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PDFWAC 246-215-01115

Definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms (2009 FDA Food Code 1-201.10(B)).

The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
(1) "Accredited program."
(a) accredited program means a food protection manager certification program that has been evaluated and listed by an accrediting agency as conforming to national standards for organizations that certify individuals.
(b) accredited program refers to the certification process and is a designation based upon an independent evaluation of factors such as the sponsor's mission; organizational structure; staff resources; revenue sources; policies; public information regarding program scope, eligibility requirements, recertification, discipline, and grievance procedures; and test development and administration.
(c) Accredited program does not refer to training functions or educational programs.
(2) "additive."
(a) "food additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Section 201(s) and 21 C.F.R. 170.3(e)(1).
(b) "color additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Section 201(t) and 21 C.F.R. 70.3(f).
(3) "adulterated" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Section 402.
(4) "approved" means acceptable to the regulatory authority based on a determination of conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health.
(5) "asymptomatic."
(a) asymptomatic means without obvious symptoms; not showing or producing indications of a disease or other medical condition, such as an individual infected with a pathogen but not exhibiting or producing any signs or symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, or jaundice.
(b) asymptomatic includes not showing symptoms because symptoms have resolved or subsided, or because symptoms never manifested.
(6) "aw" means water activity which is a measure of the free moisture in a food, is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature, and is indicated by the symbol aw.
(7) "balut" means an embryo inside a fertile egg that has been incubated for a period sufficient for the embryo to reach a specific stage of development after which it is removed from incubation before hatching.
(8) "bed and breakfast operation" means a private home or inn offering one or more lodging units on a temporary basis to travelers.
(9) "beverage" means a liquid for drinking, including water.
(10) "bottled drinking water" means water that is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.
(11) "catering operation."
(a) catering operation means a person who contracts with a client to prepare a specific menu and amount of food in an approved food establishment for service to the client's guests or customers at a different location.
(b) Consistent with its application under WAC 246-215-08325, a catering operation approved for a permit may cook or perform final preparation on certain food at the service location.
(12) "certification number" means a unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a shellfish control authority to a molluscan shellfish dealer according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
(13) "C.F.R." means Code of Federal Regulations. Citations in this chapter to the C.F.R. refer sequentially to the Title, Part, and Section numbers, such as 40 C.F.R. 180.194 refers to Title 40, Part 180, Section 194.
(14) "cip."
(a) cip means cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and sanitize a frozen dessert machine.
(b) cip does not include the cleaning of equipment such as band saws, slicers, or mixers that are subject to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a cip system.
(15) "commingle" means:
(a) To combine shellstock harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label; or
(b) To combine shucked shellfish from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates.
(16) "comminuted."
(a) comminuted means reduced in size by methods that include chopping, flaking, grinding, or mincing.
(b) comminuted includes fish or meat products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated such as gefilte fish, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and a mixture of two or more types of meat that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausage made from two or more meats.
(17) "commissary" means an approved food establishment where food is stored, prepared, portioned, or packaged for service elsewhere.
(18) "conditional employee" means a potential food employee to whom a job offer is made, conditional on responses to subsequent medical questions or examinations designed to identify potential employees who might be suffering from a disease that can be transmitted through food and done in compliance with Title 1 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
(19) "confirmed disease outbreak" means a foodborne disease outbreak in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative agent and epidemiological analysis implicates the food as the source of the illness.
(20) "consumer" means a person who is a member of the public, takes possession of food, is not functioning in the capacity of an operator of a food establishment or food processing plant, and does not offer the food for resale.
(21) "corrosion-resistant" means a material that maintains acceptable surface cleanability characteristics under prolonged influence of the food to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and sanitizing solutions, and other conditions of the use environment.
(22) "counter-mounted equipment" means equipment that is not portable and is designed to be mounted off the floor on a table, counter, or shelf (previously table-mounted equipment).
(23) "critical control point" means a point or procedure in a specific food system where loss of control might result in an unacceptable health risk.
(24) "critical limit" means the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified food safety hazard might occur.
