Chapter 88.16 RCW

PILOTAGE ACT

Sections

88.16.005Legislative declaration of policy and intent.
88.16.010Board of pilotage commissionersCreatedChairpersonMembersTermsQualificationsVacanciesQuorum.
88.16.020Board of pilotage commissionersOfficeCompensation and travel expenses of membersEmployment of personnel.
88.16.035Board of pilotage commissionersPowers and duties.
88.16.040Oaths and subpoenasCompelling attendance of witnessesContempt.
88.16.050Pilotage districts and waters affected.
88.16.055Utilities and transportation commission to establish pilotage tariffs for pilotage servicesExtra compensation, consideration of pilot retirement expenses incurred in prior yearSubmission of statutory changesReport.
88.16.061Pilotage account.
88.16.070Vessels exempted and included under chapterFeePenalty.
88.16.090Pilot and pilot trainee licensesQualificationsDurationAnnual feeExaminations and evaluationsTraining program and licensePenaltyReporting requirements.
88.16.100Pilots' licensesRevocation, suspension, etc., ofReprimand or fineOther disciplinary actionsProcedureJudicial review.
88.16.102Pilots' licensesMandatory termination of.
88.16.103Mandatory rest periods for pilotsRulesAssignment refusalTraining program trips by pilot traineesQuarterly review.
88.16.105Size and type of vessels prescribed for newly licensed pilotRules.
88.16.107Pilots or pilot trainees may testify without sanctions for doing so.
88.16.110Pilots to file quarterly reportContents.
88.16.115Limiting liability of pilots and any countywide port district in Grays Harbor pilotage districtDeemed in public interest.
88.16.118Limited liability of pilots and pilot traineesLiability of vessel, owner, or operator not limited.
88.16.120Failure to observe pilotage ratePenalty.
88.16.130Unlicensed pilot liable for payment of ratesPenalty for refusing to employ licensed pilot.
88.16.133Deviations from state lawDuty to submit pilot's report.
88.16.135Assignment of pilots to vesselsRequest that pilot not be assignedHearing on request.
88.16.140Pilot's lien for compensation.
88.16.150General penaltyCivil penaltyJurisdictionDisposition of finesFailure to inform of special directions, gross misdemeanor.
88.16.155Vessel master to make certification before pilotage service offeredProcedure upon refusalRulesPenaltiesException.
88.16.160Severability and short title.
88.16.170Oil tankersIntent and purpose.
88.16.180Oil tankersState licensed pilot required.
88.16.190Oil tankersRestricted watersRequirements.
88.16.195Oil tankersNot to exceed speed of escorting tug.
88.16.200Vessel designed to carry liquefied natural or petroleum gas to adhere to oil tanker provisions.
88.16.250Board of pilotage commissioners authorized to adopt rulesGrays Harbor pilotage districtTug escort requirements/safety measures for certain oil tankers.
88.16.260Board of pilotage commissioners authorized to adopt rules in consultation with other entitiesTug escorts.

NOTES:

Unlicensed pilotage: RCW 88.08.060.


Legislative declaration of policy and intent.

The legislature finds and declares that it is the policy of the state of Washington to prevent the loss of human lives, loss of property and vessels, and to protect the marine environment of the state of Washington through the sound application of compulsory pilotage provisions in certain of the state waters.
The legislature further finds and declares that it is a policy of the state of Washington to have pilots experienced in the handling of vessels aboard vessels in certain of the state waters with prescribed qualifications and licenses issued by the state.
It is the intent of the legislature to ensure against the loss of lives, loss or damage to property and vessels, and to protect the marine environment through the establishment of a board of pilotage commissioners representing the interests of the people of the state of Washington.
It is the further intent of the legislature not to place in jeopardy Washington's position as an able competitor for waterborne commerce from other ports and nations of the world, but rather to continue to develop and encourage such commerce.

NOTES:

Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: "If any provision of this 1977 amendatory act, or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act, or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 1977 ex.s. c 337 § 18.]



Board of pilotage commissionersCreatedChairpersonMembersTermsQualificationsVacanciesQuorum.

(1) The board of pilotage commissioners of the state of Washington is hereby created and shall consist of the assistant secretary of marine operations of the department of transportation of the state of Washington, or the assistant secretary's designee who shall be an employee of the marine division, who shall be chairperson, the director of the department of ecology, or the director's designee, and seven members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate. Each of the appointed commissioners shall be appointed for a term of four years from the date of the member's commission. No person shall be eligible for appointment to the board unless that person is at the time of appointment eighteen years of age or over and a citizen of the United States and of the state of Washington. Two of the appointed commissioners shall be pilots licensed under this chapter and actively engaged in piloting upon the waters covered by this chapter for at least three years immediately preceding the time of appointment and while serving on the board. One pilot shall be from the Puget Sound pilotage district and the other pilot shall be from either the Grays Harbor pilotage district or the Puget Sound pilotage district. Two of the appointed commissioners shall be actively engaged in the ownership, operation, or management of deep sea cargo and/or passenger-carrying vessels for at least three years immediately preceding the time of appointment and while serving on the board. One of the shipping commissioners shall be a representative of American and one of foreign shipping. One of the commissioners shall be a representative from a recognized environmental organization concerned with marine waters. The remaining commissioners shall be persons interested in and concerned with pilotage, maritime safety, and marine affairs, with broad experience related to the maritime industry exclusive of experience as either a state licensed pilot or as a shipping representative.
(2) Any vacancy in an appointed position on the board shall be filled by the governor for the remainder of the unfilled term, subject to confirmation by the senate.
(3) Five members of the board shall constitute a quorum. At least one pilot, one shipping representative, and one public member must be present at every meeting. All commissioners and the chairperson shall have a vote.

NOTES:

Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.
Federal requirements1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070.
Severability1971 ex.s. c 292: See note following RCW 26.28.010.



Board of pilotage commissionersOfficeCompensation and travel expenses of membersEmployment of personnel.

The department of transportation of the state of Washington shall be the office of the board, and all records shall be kept in the office of the department. Each pilotage commissioner shall be compensated in accordance with RCW 43.03.240 and shall be reimbursed for travel expenses in accordance with RCW 43.03.050 and 43.03.060, to be paid out of the pilotage account on vouchers approved by the chairperson of the board: PROVIDED, That the sums received under this section shall not be considered compensation earnable as defined pursuant to RCW 41.40.010(8).
The board is authorized to employ personnel, pursuant to chapter 41.06 RCW, as necessary to conduct the business of the board.

NOTES:

Legislative findingsSeverabilityEffective date1984 c 287: See notes following RCW 43.03.220.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.
Federal requirements1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070.
Effective dateSeverability1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 34: See notes following RCW 2.08.115.



Board of pilotage commissionersPowers and duties.

