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296-56-60071  <<  296-56-60073 >>   296-56-60075

WAC 296-56-60073

No agency filings affecting this section since 2003

Miscellaneous auxiliary gear.

(1) Routine inspection.
(a) At the completion of each use, loose gear such as slings, chains, bridles, blocks, and hooks shall be so placed as to avoid damage to the gear. Loose gear shall be inspected and any defects corrected before reuse.
(b) All loose gear shall be inspected by the employer or his/her authorized representative before each use and, when necessary, at intervals during its use, to ensure that it is safe. Any gear which is found upon inspection to be unsafe shall not be used until it is made safe.
(c) Defective gear shall not be used. Distorted hooks, shackles, or similar gear shall be discarded.
(d) Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered, or repaired by welding shall be properly heat treated, and before again being put into use, shall be tested and reexamined in the manner set forth in WAC 296-56-60097 and 296-56-60098.
(2) The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of the tests with each unit of gear concerned clearly identified. The records shall be available for examination by division of consultation and compliance personnel and the employee safety committee.
(3) Wire rope and wire rope slings.
(a) The employer shall ascertain and adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for wire rope and wire rope slings and shall have such ratings available at the terminal. When the manufacturer is unable to supply such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for wire rope and wire rope slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI/ASME B30.9-1984. A design safety factor of at least five shall be maintained for the common sizes of running wire used as falls, in purchases or in such uses as light load slings. Wire rope with a safety factor of less than five may be used only:
(i) In specialized equipment, such as cranes designed to be used with lesser wire rope safety factors;
(ii) In accordance with design factors in standing rigging applications; or
(iii) For heavy lifts or other purposes for which a safety factor of five is impractical and for which the employer can demonstrate that equivalent safety is ensured.
(b) Wire rope or wire rope slings exhibiting any of the following conditions shall not be used:
(i) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three or more broken wires in one strand in one rope lay;
(ii) Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure;
(iii) Evidence of heat damage;
(iv) Excessive wear, corrosion, deformation or other defect in the wire or attachments, including cracks in attachments;
(v) Any indication of strand or wire slippage in end attachments; or
(vi) More than one broken wire in the close vicinity of a socket or swaged fitting.
(c) Four by twenty-nine (4 x 29) wire rope shall not be used in any running rigging.
(d) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted. Coverings shall be removable so that splices can be examined. Means used to cover or blunt ends shall not damage the wire.
(e) Where wire rope clips are used to form eyes, the employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations, which shall be available at the terminal. If "U" bolt clips are used and the manufacturer's recommendations are not available, Table C-1 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips. "U" bolts shall be applied with the "U" section in contact with the dead end of the rope.
Table C-1 — Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips
Improved plow steel, rope
diameter
Minimum number of clips
Minimum spacing
inches/(cm)
Drop
forged
Other
material
inches/(cm)
1/2 or less (1.3)
3
4
3 (7.6)
5/8 (1.6)
3
4
3 3/4 (9.5)
3/4 (1.9)
4
5
4 1/2 (11.4)
7/8 (2.2)
4
5
5 1/4 (13.3)
1 (2.5)
5
7
6 (15.2)
1 1/8 (2.9)
6
7
6 3/4 (17.1)
1 1/4 (3.2)
6
8
7 1/2 (19.1)
1 3/8 (3.5)
7
8
8 1/4 (21.0)
1 1/2 (3.8)
7
9
9 (22.9)
(f) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots.
(g) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, bull wires, or in single parts used for hoisting shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots.
(h) Eye splices in wire ropes shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two tucks with one-half of the wire cut from each strand. Other forms of splices or connections which are demonstrated to be equally safe may be used.
(i) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in bulling cargo, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
(4) Natural fiber rope.
(a) The employer shall ascertain the manufacturer's ratings for the specific natural fiber rope used and have such ratings available at the terminal. The manufacturer's ratings shall be adhered to and a minimum design safety factor of five maintained.
(b) Eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks. Short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the center line.
(5) Synthetic rope.
(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's ratings and use recommendations for the specific synthetic fiber rope used and shall have such ratings available at the terminal.
(b) Unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer, when synthetic fiber ropes are substituted for manila ropes of less than three inches (7.62 cm) circumference, the substitute shall be of equal size. Where substituted for manila rope of three inches or more in circumference, the size of the synthetic rope shall be determined from the formula:
 