(25) "cut leafy greens" means fresh leafy greens whose leaves have been cut, shredded, sliced, chopped, or torn. The term "leafy greens" includes iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, butter lettuce, baby leaf lettuce (i.e., immature lettuce or leafy greens), escarole, endive, spring mix, spinach, cabbage, kale, arugula, and chard. The term "leafy greens" does not include herbs such as cilantro or parsley. The term "cut" does not include removing and discarding the exterior leaves.
(26) "dealer" means a person who is authorized by a shellfish control authority for the activities of shellstock shipper, shucker-packer, repacker, reshipper, or depuration processor of molluscan shellfish according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
(27) "disclosure" means a written statement that clearly identifies the animal-derived foods which are, or can be ordered, raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens, or items that contain an ingredient that is raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.
(28) "donated food distributing organization" means a charitable nonprofit organization under Section 501(c) of the federal Internal Revenue Code that distributes food free of charge to the needy.
(29) "donor" means a person, corporation, association, or other organization that donates food to a donated food distributing organization under the provisions of chapter 69.80 RCW, known as the Good Samaritan Food Donation Act.
(30) "donor kitchen" means a kitchen that is used by a donor to handle, store, or prepare food for donation to needy persons through a donated food distributing organization and which is not a residential kitchen in a private home.
(31) "drinking water."
(a) drinking water means water that meets 40 C.F.R. 141, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
(b) drinking water is traditionally known as "potable water."
(c) drinking water includes the term "water" except where the term used connotes that the water is not potable, such as "boiler water," "mop water," "rainwater," "wastewater," and "nondrinking" water.
(d) drinking water means potable water that is supplied in compliance with chapters 246-290 and 246-291 WAC.
(32) "dry storage" means a room or area designated for the storage of packaged or containerized bulk nonpotentially hazardous food and dry goods such as single-service articles.
(33) "easily cleanable."
(a) easily cleanable means a characteristic of a surface that:
(i) Allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods;
(ii) Is dependent on the material, design, construction, and installation of the surface; and
(iii) Varies with the likelihood of the surface's role in introducing pathogenic or toxigenic agents or other contaminants into food based on the surface's approved placement, purpose and use.
(b) easily cleanable includes a tiered application of the requirements that qualify the surface as easily cleanable as specified in (a) of this subsection to different situations in which varying degrees of cleanability are required such as:
(i) The appropriateness of stainless steel for a food preparation surface as opposed to the lack of need for stainless steel to be used for floors or for tables used for consumer dining; or
(ii) The need for a different degree of cleanability for a utilitarian attachment or accessory in the kitchen as opposed to a decorative attachment or accessory in the consumer dining area.
(34) "easily movable" means:
(a) Portable; mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely tilt a unit of equipment for cleaning; and
(b) Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to allow the equipment to be moved for cleaning of the equipment and adjacent area.
(35) "egg."
(a) egg means the shell egg of avian species such as chicken, duck, goose, guinea, quail, ratites, turkey, or any other species of fowl.
(b) egg does not include:
(i) A balut;
(ii) The egg of a reptile species such as alligator; or
(iii) An egg product.
(36) "egg product."
(a) egg product means all, or a portion of, the contents found inside eggs separated from the shell and pasteurized in a food processing plant, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption such as dried, frozen, or liquid eggs.
(b) egg product does not include food which contains eggs only in a relatively small portion such as cake mixes.
(37) "employee" means the permit holder, person in charge, food employee, person having supervisory or management duties, person on the payroll, family member, volunteer, person performing work under contractual agreement, or other person working in a food establishment.
(38) "enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (EHEC)" means E. coli which cause hemorrhagic colitis, meaning bleeding enterically or bleeding from the intestine. The term is typically used in association with E. coli that have the capacity to produce Shiga toxins and to cause attaching and effacing lesions in the intestines. EHEC is a subset of STEC, whose members produce additional virulence factors. Infections with EHEC might be asymptomatic but are classically associated with bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Examples of serotypes of EHEC include: E. coli O157:H7; E. coli O157:NM; E. coli O26:H11; E. coli O145:NM; E. coli O103:H2; or E. coli O111:NM. Also see Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli.
