173-340-740  <<  173-340-745 >>   173-340-747

WAC 173-340-745

Soil cleanup standards for industrial properties.

(1) Applicability.
(a) Criteria. This section shall be used to establish soil cleanup levels where the department has determined that industrial land use represents the reasonable maximum exposure. Soil cleanup levels for this presumed exposure scenario shall be established in accordance with this section. To qualify as an industrial land use and to use an industrial soil cleanup level a site must meet the following criteria:
(i) The area of the site where industrial property soil cleanup levels are proposed must meet the definition of an industrial property under WAC 173-340-200;
Industrial soil cleanup levels are based on an adult worker exposure scenario. It is essential to evaluate land uses and zoning for compliance with this definition in the context of this exposure scenario. Local governments use a variety of zoning categories for industrial land uses so a property does not necessarily have to be in a zone called "industrial" to meet the definition of "industrial property." Also, there are land uses allowed in industrial zones that are actually commercial or residential, rather than industrial, land uses. Thus, an evaluation to determine compliance with this definition should include a review of the actual text in the comprehensive plan and zoning ordinance pertaining to the site and a visit to the site to observe land uses in the zone. When evaluating land uses to determine if a property use not specifically listed in the definition is a "traditional industrial use" or to determine if the property is "zoned for industrial use," the following characteristics shall be considered:
(A) People do not normally live on industrial property. The primary potential exposure is to adult employees of businesses located on the industrial property;
(B) Access to industrial property by the general public is generally not allowed. If access is allowed, it is highly limited and controlled due to safety or security considerations;
(C) Food is not normally grown/raised on industrial property. (However, food processing operations are commonly considered industrial facilities);
(D) Operations at industrial properties are often (but not always) characterized by use and storage of chemicals, noise, odors and truck traffic;
(E) The surface of the land at industrial properties is often (but not always) mostly covered by buildings or other structures, paved parking lots, paved access roads and material storage areas—minimizing potential exposure to the soil; and
(F) Industrial properties may have support facilities consisting of offices, restaurants, and other facilities that are commercial in nature but are primarily devoted to administrative functions necessary for the industrial use and/or are primarily intended to serve the industrial facility employees and not the general public.
(ii) The cleanup action provides for appropriate institutional controls implemented in accordance with WAC 173-340-440 to limit potential exposure to residual hazardous substances. This shall include, at a minimum, placement of a covenant on the property restricting use of the area of the site where industrial soil cleanup levels are proposed to industrial property uses; and
(iii) Hazardous substances remaining at the property after remedial action would not pose a threat to human health or the environment at the site or in adjacent nonindustrial areas. In evaluating compliance with this criterion, at a minimum the following factors shall be considered:
(A) The potential for access to the industrial property by the general public, especially children. The proximity of the industrial property to residential areas, schools or childcare facilities shall be considered when evaluating access. In addition, the presence of natural features, manmade structures, arterial streets or intervening land uses that would limit or encourage access to the industrial property shall be considered. Fencing shall not be considered sufficient to limit access to an industrial property since this is insufficient to assure long term protection;
(B) The degree of reduction of potential exposure to residual hazardous substances by the selected remedy. Where the residual hazardous substances are to be capped to reduce exposure, consideration shall be given to the thickness of the cap and the likelihood of future site maintenance activities, utility and drainage work, or building construction reexposing residual hazardous substances;
(C) The potential for transport of residual hazardous substances to off-property areas, especially residential areas, schools and childcare facilities;
(D) The potential for significant adverse effects on wildlife caused by residual hazardous substances using the procedures in WAC 173-340-7490 through 173-340-7494; and
(E) The likelihood that these factors would not change for the foreseeable future.
(b) Expectations. In applying the criteria in (a) of this subsection, the department expects the following results:
(i) The department expects that properties zoned for heavy industrial or high intensity industrial use and located within a city or county that has completed a comprehensive plan and adopted implementing zoning regulations under the Growth Management Act (chapter 36.70A RCW) will meet the definition of industrial property. For cities and counties not planning under the Growth Management Act, the department expects that spot zoned industrial properties will not meet the definition of industrial property but that properties that are part of a larger area zoned for heavy industrial or high intensity industrial use will meet the definition of an industrial property;
