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246-290-485  <<  246-290-490 >>   246-290-496

WAC 246-290-490

Agency filings affecting this section

Cross-connection control.

(1) Applicability, purpose, and responsibility.
(a) All community water systems shall comply with the cross-connection control requirements specified in this section.
(b) All noncommunity water systems shall apply the principles and provisions of this section, including subsection (4)(b) of this section, as applicable to protect the public water system from contamination via cross-connections. Noncommunity systems that comply with subsection (4)(b) of this section and the provisions of WAC 51-56-0600 of the UPC (which addresses the installation of backflow preventers at points of water use within the potable water system) shall be considered in compliance with the requirements of this section.
(c) The purpose of the purveyor's cross-connection control program shall be to protect the public water system, as defined in WAC 246-290-010, from contamination via cross-connections.
(d) The purveyor's responsibility for cross-connection control shall begin at the water supply source, include all the public water treatment, storage, and distribution facilities, and end at the point of delivery to the consumer's water system, which begins at the downstream end of the service connection or water meter located on the public right of way or utility-held easement.
(e) Under this section, purveyors are not responsible for eliminating or controlling cross-connections within the consumer's water system. Under chapter 19.27 RCW, the responsibility for cross-connection control within the consumer's water system, i.e., within the property lines of the consumer's premises, lies with the authority having jurisdiction.
(2) General program requirements.
(a) The purveyor shall develop and implement a cross-connection control program that meets the requirements of this section, but may establish a more stringent program through local ordinances, resolutions, codes, bylaws, or operating rules.
(b) Purveyors shall ensure that good engineering and public health protection practices are used in the development and implementation of cross-connection control programs. Department publications and the most recently published editions of references, such as, but not limited to, those listed below, may be used as guidance for cross-connection program development and implementation:
(i) Manual of Cross-Connection Control published by the Foundation for Cross-Connection Control and Hydraulic Research, University of Southern California (USC Manual);
(ii) Cross-Connection Control Manual, Accepted Procedure and Practice published by the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Water Works Association (PNWS-AWWA Manual); or
(iii) Guidance document: Cross-Connection Control for Small Water Systems published by the department.
(c) The purveyor may implement the cross-connection control program, or any portion thereof, directly or by means of a contract with another agency or party acceptable to the department.
(d) The purveyor shall coordinate with the authority having jurisdiction in all matters concerning cross-connection control. The purveyor shall document and describe the coordination, including delineation of responsibilities, in the written cross-connection control program required in (e) of this subsection.
(e) The purveyor shall include a written description of the cross-connection control program in the water system plan required under WAC 246-290-100 or the small water system management program required under WAC 246-290-105. The cross-connection control program shall include the minimum program elements described in subsection (3) of this section.
(f) The purveyor shall ensure that cross-connections between the distribution system and a consumer's water system are eliminated or controlled by the installation of an approved backflow preventer commensurate with the degree of hazard. This can be accomplished by implementation of a cross-connection program that relies on:
(i) Premises isolation as defined in WAC 246-290-010; or
(ii) Premises isolation and in-premises protection as defined in WAC 246-290-010.
(g) Purveyors with cross-connection control programs that rely both on premises isolation and in-premises protection:
(i) Shall comply with the premises isolation requirements specified in subsection (4)(b) of this section; and
(ii) May reduce premises isolation requirements and rely on in-premises protection for premises other than the type addressed in subsection (4)(b) of this section, only if the following conditions are met:
(A) The in-premises backflow preventers provide a level of protection commensurate with the purveyor's assessed degree of hazard;
(B) Backflow preventers which provide the in-premises backflow protection meet the definition of approved backflow preventers as described in WAC 246-290-010;
(C) The approved backflow preventers are installed, inspected, tested (if applicable), maintained, and repaired in accordance with subsections (6) and (7) of this section;
(D) Records of the backflow preventers are maintained in accordance with subsections (3)(j) and (8) of this section; and
(E) The purveyor has reasonable access to the consumer's premises to conduct an initial hazard evaluation and periodic reevaluations to determine whether the in-premises protection is adequate to protect the purveyor's distribution system.
(h) The purveyor shall take appropriate corrective action as authorized by the legal instrument required by subsection (3)(b) of this section, when:
(i) A cross-connection exists that is not controlled commensurate to the degree of hazard assessed by the purveyor; or
(ii) A consumer fails to comply with the purveyor's requirements regarding the installation, inspection, testing, maintenance or repair of approved backflow preventers required by this chapter.
