Section C403.6—Dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS).
C403.6 Dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) (This section is optional until June 30, 2017; and becomes prescriptive as of July 1, 2017). For office, retail, education, libraries and fire stations. Outdoor air shall be provided to each occupied space by a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) which delivers 100 percent outdoor air without requiring operation of the heating and cooling system fans for ventilation air delivery.
1. Occupied spaces that are not ventilated by a mechanical ventilation system and are only ventilated by a natural ventilation system per Section 402 of the International Mechanical Code.
2. High efficiency variable air volume (VAV) systems complying with Section C403.7. This exception shall not be used as a substitution for a DOAS per Section C406.6 or as a modification to the requirements for the Standard Reference Design per Section C407.
C403.6.1 Energy recovery ventilation with DOAS. The DOAS shall include energy recovery ventilation that complies with the minimum energy recovery efficiency and energy recovery bypass requirements, where applicable, of Section C403.5.1.
1. Occupied spaces under the threshold of Section C403.5 with an average occupant load greater than 25 people per 1000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code) that include demand control ventilation configured to reduce outdoor air by at least 50% below design minimum ventilation rates when the actual occupancy of the space served by the system is less than the design occupancy.
2. Systems installed for the sole purpose of providing makeup air for systems exhausting toxic, flammable, paint, or corrosive fumes or dust, dryer exhaust, or commercial kitchen hoods used for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.
C403.6.2 Heating/cooling system fan controls. Heating and cooling equipment fans, heating and cooling circulation pumps, and terminal unit fans shall cycle off and terminal unit primary cooling air shall be shut off when there is no call for heating or cooling in the zone.
Fans used for heating and cooling using less than 0.12 watts per cfm may operate when space temperatures are within the setpoint deadband (Section C403.2.4.1.2) to provide destratification and air mixing in the space.
C403.6.3 Impracticality. Where the code official determines that full compliance with all the requirements of Sections C403.6.1 and C403.6.2 would be impractical, it is permissible to provide an approved alternate means of compliance that achieves a comparable level of energy efficiency. For the purposes of this section, impractical means that an HVAC system complying with Section C403.6 cannot effectively be utilized due to an unusual use or configuration of the building.
C403.7 High efficiency variable air volume (VAV) systems. For HVAC systems subject to the requirements of Section C403.6 but utilizing Exception 2 of that section, a high efficiency VAV system may be provided without a separate parallel DOAS when the system is designed, installed, and configured to comply with all of the following criteria (this exception shall not be used as a substitution for a DOAS per Section C406.6 or as a modification to the requirements for the Standard Reference Design per Section C407):
1. The VAV systems are provided with airside economizer per Section 403.3 without exceptions.
2. A direct-digital control (DDC) system is provided to control the VAV air handling units and associated terminal units per Section C403.2.4.12 regardless of sizing thresholds of Table C403.2.4.12.1.
3. Multiple-zone VAV systems with a minimum outdoor air requirement of 2,500 cfm (1180 L/s) or greater shall be equipped with a device capable of measuring outdoor airflow intake under all load conditions. The system shall be capable of increasing or reducing the outdoor airflow intake based on feedback from the VAV terminal units as required by Section C403.4.4.3, without exceptions, and Section C403.2.6.2 demand controlled ventilation.
4. Multiple-zone VAV systems with a minimum outdoor air requirement of 2,500 cfm (1180 L/s) or greater shall be equipped with a device capable of measuring supply airflow to the VAV terminal units under all load conditions.
5. In addition to meeting the zone isolation requirements of C403.2.4.4 a single VAV air handling unit shall not serve more than 50,000 square feet (2323 m2) unless a single floor is greater than 50,000 square feet (2323 m2) in which case the air handler is permitted to serve the entire floor.
6. The primary maximum cooling air for the VAV terminal units serving interior cooling load driven zones shall be sized for a supply air temperature that is a minimum of 5°F greater than the supply air temperature for the exterior zones in cooling.
7. Air terminal units with a minimum primary airflow setpoint of 50% or greater of the maximum primary airflow setpoint shall be sized with an inlet velocity of no greater than 900 feet per minute.
8. DDC systems be designed and configured per the guidelines set by high performance sequences of operation for HVAC systems (ASHRAE GPC 36, RP-1455).
9. Allowable fan motor horsepower shall not exceed 90% of the allowable HVAC fan system bhp (Option 2) as defined by Section C403.2.11.1.
10. All fan powered VAV terminal units (series or parallel) shall be provided with electronically commutated motors. The DDC system shall be configured to vary the speed of the motor as a function of the heating and cooling load in the space. Minimum speed shall not be greater than 66% of design airflow required for the greater of heating or cooling operation. Minimum speed shall be used during periods of low heating and cooling operation and ventilation-only operation.
For series fan powered terminal units where the volume of primary air required to deliver the ventilation requirements at minimum speed exceeds the air that would be delivered at the speed defined above, the minimum speed setpoint shall be configured to exceed the value required to provide the required ventilation air.