(ii) For both GMA and non-GMA cities and counties, the department expects that light industrial and commercial zones and uses should meet the definition of industrial property where the land uses are comparable to those cited in the definition of industrial property or the land uses are an integral part of a qualifying industrial use (such as, ancillary or support facilities). This will require a site-by-site evaluation of the zoning text and land uses;
(iii) The department expects that for portions of industrial properties in close proximity to (generally, within a few hundred feet) residential areas, schools or childcare facilities, residential soil cleanup levels will be used unless:
(A) Access to the industrial property is very unlikely or, the hazardous substances that are not treated or removed are contained under a cap of clean soil (or other materials) of substantial thickness so that it is very unlikely the hazardous substances would be disturbed by future site maintenance and construction activities (depths of even shallow footings, utilities and drainage structures in industrial areas are typically three to six feet); and
(B) The hazardous substances are relatively immobile (or have other characteristics) or have been otherwise contained so that subsurface lateral migration or surficial transport via dust or runoff to these nearby areas or facilities is highly unlikely; and
(iv) Note that a change in the reasonable maximum exposure to industrial site use primarily affects the direct contact exposure pathway. Thus, for example, for sites where the soil cleanup level is based primarily on the potential for the hazardous substance to leach and cause groundwater contamination, it is the department's expectation that an industrial land use will not affect the soil cleanup level. Similarly, where the soil cleanup level is based primarily on surface water protection or other pathways other than direct human contact, land use is not expected to affect the soil cleanup level.
(2) General considerations.
(a) In the event of a release of a hazardous substance at a site qualifying as industrial property, a cleanup action that complies with this chapter shall be conducted to address those soils with hazardous substance concentrations which exceed industrial soil cleanup levels at the relevant point of compliance.
(b) Soil cleanup levels for areas beyond the industrial property boundary that do not qualify for industrial soil cleanup levels under this section (including implementation of institutional controls and a covenant restricting use of the property to industrial property uses) shall be established in accordance with WAC 173-340-740.
(c) Industrial soil cleanup levels shall be established at concentrations that do not directly or indirectly cause violations of groundwater, surface water, sediment or air cleanup standards established under this chapter or under applicable state and federal laws. A property that qualifies for an industrial soil cleanup level under this section does not necessarily qualify for a Method C cleanup level in other media. Each medium must be evaluated separately using the criteria applicable to that medium.
(d) The department may require more stringent soil cleanup standards than required by this section when, based on a site-specific evaluation, the department determines that this is necessary to protect human health and the environment, including consideration of the factors in WAC 173-340-740 (1)(c). Any imposition of more stringent requirements under this provision shall comply with WAC 173-340-702 and 173-340-708.
(3) Method A industrial soil cleanup levels.
(a) Applicability. Method A industrial soil cleanup levels may be used only at any industrial property qualifying under WAC 173-340-704(1).
(b) General requirements. Method A industrial soil cleanup levels shall be at least as stringent as all of the following:
(i) Concentrations in Table 745-1 and compliance with the corresponding footnotes;
(ii) Concentrations established under applicable state and federal laws;
(iii) Concentrations that result in no significant adverse effects on the protection and propagation of terrestrial ecological receptors using the procedures specified in WAC 173-340-7490 through 173-340-7493, unless it is demonstrated under those sections that establishing a soil concentration is unnecessary; and
(iv) For a hazardous substance that is deemed an indicator hazardous substance under WAC 173-340-708(2) and for which there is no value in Table 745-1 or applicable state and federal laws, a concentration that does not exceed the natural background concentration or the practical quantification limit, subject to the limitations in this chapter.
