light projected to different elevations, and such lamps may be so arranged that such selection can be made automatically subject to the following limitations:

     (1) There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of such intensity as to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of four hundred fifty feet ahead for all conditions of loading;

     (2) There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of one hundred fifty feet ahead; and on a straight level road under any conditions of loading none of the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike the eyes of an approaching driver;

     (3) Every new motor vehicle registered in this state after January 1, 1948, which has multiple-beam road-lighting equipment shall be equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be lighted whenever the uppermost distribution of light from the head lamps is in use, and shall not otherwise be lighted. Said indicator shall be so designed and located that when lighted it will be readily visible without glare to the driver of the vehicle so equipped.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 20; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.220. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 22; prior: 1947 c 267 § 5, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-25a, part; RCW 46.40.140, part; 1933 c 156 § 3, part; 1929 c 178 § 5, part; 1927 c 309 § 22, part; RRS § 6362-22, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.230
Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment.

(1) Whenever a motor vehicle is being operated on a roadway or shoulder adjacent thereto during the times specified in RCW 46.37.020, the driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, directed high enough and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, subject to the following requirements and limitations:

     (2) Whenever a driver of a vehicle approaches an oncoming vehicle within five hundred feet, such driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed that the glaring rays are not projected into the eyes of the oncoming driver. The lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam, specified in RCW 46.37.220(2) shall be deemed to avoid glare at all times, regardless of road contour and loading.

     (3) Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches another vehicle from the rear within three hundred feet such driver shall use a distribution of light permissible under this chapter other than the uppermost distribution of light specified in RCW 46.37.220(1).

[1963 c 154 § 17; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.230. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 23; prior: 1947 c 267 § 5, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-25a, part; RCW 46.40.140, part; 1933 c 156 § 3, part; 1929 c 178 § 5, part; 1927 c 309 § 22, part; RRS § 6362-22, part.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.240
Single-beam road-lighting equipment.

Head lamp systems which provide only a single distribution of light shall be permitted on all farm tractors regardless of date of manufacture, and on all other motor vehicles manufactured and sold prior to one year after March 18, 1955, in lieu of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment herein specified if the single distribution of light complies with the following requirements and limitations:

     (1) The head lamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the light shall at a distance of twenty-five feet ahead project higher than a level of five inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, and in no case higher than forty-two inches above the level on which the vehicle stands at a distance of seventy-five feet ahead;

     (2) The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least two hundred feet.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 21; 1963 c 154 § 18; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.240. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 24; prior: 1947 c 267 § 5, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-25a, part; RCW 46.40.140, part; 1933 c 156 § 3, part; 1929 c 178 § 5, part; 1927 c 309 § 22, part; RRS § 6362-22, part.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.260
Alternate road lighting equipment.

Any motor vehicle may be operated under the conditions specified in RCW 46.37.020 when equipped with two lighted lamps upon the front thereof capable of revealing persons and objects one hundred feet ahead in lieu of lamps required in RCW 46.37.220 or 46.37.240: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That at no time shall it be operated at a speed in excess of twenty miles per hour.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 22; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.260. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 26; prior: 1937 c 189 § 27; RRS § 6360-27; RCW 46.40.150.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.270
Number of lamps required — Number of additional lamps permitted.

(1) At all times specified in RCW 46.37.020, at least two lighted lamps shall be displayed, one on each side at the front of every motor vehicle, except when such vehicle is parked subject to the regulations governing lights on parked vehicles.

     (2) Whenever a motor vehicle equipped with head lamps as herein required is also equipped with any auxiliary lamps or a spot lamp or any other lamp on the front thereof projecting a beam of intensity greater than three hundred candlepower, not more than a total of two of any such additional lamps on the front of a vehicle shall be lighted at any one time when upon a highway.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 23; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.270. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 27; prior: 1937 c 189 § 28; RRS § 6360-28; RCW 46.40.160; 1929 c 178 § 2; 1927 c 309 § 19; 1921 c 96 § 22, part; 1919 c 59 § 10, part; 1917 c 155 § 15, part; 1915 c 142 § 21, part; RRS § 6362-19.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.280
Special restrictions on lamps.

(1) During the times specified in RCW 46.37.020, any lighted lamp or illuminating device upon a motor vehicle, other than head lamps, spot lamps, auxiliary lamps, flashing turn signals, emergency vehicle warning lamps, warning lamps authorized by the state patrol and school bus warning lamps, which projects a beam of light of an intensity greater than three hundred candlepower shall be so directed that no part of the high intensity portion of the beam will strike the level of the roadway on which the vehicle stands at a distance of more than seventy-five feet from the vehicle.

     (2) Except as required in RCW 46.37.190 no person shall drive or move any vehicle or equipment upon any highway with any lamp or device thereon displaying a red light visible from directly in front of the center thereof.

     (3) Flashing lights are prohibited except as required in RCW 46.37.190, 46.37.200, 46.37.210, 46.37.215, and 46.37.300, warning lamps authorized by the state patrol, and light-emitting diode flashing taillights on bicycles.

[1998 c 165 § 16; 1987 c 330 § 713; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 24; 1963 c 154 § 19; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.280. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 28; prior: 1949 c 157 § 2; 1947 c 267 § 6; 1947 c 200 § 2; 1937 c 189 § 29; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-29; RCW 46.40.170; 1927 c 309 § 33; RRS § 6362-33.]

Notes:

     Short title -- 1998 c 165: See note following RCW 43.59.010.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.290
Special lighting equipment on school buses and private carrier buses.

The chief of the Washington state patrol is authorized to adopt standards and specifications applicable to lighting equipment on and special warning devices to be carried by school buses and private carrier buses consistent with the provisions of this chapter, but supplemental thereto. Such standards and specifications shall correlate with and, so far as possible, conform to the specifications then current as approved by the society of automotive engineers.

[1987 c 330 § 714; 1977 c 45 § 1; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 6; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.290. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 29; prior: 1937 c 189 § 25, part; RRS § 6360-25, part; RCW 46.40.130, part; 1929 c 178 § 3, part; 1927 c 309 § 20, part; RRS § 6362-20, part.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

School buses -- Crossing arms: RCW 46.37.620.




46.37.300
Standards for lights on snow-removal or highway maintenance and service equipment.

(1) The state patrol shall adopt standards and specifications applicable to head lamps, clearance lamps, identification and other lamps on snow-removal and other highway maintenance and service equipment when operated on the highways of this state in lieu of the lamps otherwise required on motor vehicles by this chapter. Such standards and specifications may permit the use of flashing lights for purposes of identification on snow-removal and other highway maintenance and service equipment when in service upon the highways. The standards and specifications for lamps referred to in this section shall correlate with and, so far as possible, conform with those approved by the American association of state highway officials.

     (2) It shall be unlawful to operate any snow-removal and other highway maintenance and service equipment on any highway unless the lamps thereon comply with and are lighted when and as required by the standards and specifications adopted as provided in this section.

[1987 c 330 § 715; 1963 c 154 § 20; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.300. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 30.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.310
Selling or using lamps or equipment.

(1) No person may have for sale, sell, or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the equipment of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, or use upon any such vehicle any head lamp, auxiliary or fog lamp, rear lamp, signal lamp, or reflector, which reflector is required under this chapter, or parts of any of the foregoing which tend to change the original design or performance, unless of a type which has been submitted to the state patrol and conforming to rules adopted by it.

     (2) No person may have for sale, sell, or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the equipment of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer any lamp or device mentioned in this section conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol unless such lamp or device bears thereon the trademark or name under which it is approved so as to be legible when installed.

     (3) No person may use upon any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer any lamps mentioned in this section unless the lamps are mounted, adjusted, and aimed in accordance with instructions of the state patrol.

[1987 c 330 § 716; 1986 c 113 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.310. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 31; prior: 1937 c 189 § 30; RRS § 6360-30; RCW 46.40.180; 1929 c 178 § 12; 1927 c 309 § 35; RRS § 6362-35.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.320
Authority of state patrol regarding lighting devices or other safety equipment.

(1) The chief of the state patrol is hereby authorized to adopt and enforce rules establishing standards and specifications governing the performance of lighting devices and their installation, adjustment, and aiming, when in use on motor vehicles, and other safety equipment, components, or assemblies of a type for which regulation is required in this chapter or in rules adopted by the state patrol. Such rules shall correlate with and, so far as practicable, conform to federal motor vehicle safety standards adopted pursuant to the national traffic and motor vehicle safety act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1381 et seq.) covering the same aspect of performance, or in the absence of such federal standards, to the then current standards and specifications of the society of automotive engineers applicable to such equipment: PROVIDED, That the sale, installation, and use of any headlamp meeting the standards of either the society of automotive engineers or the United Nations agreement concerning motor vehicle equipment and parts done at Geneva on March 20, 1958, or as amended and adopted by the Canadian standards association (CSA standard D106.2), as amended, shall be lawful in this state.

     (2) Every manufacturer who sells or offers for sale lighting devices or other safety equipment subject to requirements established by the state patrol shall, if the lighting device or safety equipment is not in conformance with applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards, provide for submission of such lighting device or safety equipment to any recognized organization or agency such as, but not limited to, the American national standards institute, the society of automotive engineers, or the American association of motor vehicle administrators, as the agent of the state patrol. Issuance of a certificate of compliance for any lighting device or item of safety equipment by that agent is deemed to comply with the standards set forth by the state patrol. Such certificate shall be issued by the agent of the state before sale of the product within the state.

     (3) The state patrol may at any time request from the manufacturer a copy of the test data showing proof of compliance of any device with the requirements established by the state patrol and additional evidence that due care was exercised in maintaining compliance during production. If the manufacturer fails to provide such proof of compliance within sixty days of notice from the state patrol, the state patrol may prohibit the sale of the device in this state until acceptable proof of compliance is received by the state patrol.

     (4) The state patrol or its agent may purchase any lighting device or other safety equipment, component, or assembly subject to this chapter or rules adopted by the state patrol under this chapter, for purposes of testing or retesting the equipment as to its compliance with applicable standards or specifications.

[1987 c 330 § 717; 1986 c 113 § 2. Prior: 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 25; 1977 ex.s. c 20 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.320; prior: 1955 c 269 § 32; prior: 1937 c 189 § 31; RRS § 6360-31; RCW 46.40.190; 1933 c 156 § 4, part; 1929 c 178 § 6, part; 1927 c 309 § 23, part; RRS § 6362-23, part.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.330
Revocation of certificate of approval on devices — Reapproval, conditions.

(1) When the state patrol has reason to believe that an approved device does not comply with the requirements of this chapter or regulations issued by the state patrol, it may, after giving thirty days' previous notice to the person holding the certificate of approval for such device in this state, conduct a hearing upon the question of compliance of said approved device. After said hearing the state patrol shall determine whether said approved device meets the requirements of this chapter and regulations issued by the state patrol. If said device does not meet the requirements of this chapter or the state patrol's regulations it shall give notice to the one to whom the certificate of approval has been issued of the state patrol's intention to suspend or revoke the certificate of approval for such device in this state.

     (2) If at the expiration of ninety days after such notice the person holding the certificate of approval for such device has failed to satisfy the state patrol that said approved device as thereafter to be sold or offered for sale meets the requirements of this chapter or the state patrol's regulations, the state patrol shall suspend or revoke the approval issued therefor and shall require the withdrawal of all such devices from the market and may require that all said devices sold since the notification be replaced with devices that do comply.

     (3) When a certificate of approval has been suspended or revoked pursuant to this chapter or regulations by the state patrol, the device shall not be again approved unless and until it has been submitted for reapproval and it has been demonstrated, in the same manner as in an application for an original approval, that the device fully meets the requirements of this chapter or regulations issued by the state patrol. The state patrol may require that all previously approved items are being effectively recalled and removed from the market as a condition of reapproval.