(39) "epa" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
(40) "equipment."
(a) equipment means an article that is used in the operation of a food establishment such as a freezer, grinder, hood, ice maker, meat block, mixer, oven, reach-in refrigerator, scale, sink slicer, stove, table, temperature measuring device for ambient air, vending machine, or warewashing machine.
(b) equipment does not include items used for handling or storing large quantities of packaged foods that are received from a supplier in a cased or overwrapped lot, such as hand trucks, forklifts, dollies, pallets, racks, and skids.
(41) "exclude" means to prevent a person from working as an employee in a food establishment or entering a food establishment as an employee.
(42) "fda" means the United States Food and Drug Administration.
(43) "fish."
(a) fish means fresh or saltwater finfish, crustaceans, and other forms of aquatic life (including alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, if such animal life is intended for human consumption.
(b) fish includes an edible human food product derived in whole or in part from fish, including fish that have been processed in any manner.
(44) "food" means a raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption, or chewing gum.
(45) "foodborne disease outbreak" means the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food.
(46) "food-contact surface" means:
(a) A surface of equipment or a utensil with which food normally comes into contact; or
(b) A surface of equipment or a utensil from which food might drain, drip or splash:
(i) Into a food; or
(ii) Onto a surface normally in contact with food.
(47) "food employee" means an individual working with unpackaged food, food equipment or utensils, or food-contact surfaces.
(48) "food establishment."
(a) food establishment means an operation that:
(i) Stores, prepares, packages, serves, and vends food directly to the consumer, or otherwise provides food for human consumption such as a restaurant; satellite or catered feeding location; catering operation if the operation provides food directly to a consumer; or to a conveyance used to transport people; institution; or food bank; and
(ii) Relinquishes possession of food to a consumer directly, or indirectly through a delivery service such as home delivery or grocery orders or restaurant takeout orders, or delivery service that is provided by common carriers.
(b) food establishment includes:
(i) An element of the operation such as a transportation vehicle or a central preparation facility that supplies a vending location or satellite feeding location unless the vending or feeding location is permitted by the regulatory authority; and
(ii) An operation that is conducted in a mobile, stationary, temporary, or permanent facility or location; where consumption is on or off the premises; and regardless of whether there is a charge for the food.
(c) food establishment does not include:
(i) An establishment that offers only nonpotentially hazardous foods prepackaged in a licensed food establishment or food processing plant;
(ii) An establishment that offers only nonpotentially hazardous, nonready-to-eat minimally cut, unprocessed fruits, vegetables, and fresh herbs;
(iii) A food processing plant, cottage food operation, or other establishment for activities regulated by the Washington state department of agriculture or the United States Department of Agriculture;
(iv) An establishment that offers only nonpotentially hazardous, ready-to-eat foods produced in a licensed food establishment or food processing plant (such as premixed soda pop, powdered creamer, pretzels, cookies, doughnuts, cake, or meat jerky) that are served without direct hand contact, with limited portioning, directly onto or into sanitary single-use articles or single-service articles from the original package;
(v) An establishment that offers only nonpotentially hazardous hot beverages (such as coffee, hot tea, or hot apple cider) served directly into sanitary single-service articles;
(vi) An establishment that offers only dry nonpotentially hazardous, nonready-to-eatfoods (such as dry beans, dry grains, in-shell nuts, coffee beans, tea leaves, or herbs for tea);
(vii) An establishment that offers only prepackaged frozen confections produced in a licensed food establishment or food processing plant;
(viii) A residential kitchen in a private home or other location, if only foods that are nonpotentially hazardous baked goods are prepared and wrapped in a sanitary manner for sale or service by a nonprofit organization operating for religious, charitable, or educational purposes and if the consumer is informed by a clearly visible placard at the sales or service location that the foods are prepared in a kitchen that is not inspected by a regulatory authority;
(ix) A location where foods that are prepared as specified in (b)(viii) of this subsection are sold or offered for human consumption;
(x) A hotel/motel or other similar business that maintains an ice dispensing machine for self-service use by guests and the ice is not used by a food establishment;
(xi) A kitchen in a private home operated as a family day care provider as defined in RCW 43.215.010 (1)(c) or an adult family home as defined in RCW 70.128.010, used only to prepare food for residents and other people for whom the operation is licensed to provide care;
(xii) A private home that receives catered or home-delivered food;
(xiii) A private home or other location used for a private event;
(xiv) A donor kitchen; and
(xv) A location used for a potluck.