C = √.6(Cs2) + .4(Cm2)
Where C = the required circumference of the synthetic rope in inches, Cs = the circumference to the nearest one-quarter inch of a synthetic rope having a breaking strength not less than that of the size manila rope that would be required by subsection (4) of this section, and Cm = the circumference of manila rope in inches which would be required by subsection (4) of this section.
(c) In making such substitution, it shall be ascertained that the inherent characteristics of the synthetic fiber are suitable for hoisting.
(6) Removal of natural and synthetic rope from service. Natural or synthetic rope having any of the following defects shall be removed from service:
(a) Abnormal wear;
(b) Powdered fiber between strands;
(c) Sufficient cut or broken fibers to affect the capacity of the rope;
(d) Variations in the size or roundness of strands;
(e) Discolorations other than stains not associated with rope damage;
(f) Rotting; or
(g) Distortion or other damage to attached hardware.
(7) Thimbles. Properly fitting thimbles shall be used where any rope is secured permanently to a ring, shackle or attachment, where practical.
(8) Synthetic web slings.
(a) Slings and nets or other combinations of more than one piece of synthetic webbing assembled and used as a single unit (synthetic web slings) shall not be used to hoist loads in excess of the sling's rated capacity.
(b) Synthetic web slings shall be removed from service if they exhibit any of the following defects:
(i) Acid or caustic burns;
(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(iv) Broken or worn stitches;
(v) Distortion or damage to fittings; or
(vi) Display of visible warning threads or markers designed to indicate excessive wear or damage.
(c) Defective synthetic web slings removed from service shall not be returned to service unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or similar entity. Each repaired sling shall be proof tested by the repairer to twice the slings' rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and make it available for examination.
(d) Synthetic web slings provided by the employer shall only be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, which shall be made available upon request.
(e) Fittings shall have a breaking strength at least equal to that of the sling to which they are attached and shall be free of sharp edges.
(9) Chains and chain slings used for hoisting.
(a) The employer shall adhere to the manufacturer's recommended ratings for safe working loads for the sizes of the wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain slings used and shall have such ratings available. When the manufacturer is unable to provide such ratings, the employer shall use the tables for chains and chain slings found in American National Safety Standard for Slings, ANSI B30.9-1971.
(b) Proof coil steel chain, also known as common or hardware chain, and other chain not recommended by the manufacturer for slinging or hoisting shall not be used for slinging or hoisting.
(c)(i) Sling chains, including end fastenings, shall be inspected for visible defects before each day's use and as often as necessary during use to ensure integrity of the sling.
(ii) Thorough inspections of chains in use shall be made quarterly to detect wear, defective welds, deformation, increase in length or stretch. The month of inspection shall be indicated on each chain by color of paint on a link or by other effective means.
(iii) Chains shall be removed from service when maximum allowable wear, as indicated in Table C-2, is reached at any point of link.
(iv) Chain slings shall be removed from service when stretch has increased the length of a measured section by more than five percent; when a link is bent, twisted or otherwise damaged; or when a link has a raised scarf or defective weld.
(v) Only designated persons shall inspect chains used for slinging and hoisting.
Table C-2 — Maximum Allowable
Wear at Any Point of Link
Chain size
Maximum allowable wear
Inches
 
Inches
(cm)
1/4 (9/32)
(0.6)
 
3/64
(0.1)
3/8
(1.0)
 
5/64
(0.2)
1/2
(1.3)
 
7/64
(0.3)
5/8
(1.6)
 
9/64
(0.4)
3/4
(1.9)
 
5/32
(0.4)
7/8
(2.2)
 
11/64
(0.4)
1
(2.5)
 
3/16
(0.5)
1 1/8
(2.9)
 