[1987 c 330 § 718; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 26; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.330. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 33; prior: 1937 c 189 § 32; RRS § 6360-32; RCW 46.40.200; 1933 c 156 § 4, part; 1929 c 178 § 6, part; 1927 c 309 § 23, part; RRS § 6362-23, part.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.340
Braking equipment required.

Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer, and any combination of such vehicle operating upon a highway within this state shall be equipped with brakes in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

     (1) Service brakes -- adequacy. Every such vehicle and combination of vehicles, except special mobile equipment as defined in RCW
46.04.552, shall be equipped with service brakes complying with the performance requirements of RCW 46.37.351 and adequate to control the movement of and to stop and hold such vehicle under all conditions of loading, and on any grade incident to its operation.

     (2) Parking brakes -- adequacy. Every such vehicle and combination of vehicles shall be equipped with parking brakes adequate to hold the vehicle on any grade on which it is operated, under all conditions of loading, on a surface free from snow, ice, or loose material. The parking brakes shall be capable of being applied in conformance with the foregoing requirements by the driver's muscular effort or by spring action or by equivalent means. Their operation may be assisted by the service brakes or other source of power provided that failure of the service brake actuation system or other power assisting mechanism will not prevent the parking brakes from being applied in conformance with the foregoing requirements. The parking brakes shall be so designed that when once applied they shall remain applied with the required effectiveness despite exhaustion of any source of energy or leakage of any kind. The same brake drums, brake shoes and lining assemblies, brake shoe anchors, and mechanical brake shoe actuation mechanism normally associated with the wheel brake assemblies may be used for both the service brakes and the parking brakes. If the means of applying the parking brakes and the service brakes are connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that failure of any one part shall not leave the vehicle without operative brakes.

     (3) Brakes on all wheels. Every vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels except:

     (a) Trailers, semitrailers, or pole trailers of a gross weight not exceeding three thousand pounds, provided that:

     (i) The total weight on and including the wheels of the trailer or trailers shall not exceed forty percent of the gross weight of the towing vehicle when connected to the trailer or trailers; and

     (ii) The combination of vehicles consisting of the towing vehicle and its total towed load, is capable of complying with the performance requirements of RCW 46.37.351;

     (b) Trailers, semitrailers, or pole trailers manufactured and assembled prior to July 1, 1965, shall not be required to be equipped with brakes when the total weight on and including the wheels of the trailer or trailers does not exceed two thousand pounds;

     (c) Any vehicle being towed in driveaway or towaway operations, provided the combination of vehicles is capable of complying with the performance requirements of RCW 46.37.351;

     (d) Trucks and truck tractors manufactured before July 25, 1980, and having three or more axles need not have brakes on the front wheels, except that when such vehicles are equipped with at least two steerable axles, the wheels of one steerable axle need not have brakes. Trucks and truck tractors manufactured on or after July 25, 1980, and having three or more axles are required to have brakes on the front wheels, except that when such vehicles are equipped with at least two steerable axles, the wheels of one steerable axle need not have brakes. Such trucks and truck tractors may be equipped with an automatic device to reduce the front-wheel braking effort by up to fifty percent of the normal braking force, regardless of whether or not antilock system failure has occurred on any axle, and:

     (i) Must not be operable by the driver except upon application of the control that activates the braking system; and

     (ii) Must not be operable when the pressure that transmits brake control application force exceeds eighty-five pounds per square inch (psi) on air-mechanical braking systems, or eighty-five percent of the maximum system pressure in vehicles utilizing other than compressed air.

     All trucks and truck tractors having three or more axles must be capable of complying with the performance requirements of RCW 46.37.351;

     (e) Special mobile equipment as defined in RCW 46.04.552 and all vehicles designed primarily for off-highway use with braking systems which work within the power train rather than directly at each wheel;

     (f) Vehicles manufactured prior to January 1, 1930, may have brakes operating on only two wheels.

     (g) For a forklift manufactured after January 1, 1970, and being towed, wheels need not have brakes except for those on the rearmost axle so long as such brakes, together with the brakes on the towing vehicle, shall be adequate to stop the combination within the stopping distance requirements of RCW 46.37.351.

     (4) Automatic trailer brake application upon breakaway. Every trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer equipped with air or vacuum actuated brakes and every trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer with a gross weight in excess of three thousand pounds, manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels and of such character as to be applied automatically and promptly, and remain applied for at least fifteen minutes, upon breakaway from the towing vehicle.

     (5) Tractor brakes protected. Every motor vehicle manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, and used to tow a trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer equipped with brakes, shall be equipped with means for providing that in case of breakaway of the towed vehicle, the towing vehicle will be capable of being stopped by the use of its service brakes.

     (6) Trailer air reservoirs safeguarded. Air brake systems installed on trailers manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, shall be so designed that the supply reservoir used to provide air for the brakes shall be safeguarded against backflow of air from the reservoir through the supply line.

     (7) Two means of emergency brake operation.

     (a) Air brakes. After January 1, 1964, every towing vehicle equipped with air controlled brakes, in other than driveaway or towaway operations, and all other vehicles equipped with air controlled brakes, shall be equipped with two means for emergency application of the brakes. One of these means shall apply the brakes automatically in the event of a reduction of the vehicle's air supply to a fixed pressure which shall be not lower than twenty pounds per square inch nor higher than forty-five pounds per square inch. The other means shall be a manually controlled device for applying and releasing the brakes, readily operable by a person seated in the driving seat, and its emergency position or method of operation shall be clearly indicated. In no instance may the manual means be so arranged as to permit its use to prevent operation of the automatic means. The automatic and the manual means required by this section may be, but are not required to be, separate.

     (b) Vacuum brakes. After January 1, 1964, every towing vehicle used to tow other vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes, in operations other than driveaway or towaway operations, shall have, in addition to the single control device required by subsection (8) of this section, a second control device which can be used to operate the brakes on towed vehicles in emergencies. The second control shall be independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking system be so arranged that failure of the pressure upon which the second control depends will cause the towed vehicle brakes to be applied automatically. The second control is not required to provide modulated braking.

     (8) Single control to operate all brakes. After January 1, 1964, every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer, and every combination of such vehicles, equipped with brakes shall have the braking system so arranged that one control device can be used to operate all service brakes. This requirement does not prohibit vehicles from being equipped with an additional control device to be used to operate brakes on the towed vehicles. This regulation does not apply to driveaway or towaway operations unless the brakes on the individual vehicles are designed to be operated by a single control in the towing vehicle.

     (9) Reservoir capacity and check valve.

     (a) Air brakes. Every bus, truck, or truck tractor with air operated brakes shall be equipped with at least one reservoir sufficient to insure that, when fully charged to the maximum pressure as regulated by the air compressor governor cut-out setting, a full service brake application may be made without lowering such reservoir pressure by more than twenty percent. Each reservoir shall be provided with means for readily draining accumulated oil or water.

     (b) Vacuum brakes. After January 1, 1964, every truck with three or more axles equipped with vacuum assistor type brakes and every truck tractor and truck used for towing a vehicle equipped with vacuum brakes shall be equipped with a reserve capacity or a vacuum reservoir sufficient to insure that, with the reserve capacity or reservoir fully charged and with the engine stopped, a full service brake application may be made without depleting the vacuum supply by more than forty percent.

     (c) Reservoir safeguarded. All motor vehicles, trailers, semitrailers, and pole trailers, when equipped with air or vacuum reservoirs or reserve capacity as required by this section, shall have such reservoirs or reserve capacity so safeguarded by a check valve or equivalent device that in the event of failure or leakage in its connection to the source of compressed air or vacuum, the stored air or vacuum shall not be depleted by the leak or failure.

     (10) Warning devices.

     (a) Air brakes. Every bus, truck, or truck tractor using compressed air for the operation of its own brakes or the brakes on any towed vehicle, shall be provided with a warning signal, other than a pressure gauge, readily audible or visible to the driver, which will operate at any time the primary supply air reservoir pressure of the vehicle is below fifty percent of the air compressor governor cut-out pressure. In addition, each such vehicle shall be equipped with a pressure gauge visible to the driver, which indicates in pounds per square inch the pressure available for braking.

     (b) Vacuum brakes. After January 1, 1964, every truck tractor and truck used for towing a vehicle equipped with vacuum operated brakes and every truck with three or more axles using vacuum in the operation of its brakes, except those in driveaway or towaway operations, shall be equipped with a warning signal, other than a gauge indicating vacuum, readily audible or visible to the driver, which will operate at any time the vacuum in the vehicle's supply reservoir or reserve capacity is less than eight inches of mercury.

     (c) Combination of warning devices. When a vehicle required to be equipped with a warning device is equipped with both air and vacuum power for the operation of its own brakes or the brakes on a towed vehicle, the warning devices may be, but are not required to be, combined into a single device which will serve both purposes. A gauge or gauges indicating pressure or vacuum shall not be deemed to be an adequate means of satisfying this requirement.

[1989 c 221 § 1; 1979 c 11 § 1. Prior: 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 27; 1977 ex.s. c 148 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 170 § 49; 1963 c 154 § 21; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.340; prior: 1955 c 269 § 34; prior: 1937 c 189 § 34, part; RRS § 6360-34, part; RCW 46.36.020, 46.36.030, part; 1929 c 180 § 6; 1927 c 309 § 16; 1923 c 181 § 5; 1921 c 96 § 23; 1915 c 142 § 22; RRS § 6362-16.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.351
Performance ability of brakes.

Every motor vehicle and combination of vehicles, at all times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service brakes, shall be capable of:

     (1) Developing a braking force that is not less than the percentage of its gross weight tabulated herein for its classification,

     (2) Decelerating to a stop from not more than twenty miles per hour at not less than the feet per second per second tabulated herein for its classification, and

     (3) Stopping from a speed of twenty miles per hour in not more than the distance tabulated herein for its classification, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the service brake pedal or control begins.

     Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on a substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus one percent grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose material.


        Brake
        system
        application
    Braking   and
    force   braking
    as a Deceler- distance
    percent- ation in in feet
    age of gross feet per from an
    vehicle or second initial
Classification   combination per speed of
of vehicles   weight second 20 m.p.h.
A Passenger vehicles with

a seating capacity of

10 people or less

including driver, not

having a manufacturer's

gross vehicle weight

rating . . . . . . . . . . . .












52.8%












17












25
B-1 All motorcycles and

motor-driven cycles . . . . . . . . . . . .


43.5%


14


30
B-2 Single unit vehicles

with a manufacturer's

gross vehicle weight

rating of 10,000

pounds or less . . . . . . . . . . . .








43.5%








14








30
C-1 Single unit vehicles

with a manufacturer's

gross weight rating of

more than 10,000

pounds . . . . . . . . . . . .








43.5%








14








40
C-2 Combinations of a

two-axle towing vehicle

and a trailer with a

gross trailer weight of

3,000 pounds or less . . . . . . . . . . . .








43.5%








14








40
C-3 Buses, regardless of the

number of axles, not

having a manufacturer's

gross weight rating . . . . . . . . . . . .






43.5%






14






40
C-4 All combinations of

vehicles in driveaway-

towaway operations . . . . . . . . . . . .




43.5%




14




40
D All other vehicles and

combinations of

vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . .




43.5%




14




50

[1963 c 154 § 22.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.360
Maintenance of brakes — Brake system failure indicator.

(1) All brakes shall be maintained in good working order and shall be so adjusted as to operate as equally as practicable with respect to the front and back wheels and to wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle.

     (2) All passenger cars manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, and other types of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1975, shall be equipped with brake system failure indicator lamps which shall be maintained in good working order. The brake system shall demonstrate good working order and integrity by the application of a force of one hundred twenty-five pounds to the brake pedal for ten seconds without the occurrence of any of the following:

     (i) Illumination of the brake system failure indicator lamp;

     (ii) A decrease of more than eighty percent of service brake pedal height as measured from its free position to the floorboard or any other object which restricts service brake pedal travel;

     (iii) Failure of any hydraulic line or other part.

