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173-303-630  <<  173-303-640 >>   173-303-645

PDFWAC 173-303-640

Tank systems.

(1) Applicability.
(a) The regulations in WAC 173-303-640 apply to owners and operators of facilities that use tank systems to treat or store dangerous waste, except as (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection provides otherwise.
(b) Tank systems that are used to store or treat dangerous waste which contain no free liquids and are situated inside a building with an impermeable floor are exempted from the requirements in subsection (4) of this section. To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in the stored/treated waste, the Paint Filter Liquids Test Method 9095B described in "Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Wastes, Physical/Chemical Methods" EPA Publication SW-846 as incorporated by reference at WAC 173-303-110 (3)(a) must be used.
(c) Tank systems, including sumps, as defined in WAC 173-303-040, that serve as part of a secondary containment system to collect or contain releases of dangerous wastes are exempted from the requirements in subsection (4)(a) of this section.
(d) Tanks, sumps, and other such collection devices or systems used in conjunction with drip pads, as defined in WAC 173-303-040 and regulated under WAC 173-303-675, must meet the requirements of this section.
(2) Assessment of existing tank system's integrity.
(a) For each existing tank system, the owner or operator must determine that the tank system is not leaking or is fit for use. Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, the owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment reviewed and certified by an independent, qualified registered professional engineer, in accordance with WAC 173-303-810 (13)(a), that attests to the tank system's integrity by January 12, 1988, for underground tanks that do not meet the requirements of subsection (4) of this section and that cannot be entered for inspection, or by January 12, 1990, for all other tank systems.
(b) Tank systems that store or treat materials that become dangerous wastes subsequent to January 12, 1989, must conduct this assessment within twelve months after the date that the waste becomes a dangerous waste.
(c) This assessment must determine that the tank system is adequately designed and has sufficient structural strength and compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated, to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. At a minimum, this assessment must consider the following:
(i) Design standard(s), if available, according to which the tank system was constructed;
(ii) Dangerous characteristics of the waste(s) that have been and will be handled;
(iii) Existing corrosion protection measures;
(iv) Documented age of the tank system, if available (otherwise, an estimate of the age); and
(v) Results of a leak test, internal inspection, or other tank system integrity examination such that:
(A) For nonenterable underground tanks, the assessment must include a leak test that is capable of taking into account the effects of temperature variations, tank end deflection, vapor pockets, and high water table effects; and
(B) For other than nonenterable underground tanks and for ancillary equipment, this assessment must include either a leak test, as described above, or other integrity examination, that is certified by an independent, qualified, registered professional engineer, in accordance with WAC 173-303-810 (13)(a), that addresses cracks, leaks, corrosion, and erosion.
Note:
Three publications may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in conducting other than a leak test: Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction, API Standard 653, Fourth Edition, April 2009; Guidance for Assessing and Certifying Tank Systems that Store and Treat Dangerous Waste, Ecology Publication No. 94-114; and Steel Tank Institute publication #SP001-05 Standard for the Inspection of Aboveground Storage Tanks 5th Edition, revised September 2011.
(d) If, as a result of the assessment conducted in accordance with (a) of this subsection, a tank system is found to be leaking or unfit for use, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.
(e) The owner or operator must develop a schedule for conducting integrity assessments over the life of the tank to ensure that the tank retains its structural integrity and will not collapse, rupture, or fail. The schedule must be based on the results of past integrity assessments, age of the tank system, materials of construction, characteristics of the waste, and any other relevant factors.
(3) Design and installation of new tank systems or components.
