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Chapter 296-36 WAC

Last Update: 2/4/13

SAFETY STANDARDS—COMPRESSED AIR WORK

WAC Sections

HTMLPDF296-36-010Definitions.
HTMLPDF296-36-020Responsibility.
HTMLPDF296-36-030General operating requirements—General duty to provide safety.
HTMLPDF296-36-035General operating requirements—Safety miner.
HTMLPDF296-36-040General operating requirements—Maintenance.
HTMLPDF296-36-045General operating requirements—Daily inspection.
HTMLPDF296-36-050General operating requirements—Maximum permissible pressure.
HTMLPDF296-36-055General operating requirements—Temperature in working chamber.
HTMLPDF296-36-060General operating requirements—Bracing of working chamber, shafts and passageways.
HTMLPDF296-36-065General operating requirements—Communication.
HTMLPDF296-36-070General operating requirements—Liquor.
HTMLPDF296-36-075General operating requirements—Identification badge.
HTMLPDF296-36-080General operating requirements—Notification of civil authorities, hospitals, etc.
HTMLPDF296-36-085General operating requirements—Instructions to be posted.
HTMLPDF296-36-100Compression and decompression of workmen—General.
HTMLPDF296-36-105Compression and decompression of workmen—Compression.
HTMLPDF296-36-110Compression and decompression of workmen—Decompression—General.
HTMLPDF296-36-115Compression and decompression of workmen—Method and procedure.
HTMLPDF296-36-120Compression and decompression of workmen—Decompression tables.
HTMLPDF296-36-125Man locks.
HTMLPDF296-36-130Special decompression chamber.
HTMLPDF296-36-132Lock attendants.
HTMLPDF296-36-135Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Gage tender.
HTMLPDF296-36-140Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Pressure monitoring.
HTMLPDF296-36-145Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Air quality in working areas.
HTMLPDF296-36-150Air supply.
HTMLPDF296-36-155Compressor plant.
HTMLPDF296-36-160Personnel facilities.
HTMLPDF296-36-165Sanitation below ground.
HTMLPDF296-36-170Stairs and ladders.
HTMLPDF296-36-175Lighting and power equipment.
HTMLPDF296-36-180Signals and means of communication.
HTMLPDF296-36-185Explosives—Blasting.
HTMLPDF296-36-190Fire prevention and firefighting.
HTMLPDF296-36-195Special provisions for tunnels.
HTMLPDF296-36-200Special provisions for caissons.
HTMLPDF296-36-210Medical supervision and medical and first-aid facilities—Medical supervision.
HTMLPDF296-36-215Medical supervision and medical and first-aid facilities—Medical locks.
HTMLPDF296-36-220Medical supervision and medical and first-aid facilities—Decompression illness—Symptoms and treatment.
HTMLPDF296-36-225Medical supervision and medical and first-aid facilities—Decompression illness to be reported.
HTMLPDF296-36-250Routine examination of employees—Preemployment examinations and reports.
HTMLPDF296-36-255Routine examination of employees—Beginners.
HTMLPDF296-36-260Routine examination of employees—Periodic examination.
HTMLPDF296-36-265Routine examination of employees—Resumption of work.
HTMLPDF296-36-270Routine examination of employees—Physical fitness requirements.
HTMLPDF296-36-990Severability.


PDF296-36-010

Definitions.

As used herein, the following terms mean:
(1) Approved. In compliance with a subsisting resolution of approval adopted by the department of labor and industries, division of safety.
(2) Adequate. The term when applied to materials, devices, structures, methods and procedures is synonymous with effective, equal, equivalent, firm, necessary, proper, safe, secure, substantial, sufficient, suitable and shall denote such kind and quality as a reasonable and prudent man experienced in compressed air work would require in order to provide safe working conditions for himself in the performance of the work.
(3) Bulkhead. An upright partition in tunnels separating compartments; a structure or partition capable of resisting pressure and separating a high pressure compartment from a low pressure compartment.
(4) Caisson. A structure in or by means of which excavation in a predominantly vertical direction is carried is carried on by persons working in a compressed air environment.
(5) Compressed air worker. A person performing any work or duty in compressed air. This term does not include divers.
(6) Designated person. A person selected and directed by an employer to perform a specified task or duty.
(7) Director. The director of the department of labor and industries, state of Washington.
(8) Effective, equal, equivalent. See (2), "adequate."
(9) Firm. See (2), "adequate."
(10) Job. The site, buildings, equipment and operations proximately associated with the work in compressed air.
(11) Lock. A chamber designed to facilitate the passage of men, materials and equipment from one ambient air pressure to another ambient air pressure.
(a) Emergency lock. A lock chamber designed to hold and to permit the quick passage of an entire shift of compressed air workers.
(b) Man lock. A lock chamber through which only men pass.
(c) Materials lock. A lock chamber designed and used normally for the passage of materials and equipment.
(d) Medical lock. A special lock chamber in which men suffering from decompression illness are placed for medical attention and treatment. Also used as a facility for preemployment physical examinations.
(12) Necessary. See (2), "adequate."
(13) Owner. The person, real or corporate, for whom the construction is being done.
(14) Pressure.
(a) Absolute. Gage pressure plus one atmosphere; viz, at sea level with a gage pressure of 30 pounds per square inch, the absolute pressure is 30 + 14.7 = 44.7 pounds per square inch.
(b) Ambient. That which encompasses on all sides, surrounds. Usually taken as the gage pressure.
(c) Atmospheric. A pressure of one atmosphere at sea level; the pressure of air at sea level, used as a unit of measurement, equivalent to 14.7 pounds per square inch. One atmosphere of pressure is also zero pounds per square inch gage pressure.
(d) Gage. That pressure measured by gage and indicating the pressure in pounds per square inch exceeding one atmosphere.
(e) Normal. Atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level or zero gage pressure.
(f) Total. Total pressure is a pressure of one atmosphere plus gage pressure. See (14)(a), "absolute."
(15) Safe, secure. See (2), "adequate."
(16) Shaft. An excavation made from the surface of the ground the longer of axis of which forms an angle with the horizontal greater than twenty degrees.
(17) Shafting. An air and watertight enclosure built in the roof of a caisson and extended upward until above the ground or water level.
(18) Shall. The word "shall" is always mandatory.
(19) Substantial, sufficient, suitable. See (2), "adequate."
(20) Supervisor. The supervisor of safety, department of labor and industries, state of Washington.
(21) Tunnel. The underground excavation for a passageway including all shafts and other openings leading to or from such excavation, and all places, buildings and equipment used in connection therewith. Tunnels which are administered as distinct units constitute separate jobs.
(22) Working chamber. The space or compartment in which the excavating is being done in compressed air.
[Rule I, filed 12/28/62; Part One (Definitions), filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-020

Responsibility.

(1) The owner's responsibility. There shall be on every job involving work in compressed air an owner's representative who shall be experienced in compressed air work and who shall represent the owner in all matters of joint responsibility under the Washington labor laws and the standards of safety for the work. The owner shall advise the director of the department of labor and industries in writing of the name and address of each such representative within 24 hours after starting work on the job.
(2) The superintendent. There shall be on every job, while work in compressed air is in progress, a superintendent experienced in compressed air work representing the employer of compressed air workers and who shall be in full charge of the job. The employer shall advise the director of the department of labor and industries in writing of the name and address of each such superintendent within 24 hours after starting work on the job.
(3) Employees' responsibilities. Every employee shall be responsible for carrying out all rules which immediately concern or affect his conduct and he shall use the safety devices and means furnished for his protection.
[Rules (Part II A, B, and C), filed 12/28/62; § 22, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-030

General operating requirements—General duty to provide safety.

Every reasonable precaution shall be taken to insure the safety of the workmen whether provided herein or not.
[Rules (Part III A), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-035

General operating requirements—Safety miner.