(1) The board of pilotage commissioners shall:
(a) Adopt rules, pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, necessary for the enforcement and administration of this chapter;
(b)(i) Issue training licenses and pilot licenses to pilot applicants meeting the qualifications provided for in RCW 88.16.090 and such additional qualifications as may be determined by the board;
(ii) Establish a comprehensive training program to assist in the training and evaluation of pilot applicants before final licensing; and
(iii) Establish additional training requirements, including a program of continuing education developed after consultation with pilot organizations, including those located within the state of Washington, as required to maintain a competent pilotage service;
(c) Maintain a register of pilots, records of pilot accidents, and other history pertinent to pilotage;
(d) Determine from time to time the number of pilots necessary to be licensed in each district of the state to optimize the operation of a safe, fully regulated, efficient, and competent pilotage service in each district;
(e) Provide assistance to the utilities and transportation commission, as requested by the utilities and transportation commission, in its performance of pilotage tariff setting functions under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060;
(f) File annually with the governor and the chairs of the transportation committees of the senate and house of representatives a report which includes, but is not limited to, the following: The number, names, ages, pilot license number, training license number, and years of service as a Washington licensed pilot of any person licensed by the board as a Washington state pilot or trainee; the names, employment, and other information of the members of the board; the total number of pilotage assignments by pilotage district, including information concerning the various types and sizes of vessels and the total annual tonnage; the annual earnings or stipends of individual pilots and trainees before and after deduction for expenses of pilot organizations, including extra compensation as a separate category; the annual expenses of private pilot associations, including personnel employed and capital expenditures; the status of pilotage tariffs, extra compensation, and travel; the retirement contributions paid to pilots and the disposition thereof; the number of groundings, marine occurrences, or other incidents which are reported to or investigated by the board, and which are determined to be accidents, as defined by the board, including the vessel name, location of incident, pilot's or trainee's name, and disposition of the case together with information received before the board acted from all persons concerned, including the United States coast guard; the names, qualifications, time scheduled for examinations, and the district of persons desiring to apply for Washington state pilotage licenses; summaries of dispatch records, quarterly reports from pilots, and the bylaws and operating rules of pilotage organizations; the names, sizes in deadweight tons, surcharges, if any, port of call, name of the pilot or trainee, and names and horsepower of tug boats for any and all oil tankers subject to the provisions of RCW 88.16.190 together with the names of any and all vessels for which the United States coast guard requires special handling pursuant to their authority under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972; the expenses of the board; and any and all other information which the board deems appropriate to include;
(g) Make available information that includes the pilotage act and other statutes of Washington state and the federal government that affect pilotage, including the rules of the board, together with such additional information as may be informative for pilots, agents, owners, operators, and masters;
(h) Appoint advisory committees and employ marine experts as necessary to carry out its duties under this chapter;
(i) Provide for the maintenance of efficient and competent pilotage service on all waters covered by this chapter; and do such other things as are reasonable, necessary, and expedient to insure proper and safe pilotage upon the waters covered by this chapter and facilitate the efficient administration of this chapter.
(2) The board may pay stipends to pilot trainees under subsection (1)(b) of this section.

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 107: See note following RCW 88.16.055.
Retroactive application2006 c 53: "This act is intended to clarify the authority of the board of pilotage commissioners to pay stipends to pilot trainees that have indicated they wish to receive a stipend during the board of pilotage commissioners' training program. Section 1 of this act is remedial and curative in nature and applies retroactively to December 1, 2005. Specifically, the board may pay stipends, pursuant to the rules established by the board, to any pilot trainees that qualified for the stipends on, or after, December 1, 2005." [ 2006 c 53 § 3.]
Effective date2006 c 53: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [March 14, 2006]." [ 2006 c 53 § 4.]
Effective date2005 c 26: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [April 12, 2005]." [ 2005 c 26 § 4.]
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Oaths and subpoenasCompelling attendance of witnessesContempt.

Any member of the board shall have power to administer oaths in any matter before the board for consideration or inquiry and to issue subpoenas requiring witnesses to appear before the board. Such subpoenas shall be signed by a member of the board and issued in the name of the state of Washington and be served and returned, and mileage and witness fees shall be paid in like manner and effect as in a civil action. A witness wilfully disobeying such subpoena served upon the witness shall be proceeded against upon complaint of the board to the attorney general or the prosecuting attorney of the county where the attendance of the witness was demanded as for a contempt of the authority of the superior court of said county.



Pilotage districts and waters affected.

This chapter shall apply to the pilotage districts of this state as defined in this section.
(1) "Puget Sound pilotage district", whenever used in this chapter, shall be construed to mean and include all the waters of the state of Washington inside the international boundary line between the state of Washington, the United States and the province of British Columbia, Canada and east of one hundred twenty-three degrees twenty-four minutes west longitude.
(2) "Grays Harbor pilotage district" shall include all inland waters, channels, waterways, and navigable tributaries within Grays Harbor and Willapa Harbor. The boundary line between Grays Harbor and Willapa Harbor and the high seas shall be defined by the board.

NOTES:

Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Utilities and transportation commission to establish pilotage tariffs for pilotage servicesExtra compensation, consideration of pilot retirement expenses incurred in prior yearSubmission of statutory changesReport.

(1) The utilities and transportation commission shall under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060 periodically, but not more frequently than annually, establish the pilotage tariffs for pilotage services provided under this chapter: PROVIDED, That the utilities and transportation commission may establish extra compensation for extra services to vessels in distress, for awaiting vessels, for all vessels in direct transit to or from a Canadian port where Puget Sound pilotage is required for a portion of the voyage, or for being carried to sea on vessels against the will of the pilot, and for such other services as may be determined by the commission: PROVIDED FURTHER, That as an element of the Puget Sound pilotage district tariff, the utilities and transportation commission may consider pilot retirement expenses incurred in the prior year in the Puget Sound pilotage district. However, under no circumstances shall the state be obligated to fund or pay for any portion of retirement payments for pilots or retired pilots.
(2) By December 1, 2018, the utilities and transportation commission shall submit to the transportation committees of the legislature any additional statutory changes necessary to implement chapter 107, Laws of 2018.
(3) By July 1, 2020, the utilities and transportation commission shall provide a report to the governor and the transportation committees of the legislature regarding matters pertaining to establishing tariffs under this section that includes a comparison of the process and outcomes in relation to the recommendations made in the January 2018 joint transportation committee Washington state pilotage final report and recommendations.

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 107: "Except for section 15 of this act, this act takes effect July 1, 2019." [ 2018 c 107 § 16.]



Pilotage account.

The pilotage account is created in the state treasury. Moneys in the account may be spent only after appropriation. Expenditures from the account may be used only for the purposes of the board of pilotage commissioners as prescribed under this chapter and by the utilities and transportation commission for purposes related to pilotage tariff rate setting. The account is subject to allotment procedures under chapter 43.88 RCW.
[ 2018 c 107 § 13; (2018 c 297 § 701 repealed by 2019 c 416 § 1103); 2008 c 128 § 17; 1967 c 15 § 11.]

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 297: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [March 27, 2018]." [ 2018 c 297 § 802.]
Effective date2018 c 107: See note following RCW 88.16.055.
Effective date2008 c 128 §§ 17-20: "Sections 17 through 20 of this act take effect July 1, 2009." [ 2008 c 128 § 21.]



Vessels exempted and included under chapterFeePenalty.