(i) The purveyor's corrective action may include, but is not limited to:
(i) Denying or discontinuing water service to a consumer's premises until the cross-connection hazard is eliminated or controlled to the satisfaction of the purveyor;
(ii) Requiring the consumer to install an approved backflow preventer for premises isolation commensurate with the degree of hazard; or
(iii) The purveyor installing an approved backflow preventer for premises isolation commensurate with the degree of hazard.
(j) Except in the event of an emergency, purveyors shall notify the authority having jurisdiction prior to denying or discontinuing water service to a consumer's premises for one or more of the reasons listed in (h) of this subsection.
(k) The purveyor shall prohibit the intentional return of used water to the purveyor's distribution system. Used water includes, but is not limited to, water used for heating, cooling, or other purposes within the consumer's water system.
(3) Minimum elements of a cross-connection control program.
(a) To be acceptable to the department, the purveyor's cross-connection control program shall include the minimum elements identified in this subsection.
(b) Element 1: The purveyor shall adopt a local ordinance, resolution, code, bylaw, or other written legal instrument that:
(i) Establishes the purveyor's legal authority to implement a cross-connection control program;
(ii) Describes the operating policies and technical provisions of the purveyor's cross-connection control program; and
(iii) Describes the corrective actions used to ensure that consumers comply with the purveyor's cross-connection control requirements.
(c) Element 2: The purveyor shall develop and implement procedures and schedules for evaluating new and existing service connections to assess the degree of hazard posed by the consumer's premises to the purveyor's distribution system and notifying the consumer within a reasonable time frame of the hazard evaluation results. At a minimum, the program shall meet the following:
(i) For connections made on or after April 9, 1999, procedures shall ensure that an initial evaluation is conducted before water service is provided;
(ii) For all other connections, procedures shall ensure that an initial evaluation is conducted in accordance with a schedule acceptable to the department; and
(iii) For all service connections, once an initial evaluation has been conducted, procedures shall ensure that periodic reevaluations are conducted in accordance with a schedule acceptable to the department and whenever there is a change in the use of the premises.
(d) Element 3: The purveyor shall develop and implement procedures and schedules for ensuring that:
(i) Cross-connections are eliminated whenever possible;
(ii) When cross-connections cannot be eliminated, they are controlled by installation of approved backflow preventers commensurate with the degree of hazard; and
(iii) Approved backflow preventers are installed in accordance with the requirements of subsection (6) of this section.
(e) Element 4: The purveyor shall ensure that personnel, including at least one person certified as a CCS, are provided to develop and implement the cross-connection control program.
(f) Element 5: The purveyor shall develop and implement procedures to ensure that approved backflow preventers relied upon to protect the public water system are inspected and/or tested (as applicable) under subsection (7) of this section.
(g) Element 6: The purveyor shall develop and implement a backflow prevention assembly testing quality control assurance program, including, but not limited to, documentation of BAT certification and test kit calibration, test report contents, and time frames for submitting completed test reports.
(h) Element 7: The purveyor shall develop and implement (when appropriate) procedures for responding to backflow incidents.
(i) Element 8: The purveyor shall include information on cross-connection control in the purveyor's existing program for educating consumers about water system operation. The public education program may include periodic bill inserts, public service announcements, pamphlet distribution, notification of new consumers and consumer confidence reports.
(j) Element 9: The purveyor shall develop and maintain cross-connection control records including, but not limited to, the following:
(i) A master list of service connections and/or consumer's premises where the purveyor relies upon approved backflow preventers to protect the public water system from contamination, the assessed hazard level of each, and the required backflow preventer(s);
(ii) Inventory information on backflow preventers that protect the public water system including:
(A) Approved air gaps installed in lieu of approved assemblies including exact air gap location, assessed degree of hazard, installation date, history of inspections, inspection results, and person conducting inspections;
(B) Approved backflow assemblies including exact assembly location, assembly description (type, manufacturer, model, size, and serial number), assessed degree of hazard, installation date, history of inspections, tests and repairs, test results, and person performing tests; and
(C) Approved AVBs used for irrigation system applications including location, description (manufacturer, model, and size), installation date, history of inspection(s), and person performing inspection(s).
(iii) Cross-connection program summary reports and backflow incident reports required under subsection (8) of this section.
(k) Element 10: Purveyors who distribute and/or have facilities that receive reclaimed water within their water service area shall meet any additional cross-connection control requirements imposed by the department in a permit issued under chapter 90.46 RCW.
(4) Approved backflow preventer selection.
(a) The purveyor shall ensure that a CCS:
(i) Assesses the degree of hazard posed by the consumer's water system upon the purveyor's distribution system; and
(ii) Determines the appropriate method of backflow protection for premises isolation as described in Table 8.