(1) A safety miner shall be selected by the crew on each shift. He shall have at least five years' experience as a practical miner and shall be the holder of an unexpired first-aid certificate from the Red Cross, U.S. Bureau of Mines, or the department of labor and industries. His duties shall be to check conditions to eliminate common work hazards such as loose rock, faulty timbers, poor rails, insufficient lighting, defective ladders and scaffolds, fan pipes, firing lines and other equipment directly related to the work of a miner. If such defects are found he shall immediately report the same to the superintendent.
(2) It shall be the duty of the superintendent, upon ascertaining such defects or hazards, to take immediate steps to remedy the same in compliance with the rules hereinafter set forth. A record of inspections made on each operation shall be kept on file and a copy thereof shall be submitted to the safety division of the department of labor and industries.
(3) In the event that disagreement arises out of the interpretation of these rules, then the question shall be referred to the division of safety of the department of labor and industries for its decision in accordance with the laws of the state, the safety standards, or rules and regulations issued hereunder, and a decision thus rendered shall be binding.
[Rules (Part III B), filed 12/28/62; § 15, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-040

General operating requirements—Maintenance.

All machinery, equipment, appliances, materials, structures and places on the job shall at all times be maintained in a safe condition and in good repair. Every person observing any defects shall immediately advise his immediate or higher superior.
[Rules (Part III C), filed 12/28/62; Rule 2203, § 22, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-045

General operating requirements—Daily inspection.

While work in compressed air is in progress, a competent person designated by the superintendent shall make a regular inspection at least once every day of all machinery, equipment, appliances, structures and places. Immediately upon discovery of any defect, he shall report the same in writing on forms provided by the state department of labor and industries to the person present in charge of the job. A copy of the report shall be sent immediately to the safety division of the department of labor and industries.
[Rules (Part III D), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-050

General operating requirements—Maximum permissible pressure.

No person shall be subjected to pressure exceeding 50 pounds per square inch gage except in case of emergency.
[Rules (Part III E), filed 12/28/62; § 1, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-055

General operating requirements—Temperature in working chamber.

Every effort shall be made by the best available means to prevent the wet bulb temperature exceeding 80 degrees F. A wet bulb thermometer, in good working order, shall be provided in every working chamber.
[Rules (Part III F), filed 12/28/62; § 20, Rule 2006, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-060

General operating requirements—Bracing of working chamber, shafts and passageways.

The working chamber, shafts and passageways of tunnels and caissons shall be provided with bracing as may be necessary to safely resist any superimposed loads or any forces which may cause excessive deformation of the walls.
[Rules (Part III G), filed 12/28/62; § 19, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-065

General operating requirements—Communication.

A telephone intercommunication system ready for use at all times shall be maintained between the working chamber, the power house, the source of compressed air, the place of compressed air control, the first-aid room and the superintendent's office.
Exception:
Where the working chamber of a caisson is less than 150 square feet in area, such system shall be maintained between the working chamber, outside the lock and the place of compressed air control or the superintendent's office.
[Rules (Part III H), filed 12/28/62; § 8, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-070

General operating requirements—Liquor.

No person under the influence of intoxicating liquor shall be permitted to enter upon the job; nor shall any person carry any liquor on the job.
[Rules (Part III I), filed 12/28/62; § 24, Rule 2402, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-075

General operating requirements—Identification badge.

Every compressed air worker employed in the work shall wear an identification badge furnished by the employer both on and off the job. The badge shall be of durable plastic designed to be worn next to the body. The badge shall state that the wearer is employed as a compressed air worker, shall bear the address and telephone number of the medical lock, and shall contain instructions that in case of an emergency of unknown or doubtful cause or illness, the wearer shall be rushed to the medical facilities and not to a hospital.
[Rules (Part III J), filed 12/28/62; § 24, Rule 2412, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-080

General operating requirements—Notification of civil authorities, hospitals, etc.

When workmen are employed in compressed air, the owner shall see that all general hospitals, city and county health departments, local medical societies, police and fire rescue, and the county sheriff in the locality are acquainted with the fact that such work is being undertaken. These authorities and organizations shall be furnished with the names, addresses and telephone numbers of the designated medical officers as well as the location and telephone number of the medical lock. The same civil authorities shall be further notified when compressed air operations on the site are completed.
[Rules (Part III K), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-085

General operating requirements—Instructions to be posted.

The following instructions as well as supplemental instructions deemed advisable by the medical officer for the guidance of compressed air workers shall be printed and conspicuously posted in the change house and in the man locks:
(1) Never go on shift with an empty stomach.
(2) Avoid all alcoholic liquors.
(3) Eat moderately.
(4) Sleep at least seven hours daily.
(5) Take extra outer clothing into the tunnel when going on shift and wear it during decompression to avoid chilling during that period.
(6) Take a warm bath after each shift.
(7) Do not give men, suffering from compressed air illness, any intoxicating liquor.
(8) After you have had a cold, or if your ears are uncomfortable, or if you do not feel well for any reason, report at once to the medical lock for a checkup.
(9) If you are taken sick away from the plant, communicate at once with the physician-in-charge, Dr. . . . . . . . ., telephone . . . . . .
(10) Wear your identification badge so it will be known what to do with you in an emergency.
(11) See that you are reexamined as required by the rules.
(12) Proper decompression means safety and freedom from compressed air illness.
(13) No person shall smoke or carry lighted smoking materials in compressed air. No matches, mechanical or chemical igniters will be permitted in the working chamber except those necessary for welding or flame cutting operations.
It shall be the duty and responsibility of each employee to observe and abide by the posted instructions and regulations.
[Rules (Part III L), filed 12/28/62; Rule 2204, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-100

Compression and decompression of workmen—General.

Subject to subsections 1-5 below, compression and decompression of workmen shall be carried out in accordance with the rules hereinafter prescribed:
(1) Compression or decompression may be carried out in accordance with such alternative regulations as are approved by the state department of labor and industries in writing.
(2) Except in an emergency, no workman shall be compressed to a pressure exceeding 50 pounds per square inch gage unless regulations for the decompression of such workman have been approved under the foregoing paragraph of this rule.
(3) The monograph "Decompression sickness and its prevention among compressed air workers" prepared by Gerald J. Duffner, M.D. (Captain, Medical Corps, U.S. Navy) and dated 6 November 1962, establishes the criteria for and shall be the guide in the determination of decompression methods and procedures and the preparation of decompression tables. Copies of the monograph are available from the supervisor of safety, department of labor and industries, state of Washington.
(4) A special low-pressure decompression chamber of sufficient size to accommodate the entire force of workmen being decompressed at the end of a shift shall be provided under the following circumstances:
Excepting the infrequent, occasional or emergency condition, when any regularly established routine term or schedule of work includes a working period requiring a total time of decompression exceeding seventy-five minutes, the special low-pressure decompression chamber shall be provided and shall be used as a facility to accomplish the final stage or phase of decompression. The special chamber shall conform with and shall be operated in accordance with sections WAC 296-36-130 and 296-36-120(2) example No. 2 respectively.
(5) When a workman has, within the immediately preceding period of 8 hours, been exposed to a pressure greater than 13 pounds per square inch gage and has to be compressed in a man lock other than the lock in which he was last decompressed, he shall, before compression, produce to the lock attendant written particulars signed by the lock attendant of the lock where he was last decompressed indicating his last working period. For the purposes of these regulations, the term "working period" shall mean the period or the sum of the periods during which, since last subject to ordinary atmospheric pressure for at least 8 consecutive hours, a workman has been under pressure in a working chamber or chambers; the written particulars shall be specific in stating the length of time the workman was exposed to compressed air, the gage pressure to which he was subjected, the schedule of decompression used, the total length of time devoted to decompression procedures and the hour at which decompression was completed. As soon as practicable, all data shall be entered in the prescribed register or log at the lock where he is compressed and the data shall, as soon as practicable, be communicated to the attendant at any other lock from which the workman is liable to return to the open air.
[Rules (Part IV A), filed 12/28/62; § 2, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-105

Compression and decompression of workmen—Compression.