11. Fan-powered VAV terminal units shall only be permitted at perimeter zones with an envelope heating load requirement. All other VAV terminal units shall be single duct terminal units.
12. When in occupied heating or in occupied deadband between heating and cooling all fan powered VAV terminal units shall be configured to reset the primary air supply setpoint, based on the VAV air handling unit outdoor air vent fraction, to the minimum ventilation airflow required per International Mechanical Code without utilizing the exceptions 2, 3, or 4 of Section C403.4.4.
13. Spaces that are larger than 150 square feet (14 m2) and with an occupant load greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code) shall be provided with all of the following features:
13.1. A dedicated VAV terminal unit capable of controlling the space temperature and minimum ventilation shall be provided.
13.2. Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided that utilizes a carbon dioxide sensor to reset the ventilation setpoint of the VAV terminal unit from the design minimum to design maximum ventilation rate as required by Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.
13.3. Occupancy sensors shall be provided that are configured to reduce the minimum ventilation rate to zero and setback room temperature setpoints by a minimum of 5°F, for both cooling and heating, when the space is unoccupied.
14. Dedicated server rooms, electronic equipment rooms, telecom rooms, or other similar spaces with cooling loads greater than 5 watts/sf shall be provided with separate, independent HVAC systems to allow the VAV air handlers to turn off during unoccupied hours in the office space and to allow the supply air temperature reset to occur.
The VAV air handling unit and VAV terminal units may be used for secondary backup cooling when there is a failure of the primary HVAC system.
Additionally, server rooms, electronic equipment rooms, telecom rooms, or other similar spaces shall be provided with airside economizer per Section 403.3 without using the exceptions to Section C403.3.
Heat recovery per exception 9 of Section 403.3 may be in lieu of airside economizer for the separate, independent HVAC system.
15. HVAC system central heating or cooling plant will include a minimum of one of the following options:
15.1. VAV terminal units with hydronic heating coils connected to systems with hot water generation equipment limited to the following types of equipment: Gas-fired hydronic boilers with a thermal efficiency, Et, of not less than 90%, air-to-water heat pumps or heat recovery chillers.
15.2. Chilled water VAV air handing units connected to systems with chilled water generation equipment with IPLV values more than 25% higher than the minimum part load efficiencies listed in Table C403.2.3(7), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify. The smallest chiller or compressor in the central plant shall not exceed 20% of the total central plant cooling capacity or the chilled water system shall include thermal storage sized for a minimum of 20% of the total central cooling plant capacity.
16. The DDC system shall include a fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) system complying with the following:
16.1. The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation:
16.1.1. Outside air.
16.1.2. Supply air.
16.1.3. Return air.
16.2. Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F (1.1°C) over the range of 40°F to 80°F (4°C to 26.7°C).
16.3. The VAV air handling unit controller shall be configured to provide system status by indicating the following:
16.3.1. Free cooling available.
16.3.2. Economizer enabled.
16.3.3. Compressor enabled.
16.3.4. Heating enabled.
16.3.5. Mixed air low limit cycle active.
16.3.6. The current value of each sensor.
16.4. The VAV air handling unit controller shall be capable of manually initiating each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and the heating system can be independently tested and verified.
16.5. The VAV air handling unit shall be configured to report faults to a fault management application accessible by day-to-day operating or service personnel or annunciated locally on zone thermostats.
16.6. The VAV terminal unit shall be configured to report if the VAV inlet valve has failed by performing the following diagnostic check at a maximum interval of once a month:
16.6.1. Command VAV terminal unit primary air inlet valve closed and verify that primary airflow goes to zero.
16.6.2. Command VAV terminal unit primary air inlet valve to design airflow and verify that unit is controlling to with 10% of design airflow.
16.7. The VAV terminal unit shall be configured to report and trend when the zone is driving the following VAV air handling unit reset sequences. The building operator shall have the capability to exclude zones used in the reset sequences from the DDC control system graphical user interface:
16.7.1. Supply air temperature setpoint reset to lowest supply air temperature setpoint for cooling operation.
16.7.2. Supply air duct static pressure setpoint reset for the highest duct static pressure setpoint allowable.
16.8. The FDD system shall be configured to detect the following faults:
16.8.1. Air temperature sensor failure/fault.
16.8.2. Not economizing when the unit should be economizing.
16.8.3. Economizing when the unit should not be economizing.
16.8.4. Outdoor air or return air damper not modulating.
16.8.5. Excess outdoor air.
16.8.6 VAV terminal unit primary air valve failure.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025
, and 19.27.074
. WSR 16-13-089, § 51-11C-40360, filed 6/15/16, effective 7/16/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025
, and 19.27.074
. WSR 16-03-072, § 51-11C-40360, filed 1/19/16, effective 7/1/16. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020
and chapters 19.27
RCW. WSR 13-04-056, § 51-11C-40360, filed 2/1/13, effective 7/1/13.]