7/32
(0.6)
1 1/4
(3.2)
 
1/4
(0.6)
1 3/8
(3.5)
 
9/32
(0.7)
1 1/2
(3.8)
 
5/16
(0.8)
1 3/4
(4.4)
 
1 1/32
(0.9)
(d) Chains shall only be repaired under qualified supervision. Links or portions of chain defective under any of the criteria of WAC 296-56-60073 (9)(c) shall be replaced with properly dimensioned links or connections of material similar to that of the original chain. Before repaired chains are returned to service, they shall be tested to the proof test load recommended by the manufacturer for the original chain. Tests shall be performed by the manufacturer or shall be certified by an agency accredited for the purpose under WAC 296-56-60093. Test certificates shall be available at the terminal.
(e) Wrought iron chains in constant use shall be annealed or normalized at intervals not exceeding six months. Heat treatment certificates shall be available at the terminal. Alloy chains shall not be annealed.
(f) Kinked or knotted chains shall not be used for lifting. Chains shall not be shortened by bolting, wiring or knotting. Makeshift links or fasteners such as wire, bolts or rods shall not be used.
(g) Hooks, rings, links and attachments affixed to sling chains shall have rated capacities at least equal to that of the chains to which they are attached.
(h) Chain slings shall bear identification of size, grade and rated capacity.
(10) Shackles.
(a) If available, the manufacturer's recommended safe working loads for shackles shall not be exceeded. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, Table C-3 shall apply.
(b) Screw pin shackles used aloft in house fall or other gear, except in cargo hook assemblies, shall have their pins moused or otherwise effectively secured.
Table C-3 — Safe Working Loads for Shackles
Material size
Pin diameter
Safe working load in 2,000 lb tons
Inches
(cm)
Inches
(cm)
1/2
(1.3)
5/8
(1.6)
1.4
5/8
(1.6)
3/4
(1.9)
2.2
3/4
(1.9)
7/8
(2.2)
3.2
7/8
(2.2)
1
(2.5)
4.3
1
(2.5)
1 1/8
(2.9)
5.6
1 1/8
(2.9)
1 1/4
(3.2)
6.7
1 1/4
(3.2)
1 3/8
(3.5)
8.2
1 3/8
(3.5)
1 1/2
(3.8)
10.0
1 1/2
(3.8)
1 5/8
(4.1)
11.9
1 3/4
(4.4)
2
(5.1)
16.2
2
(5.1)
2 1/4
(5.7)
21.2
(c) Tables G-2 through G-5 shall be used to determine the safe working loads of various sizes and classifications of improved plow steel wire rope slings with various types of terminals. For sizes, classifications and grades not included in these tables the safe working load recommended by the manufacturer for specific, identifiable products shall be followed, however, a safety factor of not less than five shall be maintained.
TABLE G-1
MANILA ROPE
In Pounds or Tons of 2,000 Pounds
Circum-
ference
 
Diameter
in
Inches
 
Single
Leg
60
Degree
45
Degree
30
Degree
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
3/4
1/4
120
204
170
120
1
5/16
200
346
282
200
1 1/8
3/8
270
467
380
270
1 1/4
7/16
350
605
493
350
1 3/8
15/32
450
775
635
450
1 1/2
1/2
530
915
798
530
1 3/4
9/16
690
1190
973
690
2
5/8
880
1520
1240
880
2 1/4
3/4
1080
1870
1520
1080
2 1/2
13/16
1300
2250
1830
1300
2 3/4
7/8
1540
2660
2170
1540
3
1
1800
3120
2540
1800
 