Every vessel not exempt under this section that operates in the waters of the Puget Sound pilotage district or Grays Harbor pilotage district is subject to compulsory pilotage under this chapter.
(1) A United States vessel on a voyage in which it is operating exclusively on its coastwise endorsement, its fishery endorsement (including catching and processing its own catch outside United States waters and economic zone for delivery in the United States), and/or its recreational (or pleasure) endorsement, and all United States and Canadian vessels engaged exclusively in the coasting trade on the west coast of the continental United States (including Alaska) and/or British Columbia shall be exempt from the provisions of this chapter unless a pilot licensed under this chapter be actually employed, in which case the pilotage rates provided for in this chapter or established under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060 shall apply.
(2) The board may, upon the written petition of any interested party, and upon notice and opportunity for hearing, grant an exemption from the provisions of this chapter to any vessel that the board finds is (a) a small passenger vessel that is not more than one thousand three hundred gross tons (international), does not exceed two hundred feet in overall length, is manned by United States-licensed deck and engine officers appropriate to the size of the vessel with merchant mariner credentials issued by the United States coast guard or Canadian deck and engine officers with Canadian-issued certificates of competency appropriate to the size of the vessel, and is operated exclusively in the waters of the Puget Sound pilotage district and lower British Columbia, or (b) a yacht that is not more than one thousand three hundred gross tons (international) and does not exceed two hundred feet in overall length. Such an exemption shall not be detrimental to the public interest in regard to safe operation preventing loss of human lives, loss of property, and protecting the marine environment of the state of Washington. Such petition shall set out the general description of the vessel, the contemplated use of same, the proposed area of operation, and the name and address of the vessel's owner. The board shall annually, or at any other time when in the public interest, review any exemptions granted to this specified class of small vessels to insure that each exempted vessel remains in compliance with the original exemption. The board shall have the authority to revoke such exemption where there is not continued compliance with the requirements for exemption. The board shall maintain a file which shall include all petitions for exemption, a roster of vessels granted exemption, and the board's written decisions which shall set forth the findings for grants of exemption. Each applicant for exemption or annual renewal shall pay a fee, payable to the pilotage account. Fees for initial applications and for renewals shall be established by rule, and shall not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars. The board shall report annually to the legislature on such exemptions.
(3) Every vessel not exempt under subsection (1) or (2) of this section shall, while navigating the Puget Sound and Grays Harbor pilotage districts, employ a pilot licensed under the provisions of this chapter and shall be liable for and pay pilotage rates in accordance with the pilotage rates herein established or which may hereafter be established under the provisions of this chapter or under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060: PROVIDED, That any vessel inbound to or outbound from Canadian ports is exempt from the provisions of this section, if said vessel actually employs a pilot licensed by the Pacific pilotage authority (the pilot licensing authority for the western district of Canada), and if it is communicating with the vessel traffic system and has appropriate navigational charts, and if said vessel uses only those waters east of the international boundary line which are west of a line which begins at the southwestern edge of Point Roberts then to Alden Point (Patos Island), then to Skipjack Island light, then to Turn Point (Stuart Island), then to Kellet Bluff (Henry Island), then to Lime Kiln (San Juan Island) then to the intersection of one hundred twenty-three degrees seven minutes west longitude and forty-eight degrees twenty-five minutes north latitude then to the international boundary. The board shall correspond with the Pacific pilotage authority from time to time to ensure the provisions of this section are enforced. If any exempted vessel does not comply with these provisions it shall be deemed to be in violation of this section and subject to the penalties provided in RCW 88.16.150 as now or hereafter amended and liable to pilotage fees as determined by the board. The board shall investigate any accident on the waters covered by this chapter involving a Canadian pilot and shall include the results in its annual report.

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 107: See note following RCW 88.16.055.
Intent1987 c 194: "The legislature intends to provide a limited exemption from the provisions of this chapter for a specified class of small vessels registered as passenger vessels or yachts. It is not the intent of the legislature that such an exemption shall be a precedent for future exemptions of other classes of vessels from the provisions of this chapter." [ 1987 c 194 § 1.]
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Pilot and pilot trainee licensesQualificationsDurationAnnual feeExaminations and evaluationsTraining program and licensePenaltyReporting requirements.

(1) A person may pilot any vessel subject to this chapter on waters covered by this chapter only if licensed to pilot such vessels on such waters under this chapter.
(2)(a) A person is eligible to be licensed as a pilot or a pilot trainee if the person:
(i) Is a citizen of the United States;
(ii) Is over the age of twenty-five years and under the age of seventy years;
(iii)(A) Holds at the time of application, as a minimum, a United States government license as master of steam or motor vessels of not more than one thousand six hundred gross register tons (three thousand international tonnage convention tons) upon oceans, near coastal waters, or inland waters; or the then most equivalent federal license as determined by the board; any such license to have been held by the applicant for a period of at least two years before application;
(B) Holds at the time of licensure as a pilot, after successful completion of the board-required training program, a first class United States endorsement without restrictions on the United States government license for the pilotage district in which the pilot applicant desires to be licensed; however, all applicants for a pilot examination scheduled to be given before July 1, 2008, must have the United States pilotage endorsement at the time of application; and
(C) The board may require that applicants and pilots have federal licenses and endorsements as it deems appropriate; and
(iv) Successfully completes a board-specified training program.
(b) In addition to the requirements of (a) of this subsection, a pilot applicant must meet such other qualifications as may be required by the board.
(c) A person applying for a license under this section shall not have been convicted of an offense involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol in the twelve months prior to the date of application. This restriction does not apply to license renewals under this section.
(3) The board may establish such other training license and pilot license requirements as it deems appropriate.
(4) Pilot applicants shall be evaluated and may be ranked for entry into a board-specified training program in a manner specified by the board based on their performance on a written examination or examinations established by the board, performance on other evaluation exercises as may be required by the board, and other criteria or qualifications as may be set by the board.
When the board determines that the demand for pilots requires entry of an applicant into the training program it shall issue a training license to that applicant, but under no circumstances may an applicant be issued a training license more than four years after taking the written entry examination. The training license authorizes the trainee to do such actions as are specified in the training program.
After the completion of the training program the board shall evaluate the trainee's performance and knowledge. The board, as it deems appropriate, may then issue a pilot license, delay the issuance of the pilot license, deny the issuance of the pilot license, or require further training and evaluation.
(5) The board may (a) appoint a special independent committee or (b) contract with private or governmental entities knowledgeable and experienced in the development, administration, and grading of licensing examinations or simulator evaluations for marine pilots, or (c) do both. Active, licensed pilots designated by the board may participate in the development, administration, and grading of examinations and other evaluation exercises. If the board does appoint a special examination or evaluation development committee, it is authorized to pay the members of the committee the same compensation and travel expenses as received by members of the board. Any person who willfully gives advance knowledge of information contained on a pilot examination or other evaluation exercise is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
(6) This subsection applies to the review of a pilot applicant's written examinations and evaluation exercises to qualify to be placed on a waiting list to become a pilot trainee. Failure to comply with the process set forth in this subsection renders the results of the pilot applicant's written examinations and evaluation exercises final. A pilot applicant may seek board review, administrative review, and judicial review of the results of the written examinations and evaluation exercises in the following manner:
(a) A pilot applicant who seeks a review of the results of his or her written examinations or evaluation exercises must request from the board-appointed or board-designated examination committee an administrative review of the results of his or her written examinations or evaluation exercises as set forth by board rule.
(b) The determination of the examination committee's review of a pilot applicant's examination results becomes final after thirty days from the date of service of written notification of the committee's determination unless a full adjudicative hearing before an administrative law judge has been requested by the pilot applicant before the thirty-day period has expired, as set forth by board rule.
(c) When a full adjudicative hearing has been requested by the pilot applicant, the board shall request the appointment of an administrative law judge under chapter 34.12 RCW who has sufficient experience and familiarity with pilotage matters to be able to conduct a fair and impartial hearing. The hearing shall be governed by chapter 34.05 RCW. The administrative law judge shall issue an initial order.
(d) The initial order of the administrative law judge is final unless within thirty days of the date of service of the initial order the board or pilot applicant requests review of the initial order under chapter 34.05 RCW.
(e) The board may appoint a person to review the initial order and to prepare and enter a final order as governed by chapter 34.05 RCW and as set forth by board rule. The person appointed by the board under this subsection (6)(e) is called the board reviewing officer.
(7) Pilots are licensed under this section for a term of five years from and after the date of the issuance of their respective state licenses. Licenses must thereafter be renewed as a matter of course, unless the board withholds the license for good cause. Each pilot shall pay to the state treasurer an annual license fee in an amount set by the board by rule. Pursuant to RCW 43.135.055, the fees established under this subsection may be increased through the fiscal year ending June 30, 2011. The fees must be deposited in the pilotage account. The board may assess partially active or inactive pilots a reduced fee.
(8) All pilots and pilot trainees are subject to an annual physical examination by a physician chosen by the board. The physician shall examine the pilot's or pilot trainee's heart, blood pressure, circulatory system, lungs and respiratory system, eyesight, hearing, and such other items as may be prescribed by the board. After consultation with a physician and the United States coast guard, the board shall establish minimum health standards to ensure that pilots and pilot trainees licensed by the state are able to perform their duties. Within ninety days of the date of each annual physical examination, and after review of the physician's report, the board shall make a determination of whether the pilot or pilot trainee is fully able to carry out the duties of a pilot or pilot trainee under this chapter. The board may in its discretion check with the appropriate authority for any convictions of or information regarding offenses by a licensed pilot or pilot trainee involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol in the prior twelve months.
(9) The board may require vessel simulator training for a pilot trainee and shall require vessel simulator training for a licensed pilot subject to RCW 88.16.105. The board shall also require vessel simulator training in the first year of active duty for a new pilot and at least once every five years for all active pilots.
(10) The board shall prescribe, pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, such reporting requirements and review procedures as may be necessary to assure the accuracy and validity of license and service claims. Willful misrepresentation of such required information by a pilot applicant shall result in disqualification of the pilot applicant.