     (3) Brake hoses shall not be mounted so as to contact the vehicle body or chassis. In addition, brake hoses shall not be cracked, chafed, flattened, abraded, or visibly leaking. Protection devices such as "rub rings" shall not be considered part of the hose or tubing.

     (4) Disc and drum condition. If the drum is embossed with a maximum safe diameter dimension or the rotor is embossed with a minimum safety thickness dimension, the drum or disc shall be within the appropriate specifications. These dimensions will be found on motor vehicles manufactured since January 1, 1971, and may be found on vehicles manufactured for several years prior to that time. If the drums and discs are not embossed, the drums and discs shall be within the manufacturer's specifications.

     (5) Friction materials. On each brake the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty-second of an inch over the rivet heads, or the brake shoe on bonded linings or pads. Brake linings and pads shall not have cracks or breaks that extend to rivet holes except minor cracks that do not impair attachment. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely attached to shoe plates.

     (6) Backing plates and caliper assemblies shall not be deformed or cracked. System parts shall not be broken, misaligned, missing, binding, or show evidence of severe wear. Automatic adjusters and other parts shall be assembled and installed correctly.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 28; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.360. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 36; prior: 1951 c 56 § 2, part; 1937 c 189 § 34, part; RRS § 6360-34, part; RCW 46.36.020, 46.36.030, part; 1929 c 180 § 6; 1927 c 309 § 16; 1923 c 181 § 5; 1921 c 96 § 23; 1915 c 142 § 22; RRS § 6362-16.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.365
Hydraulic brake fluid — Defined — Standards and specifications.

(1) The term "hydraulic brake fluid" as used in this section shall mean the liquid medium through which force is transmitted to the brakes in the hydraulic brake system of a vehicle.

     (2) Hydraulic brake fluid shall be distributed and serviced with due regard for the safety of the occupants of the vehicle and the public.

     (3) The chief of the Washington state patrol shall, in compliance with the provisions of chapter
34.05 RCW, the administrative procedure act, which govern the adoption of rules, adopt and enforce regulations for the administration of this section and shall adopt and publish standards and specifications for hydraulic brake fluid which shall correlate with, and so far as practicable conform to, the then current standards and specifications of the society of automotive engineers applicable to such fluid.

     (4) No person shall distribute, have for sale, offer for sale, or sell any hydraulic brake fluid unless it complies with the requirements of this section and the standard specifications adopted by the state patrol. No person shall service any vehicle with brake fluid unless it complies with the requirements of this section and the standards and specifications adopted by the state patrol.

     (5) Subsections (3) and (4) of this section shall not apply to petroleum base fluids in vehicles with brake systems designed to use them.

[1987 c 330 § 719; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 29; 1963 c 154 § 24.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.369
Wheels and front suspension.

(1) No vehicle shall be equipped with wheel nuts, hub caps, or wheel discs extending outside the body of the vehicle when viewed from directly above which:

     (a) Incorporate winged projections; or

     (b) Constitute a hazard to pedestrians and cyclists.

For the purposes of this section, a wheel nut is defined as an exposed nut which is mounted at the center or hub of a wheel, and is not one of the ordinary hexagonal nuts which secure a wheel to an axle and are normally covered by a hub cap or wheel disc.

     (2) Tire rims and wheel discs shall have no visible cracks, elongated bolt holes, or indications of repair by welding. In addition, the lateral and radial runout of each rim bead area shall not exceed one-eighth of an inch of total indicated runout.

     (3) King pins or ball joints shall not be worn to the extent that front wheels tip in or out more than one-quarter of an inch at the lower edge of the tire.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 30.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Lowering vehicle below legal clearance: RCW 46.61.680.




46.37.375
Steering and suspension systems.

(1) Construction of steering control system. The steering control system shall be constructed and maintained so that no components or attachments, including horn activating mechanism and trim hardware, can catch the driver's clothing or jewelry during normal driving maneuvers.

     (2) Maintenance of steering control system. System play, lash, or free play in the steering system shall not exceed the values tabulated herein.


Steering wheel diameter Lash
(inches) (inches)
16 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1/4
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1/2
22 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3/4

     (3) Linkage play. Free play in the steering linkage shall not exceed one-quarter of an inch.

     (4) Other components of the steering system such as the power steering belt, tie rods, or idler arms or Pitman arms shall not be broken, worn out, or show signs of breakage.

     (5) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or cracked. Structural parts shall not be bent or damaged. Stabilizer bars shall be connected. Springs shall not be broken, or extended by spacers. Shock absorber mountings, shackles, and U-bolts shall be securely attached. Rubber bushings shall not be cracked, or extruded out or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall not be missing or damaged.

     (6) Shock absorber system. Shock absorbers shall not be loose from mountings, leak, or be inoperative.

     (7) Alignment. Toe-in and toe-out measurements shall not be greater than one and one-half times the value listed in the vehicle manufacturer's service specification for alignment setting.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 31.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Lowering vehicle below legal clearance: RCW 46.61.680.




46.37.380
Horns, warning devices, and theft alarms.

(1) Every motor vehicle when operated upon a highway shall be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than two hundred feet, but no horn or other warning device may emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound or a whistle. The driver of a motor vehicle shall when reasonably necessary to insure safe operation give audible warning with his or her horn but shall not otherwise use such horn when upon a highway.

     (2) No vehicle may be equipped with nor may any person use upon a vehicle any siren, whistle, or bell, except as otherwise permitted in this section.

     (3) It is permissible for any vehicle to be equipped with a theft alarm signal device so long as it is so arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary warning signal. Such a theft alarm signal device may use a whistle, bell, horn, or other audible signal but shall not use a siren.

     (4) Any authorized emergency vehicle may be equipped with a siren, whistle, or bell capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than five hundred feet and of a type conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol, but the siren shall not be used except when the vehicle is operated in response to an emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, in which latter events the driver of the vehicle shall sound the siren when reasonably necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of its approach.

[2010 c 8 § 9052; 1987 c 330 § 720; 1986 c 113 § 3; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 32; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.380. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 38; prior: 1937 c 189 § 35; RRS § 6360-35; RCW 46.36.040.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Additional requirements and limitations: RCW 46.37.539.




46.37.390
Mufflers required — Smoke and air contaminant standards — Definitions — Penalty, exception.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a muffler cut-out, bypass, or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a highway.

     (2)(a) No motor vehicle first sold and registered as a new motor vehicle on or after January 1, 1971, shall discharge into the atmosphere at elevations of less than three thousand feet any air contaminant for a period of more than ten seconds which is:

     (i) As dark as or darker than the shade designated as No. 1 on the Ringelmann chart, as published by the United States bureau of mines; or

     (ii) Of such opacity as to obscure an observer's view to a degree equal to or greater than does smoke described in subsection (a)(i) above.

     (b) No motor vehicle first sold and registered prior to January 1, 1971, shall discharge into the atmosphere at elevations of less than three thousand feet any air contaminant for a period of more than ten seconds which is:

     (i) As dark as or darker than the shade designated as No. 2 on the Ringelmann chart, as published by the United States bureau of mines; or

     (ii) Of such opacity as to obscure an observer's view to a degree equal to or greater than does smoke described in subsection (b)(i) above.

     (c) For the purposes of this subsection the following definitions shall apply:

     (i) "Opacity" means the degree to which an emission reduces the transmission of light and obscures the view of an object in the background;

     (ii) "Ringelmann chart" means the Ringelmann smoke chart with instructions for use as published by the United States bureau of mines in May 1967 and as thereafter amended, information circular 7718.

     (3) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the engine of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and it shall be unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle not equipped as required by this subsection, or which has been amplified as prohibited by this subsection. A court may dismiss an infraction notice for a violation of this subsection if there is reasonable grounds to believe that the vehicle was not operated in violation of this subsection.

     This subsection (3) does not apply to vehicles twenty-five or more years old or to passenger vehicles being operated off the highways in an organized racing or competitive event conducted by a recognized sanctioning body.

[2006 c 306 § 4; 2001 c 293 § 1; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 33; 1972 ex.s. c 135 § 1; 1967 c 232 § 3; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.390. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 39; prior: 1937 c 189 § 36; RRS § 6360-36; RCW 46.36.050; 1927 c 309 § 17; 1921 c 96 § 21; 1915 c 142 § 20; RRS § 6362-17.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Additional requirements and limitations: RCW 46.37.539.




46.37.395
Compression brakes (Jake brakes).

(1) This section applies to all motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536 kilograms or more (10,001 pounds or more), registered and domiciled in Washington state, operated on public roads and equipped with engine compression brake devices. An engine compression brake device is any device that uses the engine and transmission to impede the forward motion of the motor vehicle by compression of the engine.

     (2) The driver of a motor vehicle equipped with a device that uses the compression of the motor vehicle engine shall not use the device unless: The motor vehicle is equipped with an operational muffler and exhaust system to prevent excess noise. A muffler is part of an engine exhaust system which acts as a noise dissipative device. A turbocharger is not permitted to be used as a muffler or a noise dissipative device.

     (3) The monetary penalty for violating subsection (2) of this section is: (a) Two hundred fifty dollars for the first violation; (b) five hundred dollars for the second violation; and (c) seven hundred fifty dollars for each violation thereafter.

     (4) All medium and heavy trucks must comply with federal code 205 - transportation equipment noise emission controls, subpart B.

     (5) Nothing in this section prohibits a local jurisdiction from implementing an ordinance that is more restrictive than the state law and Washington state patrol rules regarding the use of compression brakes.

[2006 c 50 § 3; 2005 c 320 § 1.]




46.37.400
Mirrors, backup devices.

(1) Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a mirror mounted on the left side of the vehicle and so located to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of at least two hundred feet to the rear of such vehicle.

     (2) Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with an additional mirror mounted either inside the vehicle approximately in the center or outside the vehicle on the right side and so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of at least two hundred feet to the rear of such vehicle.

     (3) Every truck registered or based in Washington that is equipped with a cube-style, walk-in cargo box up to eighteen feet long used in the commercial delivery of goods and services must be equipped with a rear crossview mirror or backup device to alert the driver that a person or object is behind the truck.

     (4) All mirrors and backup devices required by this section shall be maintained in good condition. Rear crossview mirrors and backup devices will be of a type approved by the Washington state patrol.

[1998 c 2 § 1; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 34; 1963 c 154 § 25; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.400. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 40; prior: 1937 c 189 § 37; RRS § 6360-37; RCW 46.36.060.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1998 c 2: "This act takes effect September 30, 1998." [1998 c 2 § 2.]

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1963 c 154: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Additional requirements and limitations: RCW 46.37.539.




46.37.410
Windshields required, exception — Must be unobstructed and equipped with wipers.

(1) All motor vehicles operated on the public highways of this state shall be equipped with a front windshield manufactured of safety glazing materials for use in motor vehicles in accordance with RCW 46.37.430, except, however, on such vehicles not so equipped or where windshields are not in use, the operators of such vehicles shall wear glasses, goggles, or face shields pursuant to RCW 46.37.530(1)(b).

     (2) No person shall drive any motor vehicle with any sign, poster, or other nontransparent material upon the front windshield, side wings, or side or rear windows of such vehicle which obstructs the driver's clear view of the highway or any intersecting highway.

     (3) The windshield on every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a device for cleaning rain, snow, or other moisture from the windshield, which device shall be so constructed as to be controlled or operated by the driver of the vehicle. After January 1, 1938, it shall be unlawful for any person to operate a new motor vehicle first sold or delivered after that date which is not equipped with such device or devices in good working order capable of cleaning the windshield thereof over two separate arcs, one each on the left and right side of the windshield, each capable of cleaning a surface of not less than one hundred twenty square inches, or other device or devices capable of accomplishing substantially the same result.

     (4) Every windshield wiper upon a motor vehicle shall be maintained in good working order.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 35; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.410. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 41; prior: (i) 1937 c 189 § 38; RRS § 6360-38; RCW 46.36.070. (ii) 1937 c 189 § 39; RRS § 6360-39; RCW 46.36.080.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.420
Tires — Restrictions.