 
Tons
Tons
Tons
Tons
3 1/4
1 1/16
1.0
1.7
1.4
1.0
3 1/2
1 1/8
1.2
2.1
1.7
1.2
3 3/4
1 1/4
1.35
2.3
1.9
1.35
4
1 5/16
1.5
2.6
2.1
1.5
4 1/2
1 1/2
1.8
3.1
2.5
1.8
5
1 5/8
2.25
3.9
3.2
2.25
5 1/2
1 3/4
2.6
4.5
3.7
2.6
6
2
3.1
5.4
4.4
3.1
6 1/2
2 1/8
3.6
6.2
5.1
3.6
TABLE G-2 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE SLINGS (IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
Rope
Diameter
Inches
Single Leg
Vertical
Choker
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
.59
.56
.53
.44
.42
.40
3/8"
1.3
1.2
1.1
.98
.93
.86
1/2"
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.5
5/8"
3.6
3.4
3.0
2.7
2.5
2.2
3/4"
5.1
4.9
4.2
3.8
3.6
3.1
7/8"
6.9
6.6
5.5
5.2
4.9
4.1
1"
9.0
8.5
7.2
6.7
6.4
5.4
1-1/8"
11
10
9.0
8.5
7.8
6.8
6 x 37 Classification
1-1/4"
13
12
10
9.9
9.2
7.9
1-3/8"
16
15
13
12
11
9.6
1-1/2"
19
17
15
14
13
11
1-3/4"
26
24
20
19
18
15
2"
33
30
26
25
23
20
2-1/4"
41
38
33
31
29
25
(A) — Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.
(B) — Mechanical Sleeve attachment.
(C) — Hand Tucked Splice attachment.
TABLE G-3 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE, WIRE ROPE SLING (IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
 
Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
 
 
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
.97
.92
.83
.79
.75
.59
.56
.53
3/8"
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1
1/2"
4.6
4.4
3.9
4.0
3.8
3.4
3.2
3.1
2.8
2.3
2.2
2.0
5/8"
7.2
6.8
6.0
6.2
5.9
5.2
5.1
4.8
4.2
3.6
3.4
3.0
3/4"
10
9.7
8.4
8.9
8.4
7.3
7.2
6.9
5.9
5.1
4.9
4.2
7/8"
14
13
11
12
11
9.6
9.8
9.3
7.8
6.9
6.6
5.5
1"
18
17
14
15
15
12
13
12
10
9.0
8.5
7.2
1 1/8"
23
21
18
19
18
16
16
15
13
11
10
9.0
6 x 37 Classification
1 1/4"
26
24
21
23
21
18
19
17
15
13
12
10
1 3/8"
32
29
25
28
25
22
22
21
18
16
15
13
1 1/2"
38
35
30
33
30
26
27
25
21
19
17
15
1 3/4"
51
47
41
44
41
35
36
33
29
26
24
20
2"
66
61
53
57
53
46
47
43
37
33
30
26
2 1/4"
83
76
66
72
66
57
58
54
47
41
38
33
(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-4 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE AND WIRE ROPE SLINGS (In Tons of 2,000 pounds)
Rope dia. Inches
Single leg
Vertical
Choker
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4
.55
.51
.49
.41
.38
.37
3/8
1.2
1.1
1.1
.91
.85
.80
1/2
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
5/8
3.3
3.1
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.1
3/4
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.6
3.3
2.9
7/8
6.4
5.9
5.1
4.8
4.5
3.9
1
8.4
7.7
6.7
6.3
5.8
5.0
1-1/8
10
9.5
8.4
7.9
7.1
6.3
6 x 37 Classification
1-1/4
12
11
9.8
9.2
8.3
7.4
1-3/8
15
13
12
11
10
8.9
1-1/2
17
16
14
13
12
10
1-3/4
24
21
19
18
16
14
2
31
28
25
23
21
18
(A) — Socket or Swaged Terminal attachment.
(B) — Mechanical Sleeve attachment.
(C) — Hand Tucked Splice attachment.
TABLE G-5 RATED CAPACITIES FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL, FIBER CORE, WIRE ROPE SLINGS
(IN TONS OF 2,000 POUNDS)
 
Two-leg bridle or basket hitch
 
 
Vertical
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
Rope
dia.
inches
 
 
 
 
 