During the compression of workmen, the pressure shall not, in the first minute after starting compression, be increased to more than 3 pounds per square inch gage. When the pressure of 3 pounds per square inch gage is reached, the pressure shall not be further increased until after the lapse of a period sufficiently long to enable the lock attendant to ascertain whether any workman in the man lock complains of discomfort. After the lapse of that period, the pressure shall not be increased at a rate faster than 10 pounds per square inch gage per minute and a pause similar to that provided at 3 pounds per square inch gage shall also be provided at a pressure not exceeding 7 pounds per square inch gage. In all instances the pressure shall be increased gradually so as to insure, as far as practicable, that no workman suffers discomfort. If a workman complains of discomfort, and such complaint is signified to the lock attendant, any compression then proceeding shall be immediately stopped, and, unless the workman who has complained of the discomfort reports within 5 minutes that the discomfort has ceased and such report is conveyed to the lock attendant, the lock attendant shall without further delay gradually reduce the pressure in the lock until the workman reports that the discomfort has ceased; but, if he does not so report, the pressure shall be reduced gradually to atmospheric pressure and the workman released from the lock.
[Rules (Part IV B), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-110

Compression and decompression of workmen—Decompression—General.

(1) Working period. The "working period" shall include the time or period or the sum of periods during which, since last subject to ordinary atmospheric pressure for at least 8 consecutive hours, a workman has been under pressure in a working chamber or chambers.
(2) Work pressure. The "work pressure" means the highest pressure to which the workman has been exposed in the course of his working period: Provided, That,
(a) Sudden and exceptional variations of pressure involving excess pressure for not more than 15 minutes may be disregarded;
(b) Where, during the whole of his working period a workman about to be decompressed has been in a working chamber in which (as in tidal waters) the pressure has been gradually varied by more than 5 pounds per square inch in the course of that period, the work pressures shall be the mean of the pressures half way through that period and at the end of it.
(3) Decompression required. No person employed in compressed air shall be permitted to pass from the place in which the work is being done to atmospheric pressure, except after decompression in accordance with the procedures hereinafter established.
[Rules (Part IV C), filed 12/28/62; §§ 1 and 2, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-115

Compression and decompression of workmen—Method and procedure.

Decompressions shall be accomplished in accordance with the following methods and procedures:
(1) Normal condition. A normal condition is one during which exposure to compressed air is limited to a single continuous "working period" followed by a single decompression in any given 24 hour period; the total time of exposure to compressed air during the single continuous "working period" is not interrupted by exposure to normal atmospheric pressure; and a second exposure to compressed air does not occur until at least 8 consecutive hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure has elapsed since the workman has been under pressure in a working chamber. Decompression for normal condition shall be in accordance with the decompression tables.
(2) Multiple exposures or emergency conditions. The appointed physician shall be responsible for the preparation and establishment of methods and procedures of decompression applicable to multiple exposures and emergency conditions. The decompression times and stages shall be calculated and the methods and procedures determined and placed into effect in accordance with the instructions contained in the monograph "Decompression sickness and its prevention among compressed air workers" referred to in WAC 296-36-100(3).
[Rules (Part IV D), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-120

Compression and decompression of workmen—Decompression tables.

(1) Explanation.
(a) The decompression tables are computed for working chamber pressures from 14 to 50 pounds per square inch gage inclusive by 2 pound increments and for exposure times for each pressure extending from 1/2 to over 8 hours inclusive. Decompressions will be conducted by two or more stages with a maximum of 4 stages, the latter for a working chamber pressure of 40 pounds per square inch gage or over.
(b) Stage 1, consists of a reduction in ambient pressure ranging from 10 to a maximum of 16 pounds per square inch but in no instance will the pressure be reduced below 4 pounds at the end of stage 1. This reduction in pressure in stage 1 will always take place at a rate of 5 pounds per minute.
(c) Further reduction in pressure will take place during stage 2 and subsequent stages as required at a slower rate but in no event at a rate greater than one pound per minute.
(d) Decompression table No. 1 indicates in the body of the table the total decompression time in minutes for various combinations of working chamber pressure and exposure time.
(e) Decompression table No. 2 in several sheets indicates for the same various combinations of working chamber pressure and exposure time the following:
(i) The number of stages required;
(ii) The reduction in pressure and the terminal pressure for each required stage;
(iii) The time in minutes through which the reduction in pressure is accomplished for each required stage;
(iv) The pressure reduction rate in minutes per pound for each required stage;
Important note: The pressure reduction in each stage is accomplished at a uniform rate. Do not interpolate between values shown on the tables. Use the next higher value of working chamber pressure or exposure time should the actual working chamber pressure or the actual exposure time, respectively, fall between those for which calculated values are shown in the body of the tables.
(2) Examples.
(a) Example No. 1. 4 hour working period at 20 pounds gage.
 
 
Decompression table No. 1.
 
 
20 pounds for 4 hours,
Total decompression time
43 minutes
 
 
Decompression table No. 2.
 
 
 
 
Stage 1
 
 
 
 
Reduce pressure from 20 pounds to 4 pounds at the uniform rate of 5 pounds per minute. Elapsed time stage 1:
 
 
 
16
=
3 minutes
5
 
 
 
Stage 2 (final stage)
 
 
 
Reduce pressure at a uniform rate from 4 pounds to zero pounds gage over a period of 40 minutes.
 
 
Rate =
0.10 pounds per minute or 10.00 minutes per pound Stage 2 (final) elapsed time
 
 
 
Total time
 
40 minutes
43 minutes
(b) Example No. 2. 5 hour working period at 24 pounds gage
 
 
Decompression table No. 1
 
 
 
24 pounds for 5 hours
Total decompression time
117 minutes
 
 
Decompression table No. 2
 
 
 
 
Stage 1
 
 
 
 
Reduce pressure from 24 pounds to 8 pounds at the uniform rate of 5 pounds per minute
 
 
 
 
Elapsed time stage 1,
 
 
 
16
=
3 minutes
5
 
 
 
Stage 2
 
 
 
 
Reduce pressure at a uniform rate from 8 pounds to 4 pounds over a period of 4 minutes.
Rate, 1 pound per minute
Elapsed time, stage 2
4 minutes
 
 
 
Transfer men to special decompression chamber maintaining the 4 pound pressure during the transfer operation
 
 
 
 
Stage 3 (Final stage)
 
 
 
 
In the special decompression chamber reduce the pressure at a uniform rate from 4 pounds to zero pounds gage over a period of 110 minutes.
Rate, 0.037 pounds per minute
or 27.5 minutes per pound
 
 
 
 
Stage 3 (final stage)
 
Elapsed time 110 minutes
Total time 117 minutes
(3)
DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 1
Work
Total Decompression Time - Minutes
Pressure
Working Period Hours
psig
1/2
1
1-1/2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Over 8
- - - -
0-14
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
16
16
32
- - - -
16
7
7
7
7
7
7
17
33
48
48
63
- - - -
18
7
7
7
3
11
17
48
63
63
73
87
- - - -
20
7
7
8
15
15
43
63
73
83
103
113
- - - -
22
9
9
16
24
38
68
93
103
113
128
133
- - - -
24
11
12
23
27
52
92
117
122
127
137
151
- - - -
26
13
14
29
34
69
104
126
141
142
142
163
- - - -
28
15
23
31
41
98
127
143
153
153
165
183
- - - -
30
17
28
38
62
105
143
165
168
173
188
204
- - - -
32
19
35
43
85
126
163
178
193
203
213
226
- - - -
34
21
39
58
98
151
178
195
218
223
233
248
- - - -
36
24
44
63
113
170
198
223
233
243
253
273
- - - -
38
28
49
73
128
178
203
223
238
253
263
278
- - - -
40
31
49
84
143
183
213
233
248
258
268
288
- - - -
42
37
56
102
144
189
215
245
260
263
268
293
- - - -
44
43
64
118
154
199
234
254
264
269
269
293
- - - -
46
44
74
139
171
214
244
269
274
289
299
318
- - - -
48
51
89
144
189
229
269
299
309
319
319
-
- - - -
50
58
94
164
209
249
279
309
329
-
-
-
- - - -
(4)
DECOMPRESSION TABLE NO. 2
 
 
Decompression Data
Working
Chamber Pressure
Working Period
 
Pressure Reduction
Psig
Time
in
Stage
Pressure Reduction
Rate
Total
Time
Decom-
press
psig
Hours
Stage
No.
From
To
Minutes
Min/
Pound
Minutes
14
1/2
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
1
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
2
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
3
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
4
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
5
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
6
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
6
 