(49) "food processing plant."
(a) food processing plant means a commercial operation that manufactures, packages, labels, or stores food for human consumption, and provides food for sale or distribution to other business entities such as food processing plants or food establishments.
(b) food processing plant does not include a food establishment.
(50) "food worker card" means a food and beverage service worker's permit as required under chapter 69.06 RCW.
(51) "game animal."
(a) game animal means an animal, the products of which are food that is not classified as livestock, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine in 9 C.F.R. 301 Definitions, or as poultry, or fish.
(b) game animal includes mammals such as reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, nutria, or muskrat, and nonaquatic reptiles such as land snakes.
(c) game animal does not include ratites.
(52) "grade a standards" means the requirements of the United States Public Health Service/FDA "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance" with which certain fluid and dry milk and milk products comply.
(53) "grill marked" means food that has been seared using a noncontinuous cooking process in which the food is placed on a heated cooking surface for no more than one minute on each side.
(54) "haccp plan" means a written document that delineates the formal procedures for following the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles developed by The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.
(55) "handwashing sink."
(a) handwashing sink means a lavatory, a basin or vessel for washing, a wash basin, or a plumbing fixture especially placed for use in personal hygiene and designed for the washing of hands.
(b) handwashing sink includes an automatic handwashing facility.
(56) "hazard" means a biological, chemical, or physical property that might cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.
(57) "health practitioner" means a physician licensed to practice medicine, or if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner, physician assistant or similar medical professional.
(58) "hermetically sealed container" means a container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned foods, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing.
(59) "highly susceptible population" means persons who are more likely than other people in the general population to experience foodborne disease because they are:
(a) Immunocompromised, preschool age children, or older adults; and
(b) Obtaining food at a facility that provides custodial care, health care, assisted living, nutritional services, or socialization services including, but not limited to, child or adult day care center, kidney dialysis center, hospital, nursing home, or senior center.
(60) "immediate service" means service to the public within thirty minutes of preparation.
(61) "imminent health hazard" means a significant threat or danger to health that is considered to exist when there is evidence sufficient to show that a product, practice, circumstance, or event creates a situation that requires immediate correction or cessation of operation to prevent injury based on a fire, flood, extended interruption of electrical or water service, sewage backup, misuse of poisonous or toxic materials, onset of an apparent foodborne disease outbreak, gross insanitary occurrence or condition, or other circumstance that might endanger public health.
(62) "injected" means manipulating a meat to which a solution has been introduced into its interior by processes that are referred to as "injecting," "pump marinating," or "stitch pumping."
(63) "juice."
(a) juice means the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purees of the edible portions of one or more fruits or vegetables, or any concentrates of such liquid or puree.
(b) juice does not include, for purposes of HACCP, liquids, purees, or concentrates that are not used as beverages or ingredients of beverages.
(64) "kitchenware" means food preparation and storage utensils.
(65) "law" means applicable local, state, and federal statutes, regulations, and ordinances.
(66) "linens" means fabric items such as cloth hampers, cloth napkins, table cloths, wiping cloths, and work garments including cloth gloves.
(67) "local board of health" means the county or district board of health.
(68) "local health officer" means the legally qualified physician who has been appointed as the health officer for the county or district public health department.
(69) "major food allergen."
(a) major food allergen means:
(i) Milk, egg, fish (such as bass, flounder, cod, and including crustacean shellfish such as crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (such as almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans; or
(ii) A food ingredient that contains protein derived from a food as specified in (a)(i) of this subsection.