(1) It is unlawful to operate a vehicle upon the public highways of this state unless it is completely equipped with pneumatic rubber tires except vehicles equipped with temporary-use spare tires that meet federal standards that are installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

     (2) No tire on a vehicle moved on a highway may have on its periphery any block, flange, cleat, or spike or any other protuberance of any material other than rubber which projects beyond the tread of the traction surface of the tire, except that it is permissible to use farm machinery equipped with pneumatic tires or solid rubber tracks having protuberances that will not injure the highway, and except also that it is permissible to use tire chains, alternative traction devices, or metal studs imbedded within the tire of reasonable proportions and of a type conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol, upon any vehicle when required for safety because of snow, ice, or other conditions tending to cause a vehicle to skid. It is unlawful to use metal studs imbedded within the tire between April 1st and November 1st, except that a vehicle may be equipped year-round with tires that have retractable studs if: (a) The studs retract pneumatically or mechanically to below the wear bar of the tire when not in use; and (b) the retractable studs are engaged only between November 1st and April 1st. Retractable studs may be made of metal or other material and are not subject to the lightweight stud weight requirements under RCW
46.04.272. The state department of transportation may, from time to time, determine additional periods in which the use of tires with metal studs imbedded therein is lawful.

     (3) The state department of transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may issue special permits authorizing the operation upon a highway of traction engines or tractors having movable tracks with transverse corrugations upon the periphery of the movable tracks or farm tractors or other farm machinery, the operation of which upon a highway would otherwise be prohibited under this section.

     (4) Tires with metal studs imbedded therein may be used between November 1st and April 1st upon school buses and fire department vehicles, any law or regulation to the contrary notwithstanding.

[2012 c 75 § 1; 2007 c 140 § 2; 1999 c 208 § 1; 1990 c 105 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 721; 1986 c 113 § 4; 1984 c 7 § 50; 1971 ex.s. c 32 § 1; 1969 ex.s. c 7 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.420. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 42; prior: (i) 1937 c 189 § 41; RRS § 6360-41; RCW 46.36.100. (ii) 1937 c 189 § 42; RRS § 6360-42; RCW 46.36.120; 1929 c 180 § 7; 1927 c 309 § 46; RRS § 6362-46.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

Dangerous road conditions requiring special tires, chains, metal studs: RCW 47.36.250.

Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles -- Additional requirements and limitations: RCW 46.37.539.




46.37.4215
Lightweight and retractable studs — Certification by sellers.

Beginning January 1, 2000, a person offering to sell to a tire dealer conducting business in the state of Washington, a metal flange or cleat intended for installation as a stud in a vehicle tire shall certify that the studs are: (1) Lightweight studs as defined in RCW 46.04.272; or (2) retractable studs that are exempt from the requirements of RCW 46.04.272. Certification must be accomplished by clearly marking the boxes or containers used to ship and store studs with the designation "lightweight." This section does not apply to tires or studs in a wholesaler's existing inventory as of January 1, 2000.

[2007 c 140 § 3; 1999 c 219 § 2.]




46.37.4216
Lightweight and retractable studs — Sale of tires containing.

Beginning July 1, 2001, a person may not sell a studded tire or sell a stud for installation in a tire unless the stud qualifies as a: (1) Lightweight stud under RCW 46.04.272; or (2) retractable stud that is exempt from the requirements of RCW 46.04.272.

[2007 c 140 § 4; 1999 c 219 § 3.]




46.37.423
Pneumatic passenger car tires — Standards — Exception for off-highway use — Penalty.

No person, firm, or corporation shall sell or offer for sale for use on the public highways of this state any new pneumatic passenger car tire which does not meet the standards established by federal motor vehicle safety standard No. 109, as promulgated by the United States department of transportation under authority of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 719, 728; 15 U.S.C. 1392, 1407).

     The applicable standard shall be the version of standard No. 109 in effect at the time of manufacture of the tire.

     It is a traffic infraction for any person, firm, or corporation to sell or offer for sale any new pneumatic passenger car tire which does not meet the standards prescribed in this section unless such tires are sold for off-highway use, as evidenced by a statement signed by the purchaser at the time of sale certifying that he or she is not purchasing such tires for use on the public highways of this state.

[2010 c 8 § 9053; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 71; 1971 c 77 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.37.424
Regrooved tires — Standards — Exception for off-highway use — Penalty.

No person, firm, or corporation shall sell or offer for sale any regrooved tire or shall regroove any tire for use on the public highways of this state which does not meet the standard established by federal motor vehicle standard part 569 -- regrooved tires, as promulgated by the United States department of transportation under authority of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 719, 728; 15 U.S.C. 1392, 1407).

     The applicable standard shall be the version of the federal regrooved tire standard in effect at the time of regrooving.

     It is a traffic infraction for any person, firm, or corporation to sell or offer for sale any regrooved tire or shall regroove any tire which does not meet the standards prescribed in this section unless such tires are sold or regrooved for off-highway use, as evidenced by a statement signed by the purchaser or regroover at the time of sale or regrooving certifying that he or she is not purchasing or regrooving such tires for use on the public highways of this state.

[2010 c 8 § 9054; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 72; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 36; 1971 c 77 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.425
Tires — Unsafe — State patrol's authority — Penalty.

No person shall drive or move or cause to be driven or moved any vehicle, the tires of which have contact with the driving surface of the road, subject to registration in this state, upon the public highways of this state unless such vehicle is equipped with tires in safe operating condition in accordance with requirements established by this section or by the state patrol.

     The state patrol shall promulgate rules and regulations setting forth requirements of safe operating condition of tires capable of being employed by a law enforcement officer by visual inspection of tires mounted on vehicles including visual comparison with simple measuring gauges. These rules shall include effects of tread wear and depth of tread.

     A tire shall be considered unsafe if it has:

     (1) Any ply or cord exposed either to the naked eye or when cuts or abrasions on the tire are probed; or

     (2) Any bump, bulge, or knot, affecting the tire structure; or

     (3) Any break repaired with a boot; or

     (4) A tread depth of less than 2/32 of an inch measured in any two major tread grooves at three locations equally spaced around the circumference of the tire, or for those tires with tread wear indicators, a tire shall be considered unsafe if it is worn to the point that the tread wear indicators contact the road in any two major tread grooves at three locations equally spaced around the circumference of the tire; or

     (5) A legend which indicates the tire is not intended for use on public highways such as, "not for highway use" or "for racing purposes only"; or

     (6) Such condition as may be reasonably demonstrated to render it unsafe; or

     (7) If not matched in tire size designation, construction, and profile to the other tire and/or tires on the same axle, except for temporary-use spare tires that meet federal standards that are installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

     No person, firm, or corporation shall sell any vehicle for use on the public highways of this state unless the vehicle is equipped with tires that are in compliance with the provisions of this section. If the tires are found to be in violation of the provisions of this section, the person, firm, or corporation selling the vehicle shall cause such tires to be removed from the vehicle and shall equip the vehicle with tires that are in compliance with the provisions of this section.

     It is a traffic infraction for any person to operate a vehicle on the public highways of this state, or to sell a vehicle for use on the public highways of this state, which is equipped with a tire or tires in violation of the provisions of this section or the rules and regulations promulgated by the state patrol hereunder: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That if the violation relates to items (1) to (7) inclusive of this section then the condition or defect must be such that it can be detected by a visual inspection of tires mounted on vehicles, including visual comparison with simple measuring gauges.

[1990 c 105 § 2; 1987 c 330 § 722; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 73; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 37; 1971 c 77 § 3.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

     Effective date -- 1971 c 77: "The provisions of RCW 46.37.425 shall have an effective date of January 1, 1972, but the state commission on equipment shall have the authority to proceed with the promulgation of the rules and regulations provided for in RCW 46.37.425 so the rules and regulations may have an effective date of January 1, 1972." [1971 c 77 § 4.]




46.37.430
Safety glazing — Sunscreening or coloring.

(1)(a) No person may sell any motor vehicle as specified in this title, nor may any motor vehicle as specified in this title be registered unless such vehicle is equipped with safety glazing material of a type that meets or exceeds federal standards under 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.205.

     (b) The foregoing provisions apply to all passenger-type motor vehicles, including passenger buses and school buses, but in respect to trucks, including truck tractors, the requirements as to safety glazing material apply to all glazing material used in doors, windows, and windshields in the drivers' compartments of such vehicles except as provided by subsection (4) of this section.

     (c) The safety glazing material that is manufactured and installed in accordance with federal standards shall not be etched or otherwise permanently altered if the safety glazing material is installed in the windshield or any other window located in the motor vehicle passenger compartment, except for the etching of the vehicle identification number if:

     (i) The maximum height of the letters or numbers do not exceed one-half inch; and

     (ii) The etched vehicle identification number is not located in a position that interferes with the vision of any occupant of the motor vehicle.

     (2) For the purposes of this section:

     (a) "Light transmission" means the ratio of the amount of total visible light, expressed in percentages, that is allowed to pass through the sunscreening or coloring material to the amount of total visible light falling on the motor vehicle window.

     (b) "Net film screening" means the total sunscreening or coloring material applied to the window that includes both the material applied by the manufacturer during the safety glazing and any film sunscreening or coloring material applied after the vehicle is manufactured.

     (c) "Reflectance" means the ratio of the amount of total light, expressed in percentages, that is reflected outward by the sunscreening or coloring material to the amount of total light falling on the motor vehicle window.

     (d) "Safety glazing materials" means glazing materials so constructed, treated, or combined with other materials as to reduce substantially, in comparison with ordinary sheet glass or plate glass, the likelihood of injury to persons by objects from exterior sources or by these safety glazing materials when they may be cracked or broken.

     (3) The director of licensing shall not register any motor vehicle which is subject to the provisions of this section unless it is equipped with an approved type of safety glazing material, and he or she shall suspend the registration of any motor vehicle so subject to this section which the director finds is not so equipped until it is made to conform to the requirements of this section.

     (4) No person may sell or offer for sale, nor may any person operate a motor vehicle registered in this state which is equipped with, any camper manufactured after May 23, 1969, unless such camper is equipped with safety glazing material of a type conforming to rules adopted under 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.205 wherever glazing materials are used in outside windows and doors.

     (5) No film sunscreening or coloring material that reduces light transmittance to any degree may be applied to the surface of the safety glazing material in a motor vehicle unless it meets the following standards for such material:

     (a) The maximum level of net film sunscreening to be applied to any window, except the windshield, shall have a total reflectance of thirty-five percent or less, and a light transmission of twenty-four percent or more, where the vehicle is equipped with outside rearview mirrors on both the right and left. Installation of more than a single sheet of film sunscreening material to any window is prohibited.

     (b) Hearses, collector vehicles, limousines and passenger buses used to transport persons for compensation, ambulances, rescue squad vehicles, any other emergency medical vehicle licensed under RCW
18.73.130 that is used to transport patients, and any vehicle identified by the manufacturer as a truck, motor home, or multipurpose passenger vehicle as defined in 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.3, may have net film sunscreening applied on any window to the rear of the driver that has less than twenty-four percent light transmittance, if the light reflectance is thirty-five percent or less and the vehicle is equipped with outside rearview mirrors on both the right and left.

     (c) A person or business tinting windows for profit who tints windows within restricted areas of the glazing system shall supply a sticker to be affixed to the driver's door post, in the area adjacent to the manufacturer's identification tag. Installation of this sticker certifies that the glazing application meets this chapter's standards for light transmission, reflectance, and placement requirements. Stickers must be no smaller than three-quarters of an inch by one and one-half inches, and no larger than two inches by two and one-half inches. The stickers must be of sufficient quality to endure exposure to harsh climate conditions. The business name and state tax identification number of the installer must be clearly visible on the sticker.