- - - -
 
7
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
14
 
3.50
16
 
- - - -
 
8
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
14
 
3.50
16
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
14
 
4
 
2
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
32
 
16
1/2
1
16
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1
1
16
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
16
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
2
1
16
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
3
1
16
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
4
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
5
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
14
 
3.50
17
 
- - - -
 
6
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
33
 
- - - -
 
7
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
48
 
- - - -
 
8
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
48
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
14
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
63
 
18
1/2
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
2
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
5
 
1.25
8
 
- - - -
 
3
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
8
 
2.00
11
 
- - - -
 
4
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
14
 
3.50
17
 
- - - -
 
5
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
48
 
- - - -
 
6
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
63
 
- - - -
 
7
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
63
 
- - - -
 
8
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
70
 
17.50
73
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
18
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
84
 
21.00
87
 
20
1/2
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
7
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
5
 
1.25
8
 
- - - -
 
2
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
12
 
3.00
15
 
- - - -
 
3
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
12
 
3.00
15
 
- - - -
 
4
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
40
 
10.00
43
 
- - - -
 
5
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
63
 
- - - -
 
6
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
70
 
17.50
73
 
- - - -
 
7
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
80
 
20.00
83
 
- - - -
 
8
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
100
 
25.00
103
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
20
 
4
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
4
 
0
 
110
 
27.50
113
 
22
1/2
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
6
 
1.00
9
 
- - - -
 
1
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
6
 
1.00
9
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
13
 
2.20
16
 
- - - -
 
2
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
21
 
3.50
24
 
- - - -
 
3
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
35
 
5.85
38
 
- - - -
 
4
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
65
 
10.83
68
 
- - - -
 
5
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
90
 
15.00
93
 
- - - -
 
6
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
100
 
16.67
103
 
- - - -
 
7
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
110
 
18.35
113
 
- - - -
 
8
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
125
 
20.80
128
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
22
 
6
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
6
 
0
 
130
 
21.70
133
 
24
1/2
1
24
 
3
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
11
 
- - - -
 
1
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
5
 
1.25
12
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
16
 
4.00
23
 
- - - -
 
2
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
20
 
5.00
27
 
- - - -
 
3
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
52
 
- - - -
 
4
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
85
 
21.25
92
 
- - - -
 
5
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
110
 
27.50
117
 
- - - -
 
6
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
115
 
28.80
122
 
- - - -
 
7
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
127
 
- - - -
 
8
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
137
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
24
 
8
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
8
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
140
 
35.00
151
 
26
1/2
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
13
 
- - - -
 
1
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
5
 
1.25
14
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
20
 
5.00
29
 
- - - -
 
2
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
34
 
- - - -
 
3
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
69
 
- - - -
 
4
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
95
 
23.75
104
 
- - - -
 
5
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
8
 
1.33
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
115
 
28.80
126
 
- - - -
 
6
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
8
 
1.33
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
141
 
- - - -
 
7
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
9
 
1.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
142
 
- - - -
 
8
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
9
 
1.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
142
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
26
 
10
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
10
 
4
 
30
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
163
 
28
1/2
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
15
 
- - - -
 
1
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
12
 
3.00
23
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
20
 
5.00
31
 
- - - -
 
2
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
41
 
- - - -
 
3
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
10
 
1.25
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
85
 
21.20
98
 
- - - -
 
4
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
14
 
1.75
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
110
 
27.50
127
 
- - - -
 
5
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
20
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
143
 
- - - -
 
6
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
20
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
153
 
- - - -
 
7
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
20
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
153
 
- - - -
 
8
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
32
 
4.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
165
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
28
 
12
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
12
 
4
 
50
 
6.25
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
183
 
30
1/2
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
10
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
17
 
- - - -
 
1
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
10
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
15
 
3.75
28
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
10
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
38
 
- - - -
 
2
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
14
 
1.40
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
62
 
- - - -
 
3
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
17
 
1.70
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
85
 
21.20
105
 
- - - -
 
4
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
30
 
3.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
110
 
27.50
143
 
- - - -
 
5
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
35
 
3.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
165
 
- - - -
 
6
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
35
 
3.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
168
 
- - - -
 
7
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
45
 
4.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
178
 
- - - -
 
8
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
55
 
5.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
188
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
30
 
14
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
14
 
4
 
71
 
7.10
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
204
 
32
1/2
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
12
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
19
 
- - - -
 
1
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
12
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
20
 
5.00
35
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
15
 
1.25
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
43
 
- - - -
 
2
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
22
 
1.83
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
85
 
- - - -
 
3
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
28
 
2.33
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
95
 
23.75
126
 
- - - -
 
4
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
40
 
3.33
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
163
 
- - - -
 
5
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
45
 
3.75
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
178
 
- - - -
 
6
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
60
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
193
 
- - - -
 
7
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
70
 
5.83
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
203
 
- - - -
 
8
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
80
 
6.67
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
213
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
32
 
16
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
16
 
4
 
93
 
7.75
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
226
 
34
1/2
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
14
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
4
 
1.00
21
 
- - - -
 
1
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
14
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
22
 
5.50
39
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
25
 
1.80
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
58
 
- - - -
 
2
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
35
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
98
 
- - - -
 
3
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
43
 
3.10
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
105
 
26.25
151
 
- - - -
 
4
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
55
 
3.93
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
178
 
- - - -
 
5
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
62
 
4.43
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
195
 
- - - -
 
6
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
85
 
6.07
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
218
 
- - - -
 
7
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
90
 
6.43
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
223
 
- - - -
 
8
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
100
 
7.15
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
233
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
34
 
18
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
18
 
4
 
115
 
8.23
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
248
 
36
1/2
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
5
 
1.25
24
 
- - - -
 
1
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
44
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
30
 
1.88
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
63
 
- - - -
 
2
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
40
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
70
 
17.50
113
 
- - - -
 
3
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
52
 
3.25
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
115
 
28.75
170
 
- - - -
 
4
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
65
 
4.06
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
198
 
- - - -
 
5
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
90
 
5.63
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
223
 
- - - -
 
6
1
37
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
100
 
6.25
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
233
 
- - - -
 
7
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
110
 
6.88
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
243
 
- - - -
 
8
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
120
 
7.50
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
253
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
36
 
20
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
20
 
4
 
140
 
8.75
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
273
 
38
1/2
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
9
 
1.50
28
 
- - - -
 
1
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
30
 
5.00
49
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
20
 
1.25
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
50
 
8.34
73
 
- - - -
 
2
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
30
 
1.88
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
95
 
15.83
128
 
- - - -
 
3
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
35
 
2.19
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
140
 
23.35
178
 
- - - -
 
4
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
50
 
3.12
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
150
 
25.00
203
 
- - - -
 
5
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
55
 
3.44
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
165
 
27.50
223
 
- - - -
 
6
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
70
 
4.38
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
165
 
27.50
238
 
- - - -
 
7
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
85
 
5.32
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
165
 
27.50
253
 
- - - -
 
8
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
95
 
5.93
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
165
 
27.50
263
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
38
 
22
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
22
 
6
 
110
 
6.88
 
 
 
 
3
6
 
0
 
165
 
27.50
278
 
40
1/2
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
4
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
8
 
2.00
31
 
- - - -
 
1
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
5
 
1.25
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
49
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
20
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
45
 
11.25
84
 
- - - -
 
2
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
25
 
1.56
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
20
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
95
 
23.75
143
 
- - - -
 
3
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
30
 
1.88
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
30
 
7.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
183
 
- - - -
 
4
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
45
 
2.81
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
35
 
8.75
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
213
 
- - - -
 
5
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
47
 
2.94
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
53
 
13.25
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
233
 
- - - -
 
6
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
55
 
3.44
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
60
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
248
 
- - - -
 
7
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
65
 
4.06
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
60
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
258
 
- - - -
 
8
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
75
 
4.70
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
60
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
268
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
40
 
24
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
24
 
8
 
95
 
5.93
 
 
 