(b) major food allergen does not include:
(i) Any highly refined oil derived from a food specified in (a)(i) of this subsection and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil; or
(ii) An ingredient that is exempt under the petition or notification process specified in the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004. (Public Law 108-282.)
(70) "meat" means the flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish and poultry.
(71) "mechanically tenderized."
(a) mechanically tenderized means manipulating meat with deep penetration by processes which might be referred to as "blade tenderizing," "jaccarding," "pinning," "needling," or using blades, pins, needles, or any mechanical device.
(b) mechanically tenderized does not include processes by which solutions are injected into meat.
(72) "mg/L" means milligrams per liter, which is the metric equivalent of parts per million.
(73) "mobile food unit" means a readily movable food establishment.
(74) "molluscan shellfish" means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops or edible portions thereof, except when the scallop product consists only of the shucked adductor muscle.
(75) "noncontinuous cooking."
(a) noncontinuous cooking means the cooking of food in a food establishment using a process in which the initial heating of the food is intentionally halted so that it may be cooled and held for complete cooking at a later time prior to sale or service.
(b) noncontinuous cooking does not include cooking procedures that only involve temporarily interrupting or slowing an otherwise continuous cooking process.
(76) "packaged."
(a) packaged means bottled, canned, cartoned, securely bagged, or securely wrapped, whether packaged in a food establishment or a food processing plant.
(b) packaged does not include a wrapper, carry-out box, or other nondurable container used to containerize food with the purpose of facilitating food protection:
(i) During service and receipt of the food by the consumer; or
(ii) During the display at a staffed, self-service buffet line, such as at a school.
(77) "permit" means the document issued by the regulatory authority that authorizes a person to operate a food establishment.
(78) "permit holder" means the entity that:
(a) Is legally responsible for the operation of the foodestablishment such as the owner, the owner's agent, or other person; and
(b) Possesses a valid permit to operate a food establishment.
(79) "person" means any individual, corporation, company, association, society, firm, partnership, joint stock company, or any governmental agency, or the authorized agents of these entities.
(80) "person in charge" means the individual present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time.
(81) "personal care items."
(a) personal care items means items or substances that might be poisonous, toxic, or a source of contamination and are used to maintain or enhance a person's health, hygiene, or appearance.
(b) personal care items include items such as medicines; first-aid supplies; and other items such as cosmetics, and toiletries such as toothpaste and mouthwash.
(82) "pH" means the symbol for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, which is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Values between zero and seven indicate acidity and values between seven and fourteen indicate alkalinity. The value for pure distilled water is seven, which is considered neutral.
(83) "physical facilities" means the structure and interior surfaces of a food establishment including accessories such as soap and towel dispensers and attachments such as light fixtures and heating or air conditioning system vents.
(84) "plumbing fixture" means a receptacle or device that:
(a) Is permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water from the system; or
(b) Discharges used water, waste materials, or sewage directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises.
(85) "plumbing system" means the water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; sanitary and storm sewers and building drains, including their respective connections, devices, and appurtenances within the premises; and water treating equipment.
(86) "poisonous or toxic materials" means substances that are not intended for ingestion and are included in four categories:
(a) Cleaners and sanitizers, which include cleaning and sanitizing agents and agents such as caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals;
(b) Pesticides, except sanitizers, which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides;
(c) Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as nonfood grade lubricants and personal care items that might be deleterious to health; and
(d) Substances that are not necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment and are on the premises for retail sale, such as petroleum products and paints.
(87) "pooled" is the combination of four or more raw eggs, egg yolks, or egg whites.
(88) "potentially hazardous food (PHF)."
(a) potentially hazardous food means a food that requires time/temperature control for safety to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation.
(b) potentially hazardous food includes:
(i) An animal food that is raw or heat-treated, a plant food that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts, cut melons, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes or mixtures of cut tomatoes that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation, fresh herb-in-oil mixtures, or garlic-in-oil mixtures unless modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation; and
(ii) Except as specified in (c)(iv) of this subsection, a food that because of the interaction of its Aw and pH values is designated as product assessment required (PA) in Table A or B of this subsection:
Table A. Interaction of pH and Aw for Control of Spores in Food Heat-treated to Destroy Vegetative Cells and Subsequently Packaged
Aw values
pH values
4.6 or less
˃4.6 - 5.6
˃0.92 - .95
 PA means product assessment required.