(a) Owners or operators of new tank systems or components must obtain (and for facilities that are pursuing or have obtained a final status permit, submit to the department, at time of submittal of Part B information) a written assessment, reviewed and certified by an independent, qualified registered professional engineer, in accordance with WAC 173-303-810 (13)(a), attesting that the tank system has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing and treating of dangerous waste. The assessment must show that the foundation, structural support, seams, connections, and pressure controls (if applicable) are adequately designed and that the tank system has sufficient structural strength, compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated, and corrosion protection to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. This assessment (which will be used by the department to review and approve or disapprove the acceptability of the tank system design at facilities which are pursuing or have obtained a final status permit) must include, at a minimum, the following information:
(i) Design standard(s) according to which tank system(s) are constructed;
(ii) Dangerous characteristics of the waste(s) to be handled;
(iii) For new tank systems or components in which the external shell of a metal tank or any external metal component of the tank system will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert of:
(A) Factors affecting the potential for corrosion, including but not limited to:
(I) Soil moisture content;
(II) Soil pH;
(III) Soil sulfides level;
(IV) Soil resistivity;
(V) Structure to soil potential;
(VI) Influence of nearby underground metal structures (e.g., piping);
(VII) Existence of stray electric current;
(VIII) Existing corrosion-protection measures (e.g., coating, cathodic protection); and
(B) The type and degree of external corrosion protection that are needed to ensure the integrity of the tank system during the use of the tank system or component, consisting of one or more of the following:
(I) Corrosion-resistant materials of construction such as special alloys, fiberglass reinforced plastic, etc.;
(II) Corrosion-resistant coating (such as epoxy, fiberglass, etc.,) with cathodic protection (e.g., impressed current or sacrificial anodes); and
(III) Electrical isolation devices such as insulating joints, flanges, etc.
Note:
The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, "Recommended Practice (RP-02-85)—Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems," and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, "Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems," may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in providing corrosion protection for tank systems.
(iv) For underground tank system components that are likely to be adversely affected by vehicular traffic, a determination of design or operational measures that will protect the tank system against potential damage; and
(v) Design considerations to ensure that:
(A) Tank foundations will maintain the load of a full tank;
(B) Tank systems will be anchored to prevent flotation or dislodgment where the tank system is either placed in a saturated zone, or is located less than five hundred feet from a fault which has had displacement in Holocene times; and
(C) Tank systems will withstand the effects of frost heave.
(b) The owner or operator must develop a schedule for conducting integrity assessments over the life of the tank to ensure that the tank retains its structural integrity and will not collapse, rupture or fail. The schedule must be based on the results of past integrity assessments, age of the tank system, materials of construction, characteristics of the waste, and any other relevant factors.
(c) The owner or operator of a new tank system must ensure that proper handling procedures are adhered to in order to prevent damage to the system during installation. Prior to covering, enclosing, or placing a new tank system or component in use, an independent, qualified installation inspector or an independent, qualified, registered professional engineer, either of whom is trained and experienced in the proper installation of tank systems or components, must inspect the system for the presence of any of the following items:
(i) Weld breaks;
(ii) Punctures;
(iii) Scrapes of protective coatings;
(iv) Cracks;
(v) Corrosion;
(vi) Other structural damage or inadequate construction/installation.
All discrepancies must be remedied before the tank system is covered, enclosed, or placed in use.
(d) New tank systems or components that are placed underground and that are backfilled must be provided with a backfill material that is a noncorrosive, porous, homogeneous substance and that is installed so that the backfill is placed completely around the tank and compacted to ensure that the tank and piping are fully and uniformly supported.
(e) All new tanks and ancillary equipment must be tested for tightness prior to being covered, enclosed, or placed in use. If a tank system is found not to be tight, all repairs necessary to remedy the leak(s) in the system must be performed prior to the tank system being covered, enclosed, or placed into use.
(f) Ancillary equipment must be supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stress due to settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.
Note:
The piping system installation procedures described in American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1615 (November 1979), "Installation of Underground Petroleum Storage Systems," or ANSI Standard B31.3, "Petroleum Refinery Piping," and ANSI Standard B31.4 "Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping System," may be used, where applicable, as guidelines for proper installation of piping systems.