     (d) A greater degree of light reduction is permitted on all windows and the top six inches of windshields of a vehicle operated by or carrying as a passenger a person who possesses a written verification from a licensed physician that the operator or passenger must be protected from exposure to sunlight for physical or medical reasons.

     (e) A greater degree of light reduction is permitted along the top edge of the windshield as long as the product is transparent and does not extend into the AS-1 portion of the windshield or extend more than six inches from the top of the windshield. Clear film sunscreening material that reduces or eliminates ultraviolet light may be applied to windshields.

     (f) When film sunscreening material is applied to any window except the windshield, outside mirrors on both the left and right sides shall be located so as to reflect to the driver a view of the roadway, through each mirror, a distance of at least two hundred feet to the rear of the vehicle.

     (g) The following types of film sunscreening material are not permitted:

     (i) Mirror finish products;

     (ii) Red, gold, yellow, or black material; or

     (iii) Film sunscreening material that is in liquid preapplication form and brushed or sprayed on.

     (6) Subsection (5) of this section does not prohibit:

     (a) The use of shaded or heat-absorbing safety glazing material in which the shading or heat-absorbing characteristics have been applied at the time of manufacture of the safety glazing material and which meet federal standards for such safety glazing materials.

     (b) The use and placement of federal, state, or local certificates or decals on any window as required by applicable laws or regulations. However, any such certificate or decal must be of a size and placed on the motor vehicle so as not to impair the ability of the driver to safely operate the motor vehicle.

     (c) Sunscreening devices to be applied to any window behind the driver provided that the devices reduce the driver's area of vision uniformly and by no more than fifty percent, as measured on a horizontal plane. If sunscreening devices are applied to the rear window, the vehicle must be equipped with outside rearview mirrors on both the left and right.

     (d) Recreational products, such as toys, cartoon characters, stuffed animals, signs, and any other vision-reducing article or material to be applied to or placed in windows behind the driver provided that they do not interfere, in their size or position, with the driver's ability to see other vehicles, persons, or objects.

     (7) It is a traffic infraction for any person to operate a vehicle for use on the public highways of this state, if the vehicle is equipped with film sunscreening or coloring material in violation of this section.

     (8) Owners of vehicles with film sunscreening material applied to windows to the rear of the driver, prior to June 7, 1990, must comply with the requirements of this section and RCW 46.37.435 by July 1, 1993.

     (9) The side and rear windows of law enforcement vehicles are exempt from the requirements of subsection (5) of this section. However, when law enforcement vehicles are sold to private individuals the film sunscreening or coloring material must comply with the requirements of subsection (5) of this section or documentation must be provided to the buyer stating that the vehicle windows must comply with the requirements of subsection (5) of this section before operation of the vehicle.

[2009 c 142 § 1; 2007 c 168 § 1; 1993 c 384 § 1; 1990 c 95 § 1; 1989 c 210 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 723; 1986 c 113 § 5; 1985 c 304 § 1; 1979 c 158 § 157; 1969 ex.s. c 281 § 47; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.430. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 43; prior: 1947 c 220 § 1; 1937 c 189 § 40; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-40; RCW 46.36.090.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.435
Sunscreening, unlawful installation, penalty.

From June 7, 1990, a person who installs safety glazing or film sunscreening material in violation of RCW 46.37.430 is guilty of unlawful installation of safety glazing or film sunscreening materials. Unlawful installation is a misdemeanor.

[1990 c 95 § 2.]




46.37.440
Flares or other warning devices required on certain vehicles.

(1) No person may operate any motor truck, passenger bus, truck tractor, motor home, or travel trailer over eighty inches in overall width upon any highway outside the corporate limits of municipalities at any time unless there is carried in such vehicle the following equipment except as provided in subsection (2) of this section:

     (a) At least three flares or three red electric lanterns or three portable red emergency reflectors, each of which shall be capable of being seen and distinguished at a distance of not less than six hundred feet under normal atmospheric conditions at nighttime.

     No flare, fusee, electric lantern, or cloth warning flag may be used for the purpose of compliance with this section unless such equipment is of a type which has been submitted to the state patrol and conforms to rules adopted by it. No portable reflector unit may be used for the purpose of compliance with the requirements of this section unless it is so designed and constructed as to be capable of reflecting red light clearly visible from all distances within six hundred feet to one hundred feet under normal atmospheric conditions at night when directly in front of lawful upper beams of head lamps, and unless it is of a type which has been submitted to the state patrol and conforms to rules adopted by it;

     (b) At least three red-burning fusees unless red electric lanterns or red portable emergency reflectors are carried;

     (c) At least two red-cloth flags, not less than twelve inches square, with standards to support such flags.

     (2) No person may operate at the time and under conditions stated in subsection (1) of this section any motor vehicle used for the transportation of explosives, any cargo tank truck used for the transportation of flammable liquids or compressed gases or liquefied gases, or any motor vehicle using compressed gas as a fuel unless there is carried in such vehicle three red electric lanterns or three portable red emergency reflectors meeting the requirements of subsection (1) of this section, and there shall not be carried in any said vehicle any flares, fusees, or signal produced by flame.

[1987 c 330 § 724; 1986 c 113 § 6; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 38; 1971 ex.s. c 97 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.440. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 44; prior: 1947 c 267 § 7, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-32a, part; RCW 46.40.210, part.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.450
Disabled vehicle — Display of warning devices.

(1) Whenever any motor truck, passenger bus, truck tractor over eighty inches in overall width, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer is disabled upon the traveled portion of any highway or the shoulder thereof outside any municipality at any time when lighted lamps are required on vehicles, the driver of such vehicle shall display the following warning devices upon the highway during the time the vehicle is so disabled on the highway except as provided in subsection (2) of this section:

     (a) A lighted fusee, a lighted red electric lantern, or a portable red emergency reflector shall be immediately placed at the traffic side of the vehicle in the direction of the nearest approaching traffic.

     (b) As soon thereafter as possible but in any event within the burning period of the fusee (fifteen minutes), the driver shall place three liquid-burning flares (pot torches), three lighted red electric lanterns, or three portable red emergency reflectors on the traveled portion of the highway in the following order:

     (i) One, approximately one hundred feet from the disabled vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by such vehicle and toward traffic approaching in that lane.

     (ii) One, approximately one hundred feet in the opposite direction from the disabled vehicle and in the center of the traffic lane occupied by such vehicle.

     (iii) One at the traffic side of the disabled vehicle not less than ten feet rearward or forward thereof in the direction of the nearest approaching traffic. If a lighted red electric lantern or a red portable emergency reflector has been placed at the traffic side of the vehicle in accordance with subdivision (a) of this subsection, it may be used for this purpose.

     (2) Whenever any vehicle referred to in this section is disabled within five hundred feet of a curve, hillcrest, or other obstruction to view, the warning signal in that direction shall be so placed as to afford ample warning to other users of the highway, but in no case less than five hundred feet from the disabled vehicle.

     (3) Whenever any vehicle of a type referred to in this section is disabled upon any roadway of a divided highway during the time that lights are required, the appropriate warning devices prescribed in subsections (1) and (5) of this section shall be placed as follows:

     One at a distance of approximately two hundred feet from the vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by the stopped vehicle and in the direction of traffic approaching in that lane; one at a distance of approximately one hundred feet from the vehicle, in the center of the lane occupied by the vehicle and in the direction of traffic approaching in that lane; and one at the traffic side of the vehicle and approximately ten feet from the vehicle in the direction of the nearest approaching traffic.

     (4) Whenever any vehicle of a type referred to in this section is disabled upon the traveled portion of a highway or the shoulder thereof outside any municipality at any time when the display of fusees, flares, red electric lanterns, or portable red emergency reflectors is not required, the driver of the vehicle shall display two red flags upon the roadway in the lane of traffic occupied by the disabled vehicle, one at a distance of approximately one hundred feet in advance of the vehicle, and one at a distance of approximately one hundred feet to the rear of the vehicle.

     (5) Whenever any motor vehicle used in the transportation of explosives or any cargo tank truck used for the transportation of any flammable liquid or compressed flammable gas, or any motor vehicle using compressed gas as a fuel, is disabled upon a highway of this state at any time or place mentioned in subsection (1) of this section, the driver of such vehicle shall immediately display the following warning devices: One red electric lantern or portable red emergency reflector placed on the roadway at the traffic side of the vehicle, and two red electric lanterns or portable red reflectors, one placed approximately one hundred feet to the front and one placed approximately one hundred feet to the rear of this disabled vehicle in the center of the traffic lane occupied by such vehicle. Flares, fusees, or signals produced by flame shall not be used as warning devices for disabled vehicles of the type mentioned in this subsection.

     (6) Whenever any vehicle, other than those described in subsection (1) of this section, is disabled upon the traveled portion of any highway or shoulder thereof outside any municipality, the state patrol or the county sheriff shall, upon discovery of the disabled vehicle, place a reflectorized warning device on the vehicle. The warning device and its placement shall be in accordance with rules adopted by the state patrol. Neither the standards for, placement or use of, nor the lack of placement or use of a warning device under this subsection gives rise to any civil liability on the part of the state of Washington, the state patrol, any county, or any law enforcement agency or officer.

     (7) The flares, fusees, red electric lanterns, portable red emergency reflectors, and flags to be displayed as required in this section shall conform with the requirements of RCW
46.37.440 applicable thereto.

[1987 c 330 § 725; 1987 c 226 § 1; 1984 c 119 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.450. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 45; prior: 1947 c 267 § 7, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-32a, part; RCW 46.40.210, part.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: This section was amended by 1987 c 226 § 1 and by 1987 c 330 § 725, each without reference to the other. Both amendments are incorporated in the publication of this section under RCW 1.12.025(2). For rule of construction, see RCW 1.12.025(1).

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.465
Fuel system.

(1) The fuel system shall be manufactured, installed, and maintained with due regard for the safety of the occupants of the vehicle and the public. Fuel tanks shall be equipped with approved caps.

     (2) There shall be no signs of leakage from the carburetor or the fuel pump or the fuel hoses in the engine compartment or between the fuel tank and the engine compartment.

     (3) No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon the public highways of this state unless the fuel tank is securely attached and so located that another vehicle would not be exposed to direct contact with the fuel tank in the event of a rear end collision.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 39.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.467
Alternative fuel source — Placard required. (Effective until July 1, 2015.)

(1) Every automobile, truck, motorcycle, motor home, or off-road vehicle that is fueled by an alternative fuel source shall bear a reflective placard issued by the national fire protection association indicating that the vehicle is so fueled. Violation of this subsection is a traffic infraction.

     (2) As used in this section "alternative fuel source" includes propane, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, or any chemically similar gas but does not include gasoline or diesel fuel.

     (3) If a placard for a specific alternative fuel source has not been issued by the national fire protection association, a placard issued by the chief of the Washington state patrol, through the director of fire protection, shall be required. The chief of the Washington state patrol, through the director of fire protection, shall develop rules for the design, size, and placement of the placard which shall remain effective until a specific placard is issued by the national fire protection association.

[1995 c 369 § 23; 1986 c 266 § 88; 1984 c 145 § 1; 1983 c 237 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1995 c 369: See note following RCW 43.43.930.

     Severability -- 1986 c 266: See note following RCW 38.52.005.

     Legislative finding -- 1983 c 237: "The legislature finds that vehicles using alternative fuel sources such as propane, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, or other hydrocarbon gas fuels require firefighters to use a different technique if the vehicles catch fire. A reflective placard on such vehicles would warn firefighters of the danger so they could react properly." [1983 c 237 § 1.]

     

46.37.467
Alternative fuel source — Placard required. (Effective July 1, 2015.)

(1) Every automobile, truck, motorcycle, motor home, or off-road vehicle that is fueled by an alternative fuel source must bear a reflective placard issued by the national fire protection association indicating that the vehicle is so fueled. Violation of this subsection is a traffic infraction.

     (2) As used in this section "alternative fuel source" includes propane, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, or any chemically similar gas but does not include gasoline or diesel fuel.