NOTES:

Effective date2009 c 470: See note following RCW 46.68.170.
SeverabilityEffective date2007 c 518: See notes following RCW 46.68.170.
Effective date2005 c 26: See note following RCW 88.16.035.
Effective date1999 sp.s. c 1: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [May 27, 1999]." [ 1999 sp.s. c 1 § 620.]
Effective date1995 c 175: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1995." [ 1995 c 175 § 2.]
Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
FindingsSeverability1990 c 116: See notes following RCW 90.56.210.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Pilots' licensesRevocation, suspension, etc., ofReprimand or fineOther disciplinary actionsProcedureJudicial review.

(1) The board shall have power on its own motion or, in its discretion, upon the written request of any interested party, to investigate the performance of pilotage services subject to this chapter and to issue a reprimand, impose a fine against a pilot in an amount not to exceed five thousand dollars, suspend, withhold, or revoke the license of any pilot, or any combination of the above, for misconduct, incompetency, inattention to duty, intoxication, or failure to perform his duties under this chapter, or violation of any of the rules or regulations provided by the board for the government of pilots. The board may partially or totally stay any disciplinary action authorized in this subsection and subsection (2) of this section. The board shall have the power to require that a pilot satisfactorily complete a specific course of training or treatment.
(2) In all instances where a pilot licensed under this chapter performs pilot services on a vessel exempt under RCW 88.16.070, the board may on its own motion, or in its discretion upon the written request of any interested party, investigate whether the services were performed in a professional manner consistent with sound maritime practices. If the board finds that the pilotage services were performed in a manner that constitutes an act of incompetence, misconduct, or negligence so as to endanger life, limb, or property, or violated or failed to comply with state laws or regulations intended to promote marine safety or to protect navigable waters, the board may issue a reprimand, impose a fine against a pilot in an amount not to exceed five thousand dollars, suspend, withhold, or revoke the state pilot license, or any combination of the above. The board shall have the power to require that a pilot satisfactorily complete a specific course of training or treatment.
(3) The board shall implement a system of specified disciplinary actions or corrective actions, including training or treatment, that will be taken when a state licensed pilot in a specified period of time has had multiple disciplinary actions taken against the pilot's license pursuant to subsections (1) and (2) of this section. In developing these disciplinary or corrective actions, the board shall take into account the cause of the disciplinary action and the pilot's previous record.
(4) The board shall immediately review the pilot's license of a pilot who has been charged with any offense involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol while on duty, including an offense of operation of a vehicle or vessel while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. After a hearing held pursuant to subsection (5) of this section:
(a) The board shall order a pilot who has been found to have been convicted of an offense involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol while on duty and who has not been convicted of another offense involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol in the previous five years to actively participate in and satisfactorily complete a specific program of treatment. The board may impose other sanctions it determines are appropriate. If the pilot does not satisfactorily complete the program of treatment, the board shall suspend, revoke, or withhold the pilot's license until the treatment is completed; and
(b) The board shall suspend for not less than one year the license of a pilot found to have been convicted of a second or subsequent offense involving drugs or the personal consumption of alcohol while on duty.
(5) When the board determines that reasonable cause exists to issue a reprimand, impose a fine, suspend, revoke, or withhold any pilot's license or require training or treatment under subsection (1), (2), or (4) of this section, it shall prepare and personally serve upon such pilot a notice advising him or her of the board's intended action, the specific grounds for the action, and the right to request a hearing to challenge the board's action. The pilot shall have thirty days from the date on which notice is served to request a full hearing before an administrative law judge on the issue of the reprimand, fine, suspension, revocation, or withholding of his or her pilot's license, or requiring treatment or training. The board's proposed reprimand, fine, suspension, revocation, or withholding of a license, or requiring treatment or training shall become final upon the expiration of thirty days from the date notice is served, unless a hearing has been requested prior to that time. When a hearing is requested, the board shall request the appointment of an administrative law judge under chapter 34.12 RCW who has sufficient experience and familiarity with pilotage matters to be able to conduct a fair and impartial hearing. The hearing shall be governed by the provisions of Title 34 RCW. All final decisions of the administrative law judge shall be subject to review by the superior court of the state of Washington for Thurston county, by the superior court of the county in which the pilot maintains his or her residence or principal place of business, or by the superior court of the county in which the board maintains its office, to which court any case with all the papers and proceedings therein shall be immediately certified by the administrative law judge if requested to do so by any party to the proceedings at any time within thirty days after the date of any such final decision. No appeal may be taken after the expiration of thirty days after the date of final decision. Any case so certified to the superior court shall be tried de novo and after certification of the record to said superior court the proceedings shall be had as in a civil action. Moneys collected from fines under this section shall be deposited in the pilotage account.
(6) The board shall have the power, on an emergency basis, to temporarily suspend a state pilot's license: (a) When a pilot has been involved in any vessel accident where there has been major property damage, loss of life, or loss of a vessel, or (b) where there is a reasonable cause to believe that a pilot has diminished mental capacity or is under the influence of drugs, alcohol, or other substances, when in the opinion of the board, such an accident or physical or mental impairment would significantly diminish that pilot's ability to carry out pilotage duties and that the public health, safety, and welfare requires such emergency action. The board shall make a determination within seventy-two hours whether to continue the suspension. The board shall develop rules for exercising this authority including procedures for the chairperson or vice chairperson of the board to temporarily order such suspensions, emergency meetings of the board to consider such suspensions, the length of suspension, opportunities for hearings, and an appeal process. The board shall develop rules under chapter 34.05 RCW.
(7) The board shall immediately notify the United States coast guard that it has revoked or suspended a license pursuant to this section and that a suspended or revoked license has been reinstated.

NOTES:

FindingsSeverability1990 c 116: See notes following RCW 90.56.210.
Severability1987 c 392: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 1987 c 392 § 2.]
Severability1986 c 121: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 1986 c 121 § 2.]
Effective datesSeverability1981 c 67: See notes following RCW 34.12.010.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Pilots' licensesMandatory termination of.

The license of a pilot is terminated upon the pilot reaching the age of seventy.