Table B*. Interaction of pH and Aw for Control of Vegetative Cells and Spores in Food Not Heat-treated or Heat-treated but not packaged.
Aw values
pH values
4.2 - 4.6
˃4.6 - 5.0
0.88 - 0.90
˃0.90 - 0.92
 PA means product assessment required.
(c) potentially hazardous food does not include:
(i) An air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact, or an egg with the shell intact that is not hard-boiled, but has been pasteurized to destroy all viable salmonellae;
(ii) A food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of nonrefrigerated storage and distribution;
(iii) A food that because of its pH or Aw value, or interaction of Aw and pH values, is designated as a non-PHF food in Table A or B of this subsection;
(iv) A food that is designated as product assessment required (PA) in Table A or B of this subsection and has undergone a product assessment showing that the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms that are reasonably likely to occur in that food is precluded due to:
(A) Intrinsic factors including added or natural characteristics of the food such as preservatives, antimicrobials, humectants, acidulants or nutrients;
(B) Extrinsic factors including environmental or operational factors that affect the food such as packaging, modified atmosphere such as reduced oxygen packaging, shelf life and use, or temperature range of storage and use; or
(C) A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors; or
(v) A food that does not support the growth or toxic formation of pathogenic microorganisms in accordance with (c)(i) or (iv) of this subsection even though the food might contain a pathogenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness or injury.
(89) "potluck" means an event where:
(a) People are gathered to share food;
(b) People attending the event are expected to bring food to share;
(c) There is no compensation provided for people bringing food to the event;
(d) There is no charge for any food or beverage provided at the event; and
(e) The event is not conducted for commercial purposes.
(90) "poultry" means:
(a) Any domesticated bird (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, ratites, or squabs), whether live or dead, as defined in 9 C.F.R. 381.1 Poultry Products Inspection Regulations Definitions, Poultry; and
(b) Any migratory waterfowl or game bird, pheasant, partridge, quail, grouse, or pigeon, whether live or dead, as defined in 9 C.F.R. 362.1 Voluntary Poultry Inspection Regulations, Definitions.
(91) "premises" means:
(a) The physical facility, its contents, and the contiguous land or property under the control of the permit holder; or
(b) The physical facility, its contents, and the land or property not described under (a) of this subsection if its facilities and contents are under control of the permit holder and might impact foodestablishment personnel, facilities, or operations, and a foodestablishment is only one component of a larger operation such as a health care facility, hotel, motel, school, recreational camp, or prison.
(92) "preschool."
(a) preschool means a program that provides organized care and education for children below the age required for kindergarten entry. A preschool operates for two or more days per week with no child enrolled on a regular basis for more than four hours per day.
(b) A preschool does not include:
(i) Programs where the parent or guardian is present at each session;
(ii) Parent-child classes where the focus is on parent education;
(iii) Short-term parks and recreation programs;
(iv) Informal parent and child groups;
(v) Irregular babysitting;
(vi) Licensed child care; or
(vii) food preparation and service operations otherwise under permit or license by the regulatory authority.
(93) "primal cut" means a basic major cut into which carcasses and sides of meat are separated, such as beef round, pork loin, lamb flank, or veal breast.
(94) "private event" means a private gathering limited to members and guests of members of a family, organization, or club, where the event is not open to the general public, and where food is provided without compensation.
(95) "public water system" means a drinking water system that is operated in compliance with chapters 246-290 and 246-291 WAC.
(96) "ratite" means a flightless bird such as an emu, ostrich, or rhea.
(97) "ready-to-eat food."