     (3) If a placard for a specific alternative fuel source has not been issued by the national fire protection association, a placard issued by the chief of the Washington state patrol, through the director of fire protection, is required. The chief of the Washington state patrol, through the director of fire protection, must develop rules for the design, size, and placement of the placard which remains effective until a specific placard is issued by the national fire protection association.

[2014 c 216 § 208; 1995 c 369 § 23; 1986 c 266 § 88; 1984 c 145 § 1; 1983 c 237 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Findings -- Tax preference performance statement -- 2014 c 216: See notes following RCW 82.38.030.

     Effective date -- 1995 c 369: See note following RCW 43.43.930.

     Severability -- 1986 c 266: See note following RCW 38.52.005.

     Legislative finding -- 1983 c 237: "The legislature finds that vehicles using alternative fuel sources such as propane, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, or other hydrocarbon gas fuels require firefighters to use a different technique if the vehicles catch fire. A reflective placard on such vehicles would warn firefighters of the danger so they could react properly." [1983 c 237 § 1.]




46.37.470
Air conditioning equipment.

(1) "Air conditioning equipment," as used or referred to in this section, means mechanical vapor compression refrigeration equipment that is used to cool the driver's or passenger compartment of any motor vehicle.

     (2) Air conditioning equipment must be manufactured, installed, and maintained with due regard for the safety of the occupants of the vehicle and the public. Air conditioning equipment may not contain any refrigerant that is toxic to persons or that is flammable, unless the refrigerant is allowed under the department of ecology's motor vehicle emission standards adopted under RCW
70.120A.010.

     (3) The state patrol may enforce safety requirements, regulations, and specifications consistent with the requirements of this section applicable to air conditioning equipment which must correlate with and, so far as possible, conform to the current recommended practice or standard applicable to air conditioning equipment approved by the society of automotive engineers.

     (4) A person may not sell or equip, for use in this state, a new motor vehicle with any air conditioning equipment unless it complies with the requirements of this section.

     (5) A person may not register or license for use on any highway any new motor vehicle equipped with any air conditioning equipment unless the equipment complies with the requirements of this section.

[2011 c 224 § 1; 2009 c 256 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 726; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.470. Prior: 1955 c 269 § 47.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.480
Television viewers — Earphones.

(1) No person shall drive any motor vehicle equipped with any television viewer, screen, or other means of visually receiving a television broadcast when the moving images are visible to the driver while operating the motor vehicle on a public road, except for live video of the motor vehicle backing up. This subsection does not apply to law enforcement vehicles communicating with mobile computer networks.

     (2) No person shall operate any motor vehicle on a public highway while wearing any headset or earphones connected to any electronic device capable of receiving a radio broadcast or playing a sound recording for the purpose of transmitting a sound to the human auditory senses and which headset or earphones muffle or exclude other sounds. This subsection does not apply to students and instructors participating in a Washington state motorcycle safety program.

     (3) This section does not apply to authorized emergency vehicles, motorcyclists wearing a helmet with built-in headsets or earphones as approved by the Washington state patrol, or motorists using hands-free, wireless communications systems, as approved by the equipment section of the Washington state patrol.

[2011 c 368 § 1; 1996 c 34 § 1; 1991 c 95 § 1; 1988 c 227 § 6; 1987 c 176 § 1; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 40; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.480. Prior: 1949 c 196 § 11; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-98d. Formerly RCW 46.36.150.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1988 c 227: See RCW 46.81A.900.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.490
Safety load chains and devices required.

It shall be unlawful to operate any vehicle upon the public highways of this state without having the load thereon securely fastened and protected by safety chains or other device. The chief of the Washington state patrol is hereby authorized to adopt and enforce reasonable rules and regulations as to what shall constitute adequate and safe chains or other devices for the fastening and protection of loads upon vehicles.

[1987 c 330 § 727; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.490. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 43; RRS § 6360-43; 1927 c 309 § 18; RRS § 6362-18. Formerly RCW 46.36.110.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.495
Safety chains for towing.

(1) "Safety chains" means flexible tension members connected from the front portion of the towed vehicle to the rear portion of the towing vehicle for the purpose of retaining connection between towed and towing vehicle in the event of failure of the connection provided by the primary connecting system, as prescribed by rule of the Washington state patrol.

     (2) The term "safety chains" includes chains, cables, or wire ropes, or an equivalent flexible member meeting the strength requirements prescribed by rule of the Washington state patrol.

     (3) A tow truck towing a vehicle and a vehicle towing a trailer must use safety chains. Failure to comply with this section is a class 1 civil infraction punishable under RCW
7.80.120.

[1995 c 360 § 1.]

Notes:

Tow trucks: Chapter 46.55 RCW.



46.37.500
Fenders or splash aprons.

(1) Except as authorized under subsection (2) of this section, no person may operate any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer that is not equipped with fenders, covers, flaps, or splash aprons adequate for minimizing the spray or splash of water or mud from the roadway to the rear of the vehicle. All such devices shall be as wide as the tires behind which they are mounted and extend downward at least to the center of the axle.

     (2) A motor vehicle that is not less than forty years old or a street rod vehicle that is owned and operated primarily as a collector's item need not be equipped with fenders when the vehicle is used and driven during fair weather on well-maintained, hard-surfaced roads.

[1999 c 58 § 2; 1988 c 15 § 2; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 41; 1961 c 12 § 46.37.500. Prior: 1947 c 200 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 44, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-44, part. Formerly RCW 46.36.130 (second paragraph).]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.505
Child passenger restraint systems.

The state patrol shall adopt standards for the performance, design, and installation of passenger restraint systems for children less than five years old and shall approve those systems which meet its standards.

[1987 c 330 § 728; 1983 c 215 § 1.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1983 c 215: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1983 c 215 § 3.]

Child passenger restraint required: RCW 46.61.687.




46.37.510
Seat belts and shoulder harnesses.

(1) No person may sell any automobile manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, nor may any owner cause such vehicle to be registered thereafter under the provisions of chapter 46.12 RCW unless such motor car or automobile is equipped with automobile seat belts installed for use on the front seats thereof which are of a type and installed in a manner conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol. Where registration is for transfer from an out-of-state license, the applicant shall be informed of this section by the issuing agent and has thirty days to comply. The state patrol shall adopt and enforce standards as to what constitutes adequate and safe seat belts and for the fastening and installation of them. Such standards shall not be below those specified as minimum requirements by the Society of Automotive Engineers on June 13, 1963.

     (2) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1965, shall be equipped with at least two lap-type safety belt assemblies for use in the front seating positions.

     (3) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with a lap-type safety belt assembly for each permanent passenger seating position. This requirement shall not apply to police vehicles.

     (4) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with at least two shoulder harness-type safety belt assemblies for use in the front seating positions.

     (5) The state patrol shall excuse specified types of motor vehicles or seating positions within any motor vehicle from the requirements imposed by subsections (1), (2), and (3) of this section when compliance would be impractical.

     (6) No person may distribute, have for sale, offer for sale, or sell any safety belt or shoulder harness for use in motor vehicles unless it meets current minimum standards and specifications conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol or the United States department of transportation.

[1987 c 330 § 729; 1986 c 113 § 7; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 42; 1963 c 117 § 1.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Safety belts, use required: RCW 46.61.688.




46.37.513
Bumpers.

When any motor vehicle was originally equipped with bumpers or any other collision energy absorption or attenuation system, that system shall be maintained in good operational condition, and no person shall remove or disconnect, and no owner shall cause or knowingly permit the removal or disconnection of, any part of that system except temporarily in order to make repairs, replacements, or adjustments.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 43.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.517
Body and body hardware.

(1) The body, fenders, and bumpers shall be maintained without protrusions which could be hazardous to pedestrians. In addition, the bumpers shall be so attached and maintained so as to not protrude beyond the original bumper line.

     (2) The hood, hood latches, hood fastenings, doors, and door latches shall be maintained in a condition sufficient to ensure proper working equal to that at the time of original vehicle manufacture.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 44.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Lowering vehicle below legal clearance: RCW 46.61.680.




46.37.518
Street rod, custom, and kit vehicles — Optional and required equipment.

Notwithstanding the requirements of this chapter, hoods and bumpers are optional equipment on street rod vehicles, custom vehicles, and kit vehicles. Street rod vehicles, custom vehicles, and kit vehicles must comply with fender requirements under RCW 46.37.500(2) and the windshield requirement of RCW 46.37.410(1).

[2011 c 114 § 9; 1996 c 225 § 12.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2011 c 114: See note following RCW 46.04.572.

     Finding -- 1996 c 225: See note following RCW 46.04.125.




46.37.5185
Street rod and custom vehicles — Blue dot taillights.

A street rod or custom vehicle may use blue dot taillights for stop lamps, rear turning indicator lamps, rear hazard lamps, and rear reflectors. For the purposes of this section, "blue dot taillight" means a red lamp installed in the rear of a motor vehicle containing a blue or purple insert that is not more than one inch in diameter.

[2011 c 114 § 8.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2011 c 114: See note following RCW 46.04.572.




46.37.519
Kit vehicles.

(1) For the purposes of this section:

     (a) "Kit vehicle" means a passenger car or light truck assembled from a manufactured kit, and is either (i) a kit consisting of a prefabricated body and chassis used to construct a complete vehicle, or (ii) a kit consisting of a prefabricated body to be mounted on an existing vehicle chassis and drivetrain, commonly referred to as a donor vehicle. "Kit vehicle" does not include a vehicle that has been assembled by a manufacturer.

     (b) "Major component part" includes at least each of the following vehicle parts: (i) Engines and short blocks; (ii) frame; (iii) transmission or transfer case; (iv) cab; (v) door; (vi) front or rear differential; (vii) front or rear clip; (viii) quarter panel; (ix) truck bed or box; (x) seat; (xi) hood; (xii) bumper; (xiii) fender; and (xiv) airbag.

     (2) A kit vehicle must, prior to inspection, contain the following components:

     (a) Brakes on all wheels. The service brakes, upon application, must be capable of stopping the vehicle within a twelve-foot lane and (i) developing an average tire to road retardation force of not less than 52.8 percent of the gross vehicle weight, (ii) decelerating the vehicle at a rate of not less than seventeen feet per second, or (iii) stopping the vehicle within a distance of twenty-five feet from a speed of twenty miles per hour. Tests must be made on a level, dry, concrete or asphalt surface free from loose material;

     (b) Brake hoses that comply with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.106;

     (c) Brake fluids that comply with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.119;

     (d) A parking brake that must operate on at least two wheels on the same axle, and when applied, must be capable of holding the vehicle on any grade on which the vehicle is operated. The parking brake must be separately actuated so that failure of any part of the service brake actuation system will not diminish the vehicle's parking brake holding capability;

     (e) Lighting equipment that complies with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.108;

     (f) Pneumatic tires that comply with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.109;

     (g) Glazing material that complies with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.205. The driver must be provided with a windshield and side windows or opening that allows an outward horizontal vision capability, ninety degrees each side of a vertical plane passing through the fore and aft centerline of the vehicle. This range of vision must not be interrupted by window framing not exceeding four inches in width at each side location;

     (h) Seat belt assemblies that comply with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.209;

     (i) Defroster and defogging devices capable of defogging and defrosting the windshield area, except vehicles or exact replicas of vehicles manufactured prior to January 1938 are exempt from this requirement;

     (j) Door latches that firmly and automatically secure the door when pushed closed and that allow each door to be opened both from the inside and outside, if the vehicle is enclosed with side doors leading directly into a compartment that contains one or more seating accommodations;

     (k) A floor plan that is capable of supporting the weight of the number of occupants that the vehicle is designed to carry;

     (l) If an enclosed kit vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, a passenger compartment that must be constructed to prevent the entry of exhaust fumes into the passenger compartment;