(4) Method B industrial soil cleanup levels. This section does not provide procedures for establishing Method B industrial soil cleanup levels. Method C is the standard method for establishing soil cleanup levels at industrial sites and its use is conditioned upon the continued use of the site for industrial purposes. The person conducting the cleanup action also has the option of establishing unrestricted land use soil cleanup levels under WAC 173-340-740 for qualifying industrial properties. This option may be desirable when the person wants to avoid restrictions on the future use of the property. When a site does not qualify for a Method A or Method C industrial soil cleanup level under this section, or the user chooses to establish unrestricted land use soil cleanup levels at a site, soil cleanup levels must be established using Methods A or B under WAC 173-340-740.
(5) Method C industrial soil cleanup levels.
(a) Applicability. Method C industrial soil cleanup levels consist of standard and modified cleanup levels as described in this subsection. Either standard or modified Method C soil cleanup levels may be used at any industrial property qualifying under subsection (1) of this section.
(b) Standard Method C industrial soil cleanup levels. Standard Method C industrial soil cleanup levels for industrial properties shall be at least as stringent as all of the following:
(i) Applicable state and federal laws. Concentrations established under applicable state and federal laws;
(ii) Environmental protection. Concentrations that result in no significant adverse effects on the protection and propagation of wildlife established using the procedures specified in WAC 173-340-7490 through 173-340-7494, unless it is demonstrated under those sections that establishing a soil concentration is unnecessary.
(iii) Human health protection. For hazardous substances for which sufficiently protective, health-based criteria or standards have not been established under applicable state and federal laws, those concentrations that protect human health as determined by evaluating the following exposure pathways:
(A) Groundwater protection. Concentrations that will not cause contamination of groundwater to concentrations which exceed groundwater cleanup levels established under WAC 173-340-720 as determined using the methods described in WAC 173-340-747.
(B) Soil direct contact. Concentrations that, due to direct contact with contaminated soil, are estimated to result in no acute or chronic noncarcinogenic toxic effects on human health using a hazardous quotient of one (1) and concentrations for which the upper bound on the estimated excess cancer risk is less than or equal to one in one hundred thousand (1 x 10-5). Equations 745-1 and 745-2 and the associated default assumptions shall be used to conduct this calculation.
(I) Noncarcinogens. For noncarcinogenic toxic effects of hazardous substances due to soil ingestion, concentrations shall be determined using Equation 745-1. For petroleum mixtures and components of such mixtures, see (b)(iii)(B)(III) of this subsection.
[Equation 745-1]
Soil Cleanup Level
(mg/kg)
=
RfD x ABW x UCF x HQ x AT
SIR x AB1 x EF x ED
Where:
RfD
=
Reference dose as specified in WAC 173-340-708(7) (mg/kg-day)
ABW
=
Average body weight over the exposure duration (70 kg)
UCF
=
Unit conversion factor (1,000,000 mg/kg)
SIR
=
Soil ingestion rate (50 mg/day)
AB1
=
Gastrointestinal absorption fraction (1.0) (unitless)
EF
=
Exposure frequency (0.4) (unitless)
HQ
=
Hazard quotient (1) (unitless)
AT
=
Averaging time (20 years)
ED
=
Exposure duration (20 years)
(II) Carcinogens. For carcinogenic effects of hazardous substances due to soil ingestion, concentrations shall be determined using Equation 745-2. For petroleum mixtures and components of such mixtures, see (b)(iii)(B)(III) of this subsection.
[Equation 745-2]
Soil Cleanup Level
(mg/kg)
=
RISK x ABW x AT x UCF
CPF x SIR x AB1 x ED x EF
Where:
RISK
=
Acceptable cancer risk level (1 in 100,000) (unitless)
ABW
=
Average body weight over the exposure duration (70 kg)
AT
=
Averaging time (75 years)
UCF
=
Unit conversion factor (1,000,000 mg/kg)
CPF
=
Carcinogenic Potency Factor as specified in WAC 173-340-708(8) (kg-day/mg)
SIR
=
Soil ingestion rate (50 mg/day)
AB1
=
Gastrointestinal absorption fraction (1.0) (unitless).
May use 0.6 for mixtures of dioxins and/or furans
ED
=
Exposure duration (20 years)
EF
=
Exposure frequency (0.4) (unitless)
(III) Petroleum mixtures. For noncarcinogenic effects of petroleum mixtures, a total petroleum hydrocarbon cleanup level shall be calculated taking into account the additive effects of the petroleum fractions and volatile organic compounds present in the petroleum mixture. Equation 745-3 shall be used for this calculation. This equation takes into account concurrent exposure due to ingestion and dermal contact with petroleum contaminated soils. Cleanup levels for other noncarcinogens and known or suspected carcinogens within the petroleum mixture shall be calculated using Equations 745-4 and 745-5. See Table 830-1 for the analyses required for various petroleum products to use this method.
[Equation 745-3]
Where:
Csoil
=
TPH soil cleanup level (mg/kg)
HI
=
Hazard index (1) (unitless)
ABW
=
Average body weight over the exposure duration (70 kg)
AT
=
Averaging time (20 years)
EF
=
Exposure frequency (0.7) (unitless)
ED
=
Exposure duration (20 years)
SIR
=
Soil ingestion rate (50 mg/day)
AB1
=
Gastrointestinal absorption fraction (1.0) (unitless)
F(i)
=
Fraction (by weight) of petroleum component (i) (unitless)
SA
=
Dermal surface area (2,500 cm2)
AF
=
Adherence factor (0.2 mg/cm2-day)
ABS
=
Dermal absorption fraction for petroleum component (i) (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.0005 for volatile petroleum components with vapor press ˃ =  benzene
 