 
3
8
 
4
 
60
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
288
 
42
1/2
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
6
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
12
 
3.00
37
 
- - - -
 
1
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
12
 
2.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
56
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
23
 
3.83
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
60
 
15.00
102
 
- - - -
 
2
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
30
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
95
 
23.75
144
 
- - - -
 
3
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
50
 
8.34
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
189
 
- - - -
 
4
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
17
 
1.06
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
65
 
10.83
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
215
 
- - - -
 
5
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
27
 
1.69
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
85
 
14.18
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
245
 
- - - -
 
6
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
27
 
1.69
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
100
 
16.67
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
260
 
- - - -
 
7
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
30
 
1.88
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
100
 
16.67
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
263
 
- - - -
 
8
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
35
 
2.19
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
100
 
16.67
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
268
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
42
 
26
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
26
 
10
 
60
 
3.75
 
 
 
 
3
10
 
4
 
100
 
16.67
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
293
 
44
1/2
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
8
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
16
 
4.00
43
 
- - - -
 
1
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
20
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
64
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
27
 
3.38
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
72
 
18.00
118
 
- - - -
 
2
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
40
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
95
 
23.75
154
 
- - - -
 
3
1
44
 
23
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
60
 
7.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
199
 
- - - -
 
4
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
85
 
10.62
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
234
 
- - - -
 
5
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
105
 
13.13
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
254
 
- - - -
 
6
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
115
 
14.38
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
264
 
- - - -
 
7
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
120
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
269
 
- - - -
 
8
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
120
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
269
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
44
 
28
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
28
 
12
 
40
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
3
12
 
4
 
120
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
293
 
46
1/2
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
10
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
15
 
3.75
44
 
- - - -
 
1
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
25
 
2.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
30
 
7.50
74
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
35
 
3.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
85
 
21.20
139
 
- - - -
 
2
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
47
 
4.70
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
105
 
26.25
171
 
- - - -
 
3
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
65
 
6.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
214
 
- - - -
 
4
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
95
 
9.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
244
 
- - - -
 
5
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
120
 
12.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
269
 
- - - -
 
6
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
125
 
12.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
274
 
- - - -
 
7
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
140
 
14.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
289
 
- - - -
 
8
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
150
 
15.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
299
 
- - - -
 
Over 8
1
46
 
30
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
30
 
14
 
25
 
1.56
 
 
 
 
3
14
 
4
 
160
 
16.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
318
 
48
1/2
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
12
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
20
 
5.00
51
 
- - - -
 
1
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
35
 
2.92
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
35
 
8.75
89
 
. . . .
 
 
1-1/2
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
45
 
3.75
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
80
 
20.00
144
 
- - - -
 
2
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
60
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
110
 
27.50
189
 
- - - -
 
3
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
90
 
7.50
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
229
 
- - - -
 
4
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
120
 
10.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
269
 
- - - -
 
5
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
140
 
11.67
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
299
 
- - - -
 
6
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
160
 
13.33
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
309
 
- - - -
 
7
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
170
 
14.17
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
319
 
- - - -
 
8
1
48
 
32
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
32
 
16
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
16
 
4
 
170
 
14.17
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
319
 
50
1/2
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
14
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
25
 
6.25
58
 
- - - -
 
1
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
40
 
2.86
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
35
 
8.75
94
 
- - - -
 
1-1/2
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
55
 
3.93
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
90
 
22.50
164
 
- - - -
 
2
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
70
 
5.00
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
120
 
30.00
209
 
- - - -
 
3
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
100
 
7.15
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
249
 
- - - -
 
4
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
130
 
8.58
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
279
 
- - - -
 
5
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
160
 
11.42
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
309
 
- - - -
 
6
1
50
 
34
 
3
 
0.20
 
 
 
 
2
34
 
18
 
16
 
1.00
 
 
 
 
3
18
 
4
 
180
 
12.85
 
 
 
 
4
4
 
0
 
130
 
32.50
329
 
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[Rules (Part IV E), filed 12/28/62; § 2, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-125

Man locks.

(1) Use of man locks. Except when prevented by an emergency, compressed air workers shall pass only through the man lock when passing into or out of a compressed air area. Exception: Caissons having a working area less than 150 square feet may use a combination material and man lock.
(2) Size and capacity. The head room in man locks shall be not less than 6 feet and their cubical content shall provide at least 30 cubic feet of air space for each person. The capacity shall be based upon such minimum space per person and shall be posted at the entrance to the lock. The posted capacity shall not be exceeded except in case of an emergency.
(3) Equipment. Each man lock shall be equipped with the following:
(a) A recording pressure gage, fixed to the exterior of the lock on the atmospheric pressure side, shall be installed for showing the rate of decompression. The gage dial and chart shall be of such size that the amount of rise or fall in air pressure within 5 minutes will be readily discernible. The gage shall be protected by a locked box from interference or damage. This requirement will not be necessary when working at pressures of 13 pounds per square inch or less.
(b) A clock or clocks suitably placed so that the man lock attendant and persons in the man lock can readily ascertain the time.
(c) A recording pressure gage whose chart shall be of sufficient size to register a legible record of variations in pressure within the working chamber. This gage shall be readily accessible to the lock attendant.
(d) Pressure gages which will indicate to the man lock attendant the pressure in the man lock and the pressure in each working chamber to which the man lock affords direct or indirect access and to persons in the man lock the pressure in the man lock.
(e) Valves to enable the lock attendant to reduce or cut off the supply of compressed air into the man lock.
(f) Valves and pipes in connection with the air supply and exhaust which shall be so arranged that the lock and pressure can be controlled from within and without.
(g) Effective means of verbal intercommunication between the man lock attendant and (1) persons in the man lock, (2) persons in any working chamber and (3) the air compressor plant, and also some means to enable persons in the lock to convey visible or other nonverbal signals to the lock attendant.
(h) A glass bulls-eye in each end of the lock to permit observation of the occupants.
(4) Seating facilities. The seating facilities in man locks shall be so arranged as to provide a normal sitting posture without cramping. Seating space not less than 22 inches in width shall be provided per occupant. Exception: In caissons having a working area less than 150 square feet, portable seats shall be provided in the combination material and man lock.
(5) Lighting and heating. Every man lock shall be lighted by electricity. The lighting intensity shall be a minimum of 30 foot-candles as currently recommended for waiting rooms by the illuminating engineers society. It shall also be provided with a system of radiant (infra-red) heating using electricity, steam or hot water for heating the radiant surface. The radiant surface shall be so located and protected as to prevent thermal burns. The chamber shall be heated to a minimum dry bulb temperature of 70 degrees F.
(6) Ventilation. A minimum ventilation rate of 20 cubic feet per minute of standard air at the prevailing ambient pressure in the lock shall be provided for each occupant. In no event shall the carbon dioxide concentration be permitted to rise above 0.5 percent by volume.
(7) Record of decompression. Where the pressure in the working chamber is 13 pounds or more, a record of all persons passing into or out of the working chamber shall be kept by a lock attendant who shall be stationed at the low pressure side of the man lock. Such record shall show the period of stay in the working chamber and the length of time of each decompression. Such record shall be signed by the medical officer and shall be kept on the job subject to inspection by the director of the state department of labor and industries or his authorized representative.
(8) Automatic controls. Each man lock shall be equipped with a suitable automatic control which through taped programs or cams or similar apparatus shall automatically regulate compressions and decompressions. It shall also be equipped with a timing device and such manual control as will enable the lock attendant to override the automatic mechanism in an emergency.
[Rules (Part V A), filed 12/28/62; §§ 3 and 4, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-130

Special decompression chamber.