(g) The owner or operator must provide the type and degree of corrosion protection recommended by an independent corrosion expert, based on the information provided under (a)(iii) of this subsection, or other corrosion protection if the department believes other corrosion protection is necessary to ensure the integrity of the tank system during use of the tank system. The installation of a corrosion protection system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper installation.
(h) The owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility written statements by those persons required to certify the design of the tank system and supervise the installation of the tank system in accordance with the requirements of (b) through (g) of this subsection, that attest that the tank system was properly designed and installed and that repairs, pursuant to (c) and (e) of this subsection, were performed. These written statements must also include the certification statement as required in WAC 173-303-810 (13)(a).
(4) Containment and detection of releases.
(a) In order to prevent the release of dangerous waste or dangerous constituents to the environment, secondary containment that meets the requirements of this subsection must be provided (except as provided in (f) and (g) of this subsection):
(i) For all new and existing tank systems or components, prior to their being put into service.
(ii) For tank systems that store or treat materials that become dangerous wastes, within two years of the dangerous waste listing, or when the tank system has reached fifteen years of age, whichever comes later.
(b) Secondary containment systems must be:
(i) Designed, installed, and operated to prevent any migration of wastes or accumulated liquid out of the system to the soil, groundwater, or surface water at any time during the use of the tank system; and
(ii) Capable of detecting and collecting releases and accumulated liquids until the collected material is removed.
(c) To meet the requirements of (b) of this subsection, secondary containment systems must be at a minimum:
(i) Constructed of or lined with materials that are compatible with the waste(s) to be placed in the tank system and must have sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure owing to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrological forces), physical contact with the waste to which it is exposed, climatic conditions, stress of installation, and the stress of daily operations (including stresses from nearby vehicular traffic);
(ii) Placed on a foundation or base capable of providing support to the secondary containment system, resistance to pressure gradients above and below the system, and capable of preventing failure due to settlement, compression, or uplift;
(iii) Provided with a leak-detection system that is designed and operated so that it will detect the failure of either the primary or secondary containment structure or the presence of any release of dangerous waste or accumulated liquid in the secondary containment system within twenty-four hours, or at the earliest practicable time if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the department that existing detection technologies or site conditions will not allow detection of a release within twenty-four hours; and
(iv) Sloped or otherwise designed or operated to drain and remove liquids resulting from leaks, spills, or precipitation. Spilled or leaked waste and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the secondary containment system within twenty-four hours, or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment, if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the department that removal of the released waste or accumulated precipitation cannot be accomplished within twenty-four hours.
Note:
If the collected material is a dangerous waste under WAC 173-303-070, it is subject to management as a dangerous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of WAC 173-303-170 through 173-303-400 and WAC 173-303-600 through 173-303-695. If the collected material is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of sections 301, 304, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If discharged to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW), it is subject to the requirements of section 307 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If the collected material is released to the environment, it may be subject to the reporting requirements of 40 C.F.R. Part 302.
(d) Secondary containment for tanks must include one or more of the following devices:
(i) A liner (external to the tank);
(ii) A vault;
(iii) A double-walled tank; or
(iv) An equivalent device as approved by the department.
(e) In addition to the requirements of (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection, secondary containment systems must satisfy the following requirements:
(i) External liner systems must be:
(A) Designed or operated to contain one hundred percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;
(B) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a twenty-five-year, twenty-four-hour rainfall event.
(C) Free of cracks or gaps; and
(D) Designed and installed to surround the tank completely and to cover all surrounding earth likely to come into contact with the waste if the waste is released from the tank(s) (i.e., capable of preventing lateral as well as vertical migration of the waste).
(ii) Vault systems must be:
(A) Designed or operated to contain one hundred percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;
(B) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a twenty-five-year, twenty-four-hour rainfall event;
(C) Constructed with chemical-resistant water stops in place at all joints (if any);
(D) Provided with an impermeable interior coating or lining that is compatible with the stored waste and that will prevent migration of waste into the concrete;
(E) Provided with a means to protect against the formation of and ignition of vapors within the vault, if the waste being stored or treated:
(I) Meets the definition of ignitable waste under WAC 173-303-090(5); or
(II) Meets the definition of reactive waste under WAC 173-303-090(7), and may form an ignitable or explosive vapor; and
(F) Provided with an exterior moisture barrier or be otherwise designed or operated to prevent migration of moisture into the vault if the vault is subject to hydraulic pressure.
