365-196-400  <<  365-196-405 >>   365-196-410

WAC 365-196-405

Land use element.

(1) Requirements. The land use element must contain the following features:
(a) Designation of the proposed general distribution and general location and extent of the uses of land, where appropriate, for agricultural, timber, and mineral production, for housing, commerce, industry, recreation, open spaces, public utilities, public facilities, general aviation airports, military bases, rural uses, and other land uses.
(b) Population densities, building intensities, and estimates of future population growth.
(c) Provisions for protection of the quality and quantity of ground water used for public water supplies.
(d) Wherever possible, consideration of urban planning approaches to promote physical activity.
(e) Where applicable, a review of drainage, flooding, and stormwater runoff in the area covered by the plan and nearby jurisdictions, and guidance for corrective actions to mitigate or cleanse those discharges that pollute waters of the state, including Puget Sound or waters entering Puget Sound.
(2) Recommendations for meeting requirements. The land use assumptions in the land use element form the basis for all growth-related planning functions in the comprehensive plan, including transportation, housing, capital facilities, and, for counties, the rural element. Preparing the land use element is an iterative process. Linking all plan elements to the land use assumptions in the land use element helps meet the act's requirement for internal consistency. The following steps are recommended in preparing the land use element:
(a) Counties and cities should integrate relevant county-wide planning policies and, where applicable, multicounty planning policies, into the local planning process, and ensure local goals and policies are consistent.
(b) Counties and cities should identify the existing general distribution and location of various land uses, the approximate acreage, and general range of density or intensity of existing uses.
(c) Counties and cities should estimate the extent to which existing buildings and housing, together with development or redevelopment of vacant, partially used and underutilized land, can support anticipated growth over the planning period. Redevelopment of fully built properties may also be considered.
(i) Estimation of development or redevelopment capacity may include:
(A) Identification of individual properties or areas likely to convert because of market pressure or because they are built below allowed densities; or
(B) Use of an estimated percentage of area-wide growth during the planning period anticipated to occur through redevelopment, based on likely future trends for the local area or comparable jurisdictions; or
(C) Some combination of (c)(i)(A) and (B) of this subsection.
(ii) Estimates of development or redevelopment capacity should be included in a land capacity analysis as part of a county-wide process described in WAC 365-196-305 and 365-196-310 or, as applicable, WAC 365-196-315.
(d) Counties and cities should identify special characteristics and uses of the land which may influence land use or regulation. These may include:
(i) The location of agriculture, forest and mineral resource lands of long-term commercial significance.
(ii) The general location of any known critical areas that limit suitability of land for development.
(iii) Influences or threats to the quality and quantity of ground water used for public water supplies. These may be identified from information sources such as the following:
(A) Designated critical aquifer recharge areas that identify areas where potentially hazardous material use should be limited, or for direction on where managing development practices that influence the aquifer would be important;
(B) Watershed plans approved under chapter 90.82 RCW; ground water management plans approved under RCW 90.44.400; coordinated water system plans adopted under chapter 70.116 RCW; and watershed plans adopted under chapter 90.54 RCW as outlined in RCW 90.03.386.
(C) Instream flow rules prepared by the department of ecology and limitations and recommendations therein that may inform land use decisions.
(iv) Areas adjacent to general aviation airports where incompatible uses should be discouraged, as required by RCW 36.70A.510 and 36.70.547, with guidance in WAC 365-196-455.
(v) Areas adjacent to military bases where incompatible uses should be discouraged, as required by RCW 36.70A.530 with guidance in WAC 365-196-475.
(vi) Existing or potential open space corridors within and between urban growth areas as required by RCW 36.70A.160 for recreation, wildlife habitat, trails, and connection of critical areas as defined in RCW 36.70A.030. Counties and cities may consult WAC 365-196-335 for additional information.
(vii) Where applicable, sites that are particularly well suited for industry. Counties and cities should consult WAC 365-196-310 (3)(c)(iv) for information on industrial land uses. For counties, the process described in WAC 365-196-465 and 365-196-470 may be relevant for industrial areas outside of an urban growth area.
(viii) Other features that may be relevant to this information gathering process may include view corridors, brownfield sites, national scenic areas, historic districts, or other opportunity sites, or other special characteristics which may be useful to inform future land use decisions.