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
6 x 19 Classification
1/4"
1.1
1.0
.99
.95
.88
.85
.77
.72
.70
.55
.51
.49
3/8"
2.4
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.1
1/2"
4.3
3.9
3.7
3.7
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.1
2.0
1.8
5/8"
6.7
6.2
5.6
5.8
5.3
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.0
3.3
3.1
2.8
3/4"
9.5
8.8
7.8
8.2
7.6
6.8
6.7
6.2
5.5
4.8
4.4
3.9
7/8"
13
12
10
11
10
8.9
9.1
8.4
7.3
6.4
5.9
5.1
1"
17
15
13
14
13
11
12
11
9.4
8.4
7.7
6.7
1 1/2"
21
19
17
18
16
14
15
13
12
10
9.5
8.4
6 x 37 Classification
1 1/4"
25
22
20
21
19
17
17
16
14
12
11
9.8
1 3/8"
30
27
24
26
23
20
21
19
17
15
13
12
1 1/2"
35
32
28
30
27
24
25
22
20
17
16
14
1 3/4"
48
43
38
41
37
33
34
30
27
24
21
19
2"
62
55
49
53
48
43
43
39
35
31
28
25
(A) Socket or Swaged Terminal Attachment.
(B) Mechanical Sleeve Attachment.
(C) Hand Tucked Splice Attachment.
TABLE G-6 ALLOY STEEL CHAIN
(In Tons of 2,000 Pounds)
Nominal
Size
Chain
Stock
Inch
Single
Leg
60 Degree
45 Degree
30 Degree
 
 
 
 
1/4
1.62
2.82
2.27
1.62
3/8
3.30
5.70
4.65
3.30
1/2
5.62
9.75
7.90
5.62
5/8
8.25
14.25
11.65
8.25
3/4
11.5
19.9
16.2
11.5
7/8
14.3
24.9
20.3
14.3
1
19.3
33.5
27.3
19.8
1 1/8
22.2
38.5
31.5
22.2
1 1/4
28.7
49.7
40.5
28.7
1 3/8
33.5
58.0
47.0
33.5
1 1/2
39.7
68.5
56.0
39.7
1 5/8
42.5
73.5
59.5
42.5
1 3/4
47.0
81.5
62.0
47.0
(11) Hooks other than hand hooks.
(a) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.
(b) Loads shall be applied to the throat of the hook since loading the point may overstress, bend, or spring the hook.
(c) Hooks shall be inspected once a month to see that they have not been bent by overloading. Bent or sprung hooks shall not be used.
(d) Crane hooks. Magnetic particle or other suitable crack detecting inspection shall be performed at least once each year. When testing by X ray, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's standards for protection against radiation, relating to protection against occupational radiation exposure, shall apply.
(e) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X rays, whether or not under license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.
(f) Teeth of case hooks shall not be split, cracked, or deformed.
(g) Jaws of patent clamp type plate hooks shall be kept in safe condition so that they will grip plates securely.
(12) Pallets.
(a) Pallets shall be made and maintained to safely support and carry loads being handled. Fastenings of reusable pallets used for hoisting shall be bolts and nuts, drive screws (helically threaded nails), annular threaded nails or fastenings of equivalent holding strength.
(b) Damaged pallets shall be stored in designated areas and identified.
(c) Reusable wing or lip-type pallets shall be hoisted by bar bridles or other suitable gear and shall have an overhanging wing or lip of at least three inches (7.62 cm). They shall not be hoisted by wire slings alone.
(d) Loaded pallets that do not meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be hoisted only after being placed on pallets meeting such requirements or shall be handled by other means providing equivalent protection.
(e) Bridles for handling flush end or box-type pallets shall be designed to prevent disengagement from the pallet under load.
(f) Pallets shall be stacked or placed to prevent falling, collapsing or otherwise causing a hazard under standard operating conditions.
(g) Disposable pallets intended only for one use shall not be reused for hoisting.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 00-21-103, § 296-56-60073, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-02-024, § 296-56-60073, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-04-007, § 296-56-60073, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW and RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60073, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 91-11-070 (Order 91-01), § 296-56-60073, filed 5/20/91, effective 6/20/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60073, filed 1/17/86; WSR 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60073, filed 4/19/85; WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60073, filed 12/11/84.]