(iii) Double-walled tanks must be:
(A) Designed as an integral structure (i.e., an inner tank completely enveloped within an outer shell) so that any release from the inner tank is contained by the outer shell;
(B) Protected, if constructed of metal, from both corrosion of the primary tank interior and of the external surface of the outer shell; and
(C) Provided with a built-in continuous leak detection system capable of detecting a release within twenty-four hours, or at the earliest practicable time, if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the department, and the department concludes, that the existing detection technology or site conditions would not allow detection of a release within twenty-four hours.
Note:
The provisions outlined in the Steel Tank Institute's (STI) "Standard for Dual Wall Underground Steel Storage Tanks" may be used as guidelines for aspects of the design of underground steel double-walled tanks.
(f) Ancillary equipment must be provided with secondary containment (e.g., trench, jacketing, double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of (b) and (c) of this subsection except for:
(i) Aboveground piping (exclusive of flanges, joints, valves, and other connections) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;
(ii) Welded flanges, welded joints, and welded connections, that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;
(iii) Sealless or magnetic coupling pumps and sealless valves, that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis; and
(iv) Pressurized aboveground piping systems with automatic shutoff devices (e.g., excess flow check valves, flow metering shutdown devices, loss of pressure actuated shutoff devices) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis.
(g) The owner or operator may obtain a variance from the requirements of this subsection if the department finds, as a result of a demonstration by the owner or operator that alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any dangerous waste or dangerous constituents into the groundwater, or surface water at least as effectively as secondary containment during the active life of the tank system or that in the event of a release that does migrate to groundwater or surface water, no substantial present or potential hazard will be posed to human health or the environment. New underground tank systems may not, per a demonstration in accordance with (g)(ii) of this subsection, be exempted from the secondary containment requirements of this section.
(i) In deciding whether to grant a variance based on a demonstration of equivalent protection of groundwater and surface water, the department will consider:
(A) The nature and quantity of the wastes;
(B) The proposed alternate design and operation;
(C) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the thickness of soils present between the tank system and groundwater; and
(D) All other factors that would influence the quality and mobility of the dangerous constituents and the potential for them to migrate to groundwater or surface water.
(ii) In deciding whether to grant a variance based on a demonstration of no substantial present or potential hazard, the department will consider:
(A) The potential adverse effects on groundwater, surface water, and land quality taking into account:
(I) The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the tank system, including its potential for migration;
(II) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;
(III) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents;
(IV) The potential for damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents; and
(V) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects.
(B) The potential adverse effects of a release on groundwater quality, taking into account:
(I) The quantity and quality of groundwater and the direction of groundwater flow;
(II) The proximity and withdrawal rates of groundwater users;
(III) The current and future uses of groundwater in the area; and
(IV) The existing quality of groundwater, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the groundwater quality.
(C) The potential adverse effects of a release on surface water quality, taking into account:
(I) The quantity and quality of groundwater and the direction of groundwater flow;
(II) The patterns of rainfall in the region;
(III) The proximity of the tank system to surface waters;
(IV) The current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters; and
(V) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface-water quality.
(D) The potential adverse effects of a release on the land surrounding the tank system, taking into account:
(I) The patterns of rainfall in the region; and
(II) The current and future uses of the surrounding land.
(iii) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of (g)(i) of this subsection, at which a release of dangerous waste has occurred from the primary tank system but has not migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:
(A) Comply with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section, except subsection (7)(d) of this section; and
(B) Decontaminate or remove contaminated soil to the extent necessary to:
(I) Enable the tank system for which the variance was granted to resume operation with the capability for the detection of releases at least equivalent to the capability it had prior to the release; and
(II) Prevent the migration of dangerous waste or dangerous constituents to groundwater or surface water.