(1) General. The special low-pressure decompression chamber shall be provided for use when the nature of the work requires decompression times and procedures clearly within the scope of WAC 296-36-110(4).
(2) Size and capacity. The headroom in the special decompression chamber shall be not less than 7 feet and the cubical content shall provide at least 50 cubic feet of air space for each person. For each occupant there shall be provided 4 square feet of free walking area and 3 square feet of seating space exclusive of area required for lavatory and toilet facilities. The rated capacity shall be based on the stated minimum space per person and shall be posted at the chamber entrance. The posted capacity shall not be exceeded except in case of emergency.
(3) Equipment. Each special decompression chamber shall be equipped with the following:
(a) A clock or clocks suitably placed so that the attendant and the chamber occupants can readily ascertain the time;
(b) Pressure gages which will indicate to the attendant and to the chamber occupants the pressure in the chamber;
(c) Valves to enable the attendant to reduce or cut off the supply of compressed air into the chamber;
(d) Valves and pipes in connection with the air supply and exhaust arranged that the chamber pressure can be controlled from within and without;
(e) Effective means of verbal intercommunication between the attendant, occupants of the chamber and the air compressor plant;
(f) A glass bulls-eye at the entrance to permit observation of the chamber occupants.
(4) Seating facilities. Seating facilities in special decompression chambers shall be so arranged as to permit a normal sitting posture without cramping. Seating space not less than 18 inches by 24 inches in width shall be provided per occupant. Seat and back shall be padded or cushioned with a one-inch thickness of foam rubber or its equivalent.
(5) Lighting and heating. Lighting and heating shall comply with that for man locks, WAC 296-36-125(5).
(6) Ventilation. Ventilation shall comply with that for man locks, WAC 296-36-125(6).
(7) Record of decompression. Final stage decompression in the special chamber shall be part of the records required by WAC 296-36-125(7).
(8) Automatic controls. Special decompression chambers shall be equipped with automatic controls complying with WAC 296-36-125(8), for man locks.
(9) Sanitation. One toilet and one wash basin with hot and cold water in a screened or enclosed recess shall be provided for each 10 units of rated capacity as defined in WAC 296-36-130(2). An adequate supply of disposable towels, drinking water and disposable cups shall be provided. No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be permitted to accumulate and the chamber shall be kept clean.
(10) Location. Where practicable the special decompression chamber shall be situated adjacent to the man lock on the atmospheric pressure side of the bulkhead. When located adjacent to the man lock a passageway shall be provided connecting the special chamber with the man lock to permit workmen in the process of decompression to move from the man lock to the special chamber without a reduction in the ambient pressure from that designated for the initial pressure of the final stage of decompression. The passageway shall be so arranged as to not interfere with the normal operation of the man lock nor with the release of the occupants of the special chamber to atmospheric pressure upon the completion of the decompression procedure.
In event that the special chamber is located remote from the man lock a means of pressurized transport shall be provided to move the men from the man lock to the special chamber without a reduction in the ambient pressure from that designated for the initial pressure of the final stage of decompression.
Under unusual circumstances or in an emergency and only with the express permission of the appointed physician, decanting procedures may be used to facilitate the movement of men at atmospheric pressure from the man lock to the special decompression chamber for the final stage of decompression. recompression of the men must take place within five minutes in the special chamber. the medical lock shall not be used for the recompression.
(11) Design. The special decompression chamber and passageway or pressurized transport shall be designed for an operating pressure of 20 pounds per square inch gage pressure.
(12) Fire protection. All applicable provisions of WAC 296-36-190, fire prevention and firefighting shall apply to special decompression chambers.
[Rules (Part V B), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-132

Lock attendants.

(1) Whenever any workman is in a man lock or in a working chamber to which the man lock affords direct or indirect access, each working man lock shall be in the charge of a competent lock attendant who shall perform no other duties except to operate the lock and shall be employed the same number of hours as the other employees working in compressed air. The lock attendant shall control the maximum rate of compressions and shall perform all decompressions except where such compressions and decompressions are automatically regulated, but in such case the lock attendant shall have means to determine the pressures within the lock and working chamber at any time, and shall have also a timing device and such manual controls as will enable him to override the automatic mechanism in an emergency.
(2) Subject to the overall control by the lock attendant of the admission of compressed air into the lock, he may, if so authorized by the appointed physician, allocate to a competent person who is to be compressed in the lock, the duty to regulate from inside the lock the admission of compressed air, and duty to communicate to the lock attendant any complaint of discomfort by a workman in the lock and any report by that workman that the discomfort has ceased.
(3) Man lock attendants shall be under the direct supervision, control, discipline and training of the appointed physician and each man lock attendant shall be the holder of an unexpired first-aid certificate from the Red Cross, U.S. Bureau of Mines, or the Department of Labor and Industries. Lock attendants shall receive their wage payments directly from the head office of the employer and shall not be carried on or subject to the payroll procedures of the local office. A lock attendant shall not be relieved of his duties or discharged without consulting the appointed physician nor without the physician's assent.
[Rules (Part VI), filed 12/28/62; § 4, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-135

Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Gage tender.

There shall at all times be a thoroughly experienced competent and reliable person on duty at the air control valves as a gage tender who shall regulate the pressure in the working areas. No gage tender shall be on duty more than 8 hours in any 24. During tunneling operations, one gage tender may regulate the pressure in not more than two headings provided that the gages and controls are all in one location. In caisson work there shall be a gage tender for each caisson.
[Rules (Part VII A), filed 12/28/62; Rule 303, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-140

Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Pressure monitoring.

(1) High pressure. Every compressed air line used to maintain pressure in working areas shall have a pressure gage attached at a point in the immediate vicinity of the control valves to show the pressure on the high pressure side of the control valves. Such gages shall be so located and illuminated as to be easily read by the operator and shall be of such size and so graduated as to show clearly a change in pressure of one pound.
(2) Back pressure. Back pressure gages to show the pressure in the working areas shall be located on the low pressure side of the bulkhead, in the superintendent's office, at the air control valves and in the power house. Back pressure gages shall be maintained in accurate working order and shall be tested at least once every 24 hours and a record shall be kept of each such test. In addition to the foregoing back pressure gages, a continuous recording back pressure gage shall be installed to provide a record of variations and pressure in the working chamber. The record shall be kept in the superintendent's office and be available for inspection by the director of the state department of labor and industries. Exception: Caissons having a net working area less than 150 square feet shall have back pressure gages installed on the low pressure side of the caisson and at the air control valves.
[Rules (Part VII B), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-145

Regulation of pressure and air quality in working areas—Air quality in working areas.

(1) Ventilation. An automatic air quality monitoring system acceptable to the director, department of labor and industries, shall be installed in the pressurized working chamber and shall at all times be maintained in proper working condition. The system shall provide continuous sampling and monitoring of the air and shall indicate by visual and audible alarm the presence of dangerous air contaminants in excess of the following:
Carbon monoxide
0.01%
100 ppm
Carbon dioxide
0.50%
5000 ppm
Oxides of nitrogen
0.0005%
5 ppm
Methane
0.25%
2500 ppm
Hydrogen sulphide
0.002%
20 ppm
The director in his discretion may change these concentrations to conform with good practices as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
The system shall also indicate and give alarm at any time the oxygen content is less than 19.5 percent.
The system shall be so arranged that the visual and audible alarm will give warning in the working chamber and at the lock tender's station at the low pressure side of the locks.
In addition to the specific requirements contained in these standards of safety chapter 296-62 WAC shall apply for rock dust and ventilation.
(2) Protection against atmospheric containments: The requirements of chapters 296-62 and 296-155 WAC, Part Q shall apply.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-36-145, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; Rules (Part VII C), filed 12/28/62; § 25, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-150

Air supply.

(1) Clean air. Compressed air supplied to working area shall not contain quantities of harmful or offensive air contaminants exceeding the limits set forth hereinbefore.
(2) Amount. Nor less than 30 cubic feet per minute per man, measured at the prevailing working chamber pressure, of outside air shall be supplied to the working areas under pressure.
(3) Supply lines. In addition to the compressed air lines supplying working areas under pressure, there shall be a second such line of the same size and similarly equipped which shall be maintained ready for immediate use between the working chamber side of the bulkhead and the compressed air source in case of failure of the first line.
(4) Point of discharge. The point of discharge of the supply line in use shall be as close to the working face as is practicable and the discharge end of both supply lines shall be provided with a check valve.
(5) Air outlet or exhaust line. Air outlet lines from areas under pressure shall be properly located so that injurious gases may be promptly removed. Such lines shall be provided with suitable valves.
(6) Air tools. The high pressure air supplied for air-operated tools, equipment and appliances shall comply with the quality requirements contained in WAC 296-36-145, Air quality in working areas.
[Rules (Part VIII), filed 12/28/62; Rule 2009, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-155

Compressor plant.