Mandatory rest periods for pilotsRulesAssignment refusalTraining program trips by pilot traineesQuarterly review.

(1) Pilots shall have a mandatory rest period of at least ten hours with an opportunity for eight hours of uninterrupted sleep after completion of an assignment; excluding multiple assignments within a harbor area, as defined by the board of pilotage commissioners, provided the combined total duration of assignment time does not exceed thirteen hours.
(2) Pilots shall have a mandatory rest period that mitigates fatigue caused by circadian misalignment after three consecutive night assignments, as defined by the board of pilotage commissioners.
(3) A pilot shall refuse a pilotage assignment if the pilot is physically or mentally fatigued or if the pilot has a reasonable belief that the assignment cannot be carried out in a competent and safe manner. Upon refusing an assignment under this subsection, a pilot shall submit a written explanation to the board within forty-eight hours.
(4) A pilot trainee shall not take a training program trip if the pilot trainee is physically or mentally fatigued or if the pilot trainee has reasonable belief that the training program trip cannot be carried out in a competent and safe manner.
(5) The board shall quarterly review the dispatch records of pilot organizations or pilot's quarterly reports to ensure the provisions of this section are enforced. The board may prescribe rules for rest periods pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW.

NOTES:

Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Size and type of vessels prescribed for newly licensed pilotRules.

The board shall prescribe, pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, rules governing the size and type of vessels which a newly licensed pilot may be assigned to pilot on the waters of this state and whether the assignment involves docking or undocking a vessel. The rules shall also prescribe required familiarization trips before a newly licensed pilot may pilot a larger or different type of vessel.

NOTES:

Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Pilots or pilot trainees may testify without sanctions for doing so.

Any pilot or pilot trainee licensed pursuant to this chapter may appear or testify before the legislature or board of pilotage commissioners and no person shall place any sanction against said pilot or pilot trainee for having testified or appeared.

NOTES:

Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Pilots to file quarterly reportContents.

(1) Every pilot licensed under this chapter shall file with the board not later than the tenth day of January, April, July, and October of each year a report for the preceding quarter. The report shall contain an account of all moneys received for pilotage by him or her or by any other person for the pilot or on the pilot's account or for his or her benefit. The report shall state the name of each vessel piloted, the amount charged to and/or collected from each vessel, the port of registry of such vessel, its dead weight tonnage, whether it was inward or outward bound, whether the amount so received, collected, or charged is in full payment of pilotage, and other information as the board shall prescribe by rule. The board may from time to time require additional information as it deems necessary.
(2) The report shall include information for each vessel that suffers a grounding, collision, or other major marine casualty that occurred while the pilot was on duty during the reporting period. The report shall also include information on near miss incidents as defined in *RCW 88.46.100. Information concerning near miss incidents provided pursuant to this section shall not be used for imposing any sanctions or penalties. The board shall forward information provided under this subsection to the department of ecology for inclusion in the collision reporting system established under *RCW 88.46.100.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: RCW 88.46.100 was amended by 2011 c 122 § 8, deleting the definition of "near miss incident" and also deleting the provisions relating to the collision reporting system.
Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.



Limiting liability of pilots and any countywide port district in Grays Harbor pilotage districtDeemed in public interest.

The preservation of human life and property associated with maritime commerce on the pilotage waters of this state is declared to be in the public interest, and the limitation and regulation of the liability of pilots licensed by the state of Washington, and of any countywide port district located partly or entirely within the Grays Harbor pilotage district as defined by RCW 88.16.050(2) authorized to provide pilotage services, is necessary to such preservation and is deemed to be in the public interest.

NOTES:

Report to legislature and governor1981 c 196: "Prior to January 5, 1983, the board of pilotage commissioners shall forward to the legislature and governor a report concerning the implementation of sections 1 through 3 of this act." [ 1981 c 196 § 4.]



Limited liability of pilots and pilot traineesLiability of vessel, owner, or operator not limited.

(1)(a) A pilot licensed to act as such by the state of Washington, and any countywide port district located partly or entirely within the Grays Harbor pilotage district as defined by RCW 88.16.050(2) authorized to provide pilotage services with pilots employed by or under contract with the port district, shall not be liable for damages in excess of the amount of five thousand dollars for damages or loss occasioned by a pilot's or pilot trainee's errors, omissions, fault, or neglect in the performance of pilotage or pilot training services, except as may arise by reason of the willful misconduct or gross negligence of the pilot.
(b) A pilot trainee licensed to act as such by the state of Washington is not liable for damages in excess of the amount of five thousand dollars for damages or loss occasioned by the pilot trainee's errors, omissions, fault, or neglect in the performance of pilotage or pilot training services, except as may arise by reason of the willful misconduct or gross negligence of the pilot trainee.
(2) When a pilot or pilot trainee boards a vessel to provide pilotage services, that pilot or pilot trainee becomes a servant of the vessel and its owner and operator. Nothing in this section exempts the vessel, its owner, or its operator from liability for damage or loss occasioned by that ship to a person or property on the ground that (a) the ship was piloted by a Washington state licensed pilot or pilot trainee, or (b) the damage or loss was occasioned by the error, omission, fault, or neglect of a Washington state licensed pilot or pilot trainee.
(3) Pilots, pilot trainees, and board members are immune from civil liability to any party for damages or other relief that is in any way based on the communication of, to a pilot or pilot trainee, to the board, or to any other appropriate governmental authority or person, any of the following: (a) Information about any incident or occurrence involving collision, allision, or grounding of any vessel, including near-miss occurrences; (b) information about any other marine occurrence that the pilot or pilot trainee believes involved or involves undue risk in the navigation of any vessel that could result in damage to any person, vessel, structure, aid to navigation, or the marine environment of this state; or (c) any report or other written, oral, or electronic evaluation of the performance of any pilot or pilot trainee. "Performance" includes, but is not limited to, professional ability, attitude, performance of duties, effort, knowledge, skills, and other relevant factors. This protection and immunity does not apply when a pilot or pilot trainee intentionally releases or discloses information known to be false. The immunity granted to a person under this section is in addition to any common law or statutory privilege or immunity enjoyed by the person, and this section is not intended to abrogate or modify any such common law or statutory privilege or immunity. The immunity from civil liability provided under this section shall be liberally construed to accomplish the purposes of this chapter and to encourage the free flow of information and opinions to the board.

NOTES:

Effective date2005 c 26: See note following RCW 88.16.035.



Failure to observe pilotage ratePenalty.

No pilot shall charge, collect or receive and no person, firm, corporation or association shall pay for pilotage or other services performed hereunder any greater, less or different amount, directly or indirectly, than the rates or charges herein established or subsequently established by the utilities and transportation commission under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060 and by the board under this chapter. Any pilot, person, firm, corporation or association violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished pursuant to RCW 88.16.150 as now or hereafter amended, said prosecution to be conducted by the attorney general or the prosecuting attorney of any county wherein the offense or any part thereof was committed.

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 107: See note following RCW 88.16.055.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Unlicensed pilot liable for payment of ratesPenalty for refusing to employ licensed pilot.

Any person not holding a license as pilot under the provisions of this chapter who pilots any vessel subject to the provisions of this chapter on waters covered by this chapter shall pay to the board the pilotage rates established by the utilities and transportation commission under RCW 81.116.010 through 81.116.060. Any master or owner of a vessel required to employ a pilot licensed under the provisions of this chapter who refuses to do so when such a pilot is available shall be punished pursuant to RCW 88.16.150 as now or hereafter amended and shall be imprisoned in the county jail of the county wherein he or she is so convicted until said fine and the costs of his or her prosecution are paid.