(C) If contaminated soil cannot be removed or decontaminated in accordance with (g)(iii)(B) of this subsection, comply with the requirements of subsection (8) of this section.
(iv) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of (g)(i) of this subsection, at which a release of dangerous waste has occurred from the primary tank system and has migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:
(A) Comply with the requirements of subsection (7)(a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section; and
(B) Prevent the migration of dangerous waste or dangerous constituents to groundwater or surface water, if possible, and decontaminate or remove contaminated soil. If contaminated soil cannot be decontaminated or removed or if groundwater has been contaminated, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of subsection (8)(b) of this section; and
(C) If repairing, replacing, or reinstalling the tank system, provide secondary containment in accordance with the requirements of (a) through (f) of this subsection or reapply for a variance from secondary containment and meet the requirements for new tank systems in subsection (3) of this section if the tank system is replaced. The owner or operator must comply with these requirements even if contaminated soil can be decontaminated or removed and groundwater or surface water has not been contaminated.
(h) The following procedures must be followed in order to request a variance from secondary containment:
(i) The department must be notified in writing by the owner or operator that they intend to conduct and submit a demonstration for a variance from secondary containment as allowed in (g) of this subsection according to the following schedule:
(A) For existing tank systems, at least twenty-four months prior to the date that secondary containment must be provided in accordance with (a) of this subsection.
(B) For new tank systems, at least thirty days prior to entering into a contract for installation.
(ii) As part of the notification, the owner or operator must also submit to the department a description of the steps necessary to conduct the demonstration and a timetable for completing each of the steps. The demonstration must address each of the factors listed in (g)(i) or (ii) of this subsection;
(iii) The demonstration for a variance must be completed within one hundred eighty days after notifying the department of an intent to conduct the demonstration; and
(iv) If a variance is granted under this subsection, the department will require the permittee to construct and operate the tank system in the manner that was demonstrated to meet the requirements for the variance.
(i) All tank systems, until such time as secondary containment that meets the requirements of this section is provided, must comply with the following:
(i) For nonenterable underground tanks, a leak test that meets the requirements of subsection (2)(c)(v) of this section or other tank integrity method, as approved or required by the department, must be conducted at least annually.
(ii) For other than nonenterable underground tanks, the owner or operator must either conduct a leak test as in (i)(i) of this subsection or develop a schedule and procedure for an assessment of the overall condition of the tank system by an independent, qualified registered professional engineer. The schedule and procedure must be adequate to detect obvious cracks, leaks, and corrosion or erosion that may lead to cracks and leaks. The owner or operator must remove the stored waste from the tank, if necessary, to allow the condition of all internal tank surfaces to be assessed. The frequency of these assessments must be based on the material of construction of the tank and its ancillary equipment, the age of the system, the type of corrosion or erosion protection used, the rate of corrosion or erosion observed during the previous inspection, and the characteristics of the waste being stored or treated.
(iii) For ancillary equipment, a leak test or other integrity assessment as approved by the department must be conducted at least annually.
Note:
Three publications may be used, where applicable, as guidelines for assessing the overall condition of the tank system: Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction, API Standard 653, Fourth Edition, April 2009; Guidance for Assessing and Certifying Tank Systems that Store and Treat Dangerous Waste, Ecology Publication No. 94-114; and Steel Tank Institute publication #SP001-05 Standard for the Inspection of Aboveground Storage Tanks 5th Edition, revised September 2011.
(iv) The owner or operator must maintain on file at the facility a record of the results of the assessments conducted in accordance with (i)(i) through (iii) of this subsection.
(v) If a tank system or component is found to be leaking or unfit for use as a result of the leak test or assessment in (i)(i) through (iii) of this subsection, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.
(5) General operating requirements.