0.03 for volatile petroleum components with vapor press < benzene
 
0.1 for other petroleum components
RfDo(i)
=
Oral reference dose of petroleum component (i) as defined in WAC 173-340-708(7) (mg/kg-day)
RfDd(i)
=
Dermal reference dose for petroleum component (i) (mg/kg-day) derived by RfDo x GI
GI
=
Gastrointestinal absorption conversion factor (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.8 for volatile petroleum components
 
0.5 for other petroleum components
n
=
The number of petroleum components (petroleum fractions plus volatile organic compounds with an RfD) present in the petroleum mixture. (See Table 830-1.)
(C) Soil vapors. The soil to vapor pathway shall be evaluated for volatile organic compounds whenever any of the following conditions exist:
(I) For gasoline range organics, whenever the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration is significantly higher than a concentration derived for protection of groundwater for drinking water beneficial use under WAC 173-340-747(6) using the default assumptions;
(II) For diesel range organics, whenever the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration is greater than 10,000 mg/kg;
(III) For other volatile organic compounds, including petroleum components, whenever the concentration is significantly higher than a concentration derived for protection of groundwater for drinking water beneficial use under WAC 173-340-747(4).
See subsection (5)(c)(iv)(B) of this section for methods that may be used to evaluate the soil to vapor pathway.
(c) Modified Method C soil cleanup levels.
(i) General. Modified Method C soil cleanup levels are standard Method C soil cleanup levels modified with chemical-specific or site-specific data. When making these adjustments, the resultant cleanup levels shall meet applicable state and federal laws, meet health risk levels for standard Method C soil cleanup levels, and be demonstrated to be environmentally protective using the procedures specified in WAC 173-340-7490 through 173-340-7494. Changes to exposure assumptions must comply with WAC 173-340-708(10).
(ii) Allowable modifications. The following modifications may be made to the default assumptions in the standard Method C equations to derive modified Method C soil cleanup levels:
(A) For the protection of groundwater see WAC 173-340-747;
(B) For soil ingestion, the gastrointestinal absorption fraction may be modified if the requirements of WAC 173-340-702 (14), (15), (16), and 173-340-708(10) are met;
(C) For dermal contact, the adherence factor, dermal absorption fraction and gastrointestinal absorption conversion factor may be modified if the requirements of WAC 173-340-702 (14), (15), (16), and 173-340-708(10) are met;
(D) The toxicity equivalent factors provided in WAC 173-340-708 (8)(d), (e) and (f), may be modified provided the requirements of WAC 173-340-708 (8)(g) and (h) are met;
(E) The reference dose and cancer potency factor may be modified if the requirements in WAC 173-340-708 (7) and (8) are met; and
(F) Modifications incorporating new science as provided for in WAC 173-340-702 (14), (15) and (16).
(iii) Dermal contact. For hazardous substances other than petroleum mixtures, dermal contact with the soil shall be evaluated whenever the proposed changes to Equations 745-1 and 745-2 would result in a significantly higher soil cleanup level than would be calculated without the proposed changes. When conducting this evaluation, the following equations and default assumptions shall be used:
(A) For noncarcinogens use Equation 745-4. This equation takes into account concurrent exposure due to ingestion and dermal contact with soil.
[Equation 745-4]
Where:
Csoil
=
Soil cleanup level (mg/kg)
HQ
=
Hazard quotient (unitless)
ABW
=
Average body weight over the exposure duration (70 kg)
AT
=
Averaging time (20 years)
EF
=
Exposure frequency (0.7) (unitless)
ED
=
Exposure duration (20 years)
SIR
=
Soil ingestion rate (50 mg/day)
AB1
=
Gastrointestinal absorption fraction (1.0) (unitless)
SA
=
Dermal surface area (2,500 mg/cm2)
AF
=
Adherence factor (0.2 mg/cm2-day)
ABS
=
Dermal absorption fraction (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.01 for inorganic hazardous substances
 