NOTES:

Effective date2018 c 107: See note following RCW 88.16.055.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Deviations from state lawDuty to submit pilot's report.

A master, pilot, or pilot trainee who deviates from the provisions of this chapter or Title 363 WAC in order to comply with any federal or international law or treaty, such as 46 U.S.C. Sec. 2304 et seq., or any other provision of law of the state, or who deviates in order to ensure the safety of the vessel or its crew under the control of the master, pilot, or pilot trainee, shall submit a pilot's report of marine safety occurrence as prescribed by the board of pilotage commissioners in WAC 363-116-200 in the case of a near-miss occurrence. If the deviation occurred while the vessel was operating under the control of a pilot or pilot trainee licensed in this state, then the report must be submitted by the pilot or pilot trainee with input provided by the master. The report must describe the circumstances leading to the deviation from the provisions of this chapter and the consequences of that deviation. If the consequences of the deviation include an incident as defined in WAC 363-116-200, then the pilot's report of marine safety occurrence must be submitted in addition to any reports required as a result of the incident. The board shall investigate the circumstances surrounding the deviation and, if the facts of the situation so warrant, may waive enforcement action against the master, pilot, or pilot trainee if the board finds that the deviation was: Taken in order to comply with any other law that may have precedence; required by the ordinary practice of seamen; or justified by the special circumstances of the case.



Assignment of pilots to vesselsRequest that pilot not be assignedHearing on request.

Any ship operator or ship husbanding agent may submit a request in writing to the board that a particular pilot not be assigned to pilot that company's vessels. The request shall be based on specific safety concerns of the ship operator or ship husbanding agent.
The board shall notify interested persons and hold a hearing on that request, and either approve or disapprove the request. If the request is approved, the board shall notify the affected pilot and give the pilot a specific list of vessels for which that pilot shall not provide pilotage services.



Pilot's lien for compensation.

Each vessel, its tackle, apparel and furniture and the owner thereof shall be jointly and severally liable for the compensation of any pilot employed thereon and such pilot shall have a lien upon such vessel, her tackle, apparel and furniture for such compensation.



General penaltyCivil penaltyJurisdictionDisposition of finesFailure to inform of special directions, gross misdemeanor.

(1) In all cases where no other penalty is prescribed in this chapter, any violation of this chapter or of any rule or regulation of the board shall be punished as a gross misdemeanor, and all violations may be prosecuted in any court of competent jurisdiction in any county where the offense or any part thereof was committed. In any case where the offense was committed upon a ship, boat or vessel, and there is doubt as to the proper county, the same may be prosecuted in any county through any part of which the ship, boat or vessel passed, during the trip upon which the offense was committed. All fines collected for any violation of this chapter or any rule or regulation of the board shall within thirty days be paid by the official collecting the same to the state treasurer and shall be credited to the pilotage account: PROVIDED, That all fees, fines, forfeitures and penalties collected or assessed by a district court because of the violation of a state law shall be remitted as provided in chapter 3.62 RCW as now exists or is later amended.
(2) Notwithstanding any other penalty imposed by this section, any person who shall violate the provisions of this chapter, shall be liable to a maximum civil penalty of ten thousand dollars for each violation. The board may request the attorney general or the prosecuting attorney of the county in which any violation of this chapter occurs to bring an action for imposing the civil penalties provided for in this subsection.
Moneys collected from civil penalties shall be deposited in the pilotage account.
(3) Any master of a vessel who shall knowingly fail to inform the pilot dispatched to said vessel or any agent, owner, or operator, who shall knowingly fail to inform the pilot dispatcher, or any dispatcher who shall knowingly fail to inform the pilot actually dispatched to said vessel of any special directions mandated by the coast guard captain of the port under authority of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972, as amended, for the handling of such vessel shall be guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

NOTES:

Intent1987 c 202: See note following RCW 2.04.190.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Vessel master to make certification before pilotage service offeredProcedure upon refusalRulesPenaltiesException.

(1) The master of any vessel which employs a Washington licensed pilot shall certify on a form prescribed by the board of pilotage commissioners that the vessel complies with:
(a) Such provisions of the United States coast guard regulations governing the safety and navigation of vessels in United States waters, as codified in Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as the board may prescribe; and
(b) The provisions of current international agreements governing the safety, radio equipment, and pollution of vessels and other matters as ratified by the United States Senate and prescribed by the board.
(2) The master of any vessel which employs a Washington licensed pilot shall be prepared to produce, and any Washington licensed pilot employed by a vessel shall request to see, certificates of the vessel which certify and indicate that the vessel complies with subsection (1) of this section and the rules of the board promulgated pursuant to subsection (1) of this section.
(3) If the master of a vessel which employs a Washington licensed pilot cannot certify that the vessel complies with subsection (1) of this section and the rules of the board adopted pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, the master shall certify that:
(a) The vessel will comply with subsection (1) of this section before the time the vessel is scheduled to leave the waters of Washington state; and
(b) The coast guard captain of the port was notified of the noncomplying items when they were determined; and
(c) The coast guard captain of the port has authorized the vessel to proceed under such conditions as prescribed by the coast guard pursuant to its authority under federal statutes and regulations.
(4) After the board has prescribed the form required under subsection (1) of this section, no Washington licensed pilot shall offer pilotage services to any vessel on which the master has failed to make a certification required by this section. If the master fails to make a certification the pilot shall:
(a) Disembark from the vessel as soon as safely practicable; and
(b) Immediately inform the coast guard captain of the port of the conditions and circumstances by the best possible means; and
(c) Forward a written report to the board no later than twenty-four hours after disembarking from the vessel.
(5) Any Washington licensed pilot who offers pilotage services to a vessel on which the master has failed to make a certification required by this section or the rules of the board adopted under this section shall be subject to RCW 88.16.150, as now or hereafter amended, and RCW 88.16.100, as now or hereafter amended.
(6) The board shall revise the requirements enumerated in this section as necessary to reflect changes in coast guard regulations, federal statutes, and international agreements. All actions of the board under this section shall comply with chapters 34.05 and 42.30 RCW. The board shall prescribe the time of and method for retention of forms which have been signed by the master of a vessel in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(7) This section shall not apply to the movement of dead ships. The board shall prescribe pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW, after consultation with the coast guard and interested persons, for the movement of dead ships and the certification process thereon.

NOTES:

Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Severability and short title.

If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this chapter is for any reason held to be invalid, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of this chapter. This chapter may be cited as the "Pilotage Act."



Oil tankersIntent and purpose.