(1) Capacity. The capacity, arrangement and number of compressors shall be sufficient to maintain the necessary pressure without overloading the equipment and to assure maintenance of such pressure in the working chamber during periods of breakdown or other emergency. The compressor installation shall be capable of delivering not less than 50 cubic feet per minute of ventilating air for each man in the working chamber at the prevailing working chamber pressure. Additional stand-by compressor units shall be installed in accordance with the following tabulation:
Normal
installation
at 50
C.F./Man/Min.
units
Stand-by
units
Total
units
Percent
rated total
capacity of
stand-by
units
divided by
normal units
1
1
2
100
 
2
2
4
100
 
3
2
5
67
 
4
2
6
50
 
5
2
7
40
 
(2) Sources of power. Where the power is generated on the job there shall be a sufficient number of power units to maintain the necessary compressor operation.
(3) Power feeders. Where power is obtained from a public utility there shall be at least two feeders to the compressor plant. Each feeder shall have a capacity sufficient to carry the entire load and normal overload. The feeders shall run over separate routes in such a way that a breakdown of one feeder will not cause any interruption of power from the other feeder. Each feeder or service extension shall enter the compressor plant through a separate and independent opening.
(4) Bus bar connections. There shall be duplicate feeder bus bars at the compressor plant. Feeder connections to the bus bar shall be such that either feeder can feed to each bus bar separately or simultaneously to both bus bars. The electrical connections from the bus bars to the compressor shall be arranged in such a way as to insure continuous operation of the compressor plant, in spite of any breakdown of an individual feeder, bus bar or compressor unit.
(5) Alternate sources of power. Any combination of power either generated at the job or generated off the job as set forth above, and which complies with the above requirements is permitted.
(6) Maintenance. All equipment including reserve sources of power and reserve compressor equipment used to maintain pressure in working areas shall at all times be maintained in good repair and ready for use. All reserve equipment shall be periodically inspected and shall be operated for a period of one hour or more at least once in every week, except where there is danger of sudden flooding, in which case reserve equipment shall be operated at least one hour in every 24 hours. An ample supply of spare parts shall be kept on hand.
[Rules (Part IX), filed 12/28/62; § 12, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-160

Personnel facilities.

(1) General. There shall be provided on every job a change house which shall have a dressing room and separate spaces for each of the following: drying clothes, shower baths, toilet facilities and rest room with seating facilities and tables.
(2) Maintenance. The change house shall be kept clean throughout.
(3) Dressing room. The dressing room shall be provided with benches and a full length metal or other approved noncombustible locker with facilities for locking for each compressed air worker.
(4) Clothes drying. Facilities for drying clothing shall be installed and sufficient heat shall be provided to dry the clothing within 12 hours.
(5) Toilet facilities. One toilet and one urinal shall be provided for every 8 men or part thereof employed on each shift.
(6) Shower baths. Shower baths with hot and cold water shall be installed in the change house in sufficient number to provide one unit for every 8 men coming off shift.
(7) Wash basins. At least one wash basin with hot and cold running water or equivalent facilities at wash fountains shall be provided for every 8 men coming off shift.
(8) Temperature. A minimum temperature of 72 degrees F. shall be maintained in the dressing room, wash room and bathroom.
(9) Coffee. A sufficient supply of hot coffee, cream, milk and sugar shall be supplied to men working in compressed air at the termination of shifts and during rest periods. Coffee shall be heated by means other than direct steam. Coffee containers shall be kept clean and covered. Unless drinking cups are of the single service type, individual cups shall be sterilized after each use.
(10) Eating space underground.
(a) General. Suitable eating space shall be provided in the working chamber in the event that established working periods are of sufficient length to normally include a meal time interval. Exception: This requirement is not applicable to caisson work.
(b) Facilities.
(i) Space requirements. The space provided shall have a minimum head room of 6 feet 6 inches and a minimum area of 6 square feet shall be provided per person occupying the space at any one time.
The area shall be dry and clean, shall be lighted, heated and ventilated in accordance with WAC 296-36-125 (5) and (6), man locks.
(ii) Equipment. The space shall be equipped with tables and comfortable seating facilities providing seating space not less than 22 inches in width per occupant; disposable towels; washing facilities with hot and cold water or in lieu thereof acceptable dry-cleansing tissues; and space outside the immediate eating area for the removal and temporary storage of protective clothing. Portable equipment, acceptable to the supervisor of safety, department of labor and industries, which may be moved into the working chamber and removed therefrom, may be provided.
[Rules (Part X), filed 12/28/62; § 21, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-165

Sanitation below ground.

(1) Toilet facilities. At least one approved chemical toilet shall be provided in the working chamber. Such facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary condition and shall be used by the workers.
(2) Housekeeping. No refuse or discarded material of any kind shall be permitted to accumulate underground. The man lock shall be kept clean.
(3) Drinking water. An ample supply of clean and potable drinking water shall at all times be available in working areas. Where water is supplied in containers it shall be kept covered. The use of common drinking cups is prohibited.
[Rules (Part XI), filed 12/28/62; § 21, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-170

Stairs and ladders.

The requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC Parts C-1 and J shall apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-36-170, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-36-170, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; Rules (Part XII), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-175

Lighting and power equipment.

(1) All lighting underground shall be by electricity.
(a) Lighting shall comply with chapter 296-155 WAC.
(b) Power equipment shall comply with chapter 296-155 WAC.
(2) Emergency lighting. The lighting circuits shall be connected to two independent sources of power supply. In addition to the lighting circuit, adequate and sufficient portable electric emergency lights shall be provided and maintained for immediate use. These shall be readily accessible to all employees working underground.
(3) Lamp sockets. The exterior of all lamp sockets shall be of nonmetallic material and all sockets shall be of the weatherproof type.
(4) Location of lamps. Lamps shall be so placed that they cannot come into contact with combustible materials and so that a clear space is provided all around.
(5) Lamp guards. All lamps shall be protected with wire cage guards.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-36-175, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; Rules (Part XIII), filed 12/28/62; § 6, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-180

Signals and means of communication.

(1) Effective and reliable signaling devices shall be maintained at all times to give instant communication between the bottom and top of shaft, and where considered necessary by the safety division, dual independent signal systems shall be installed.
(2) Special care shall be taken to keep the signaling apparatus in good order, and all proper precautions shall be taken to prevent electric signal and telephone wires from coming into contact with other electric conductors, whether insulated or not.
(3) Where it is necessary to use signals by means of bell or otherwise for hoisting or lowering, the following code shall be used:
Any code of signals used shall be printed and copies thereof shall be kept posted in a conspicuous place near entrances to work places and in such other places as may be necessary to bring them to the attention of all persons concerned.
 
1 bell:
Stop immediately if in motion.
 
2 bells:
Lower.
 
3-1 bells:
Hoisting men, run slowly.
 
3-2 bells:
Lowering men.
 
1-1 bells:
To hoist muck.
 
2-1-2 bells:
Release cage, skip, or bucket.
 
4 slow bells:
Blasting signal. (This is a caution signal and if the hoist operator is prepared to accept it he must acknowledge it by raising cage, skip or bucket a few feet then lowering it again. After accepting this signal, hoist operator must be prepared to hoist men away from blast as soon as signal 3-1 bells are given and must accept no other signal in the meantime.)
 
5 bells:
Water on or off.
 
6 bells:
Air on or off.
 
9 bells:
Danger signal (fire, accident or other danger), followed by station signal, calls cage, skip, or bucket to that station. This signal takes precedence over all others except an accepted blasting signal.
(4) Where tunnels are driven from shafts more than two hundred fifty feet deep, a telephone system shall be established and maintained, communicating with the surface at each such shaft, and with a station or stations readily and quickly accessible to the men at the working level.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 90-17-051 (Order 90-10), § 296-36-180, filed 8/13/90, effective 9/24/90; Rules (Part XIV), filed 12/28/62.]