(a) ready-to-eat food means food that:
(i) Is in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve food safety, as specified under WAC 246-215-03400 (1) through (3) or WAC 246-215-03405 or 246-215-03425; or
(ii) Is raw or partially cooked animal food and the consumer is advised as specified under WAC 246-215-03400 (4)(a) and (c); or
(iii) Is prepared in accordance with a variance that is granted as specified under WAC 246-215-03400 (4)(d); and
(iv) Might receive additional preparation for palatability or aesthetic, epicurean, gastronomic, or culinary purposes.
(b) ready-to-eat food includes:
(i) Raw animal food that is cooked as specified under WAC 246-215-03400 or 246-215-03405, or frozen as specified under WAC 246-215-03425;
(ii) Raw fruits and vegetables that are washed as specified under WAC 246-215-03318;
(iii) Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding, as specified under WAC 246-215-03410;
(iv) All potentially hazardous food that is cooked to the temperature and time required for the specific food under WAC 246-215-03400 through 246-215-03445 and cooled as specified under WAC 246-215-03515;
(v) Plant food for which further washing, cooking, or other processing is not required for food safety, and from which rinds, peels, husks, or shells, if naturally present, are removed;
(vi) Substances derived from plants such as spices, seasonings, and sugar;
(vii) A bakery item such as bread, cakes, pies, fillings, or icing for which further cooking is not required for food safety;
(viii) The following products that are produced in accordance with USDA guidelines and that have received a lethality treatment for pathogens: Dry, fermented sausages, such as dry salami or pepperoni; salt cured meat and poultry products, such as prosciuto ham, country cured ham, and Parma ham; and dried meat and poultry products, such as jerky or beef sticks; and
(ix) foods manufactured according to 21 C.F.R. Part 113, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers.
(98) "red high risk factors" are improper practices or procedures identified as the most prevalent contributing factors to foodborne illness or injury, as listed on the food Establishment Inspection Report form.
(99) "reduced oxygen packaging."
(a) reduced oxygen packaging means:
(i) The reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the surrounding atmosphere (approximately twenty-one percent at sea level); and
(ii) A process as specified in (a)(i) of this subsection that involves a food for which the hazards Clostridium botulinum or Listeria monocytogenes require control in the final packaged form.
(b) reduced oxygen packaging includes:
(i) Vacuum packaging, in which air is removed from a package of food and the package is hermetically sealed so that a vacuum remains inside the package;
(ii) Modified atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that its composition is different from air but the atmosphere might change over time due to the permeability of the packaging material or the respiration of the food. Modified atmosphere packaging includes reduction of the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen;
(iii) Controlled atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that until the package is opened, its composition is different from air, and continuous control of that atmosphere is maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, nonrespiring food, and impermeable packaging material;
(iv) Cook chill packaging, in which cooked food is hot filled into impermeable bags which have the air expelled and are then sealed or crimped closed. The bagged food is rapidly chilled and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychrotrophic pathogens; or
(v) Sous vide packaging, in which raw or partially cooked food is placed in hermetically sealed, impermeable bag, cooked in the bag, rapidly chilled, and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychrotrophic pathogens.
(100) "refuse" means solid waste not carried by water through a sewage system.
(101) "regulatory authority" means the local, state, or federal enforcement body or authorized representative having jurisdiction over the food establishment. The local board of health, acting through the local health officer, is the regulatory authority for the activity of a food establishment, except as otherwise provided by law.
(102) "reminder" means a written statement concerning the health risk of consuming animal foods raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.
(103) "reservice" means the transfer of food that is unused and returned by a consumer after being served or sold and in the possession of the consumer, to another person.
(104) "restrict" means to limit the activities of a food employee so that there is no risk of transmitting a disease that is transmissible through food and the food employee does not work with exposed food, clean equipment, utensils, linens; and unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.
(105) "restricted egg" means any check, dirty egg, incubator reject, inedible, leaker, or loss as defined in 9 C.F.R. 590.
(106) "restricted use pesticide" means a pesticide product that contains the active ingredients specified in 40 C.F.R. 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use, and that is limited to use by or under the direct supervision of a certified operator.
(107) "risk" means the likelihood that an adverse health effect will occur within a population as a result of a hazard in a food.