Because of the danger of spills, the legislature finds that the transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products by tankers on the Columbia river and on Puget Sound and adjacent waters creates a great potential hazard to important natural resources of the state and to jobs and incomes dependent on these resources.
The legislature recognizes that the Columbia river has many natural obstacles to navigation and shifting navigation channels that create the risk of an oil spill. The legislature also recognizes Puget Sound and adjacent waters are a relatively confined saltwater environment with irregular shorelines and therefore there is a greater than usual likelihood of long-term damage from any large oil spill.
The legislature further recognizes that certain areas of the Columbia river and Puget Sound and adjacent waters have limited space for maneuvering a large oil tanker and that these waters contain many natural navigational obstacles as well as a high density of commercial and pleasure boat traffic.
For these reasons, it is important that large oil tankers be piloted by highly skilled persons who are familiar with local waters and that such tankers have sufficient capability for rapid maneuvering responses.
It is therefore the intent and purpose of RCW 88.16.180 and 88.16.190 to decrease the likelihood of oil spills on the Columbia river and on Puget Sound and its shorelines by requiring all oil tankers above a certain size to employ licensed pilots and to be escorted by a tug or tugs while navigating on certain areas of Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

NOTES:

Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
Severability1975 1st ex.s. c 125: "If any provision of this act, or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act, or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [ 1975 1st ex.s. c 125 § 6.]
Study authorized and directed: "The House and Senate Transportation and Utilities Committees are authorized and directed to study the feasibility, benefits, and disadvantages of requiring similar pilot and tug assistance for vessels carrying other potentially hazardous materials and to submit their findings and recommendations prior to the 45th session of the Washington legislature in January, 1977. Such study shall also include a report on the feasibility, benefits and disadvantages of requiring vessels under tug escort to observe a speed limit, and such study shall include a discussion of the impact of a speed limit on the maneuverability of the vessel, the effectiveness of the tug escort and other legal and technical considerations material and relevant to the required study. Such study shall also include an evaluation and recommendations as to whether there should be a transfer of all duties and responsibilities of the board of pilotage commissioners to the Washington utilities and transportation commission or other state agency, and alternate methods for establishing fair and equitable rates for tug escort and pilot transfer." [ 1975 1st ex.s. c 125 § 5.]
Discharge of oil and hazardous substances into state waters: RCW 90.56.010 through 90.56.040.



Oil tankersState licensed pilot required.

Notwithstanding the provisions of RCW 88.16.070, any registered oil tanker of five thousand gross tons or greater, shall be required:
(1) To take a Washington state licensed pilot while navigating Puget Sound and adjacent waters and shall be liable for and pay pilotage rates pursuant to RCW 88.16.035; and
(2) To take a licensed pilot while navigating the Columbia river.

NOTES:

Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
Severability1975 1st ex.s. c 125: See notes following RCW 88.16.170.



Oil tankersRestricted watersRequirements.

(1) Any oil tanker, whether enrolled or registered, of greater than one hundred twenty-five thousand deadweight tons shall be prohibited from proceeding beyond a point east of a line extending from Discovery Island light south to New Dungeness light, unless authorized by the United States coast guard, pursuant to 33 C.F.R. Sec. 165.1303.
(2)(a)(i) An oil tanker of forty to one hundred twenty-five thousand deadweight tons may operate in the waters east of a line extending from Discovery Island light south to New Dungeness light and all points in the Puget Sound area, including but not limited to the San Juan Islands and connected waterways and the waters south of Admiralty Inlet, to the extent that these waters are within the territorial boundaries of Washington, only if the oil tanker is under the escort of a tug or tugs that have an aggregate shaft horsepower equivalent to at least five percent of the deadweight tons of the escorted oil tanker.
(ii) Effective September 1, 2020, the following may operate in Rosario Strait and connected waterways to the east only if under the escort of a tug or tugs that have an aggregate shaft horsepower equivalent to at least five percent of the deadweight tons of a forty thousand deadweight ton oil tanker: (A) Oil tankers of between five thousand and forty thousand deadweight tons; and (B) both articulated tug barges and towed waterborne vessels or barges that are: (I) Designed to transport oil in bulk internal to the hull; and (II) greater than five thousand deadweight tons.
(iii) The requirements of (a)(ii) of this subsection: (A) Do not apply to vessels providing bunkering or refueling services; (B) do not apply to a towed general cargo deck barge; and (C) may be adjusted or suspended by rule by the board of pilotage commissioners, consistent with RCW 88.16.260(1)(c).
(b) An oil tanker, articulated tug barge, or towed waterborne vessel or barge in ballast or when unladen is not required to be under the escort of a tug.
(c) A tanker assigned a deadweight of less than forty thousand deadweight tons at the time of construction or reconstruction as reported in Lloyd's Register of Ships is not subject to the provisions of RCW 88.16.170 and 88.16.180.
(3) The definitions in this subsection apply throughout this section unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(a) "Articulated tug barge" means a tank barge and a towing vessel joined by hinged or articulated fixed mechanical equipment affixed or connecting to the stern of the tank barge.
(b) "Oil tanker" means a self-propelled deep draft tank vessel designed to transport oil in bulk. "Oil tanker" does not include an articulated tug barge tank vessel.
(c) "Towed general cargo deck barge" means a waterborne vessel or barge designed to carry cargo on deck.
(d) "Waterborne vessel or barge" means any ship, barge, or other watercraft capable of traveling on the navigable waters of this state and capable of transporting any crude oil or petroleum product in quantities of ten thousand gallons or more for purposes other than providing fuel for its motor or engine.

NOTES:

FindingIntent2019 c 289: "The legislature finds that a variety of existing policies designed to reduce the risk of oil spills have helped contribute to a relatively strong safety record for oil moved by water, pipeline, and train in recent years in Washington state. Nevertheless, gaps exist in our safety regimen, especially deriving from shifts in the modes of overwater transportation of oil and the increased transport of oils that may submerge or sink, contributing to an unacceptable threat to Washington waters, where a catastrophic spill would inflict potentially irreversible damage on the endangered southern resident killer whales. In addition to the unique marine and cultural resources in Puget Sound that would be damaged by an oil spill, the geographic, bathometric, and other environmental peculiarities of Puget Sound present navigational challenges that heighten the risk of an oil spill incident occurring. Therefore, it is the intent of the legislature to enact certain new safety requirements designed to reduce the current, acute risk from existing infrastructure and activities of an oil spill that could eradicate our whales, violate the treaty interests and fishing rights of potentially affected federally recognized Indian tribes, damage commercial fishing prospects, undercut many aspects of the economy that depend on the Salish Sea, and otherwise harm the health and well-being of Washington residents. In enacting such measures, however, it is not the intent of the legislature to mitigate, offset, or otherwise encourage additional projects or activities that would increase the frequency or severity of oil spills in the Salish Sea. Furthermore, it is the intent of the legislature for this act to assist in coordinating enhanced international discussions among federal, state, provincial, first nation, federally recognized Indian tribe, and industry leaders in the United States and Canada to develop an agreement for an additional emergency rescue tug available to vessels in distress in the narrow Straits of the San Juan Islands and other boundary waters, which would lessen oil spill risks to the marine environment in both the United States and Canada." [ 2019 c 289 § 1.]
Severability1975 1st ex.s. c 125: See note following RCW 88.16.170.



Oil tankersNot to exceed speed of escorting tug.

An oil tanker under escort of a tug or tugs pursuant to the provisions of RCW 88.16.190 shall not exceed the service speed of the tug or tugs that are escorting the oil tanker.

NOTES:

FindingsSeverability1990 c 116: See notes following RCW 90.56.210.



Vessel designed to carry liquefied natural or petroleum gas to adhere to oil tanker provisions.

Any vessel designed for the purpose of carrying as its cargo liquefied natural or liquefied petroleum gas shall adhere to the provisions of RCW 88.16.190(2) as though it were an oil tanker.

NOTES:

Effective dates1991 c 200: See RCW 90.56.901.
Severability1977 ex.s. c 337: See note following RCW 88.16.005.



Board of pilotage commissioners authorized to adopt rulesGrays Harbor pilotage districtTug escort requirements/safety measures for certain oil tankers.