(e) Counties and cities must review drainage, flooding, and stormwater runoff in the area or nearby jurisdictions and provide guidance for corrective actions to mitigate or cleanse those discharges that pollute waters of the state, including Puget Sound or waters entering Puget Sound. Water quality information may be integrated from the following sources:
(i) Planning and regulatory requirements of municipal stormwater general permits issued by the department of ecology that apply to the county or city.
(ii) Local waters listed under Washington state's water quality assessment and any water quality concerns associated with those waters.
(iii) Interjurisdictional plans, such as total maximum daily loads.
(f) Counties and cities must obtain twenty-year population allocations for their planning area as part of a county-wide process described in WAC 365-196-305(4) and 365-196-310. Using information from the housing needs analysis, identify the amount of land suitable for development at a variety of densities consistent with the number and type of residential units likely to be needed over the planning period. At a minimum, cities must plan for the population allocated to them, but may plan for additional population within incorporated areas.
(g) Counties and cities should estimate the level of commercial space, and industrial land needed using information from the economic development element, if available, or from other relevant economic development plans.
(h) Counties and cities should identify the general location and estimated quantity of land needed for public purposes such as utility corridors, landfills or solid waste transfer stations, sewage treatment facilities, stormwater management facilities, recreation, schools, and other public uses. Counties and cities should consider corridors needed for transportation including automobile, rail, and trail use in and between planning areas, consistent with the transportation element and coordinate with adjacent jurisdictions for connectivity.
(i) Counties and cities should select land use designations and implement zoning. Select appropriate commercial, industrial, and residential densities and their distribution based on the total analysis of land features, population to be supported, implementation of regional planning strategies, and needed capital facilities.
(i) It is strongly recommended that a table be included showing the acreage in each land use designation, the acreage in each implementing zone, the approximate densities that are assumed, and how this meets the twenty-year population projection.
(ii) Counties and cities should prepare a future land use map including land use designations, municipal and urban growth area boundaries, and any other relevant features consistent with other elements of the comprehensive plan.
(j) Wherever possible, counties and cities should consider urban planning approaches that promote physical activity. Urban planning approaches that promote physical activity may include:
(i) Higher intensity residential or mixed-use land use designations to support walkable and diverse urban, town and neighborhood centers.
(ii) Transit-oriented districts around public transportation transfer facilities, rail stations, or higher intensity development along a corridor served by high quality transit service.
(iii) Policies for siting or colocating public facilities such as schools, parks, libraries, community centers and athletic centers to place them within walking or cycling distance of their users.
(iv) Policies supporting linear parks and shared-use paths, interconnected street networks or other urban forms supporting bicycle and pedestrian transportation.
(v) Policies supporting multimodal approaches to concurrency consistent with other elements of the plan.
(vi) Traditional or main street commercial corridors with street front buildings and limited parking and driveway interruption.
(vii) Opportunities for promoting physical activity through these and other policies should be sought in existing as well as newly developing areas. Regulatory or policy barriers to promoting physical activity for new or existing development should also be removed or lessened where feasible.
(k) Counties and cities may prepare an implementation strategy describing the steps needed to accomplish the vision and the densities and distributions identified in the land use element. Where greater intensity of development is proposed, the strategy may include a design scheme to encourage new development that is compatible with existing or desired community character.
(l) Counties and cities may prepare a schedule for the phasing of the planned development contemplated consistent with the availability of capital facilities as provided in the capital facilities element. WAC 365-196-330 provides additional information regarding development phasing.
(m) Counties and cities should reassess the land use element in light of:
(i) The projected capacity for financing the needed capital facilities over the planning period; and
(ii) An assessment of whether the planned densities and distribution of growth can be achieved within the capacity of available land and water resources and without environmental degradation.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 36.70A.050, 36.70A.190. WSR 10-22-103, § 365-196-405, filed 11/2/10, effective 12/3/10; WSR 10-03-085, § 365-196-405, filed 1/19/10, effective 2/19/10.]
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