(108) "safe material" means:
(a) An article manufactured from or composed of materials that might not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food;
(b) An additive that is used as specified in Section 409 of the federal food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or
(c) Other materials that are not additives and that are used in conformity with applicable regulations of the FDA.
(109) "sanitization" means the application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food-contact surfaces that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a reduction of five logs, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance.
(110) "sealed" means free of cracks or other openings that allow the entry or passage of moisture.
(111) "service animal" means any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability, as specified in RCW 49.60.218.
(112) "servicing area" means an operating base location to which a mobile food unit or transportation vehicle returns regularly for such things as vehicle and equipment cleaning, discharging liquid or solid wastes, refilling water tanks and ice bins, and boarding food.
(113) "sewage" means liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and might include liquids containing chemicals in solution.
(114) "shellfish control authority" means a state, federal, foreign, tribal, or other government entity legally responsible for administering a program that includes certification of molluscan shellfish harvesters and dealers for interstate commerce.
(115) "shellstock" means raw, in-shell molluscan shellfish.
(116) "shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC)" means any E. coli capable of producing Shiga toxins (also called verocytotoxins or "Shiga-like" toxins). Examples of serotypes of STEC include both O157 and non-O157 E. coli. Also see enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli.
(117) "shucked shellfish" means molluscan shellfish that have one or both shells removed.
(118) "single-service articles" means tableware, carry-out utensils, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one-time, one-person use after which they are intended for discard.
(119) "single-use articles."
(a) single-use articles means utensils and bulk food containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded.
(b) single-use articles includes items such as wax paper, butcher paper, plastic wrap, formed aluminum food containers, jars, plastic tubs or buckets, bread wrappers, pickle barrels, ketchup bottles, and number 10 cans which do not meet the materials, durability, strength, and cleanability specifications under WAC 246-215-04100, 246-215-04200, and 246-215-04204 for multiuse utensils.
(120) "slacking" means the process of moderating the temperature of a food such as allowing a food to gradually increase from a temperature of -10°F (-23°C) to 25°F (-4°C) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen food such as shrimp.
(121) "smooth" means:
(a) A food-contact surface having a surface free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number three stainless steel;
(b) A nonfood-contact surface of equipment having a surface equal to that of commercial grade hot-rolled steel free of visible scale; and
(c) A floor, wall, or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean.
(122) "tableware" means eating, drinking, and serving utensils for table use such as flatware including forks, knives, and spoons; hollowware including bowls, cups, serving dishes, and tumblers; and plates.
(123) "temperature measuring device" means a thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air, or water.
(124) "temporary food establishment" means a food establishment:
(a) Operating at a fixed location, with a fixed menu, for not more than twenty-one consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration, such as a fair or festival; or
(b) Operating not more than three days a week at a fixed location, with a fixed menu, in conjunction with an approved, recurring, organized event, such as a farmers market.
(125) "USDA" means the United States Department of Agriculture.
(126) "utensil" means a food-contact implement or container used in the storage, preparation, transportation, dispensing, sale, or service of food, such as kitchenware or tableware that is multiuse, single-service, or single-use; gloves used in contact with food; temperature sensing probes of food temperature measuring devices; and probe-type price or identification tags used in contact with food.
(127) "variance" means a written document issued by the regulatory authority that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this chapter if, in the opinion of the regulatory authority, a health hazard or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver.
(128) "vending machine" means a self-service device that, upon insertion of a coin, paper currency, token, card, or key, or by optional manual operation, dispenses unit servings of food in bulk or in packages without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation.
(129) "vending machine location" means the room, enclosure, space, or area where one or more vending machines are installed and operated and includes the storage areas and areas on the premises that are used to service and maintain the vending machines.
(130) "warewashing" means the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment.
(131) "whole-muscle, intact beef" means whole muscle beef that is not injected, mechanically tenderized, reconstructed, or scored and marinated, from which beef steaks may be cut.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 and 43.20.145. WSR 13-03-109, § 246-215-01115, filed 1/17/13, effective 5/1/13.]
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