0.0005 for volatile organic compounds with vapor press ˃ =  benzene
 
0.03 for volatile organic compounds with vapor press < benzene
 
0.1 for other organic hazardous substances
RfDo
=
Oral reference dose as defined in WAC 173-340-708(7) (mg/kg-day)
RfDd
=
Dermal reference dose (mg/kg-day) derived by RfDo x GI
GI
=
Gastrointestinal absorption conversion factor (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.2 for inorganic hazardous substances
 
0.8 for volatile organic compounds
 
0.5 for other organic hazardous substances
(B) For carcinogens use Equation 745-5. This equation takes into account concurrent exposure due to ingestion and dermal contact with soil.
[Equation 745-5]
Where:
Csoil
=
Soil cleanup level (mg/kg)
RISK
=
Acceptable cancer risk (1 in 100,000) (unitless)
ABW
=
Average body weight over the exposure duration (70 kg)
AT
=
Averaging time (75 years)
EF
=
Exposure frequency (0.7) (unitless)
ED
=
Exposure duration (20 years)
SIR
=
Soil ingestion rate (50 mg/day)
AB1
=
Gastrointestinal absorption fraction (1.0) (unitless).
May use 0.6 for mixtures of dioxins and/or furans
CPFo
=
Oral cancer potency factor as defined in WAC 173-340-708(8) (kg-day/mg)
CPFd
=
Dermal cancer potency factor (kg-day/mg) derived by CPFo/GI
GI
=
Gastrointestinal absorption conversion factor (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.2 for inorganic hazardous substances
 
0.8 for volatile organic compounds and mixtures of dioxins and/or furans
 
0.5 for other organic hazardous substances
SA
=
Dermal surface area (2,500 cm2)
AF
=
Adherence factor (0.2 mg/cm2-day)
ABS
=
Dermal absorption fraction (unitless). May use chemical-specific values or the following defaults:
 
0.01 for inorganic hazardous substances
 
0.0005 for volatile organic compounds with vapor press ˃ =  benzene
 
0.03 for volatile organic compounds substances with vapor press < benzene and for mixtures of dioxins and/or furans
 