(1) The board of pilotage commissioners may adopt rules to implement this section. The rules may include tug escort requirements and other safety measures for oil tankers of greater than forty thousand deadweight tons, all articulated tug barges, and other towed waterborne vessels or barges within a two-mile radius of the Grays Harbor pilotage district as defined in RCW 88.16.050.
(2)(a) Prior to proposing a draft rule, the board of pilotage commissioners must consult with the department of ecology, the United States coast guard, the Grays Harbor safety committee, area tribes, public ports, local governments, and other appropriate entities. The board of pilotage commissioners may not adopt rules under this section unless a state agency or a local jurisdiction, for a facility within Grays Harbor that is required to have a contingency plan pursuant to chapter 90.56 RCW:
(i) Makes a final determination or issues a final permit after January 1, 2015, to site a new facility; or
(ii) Provides authority to an existing facility to process or receive crude oil for the first time.
(b) This subsection does not apply to a transmission pipeline or railroad facility.
(3) A rule adopted under this section must:
(a) Be designed to achieve best achievable protection as defined in RCW 88.46.010;
(b) Ensure that any escort tugs used have an aggregate shaft horsepower equivalent to at least five percent of the deadweight tons of the escorted oil tanker or articulated tug barge; and
(c) Ensure that escort tugs have sufficient mechanical capabilities to provide for safe escort.
(4) The provisions adopted under this section may not include rules affecting pilotage. This section does not affect any existing authority to establish pilotage requirements.
(5) The definitions in this subsection apply throughout this section unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(a) "Articulated tug barge" means a tank barge and a towing vessel joined by hinged or articulated fixed mechanical equipment affixed or connecting to the stern of the tank barge.
(b) "Oil tanker" means a self-propelled deep draft tank vessel designed to transport oil in bulk. "Oil tanker" does not include an articulated tug barge tank vessel.
(c) "Waterborne vessel or barge" means any ship, barge, or other watercraft capable of traveling on the navigable waters of this state and capable of transporting any crude oil or petroleum product in quantities of ten thousand gallons or more for purposes other than providing fuel for its motor or engine.

NOTES:

Effective date2015 c 274: See note following RCW 90.56.005.



Board of pilotage commissioners authorized to adopt rules in consultation with other entitiesTug escorts.

(1)(a) By December 31, 2025, the board of pilotage commissioners, in consultation with the department of ecology, must adopt rules regarding tug escorts to address the peculiarities of Puget Sound for the following:
(i) Oil tankers of between five thousand and forty thousand deadweight tons; and
(ii) Both articulated tug barges and towed waterborne vessels or barges that are: (A) Designed to transport oil in bulk internal to the hull; and (B) greater than five thousand deadweight tons.
(b) The requirements of this section do not apply to:
(i) A towed general cargo deck barge; or
(ii) A vessel providing bunkering or refueling services.
(c) The rule making pursuant to (a) of this subsection must be for operating in the waters east of the line extending from Discovery Island light south to New Dungeness light and all points in the Puget Sound area. This rule making must address the tug escort requirements applicable to Rosario Strait and connected waterways to the east established in RCW 88.16.190(2)(a)(ii), and may adjust or suspend those requirements based on expertise developed under subsection (5) of this section.
(d) To achieve the rule adoption deadline in (a) of this subsection, the board of pilotage commissioners must adhere to the following interim milestones:
(i) By September 1, 2020, identify and define the zones, specified in subsection (3)(a) of this section, to inform the analysis required under subsection (5) of this section;
(ii) By December 31, 2021, complete a synopsis of changing vessel traffic trends; and
(iii) By September 1, 2023, consult with potentially affected federally recognized Indian treaty fishing tribes, other federally recognized treaty tribes with potentially affected interests, and stakeholders as required under subsection (6) of this section and complete the analysis required under subsection (5) of this section. By September 1, 2023, the department of ecology must submit a summary of the results of the analysis required under subsection (5) of this section to the legislature consistent with RCW 43.01.036.
(2) When developing rules, the board of pilotage commissioners must consider recommendations from potentially affected federally recognized Indian treaty fishing tribes, other federally recognized treaty tribes with potentially affected interests, and:
(a) The results of the most recently completed vessel traffic risk assessments;
(b) The report developed by the department of ecology as required under section 206, chapter 262, Laws of 2018;
(c) The recommendations included in the southern resident orca task force report, November 2018, and any subsequent research or reports on related topics;
(d) Changing vessel traffic trends, including the synopsis required under subsection (1)(d)(ii) of this section; and
(e) For any formally proposed draft rules or adopted rules, identified estimates of expected costs and benefits of the rule to:
(i) State government agencies to administer and enforce the rule; and
(ii) Private persons or businesses, by category of type of person or business affected.
(3) In the rules adopted under this section, the board of pilotage commissioners must:
(a) Base decisions for risk protection on geographic zones in the waters specified in subsection (1)(c) of this section. As the initial foci of the rules, the board of pilotage commissioners must equally prioritize geographic zones encompassing: (i) Rosario Strait and connected waterways to the east; and (ii) Haro Strait and Boundary Pass;
(b) Specify operational requirements, such as tethering, for tug escorts;
(c) Include functionality requirements for tug escorts, such as aggregate shaft horsepower for tethered tug escorts;
(d) Be designed to achieve best achievable protection, as defined in RCW 88.46.010, as informed by consideration of:
(i) Accident records in British Columbia and Washington waters;
(ii) Existing propulsion and design standards for covered tank vessels; and
(iii) The characteristics of the waterways; and
(e) Publish a document that identifies the sources of information that it relied upon in developing the rules, including any sources of peer-reviewed science and information submitted by tribes.
(4) The rules adopted under this section may not require oil tankers, articulated tug barges, or towed waterborne vessels or barges to be under the escort of a tug when these vessels are in ballast or are unladen.
(5) To inform rule making, the board of pilotage commissioners must conduct an analysis of tug escorts using the model developed by the department of ecology under RCW 88.46.250. The board of pilotage commissioners may:
(a) Develop scenarios and subsets of oil tankers, articulated tug barges, and towed waterborne vessels or barges that could preclude requirements from being imposed under the rule making for a given zone or vessel;
(b) Consider the benefits of vessel safety measures that are newly in effect on or after July 1, 2019, and prior to the adoption of rules under this section; and
(c) Enter into an interagency agreement with the department of ecology to assist with conducting the analysis and developing the rules, subject to each of the requirements of this section.
(6) The board of pilotage commissioners must consult with the United States coast guard, the Puget Sound harbor safety committee, potentially affected federally recognized Indian treaty fishing tribes, other federally recognized treaty tribes with potentially affected interests, ports, local governments, state agencies, and other appropriate entities before adopting tug escort rules applicable to any portion of Puget Sound. Considering relevant information elicited during the consultations required under this subsection, the board of pilotage commissioners must also design the rules with a goal of avoiding or minimizing additional underwater noise from vessels in the Salish Sea, focusing vessel traffic into established shipping lanes, protecting and minimizing vessel traffic impacts to established treaty fishing areas, and respecting and preserving the treaty-protected interests and fishing rights of potentially affected federally recognized Indian tribes.
(7) Rules adopted under this section must be periodically updated consistent with RCW 88.46.260.
(8) The definitions in this subsection apply throughout this section unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(a) "Articulated tug barge" means a tank barge and a towing vessel joined by hinged or articulated fixed mechanical equipment affixed or connecting to the stern of the tank barge.
(b) "Oil tanker" means a self-propelled deep draft tank vessel designed to transport oil in bulk. "Oil tanker" does not include an articulated tug barge tank vessel.
(c) "Towed general cargo deck barge" means a waterborne vessel or barge designed to carry cargo on deck.
(d) "Waterborne vessels or barges" means any ship, barge, or other watercraft capable of traveling on the navigable waters of this state and capable of transporting any crude oil or petroleum product in quantities of ten thousand gallons or more for purposes other than providing fuel for its motor or engine.

NOTES:

FindingIntent2019 c 289: See note following RCW 88.16.190.