(a) Dangerous wastes or treatment reagents must not be placed in a tank system if they could cause the tank, its ancillary equipment, or the containment system to rupture, leak, corrode, or otherwise fail.
(b) The owner or operator must use appropriate controls and practices to prevent spills and overflows from tank or containment systems. These include at a minimum:
(i) Spill prevention controls (e.g., check valves, dry disconnect couplings);
(ii) Overfill prevention controls (e.g., level sensing devices, high level alarms, automatic feed cutoff, or bypass to a standby tank); and
(iii) Maintenance of sufficient freeboard in uncovered tanks to prevent overtopping by wave or wind action or by precipitation.
(c) The owner or operator must comply with the requirements of subsection (7) of this section if a leak or spill occurs in the tank system.
(d) All tank systems holding dangerous waste must be:
(i) Marked with labels or signs to identify the waste contained in the tank legible at a distance of at least fifty feet. For underground tank systems, labels or signs must be either placed on aboveground postings above each underground tank system or at each entrance to the active portion (area where the underground tank system is located).
(ii) Clearly marked or labeled with the words "Dangerous Waste" or "Hazardous Waste" legible at a distance of at least fifty feet, and for underground tank systems, the markings or labels must either be placed on aboveground postings above each underground tank system or at each entrance to the active portion (area where the underground tank/tank system is located).
(iii) Clearly marked or labeled with an indication of the hazards of the contents (example includes, but is not limited to, the applicable dangerous waste characteristic(s) and criteria of ignitable, corrosive, reactive and toxic and the applicable hazard(s) identified for listed dangerous wastes) legible at a distance of at least fifty feet. All hazard labels must include descriptive word(s) and/or pictogram(s) that identifies the hazards associated with the waste being stored or treated in the tank system(s) for the public, employees, emergency response personnel, and waste handlers. For underground tank systems, markings or labels of the hazards of the contents of the tank system must either be placed on above-ground postings above each underground tank system, or at each entrance to the active portion (area where the underground tank system is located).
(e) All tank systems holding dangerous wastes which are acutely or chronically toxic by inhalation must be designed to prevent escape of vapors, fumes, or other emissions into the air.
(6) Inspections.
(a) The owner or operator must develop and follow a schedule and procedure for inspecting overfill controls.
(b) The owner or operator must inspect at least once each operating day:
(i) Aboveground portions of the tank system, if any, to detect corrosion or releases of waste;
(ii) Data gathered from monitoring and leak detection equipment (e.g., pressure or temperature gauges, monitoring wells) to ensure that the tank system is being operated according to its design; and
(iii) The construction materials and the area immediately surrounding the externally accessible portion of the tank system, including the secondary containment system (e.g., dikes) to detect erosion or signs of releases of dangerous waste (e.g., wet spots, dead vegetation).
Note:
WAC 173-303-320 requires the owner or operator to remedy any deterioration or malfunction they find. Subsection (7) of this section requires the owner or operator to notify the department within twenty-four hours of confirming a leak. Also, 40 C.F.R. Part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of a release.
(c) The owner or operator must inspect cathodic protection systems, if present, according to, at a minimum, the following schedule to ensure that they are functioning properly:
(i) The proper operation of the cathodic protection system must be confirmed within six months after initial installation and annually thereafter; and
(ii) All sources of impressed current must be inspected and/or tested, as appropriate, at least bimonthly (i.e., every other month).
Note:
The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, "Recommended Practice (RP-02-85)—Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems," and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, "Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems," may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in maintaining and inspecting cathodic protection systems.
(d) The owner or operator must document in the operating record of the facility an inspection of those items in (a) through (c) of this subsection. The owner or operator must keep a written or electronic inspection log including at least the date and time of the inspection, the printed name and the handwritten or electronic signature of the inspector, a notation of the observations made and the date and nature of any repairs or remedial actions taken. The log must be kept at the facility for at least five years from the date of inspection.
(7) Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.