0.1 for other organic hazardous substances
(C) Modifications may be made to Equations 745-4 and 745-5 as provided for in subsection (5)(c)(ii) of this section.
(iv) Soil vapors.
(A) Applicability. The soil to vapor pathway shall be evaluated for volatile organic compounds whenever any of the following conditions exist:
(I) For other than petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures, the proposed changes to the standard Method C equations (Equations 745-1 and 745-2) or default values would result in a significantly higher soil cleanup level than would be calculated without the proposed changes;
(II) For petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures, the proposed changes to the standard Method C equations (Equations 745-3, 745-4 and 745-5) or default values would result in a significantly higher soil cleanup level than would be calculated without the proposed changes;
(III) For gasoline range organics, whenever the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration is significantly higher than a concentration derived for protection of groundwater for drinking water beneficial use under WAC 173-340-747(6) using the default assumptions;
(IV) For diesel range organics, whenever the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration is greater than 10,000 mg/kg;
(V) For other volatile organic compounds, including petroleum components, whenever the concentration is significantly higher than a concentration derived for protection of groundwater for drinking water beneficial use under WAC 173-340-747(4).
(B) Evaluation methods. Soil cleanup levels that are protective of the indoor and ambient air shall be determined on a site-specific basis. Soil cleanup levels may be evaluated as being protective of air pathways using any of the following methods:
(I) Measurements of the soil vapor concentrations, using methods approved by the department, demonstrating vapors in the soil would not exceed air cleanup levels established under WAC 173-340-750.
(II) Measurements of ambient air concentrations and/or indoor air vapor concentrations throughout buildings, using methods approved by the department, demonstrating air does not exceed cleanup levels established under WAC 173-340-750. Such measurements must be representative of current and future site conditions when vapors are likely to enter and accumulate in structures. Measurement of ambient air may be excluded if it can be shown that indoor air is the most protective point of exposure.
(III) Use of modeling methods approved by the department to demonstrate the air cleanup standards established under WAC 173-340-750 will not be exceeded. When this method is used, the department may require soil vapor and/or air monitoring to be conducted to verify the calculations and compliance with air cleanup standards.
(IV) Other methods as approved by the department demonstrating the air cleanup standards established under WAC 173-340-750 will not be exceeded.
(d) Using modified Method C to evaluate industrial soil remediation levels. In addition to the adjustments allowed under subsection (5)(c) of this section,other adjustmentsto the reasonable maximum exposure scenario or default exposure assumptions are allowed when using a quantitative site-specific risk assessment to evaluate the protectiveness of a remedy. See WAC 173-340-355, 173-340-357, and 173-340-708 (3)(d) and (10)(b).
(6) Adjustments to industrial soil cleanup levels.
(a) Total site risk adjustments. Soil cleanup levels for individual hazardous substances developed in accordance with subsection (5) of this section, including cleanup levels based on state and federal laws, shall be adjusted downward to take into account exposure to multiple hazardous substances and/or exposure resulting from more than one pathway of exposure. These adjustments need to be made only if, without these adjustments, the hazard index would exceed one (1) or the total excess cancer risk would exceed one in one hundred thousand (1 x 10-5). These adjustments shall be made in accordance with the procedures specified in WAC 173-340-708 (5) and (6). In making these adjustments, the hazard index shall not exceed one (1) and the total excess cancer risk shall not exceed one in one hundred thousand (1 x 10-5).
(b) Adjustments to applicable state and federal laws. Where a cleanup level developed under subsection (3) or (5) of this section is based on an applicable state or federal law and the level of risk upon which the standard is based exceeds an excess cancer risk of one in one hundred thousand (1 x 10-5) or a hazard index of one (1), the cleanup level shall be adjusted downward so that total excess cancer risk does not exceed one in one hundred thousand (1 x 10-5) and the hazard index does not exceed one (1) at the site.
(c) Natural background and analytical considerations. Cleanup levels determined under subsection (3) or (5) of this section, including cleanup levels adjusted under subsection (6)(a) and (b) of this section, shall not be set at levels below the practical quantitation limit or natural background concentration, whichever is higher. See WAC 173-340-707 and 173-340-709 for additional requirements pertaining to practical quantitation limits and natural background.
(7) Point of compliance. The point of compliance for industrial property soil cleanup levels shall be established in accordance with WAC 173-340-740(6).
(8) Compliance monitoring. Compliance monitoring and data analysis and evaluation for industrial property soil cleanup levels shall be performed in accordance with WAC 173-340-410 and 173-340-740(7).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.105D.030(2). WSR 07-21-065 (Order 06-10), § 173-340-745, filed 10/12/07, effective 11/12/07. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105D RCW. WSR 01-05-024 (Order 97-09A), § 173-340-745, filed 2/12/01, effective 8/15/01; WSR 96-04-010 (Order 94-37), § 173-340-745, filed 1/26/96, effective 2/26/96; WSR 91-04-019, § 173-340-745, filed 1/28/91, effective 2/28/91.]
Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency.
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