     (m) Fenders that must be installed on all wheels and cover the entire tread width that comes in contact with the road surface. Coverage of the tire tread circumference must be from at least fifteen degrees in front and to at least seventy-five degrees to the rear of the vertical centerline at each wheel measured from the center of the wheel rotation. The tire must not come in contact with the body, fender, chassis, or suspension of the vehicle. Kit vehicles that are more than forty years old and are owned and operated primarily as collector's vehicles are exempt from this fender requirement if the vehicle is used and driven during fair weather on well-maintained, hard-surfaced roads;

     (n) A speedometer that is calibrated to indicate miles per hour, and may also indicate kilometers per hour;

     (o) Mirrors as outlined in RCW
46.37.400. Mirror mountings must provide for mirror adjustment by tilting both horizontally and vertically;

     (p) An accelerator control system that, in accordance with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.124, contains a double spring that returns engine throttle to an idle position when the driver removes the actuating force from the accelerator control. The geometry of the throttle linkage must be designed so that the throttle will not lock in an open position. A vehicle equipped with cruise control is exempt when the cruise control is actuated;

     (q) A fuel system that, in accordance with 49 C.F.R. Secs. 571.301 and 571.302, is securely fastened to the vehicle so as not to interfere with the vehicle's operation. The components, such as tank, tubing, hoses, and pump, must be of leak proof design and be securely attached with fasteners designed for that purpose. All fuel system vent lines must extend outside of the passenger compartment and be positioned as not to be in contact with the high temperature surfaces or moving components. If the vehicle is fueled using alternative measures, it must be installed in accordance with any applicable standards set by the United States department of transportation;

     (r) A steering wheel as outlined in RCW 46.37.375 and WAC 204-10-034;

     (s) A suspension as outlined in WAC 204-10-036;

     (t) An exhaust system as outlined in WAC 204-10-038; and

     (u) A horn that is capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than two hundred feet. The horn or another warning device must not emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound or whistle. A bell or siren must not be used as a warning device. The device used to actuate the horn must be easily accessible to the driver when operating the vehicle.

     (3) A kit vehicle may also be equipped with hoods and bumpers. If this equipment is present, it must meet the following requirements:

     (a) Hood latches must be equipped with a primary and secondary latching system to hold the hood in a closed position if the hood is a front opening hood; and

     (b) Bumpers must be 4.5 inches in vertical height, centered on the vehicle's centerline, and extend no less than the width of the respective wheel track distances. Bumpers must be horizontal load veering and attach to the frame to effectively transfer energy when impacted. The bumper must be installed in accordance with the bumper heights outlined in WAC 204-10-022.

[2009 c 284 § 3.]




46.37.520
Beach vehicles with soft tires — "Dune buggies" — Inspection and approval required — Fee.

It shall be unlawful for any person to lease for hire or permit the use of any vehicle with soft tires commonly used upon the beach and referred to as a dune buggy unless such vehicle has been inspected by and approved by the state patrol, which may charge a reasonable fee therefor to go into the motor vehicle fund.

[1987 c 330 § 730; 1971 ex.s. c 91 § 4; 1965 ex.s. c 170 § 61.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.




46.37.522
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — When head lamps and tail lamps to be lighted.

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall have its head lamps and tail lamps lighted whenever such vehicle is in motion upon a highway.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 45.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.523
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — Head lamps.

(1) Every motorcycle and every motor-driven cycle shall be equipped with at least one lamp which shall comply with the requirements and limitations of this section.

     (2) Every head lamp upon every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall be located at a height of not more than fifty-four inches nor less than twenty-four inches to be measured as set forth in RCW
46.37.030(2).

     (3) Every motorcycle other than a motor-driven cycle shall be equipped with multiple-beam road-lighting equipment.

     (4) Such equipment shall:

     (a) Reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least three hundred feet ahead when the uppermost distribution of light is selected;

     (b) Reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least one hundred fifty feet ahead when the lowermost distribution of light is selected, and on a straight, level road under any condition of loading none of the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike the eyes of an approaching driver.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 46.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.524
Motor-driven cycles — Head lamps.

The head lamp or head lamps upon every motor-driven cycle may be of the single-beam or multiple-beam type but in either event shall comply with the requirements and limitations as follows:

     (1) Every such head lamp or head lamps on a motor-driven cycle shall be of a sufficient intensity to reveal a person or a vehicle at a distance of not less than one hundred feet when the motor-driven cycle is operated at any speed less than twenty-five miles per hour and at a distance of not less than two hundred feet when the motor-driven cycle is operated at a speed of twenty-five or more miles per hour, and at a distance of not less than three hundred feet when the motor-driven cycle is operated at a speed of thirty-five or more miles per hour;

     (2) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a multiple-beam head lamp or head lamps the upper beam shall meet the minimum requirements set forth above and shall not exceed the limitations set forth in RCW
46.37.220(1), and the lowermost beam shall meet the requirements applicable to a lowermost distribution of light as set forth in RCW 46.37.220;

     (3) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a single-beam lamp or lamps, such lamp or lamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is loaded none of the high-intensity portion of light, at a distance of twenty-five feet ahead, shall project higher than the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 47.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.525
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — Tail lamps, reflectors, and stop lamps.

(1) Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall have at least one tail lamp which shall be located at a height of not more than seventy-two nor less than fifteen inches.

     (2) Either a tail lamp or a separate lamp shall be so constructed and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear registration plate and render it clearly legible from a distance of fifty feet to the rear. Any tail lamp or tail lamps, together with any separate lamp or lamps for illuminating the rear registration plate, shall be so wired as to be lighted whenever the head lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are lighted.

     (3) Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall carry on the rear, either as part of the tail lamp or separately, at least one red reflector meeting the requirements of RCW
46.37.060.

     (4) Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall be equipped with at least one stop lamp meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.070.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 48.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.527
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — Brake requirements.

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle must comply with the provisions of RCW 46.37.351, except that:

     (1) Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles need not be equipped with parking brakes;

     (2) The wheel of a sidecar attached to a motorcycle or to a motor-driven cycle, and the front wheel of a motor-driven cycle need not be equipped with brakes, if such motorcycle or motor-driven cycle is otherwise capable of complying with the braking performance requirements of RCW 46.37.528 and 46.37.529;

     (3) Motorcycles shall be equipped with brakes operating on both the front and rear wheels unless the vehicle was originally manufactured without both front and rear brakes: PROVIDED, That a front brake shall not be required on any motorcycle over twenty-five years old which was originally manufactured without a front brake and which has been restored to its original condition and is being ridden to or from or otherwise in conjunction with an antique or classic motorcycle contest, show or other such assemblage: PROVIDED FURTHER, That no front brake shall be required on any motorcycle manufactured prior to January 1, 1931.

[1982 c 77 § 6; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 49.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1982 c 77: See note following RCW 46.20.500.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.528
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — Performance ability of brakes.

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle, at all times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service brake, shall be capable of:

     (1) Developing a braking force that is not less than forty-three and one-half percent of its gross weight;

     (2) Decelerating to a stop from not more than twenty miles per hour at not less than fourteen feet per second per second; and

     (3) Stopping from a speed of twenty miles per hour in not more than thirty feet, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the service brake pedal or control begins.

     Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on a substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus one percent grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose material.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 50.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.529
Motor-driven cycles — Braking system inspection.

(1) The state patrol is authorized to require an inspection of the braking system on any motor-driven cycle and to disapprove any such braking system on a vehicle which it finds will not comply with the performance ability standard set forth in RCW 46.37.351, or which in its opinion is equipped with a braking system that is not so designed or constructed as to ensure reasonable and reliable performance in actual use.

     (2) The director of licensing may refuse to register or may suspend or revoke the registration of any vehicle referred to in this section when the state patrol determines that the braking system thereon does not comply with the provisions of this section.

     (3) No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle referred to in this section in the event the state patrol has disapproved the braking system upon such vehicle.

[1987 c 330 § 731; 1979 c 158 § 158; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 51.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.530
Motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, mopeds, electric-assisted bicycles — Helmets, other equipment — Children — Rules.

(1) It is unlawful:

     (a) For any person to operate a motorcycle, moped, or motor-driven cycle not equipped with mirrors on the left and right sides which shall be so located as to give the driver a complete view of the highway for a distance of at least two hundred feet to the rear of the motorcycle, moped, or motor-driven cycle: PROVIDED, That mirrors shall not be required on any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle over twenty-five years old originally manufactured without mirrors and which has been restored to its original condition and which is being ridden to or from or otherwise in conjunction with an antique or classic motorcycle contest, show, or other such assemblage: PROVIDED FURTHER, That no mirror is required on any motorcycle manufactured prior to January 1, 1931;

     (b) For any person to operate a motorcycle, moped, or motor-driven cycle which does not have a windshield unless wearing glasses, goggles, or a face shield of a type conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol;

     (c) For any person to operate or ride upon a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or moped on a state highway, county road, or city street unless wearing upon his or her head a motorcycle helmet except when the vehicle is an antique motor-driven cycle or when the vehicle is equipped with all of the following:

     (i) Steering wheel;

     (ii) Seat belts that conform to standards prescribed under 49 C.F.R. Part 571; and

     (iii) Partially or completely enclosed seating area for the driver and passenger that is certified by the manufacturer as meeting the standards prescribed under 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.216.

     The motorcycle helmet neck or chin strap must be fastened securely while the motorcycle, moped, or motor-driven cycle is in motion. Persons operating electric-assisted bicycles and motorized foot scooters shall comply with all laws and regulations related to the use of bicycle helmets;

     (d) For any person to transport a child under the age of five on a motorcycle or motor-driven cycle;

     (e) For any person to sell or offer for sale a motorcycle helmet that does not meet the requirements established by this section.

     (2) The state patrol may adopt and amend rules concerning standards for glasses, goggles, and face shields.

     (3) For purposes of this section, "motorcycle helmet" means a protective covering for the head consisting of a hard outer shell, padding adjacent to and inside the outer shell, and a neck or chin strap type retention system, with the manufacturer's certification applied in accordance with 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.218 indicating that the motorcycle helmet meets standards established by the United States department of transportation.

[2009 c 275 § 5; 2003 c 197 § 1; 1997 c 328 § 4; 1990 c 270 § 7. Prior: 1987 c 454 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 732; 1986 c 113 § 8; 1982 c 77 § 7; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 55; 1971 ex.s. c 150 § 1; 1969 c 42 § 1; 1967 c 232 § 4.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Short title -- 1990 c 270: See RCW 43.70.440.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1982 c 77: See note following RCW 46.20.500.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

Maximum height for handlebars: RCW 46.61.611.

Riding on motorcycles: RCW 46.61.610.




46.37.535
Motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, or mopeds — Helmet requirements when rented.

It is unlawful for any person to rent out motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, or mopeds unless the person also has on hand for rent helmets of a type conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol.

     It shall be unlawful for any person to rent a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or moped unless the person has in his or her possession a helmet of a type approved by the state patrol, regardless of from whom the helmet is obtained.

[1990 c 270 § 8; 1987 c 330 § 733; 1986 c 113 § 9; 1977 ex.s. c 355 § 56; 1967 c 232 § 10.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Short title -- 1990 c 270: See RCW 43.70.440.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.

License requirement for person renting motorcycle: RCW 46.20.220.




46.37.537
Motorcycles — Exhaust system.

No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motorcycle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the engine of such vehicle above that emitted by the muffler originally installed on the vehicle, and it shall be unlawful for any person to operate a motorcycle not equipped as required by this section, or which has been amplified as prohibited by this section.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 52.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.539
Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles — Additional requirements and limitations.

Every motorcycle and every motor-driven cycle shall also comply with the requirements and limitations of:

     RCW
46.37.380 on horns and warning devices;

     RCW 46.37.390 on mufflers and prevention of noise;

     RCW 46.37.400 on mirrors; and

     RCW 46.37.420 on tires.

[1977 ex.s. c 355 § 53.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 355: See note following RCW 46.37.010.