PDF296-36-185

Explosives—Blasting.

(1) Storage and supply. Explosives including detonators shall not be stored or kept underground. The supply for each blast shall be taken directly from above ground to the face and immediately loaded. All explosives remaining after loading a round shall be removed to the magazine before the leading wires are connected.
(2) Explosives in air locks. While explosives are being locked through a tunnel bulkhead, the detonators and explosives shall be placed at the opposite ends of the lock and no person, other than the lock tender and those persons necessary for carrying, shall be permitted in the lock. No other material or equipment shall be locked through with explosives.
Explosives and detonators shall be taken separately into caissons.
(3) Carrying containers. Explosives other than detonators shall be conveyed in a suitable covered wooden box painted red and provided with handles. Detonators shall be conveyed in a separate covered wooden box, painted red with a one-inch yellow stripe running horizontally entirely around the box. The box shall be provided with handles.
(4) Blaster. The blaster shall be a person designated by the superintendent and shall be in charge of all operations connected with preparations for blasting and shall fire all shots.
(5) Duties of the blaster. Before removing any explosives from the carrying containers, the blaster shall verify
(a) That the blasting switch is in "off" position and that its box is locked;
(b) That the "gap" in the blasting circuit is open; (Note: A gap of at least 5 feet on the incoming side of the switch, except during the firing operation, when connections at such gap are to be made by means of plugs, is required.)
(c) That the heading gang has been withdrawn to a safe distance or to a safe shelter, except such men from the gang as the blaster may direct to remain with him to assist in loading under his directions; and
(d) That all light and power circuits have been disconnected at a point not less than 100 feet from the place to be blasted. The blaster shall direct the loading of all holes and the making of the necessary connections in the blasting circuit; he shall sound a warning signal distinctly audible in any part of the working chamber, shield or any drift ahead of the shield where any person remaining would be exposed to injury from the blast.
(6) Vacating blasting area. All persons shall promptly vacate the blasting area when so directed by the blaster. When the blaster is satisfied that all persons have vacated the blasting area, he, alone, shall unlock the box that contains the blasting switch and fire the blast.
(7) Return to blasting area. No person shall return to the blasting area until the air in such area has been cleared of injurious concentrations of toxic fumes. The blaster shall be the first to return to the heading. He shall examine the effects of the blast and investigate the matter of possible misfires and he, alone, shall give the signal for the return of the workmen to the heading and for the restoration of light and power in the blasted area.
(8) Hand lamps and cap lamps. Electric hand lamps and cap lamps used by the blaster or his helpers or by any other person in the working chamber during the blasting operation shall be approved.
(9) Blasting circuits. All circuits used for blasting shall be ungrounded circuits. Damaged leading wires shall not be used.
[Rules (Part XV), filed 12/28/62; § 14, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-190

Fire prevention and firefighting.

(1) General. Every building and every flammable structure above ground and all places underground shall be within easy range of firefighting equipment, which shall at all times be maintained in proper working conditions and ready for use.
(2) Smoking. No person shall smoke or carry lighted smoking materials in compressed air. No matches, mechanical or chemical igniters will be permitted in the working chamber except those necessary for welding or flame cutting operations.
(3) Welding or flame cutting. While welding or flame cutting is being done in compressed air, a watchman with a fire hose or approved extinguisher shall stand by until such operation is completed. Acetylene shall not be used in compressed air at acetylene pressure exceeding 15 pounds per square inch gage, or 30 pounds per square inch absolute.
(4) Fire hose. Fire hose shall be at least 1-1/2 inches in nominal diameter; the water pressure shall at all times be adequate for efficient operation of the type of nozzle used; and the water supply shall be such as to insure an uninterrupted flow. Fire hose when not in use shall be so located or guarded to prevent injury thereto.
Every power house, compressor house and every building housing ventilating equipment shall be provided with at least one hose connection in the water line with the fire hose connected thereto. A fire hose shall be maintained within easy reach of structures of wood over or near shafts.
(5) Shafts and caissons. Every shaft and every caisson containing flammable material of any kind, either above or below ground, shall be provided with a water line and a fire hose connected thereto, so arranged that all points of the shaft or caisson are within easy reach of the hose stream.
(6) Tunnels. Every tunnel shall be provided with a water line extending into the working chamber and to within 100 feet of the working face. Such lines shall have hose outlets with 100 feet of fire hose properly attached and maintained as follows: One at the working face, one immediately inside of the bulkhead of the working chamber, and one immediately outside such bulkhead. In addition, hose outlets shall be provided at 200-foot intervals throughout the length of the tunnel and 100 feet of fire hose shall be attached to the outlet nearest to any location where flammable material is being kept or stored or where any flame is being used.
(7) Fire extinguishers. In addition to required fire hose protection, on every floor of every building used in connection with compressed air work, there shall be provided at least one extinguisher of adequate size approved for the class of hazard involved, except that extinguishers containing carbon tetrachloride or methyl bromide shall not be used. Extinguishers shall be so located as to be readily available and protected from damage.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-36-190, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01; Rules (Part XVI), filed 12/28/62; § 7, filed 3/23/60.]



PDF296-36-195

Special provisions for tunnels.

(1) Bulkheads. The bulkheads separating the working chamber from areas of lower pressure shall be of sufficient strength to withstand safely the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected. Where there is a possibility of rapid flooding of the working chamber, such as might be present in subaqueous tunnels, the bulkhead shall be located sufficiently close to the face or shield to permit escape of the workers in case of an emergency. But in no case where there is such possibility shall such distance be more than 300 feet.
(2) Safety curtain or screens. Where danger of a blow or an in-rush of water exists in tunnels 12 feet or more in clear height, and the elevation of the top of the lining at the face and of the completed tunnel back to the emergency lock are such that a safety curtain will afford protection to the workman, a safety curtain shall be provided. It shall be located where it will afford the maximum of protection in case of an emergency but not impracticably close to the face.
Safety curtains shall be of incombustible material and shall be installed in the crown of the tunnel. They shall provide an airtight seal with the tunnel lining and shall be properly reinforced and braced as may be necessary. Curtains or screens shall be installed at right angles to the axis of the tunnel with the bottom edge horizontal. In tunnels up to and including 24 feet in inside clear height, the safety curtain shall extend down to the center line of the tunnel. In tunnels over 24 feet inside clear height, it shall extend at least 12 feet below the inside clearance line of the roof of the tunnel.
(3) Walkways. In tunnels 16 feet or more in diameter, containing safety curtains or screens, hanging walkways shall be provided from the face to the man lock and shall be installed as high in the tunnel as is practicable. Such walkway shall be installed above the tunnel floor and shall have at least 6 feet of head room above the walkway. A railing 42 inches high and a toe board shall be securely installed throughout the length of walkways on open sides. In areas under pressure, the walkways, stairways, and ladders including railings shall be of incombustible material.
(4) Maintenance of walkways. Walkways and the stairs or ladders leading thereto shall be at all times maintained clear, in good repair, and in a condition to carry safely the loads to which they may be subjected.
(5) Ramps. Walkways shall be provided with ramps under safety screens. Such ramps shall be provided with cleats.
(6) Man lock and material lock. Every tunnel shall have at least two locks in proper working condition, one of which shall be used as a material and equipment lock and the other used exclusively as a man lock.
(7) Emergency man lock. In subaqueous tunnels where space permits, there shall be in addition to the man lock and the material lock, an emergency man lock which shall be large enough to hold an entire heading shift and which shall be kept open toward the face and maintained ready for use at all times.
(8) Location of locks. Man locks and emergency locks shall be located as high in the tunnel as space will permit but the emergency lock shall be located in the crown of the tunnel.
(9) Track safeties and brakes. An automatic stop block or derailing device shall be provided at the top of every slope or incline greater than 3 percent. In addition, such a device shall be installed at a point not less than 150 feet nor more than 200 feet upgrade from any point where runaway cars may cause damage to the shield or air lock. A holding device shall be provided for cars used on inclines. Such device shall be set in the ho