A tank system or secondary containment system from which there has been a leak or spill, or which is unfit for use, must be removed from service immediately, and the owner or operator must satisfy the following requirements:
(a) Cessation of use; prevent flow or addition of wastes. The owner or operator must immediately stop the flow of dangerous waste into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release.
(b) Removal of waste from tank system or secondary containment system.
(i) If the release was from the tank system, the owner/operator must, within twenty-four hours after detection of the leak or, if the owner/operator demonstrates that it is not possible, at the earliest practicable time, remove as much of the waste as is necessary to prevent further release of dangerous waste to the environment and to allow inspection and repair of the tank system to be performed.
(ii) If the material released was to a secondary containment system, all released materials must be removed within twenty-four hours or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment.
(c) Containment of visible releases to the environment. The owner/operator must immediately conduct a visual inspection of the release and, based upon that inspection:
(i) Prevent further migration of the leak or spill to soils or surface water; and
(ii) Remove, and properly dispose of, any visible contamination of the soil or surface water.
(d) Notifications, reports.
(i) Any release to the environment must be reported to the department and other authorities immediately in accordance with WAC 173-303-145. Any release above the "reportable quantity" must also be reported to the National Response Center pursuant to 40 C.F.R. Part 302.
(ii) Within thirty days (or fifteen days if classified as an emergency) of detection of a release to the environment, a report containing the following information must be submitted to the department:
(A) Likely route of migration of the release;
(B) Characteristics of the surrounding soil (soil composition, geology, hydrogeology, climate);
(C) Results of any monitoring or sampling conducted in connection with the release (if available). If sampling or monitoring data relating to the release are not available within thirty days, these data must be submitted to the department as soon as they become available;
(D) Proximity to downgradient drinking water, surface water, and populated areas; and
(E) Description of response actions taken or planned.
(F) In the event of an emergency, additional information as required by WAC 173-303-360.
(e) Provision of secondary containment, repair, or closure.
(i) Unless the owner/operator satisfies the requirements of (e)(ii) through (iv) of this subsection, the tank system must be closed in accordance with subsection (8) of this section.
(ii) If the cause of the release was a spill that has not damaged the integrity of the system, the owner/operator may return the system to service as soon as the released waste is removed and repairs, if necessary, are made.
(iii) If the cause of the release was a leak from the primary tank system into the secondary containment system, the system must be repaired prior to returning the tank system to service.
(iv) If the source of the release was a leak to the environment from a component of a tank system without secondary containment, the owner/operator must provide the component of the system from which the leak occurred with secondary containment that satisfies the requirements of subsection (4) of this section before it can be returned to service, unless the source of the leak is an aboveground portion of a tank system that can be inspected visually. If the source is an aboveground component that can be inspected visually, the component must be repaired and may be returned to service without secondary containment as long as the requirements of (f) of this subsection are satisfied. If a component is replaced to comply with the requirements of this subitem, that component must satisfy the requirements for new tank systems or components in subsections (3) and (4) of this section. Additionally, if a leak has occurred in any portion of a tank system component that is not readily accessible for visual inspection (e.g., the bottom of an inground or onground tank), the entire component must be provided with secondary containment in accordance with subsection (4) of this section prior to being returned to use.
(f) Certification of major repairs. If the owner/operator has repaired a tank system in accordance with (e) of this subsection, and the repair has been extensive (e.g., installation of an internal liner; repair of a ruptured primary containment or secondary containment vessel), the tank system must not be returned to service unless the owner/operator has obtained a certification by an independent, qualified, registered, professional engineer in accordance with WAC 173-303-810 (13)(a) that the repaired system is capable of handling dangerous wastes without release for the intended life of the system. This certification must be submitted to the department within seven days after returning the tank system to use.
Note:
See WAC 173-303-320 for the requirements necessary to remedy a failure. Also, 40 C.F.R. Part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of certain releases.
(8) Closure and post-closure care.
(a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them as dangerous waste, unless WAC 173-303-070 (2)(a) applies. The closure plan, closure activities, cost estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for tank systems must meet all of the requirements specified in WAC 173-303-610 and 173-303-620.