46.37.540
Odometers — Disconnecting, resetting, or turning back prohibited.

(1) The legislature intends to make it illegal for persons to turn forward the odometer on a new car to avoid compliance with the emissions standards required by chapter 295, Laws of 2005.

     (2) It shall be unlawful for any person to disconnect, turn back, turn forward, or reset the odometer of any motor vehicle with the intent to change the number of miles indicated on the odometer gauge. A violation of this subsection is a gross misdemeanor.

[2005 c 295 § 8; 1983 c 3 § 119; 1969 c 112 § 2.]

Notes:

     Findings -- 2005 c 295: See note following RCW 70.120A.010.

Motor vehicle dealers, unlawful acts and practices: RCW 46.70.180.




46.37.550
Odometers — Selling motor vehicle knowing odometer turned back unlawful.

It shall be unlawful for any person to sell a motor vehicle in this state if such person has knowledge that the odometer on such motor vehicle has been turned back and if such person fails to notify the buyer, prior to the time of sale, that the odometer has been turned back or that he or she had reason to believe that the odometer has been turned back.

[2010 c 8 § 9055; 1969 c 112 § 3.]




46.37.560
Odometers — Selling motor vehicle knowing odometer replaced unlawful.

It shall be unlawful for any person to sell a motor vehicle in this state if such person has knowledge that the odometer on such motor vehicle has been replaced with another odometer and if such person fails to notify the buyer, prior to the time of sale, that the odometer has been replaced or that he or she believes the odometer to have been replaced.

[2010 c 8 § 9056; 1969 c 112 § 4.]




46.37.570
Odometers — Selling, advertising, using, or installing device registering false mileage.

It shall be unlawful for any person to advertise for sale, to sell, to use, or to install on any part of a motor vehicle or on an odometer in a motor vehicle any device which causes the odometer to register any mileage other than the true mileage driven. For the purposes of this section the true mileage driven is that driven by the car as registered by the odometer within the manufacturer's designed tolerance.

[1969 c 112 § 5.]




46.37.590
Odometers — Purchaser plaintiff to recover costs and attorney's fee, when.

In any suit brought by the purchaser of a motor vehicle against the seller of such vehicle, the purchaser shall be entitled to recover his or her court costs and a reasonable attorney's fee fixed by the court, if: (1) The suit or claim is based substantially upon the purchaser's allegation that the odometer on such vehicle has been tampered with contrary to RCW 46.37.540 and 46.37.550 or replaced contrary to RCW 46.37.560; and (2) it is found in such suit that the seller of such vehicle or any of his or her employees or agents knew or had reason to know that the odometer on such vehicle had been so tampered with or replaced and failed to disclose such knowledge to the purchaser prior to the time of sale.

[2010 c 8 § 9057; 1975 c 24 § 1; 1969 c 112 § 7.]




46.37.600
Liability of operator, owner, lessee for violations.

Whenever an act or omission is declared to be unlawful in chapter 46.37 RCW, if the operator of the vehicle is not the owner or lessee of such vehicle, but is so operating or moving the vehicle with the express or implied permission of the owner or lessee, then the operator and/or owner or lessee are both subject to the provisions of this chapter with the primary responsibility to be that of the owner or lessee.

     If the person operating the vehicle at the time of the unlawful act or omission is not the owner or lessee of the vehicle, such person is fully authorized to accept the citation and execute the promise to appear on behalf of the owner or lessee.

[1980 c 104 § 4; 1969 ex.s. c 69 § 3.]




46.37.610
Wheelchair conveyance standards.

The state patrol shall adopt rules for wheelchair conveyance safety standards. Operation of a wheelchair conveyance that is in violation of these standards is a traffic infraction.

[1987 c 330 § 734; 1983 c 200 § 4.]

Notes:

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1983 c 200: See note following RCW 46.04.710.

Wheelchair conveyances
   definition: RCW 46.04.710.
   operator's license: RCW 46.20.109.
   registration: RCW 46.16A.405(3).
   public roadways, operating on: RCW 46.61.730.




46.37.620
School buses — Crossing arms.

Effective September 1, 1992, every school bus shall, in addition to any other equipment required by this chapter, be equipped with a crossing arm mounted to the bus that, when extended, will require students who are crossing in front of the bus to walk more than five feet from the front of the bus.

[1991 c 166 § 1.]




46.37.630
Private school buses.

A private school bus is subject to the requirements set forth in the National Standards for School Buses established by the national safety council in effect at the time of the bus manufacture, as adopted by rule by reference by the chief of the Washington state patrol. A private school bus manufactured before 1980 must meet the minimum standards set forth in the 1980 edition of the National Standards for School Buses.

[1995 c 141 § 3.]




46.37.640
Air bags — Definitions.

(1) "Air bag" means an inflatable restraint system or portion of an inflatable restraint system installed in a motor vehicle.

     (2) "Previously deployed air bag" means an inflatable restraint system or portion of the system that has been activated or inflated as a result of a collision or other incident involving the vehicle.

     (3) "Nondeployed salvage air bag" means an inflatable restraint system that has not been previously activated or inflated as a result of a collision or other incident involving the vehicle.

[2003 c 33 § 1.]




46.37.650
Air bags — Installation of previously deployed — Penalty.

(1) A person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor if he or she knew or reasonably should have known that an air bag he or she installs or reinstalls in a vehicle for compensation, or distributes as an auto part, is a previously deployed air bag that is part of an inflatable restraint system.

     (2) A person found guilty under subsection (1) of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars or by confinement in the county jail for up to three hundred sixty-four days, or both.

[2011 c 96 § 33; 2003 c 33 § 2.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2011 c 96: See note following RCW 9A.20.021.




46.37.660
Air bags — Replacement requirements.

Whenever an air bag that is part of a previously deployed inflatable restraint system is replaced by either a new air bag that is part of an inflatable restraint system or a nondeployed salvage air bag that is part of an inflatable restraint system, the air bag must conform to the original equipment manufacturer requirements and the installer must verify that the self-diagnostic system for the inflatable restraint system indicates that the entire inflatable restraint system is operating properly.

[2003 c 33 § 3.]




46.37.670
Signal preemption devices — Prohibited — Exceptions.

(1) Signal preemption devices shall not be installed or used on or with any vehicle other than an emergency vehicle authorized by the state patrol, a publicly owned law enforcement or emergency vehicle, a department of transportation, city, or county maintenance vehicle, or a public transit vehicle.

     (2) This section does not apply to any of the following:

     (a) A law enforcement agency and law enforcement personnel in the course of providing law enforcement services;

     (b) A fire station or a firefighter in the course of providing fire prevention or fire extinguishing services;

     (c) An emergency medical service or ambulance in the course of providing emergency medical transportation or ambulance services;

     (d) An operator, passenger, or owner of an authorized emergency vehicle in the course of his or her emergency duties;

     (e) Department of transportation, city, or county maintenance personnel while performing maintenance;

     (f) Public transit personnel in the performance of their duties. However, public transit personnel operating a signal preemption device shall have second degree priority to law enforcement personnel, firefighters, emergency medical personnel, and other authorized emergency vehicle personnel, when simultaneously approaching the same traffic control signal;

     (g) A mail or package delivery service or employee or agent of a mail or package delivery service in the course of shipping or delivering a signal preemption device;

     (h) An employee or agent of a signal preemption device manufacturer or retailer in the course of his or her employment in providing, selling, manufacturing, or transporting a signal preemption device to an individual or agency described in this subsection.

[2005 c 183 § 2.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.671
Signal preemption device — Possession — Penalty.

(1) It is unlawful to possess a signal preemption device except as authorized in RCW 46.37.670.

     (2) A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.

[2005 c 183 § 3.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.672
Signal preemption device — Use, sale, purchase — Penalty.

(1) It is unlawful to:

     (a) Use a signal preemption device except as authorized in RCW
46.37.670;

     (b) Sell a signal preemption device to a person other than a person described in RCW 46.37.670; or

     (c) Purchase a signal preemption device for use other than a duty as described in RCW 46.37.670.

     (2) A person who violates this section is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

[2005 c 183 § 4.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.673
Signal preemption device — Accident — Property damage or less than substantial bodily harm — Penalty.

(1) When an accident that results only in injury to property or injury to a person that does not arise to substantial bodily harm as defined in RCW 9A.04.110 occurs as a proximate result of the operation of a signal preemption device which was not authorized in RCW 46.37.670, the driver is guilty of negligently causing an accident by use of a signal preemption device.

     (2) Negligently causing an accident by use of a signal preemption device is a class C felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

[2005 c 183 § 5.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.674
Signal preemption device — Accident — Substantial bodily harm — Penalty.

(1) When an accident that results in injury to a person that arises to substantial bodily harm as defined in RCW 9A.04.110 occurs as a proximate result of the operation of a signal preemption device which was not authorized in RCW 46.37.670, the driver is guilty of negligently causing substantial bodily harm by use of a signal preemption device.

     (2) Negligently causing substantial bodily harm by use of a signal preemption device is a class B felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

[2005 c 183 § 6.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.675
Signal preemption device — Accident — Death — Penalty.

(1) When an accident that results in death to a person occurs as a proximate result of the operation of a signal preemption device which was not authorized in RCW 46.37.670, the driver is guilty of negligently causing death by use of a signal preemption device.

     (2) Negligently causing death by use of a signal preemption device is a class B felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

[2005 c 183 § 7.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: 2005 c 183 directed that this section be added to chapter 46.61 RCW, but codification in chapter 46.37 RCW appears more appropriate.




46.37.680
Sound system attachment.

(1) All vehicle sound system components, including any supplemental speaker systems or components, must be securely attached to the vehicle regardless of where the components are located, so that the components cannot become dislodged or loose during operation of the vehicle.

     (2) Enforcement of this section by law enforcement officers may be accomplished only as a secondary action when a driver of a vehicle has been detained for a suspected violation of this title or an equivalent local ordinance or some other offense.

     (3) The Washington state traffic safety commission shall create and implement a statewide educational program regarding the safety risks of unsecured vehicle sound system components, including supplemental speaker systems or components. The educational program shall include information regarding securely attaching sound system components to the vehicle, regardless of where the components are located, so that the components do not become dislodged or loose during the operation of the vehicle. The commission shall create and implement this program within the commission's existing budget.

[2005 c 50 § 1.]

Notes:

     Short title--2005 c 50: "This act shall be known as the Courtney Amisson Act." [2005 c 50 § 2.]




46.37.685
License plate flipping device — Unlawful use, display, sale — Penalty.

(1)(a) It is unlawful for a person to display a license plate on a vehicle that does not match or correspond with the registration of the vehicle unless the vehicle is inventory for a properly licensed vehicle dealer.

     (b) It is unlawful for a person to have an installed license plate flipping device on a vehicle, use technology to flip a license plate on a vehicle, or use technology to change the appearance of a license plate on a vehicle.

     (c) It is unlawful for a person or entity to sell a license plate flipping device or sell technology that will change the appearance of a license plate in the state of Washington.

     (d) For purposes of this section, "license plate flipping device" means a device that enables a license plate on a vehicle to be changed to another license plate either manually or electronically. "License plate flipping device" includes technology that is capable of changing the appearance of a license plate to appear as a different license plate.

     (2) A person who switches or flips license plates on a vehicle physically, utilizes technology to flip or change the appearance of a license plate on a vehicle, sells a license plate flipping device or technology that will change the appearance of a license plate, or falsifies a vehicle registration in violation of this section, in addition to any traffic infraction, is guilty of a gross misdemeanor punishable by confinement of up to three hundred sixty-four days in the county jail and a fine of one thousand dollars for the first offense, two thousand five hundred dollars for a second offense, and five thousand dollars for any subsequent offense, which may not be suspended, deferred, or reduced.

     (3) A vehicle that is found with an installed license plate flipping device or technology to change the appearance of a license plate may be impounded by a law enforcement officer as evidence.

     (4) Citizens are encouraged to notify law enforcement immediately if they observe a vehicle with a license plate flipping device.

[2013 c 135 § 1.]