(b) If the owner or operator demonstrates that not all contaminated soils can be practicably removed or decontaminated as required in (a) of this subsection, then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to landfills (see WAC 173-303-665(6)). In addition, for the purposes of closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility, such a tank system is then considered to be a landfill, and the owner or operator must meet all of the requirements for landfills specified in WAC 173-303-610 and 173-303-620.
(c) If an owner or operator has a tank system that does not have secondary containment that meets the requirements of subsection (4)(b) through (f) of this section and is not exempt from the secondary containment requirements in accordance with subsection (4)(g) of this section, then:
(i) The closure plan for the tank system must include both a plan for complying with (a) of this subsection and a contingent plan for complying with (b) of this subsection.
(ii) A contingent post-closure plan for complying with (b) of this subsection must be prepared and submitted as part of the permit application.
(iii) The cost estimates calculated for closure and post-closure care must reflect the costs of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, if those costs are greater than the costs of complying with the closure plan prepared for the expected closure under (a) of this subsection.
(iv) Financial assurance must be based on the cost estimates in (c)(iii) of this subsection.
(v) For the purposes of the contingent closure and post-closure plans, such a tank system is considered to be a landfill, and the contingent plans must meet all of the closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility requirements for landfills under this chapter (WAC 173-303-610 and 173-303-620).
(9) Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.
(a) Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in tank systems unless:
(i) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the tank system so that the resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under WAC 173-303-090, and 173-303-395 (1)(b) is complied with; or
(ii) The waste is stored or treated in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause the waste to ignite or react; or
(iii) The tank system is used solely for emergencies.
(b) The owner or operator of a facility which treats or stores ignitable or reactive waste in tanks must locate the tanks in a manner equivalent to the National Fire Protection Association's buffer zone requirements for tanks, contained in NFPA 30 "Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code," or as required by state and local fire codes when such codes are more stringent. The owner or operator must also comply with the requirements of WAC 173-303-395 (1)(d).
(10) Special requirements for incompatible wastes.
(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must not be placed in the same tank system, unless WAC 173-303-395 (1)(b) is complied with.
(b) Dangerous waste must not be placed in a tank system that has not been decontaminated and that previously held an incompatible waste or material, unless WAC 173-303-395 (1)(b) is complied with.
(11) Air emission standards. The owner or operator must manage all hazardous waste placed in a tank in accordance with the applicable requirements of 40 C.F.R. Subparts AA, BB, and CC, which are incorporated by reference at WAC 173-303-690 through 173-303-692.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105, 70.105D RCW and RCRA. WSR 19-04-038 (Order 16-03), § 173-303-640, filed 1/28/19, effective 4/28/19. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW. WSR 15-01-123 (Order 13-07), § 173-303-640, filed 12/18/14, effective 1/18/15. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW. WSR 09-14-105 (Order 07-12), § 173-303-640, filed 6/30/09, effective 7/31/09. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105, 70.105D, and 15.54 RCW and RCW 70.105.007. WSR 04-24-065 (Order 03-10), § 173-303-640, filed 11/30/04, effective 1/1/05; WSR 00-11-040 (Order 99-01), § 173-303-640, filed 5/10/00, effective 6/10/00. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW. WSR 95-22-008 (Order 94-30), § 173-303-640, filed 10/19/95, effective 11/19/95; WSR 94-01-060 (Order 92-33), § 173-303-640, filed 12/8/93, effective 1/8/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW. WSR 89-02-059 (Order 88-24), § 173-303-640, filed 1/4/89; WSR 86-12-057 (Order DE-85-10), § 173-303-640, filed 6/3/86; WSR 84-09-088 (Order DE 83-36), § 173-303-640, filed 4/18/84. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW and RCW 70.95.260. WSR 82-05-023 (Order DE 81-33), § 173-303-640, filed 2/10/82. Formerly chapter 173-302 WAC.]
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