TABLE 8
APPROPRIATE METHODS OF BACKFLOW PROTECTION FOR PREMISES ISOLATION
Degree of Hazard
Application Condition
Appropriate Approved Backflow Preventer
High health cross-connection hazard
Backsiphonage or backpressure backflow
AG, RPBA, or RPDA
Low cross-connection hazard
Backsiphonage or backpressure backflow
AG, RPBA, RPDA, DCVA, or DCDA
(b) Premises isolation requirements.
(i) The purveyor shall ensure that an approved air gap, RPBA, or RPDA is installed for premises isolation for service connections to premises posing a high health cross-connection hazard including, but not limited to, those premises listed in Table 9, except those premises identified as severe in (b)(ii) of this subsection.
(ii) For service connections to premises posing a severe health cross-connection hazard including wastewater treatment plants, radioactive material processing plants, and nuclear reactors, the purveyor shall ensure that either an:
(A) Approved air gap is installed for premises isolation; or
(B) Approved RPBA or RPDA is installed for premises isolation in combination with an in-plant approved air gap.
(iii) If the purveyor's CCS determines that no hazard exists for a connection serving premises of the type listed in Table 9, the purveyor may grant an exception to the premises isolation requirements of (b)(i) of this subsection.
(iv) The purveyor shall document, on a case-by-case basis, the reasons for granting an exception under (b)(i) of this subsection and include the documentation in the cross-connection control program annual summary report required in subsection (8) of this section.
TABLE 9
SEVERE* AND HIGH HEALTH CROSS-CONNECTION HAZARD PREMISES REQUIRING PREMISES ISOLATION BY AG OR RPBA
Agricultural (farms and dairies)
Beverage bottling plants
Car washes
Chemical plants
Commercial laundries and dry cleaners
Premises where both reclaimed water and potable water are provided
Film processing facilities
Food processing plants
Hospitals, medical centers, nursing homes, veterinary, medical and dental clinics, and blood plasma centers
Premises with separate irrigation systems using the purveyor's water supply and with chemical addition+
Laboratories
Metal plating industries
Mortuaries
Petroleum processing or storage plants
Piers and docks
Radioactive material processing plants or nuclear reactors*
Survey access denied or restricted
Wastewater lift stations and pumping stations
Wastewater treatment plants*
Premises with an unapproved auxiliary water supply interconnected with the potable water supply
+
For example, parks, playgrounds, golf courses, cemeteries, estates, etc.
*
RPBAs for connections serving these premises are acceptable only when used in combination with an in-plant approved air gap; otherwise, the purveyor shall require an approved air gap at the service connection.
(c) Backflow protection for single-family residences.
(i) For single-family residential service connections, the purveyor shall comply with the premises isolation requirements of (b) of this subsection when applicable.
(ii) If the requirements of (b) of this subsection do not apply and the requirements specified in subsection (2)(g)(ii) of this section are met, the purveyor may rely on backflow protection provided at the point of hazard in accordance with WAC 51-56-0600 of the UPC for hazards such as, but not limited to:
(A) Irrigation systems;
(B) Swimming pools or spas;
(C) Ponds; and
(D) Boilers.
For example, the purveyor may accept an approved AVB on a residential irrigation system, if the AVB is properly installed under the UPC.
(d) Backflow protection for fire protection systems.
(i) Backflow protection is not required for residential flow-through or combination fire protection systems constructed of potable water piping and materials.
(ii) For service connections with fire protection systems other than flow-through or combination systems, the purveyor shall ensure that backflow protection consistent with WAC 51-56-0600 of the UPC is installed. The UPC requires minimum protection as follows:
(A) An RPBA or RPDA for fire protection systems with chemical addition or using unapproved auxiliary water supply; and
(B) A DCVA or DCDA for all other fire protection systems.
(iii) For connections made on or after April 9, 1999, the purveyor shall ensure that backflow protection is installed before water service is provided.
(iv) For existing fire protection systems:
(A) With chemical addition or using unapproved auxiliary supplies, the purveyor shall ensure that backflow protection is installed within ninety days of the purveyor notifying the consumer of the high health cross-connection hazard or in accordance with an alternate schedule acceptable to the purveyor.
(B) Without chemical addition, without on-site storage, and using only the purveyor's water (i.e., no unapproved auxiliary supplies on or available to the premises), the purveyor shall ensure that backflow protection is installed in accordance with a schedule acceptable to the purveyor or at an earlier date if required by the code official administering the State Building Code as defined in chapter 51-04 WAC.
(C) When establishing backflow protection retrofitting schedules for fire protection systems that have the characteristics listed in (d)(iv)(B) of this subsection, the purveyor may consider factors such as, but not limited to, impacts of assembly installation on sprinkler performance, costs of retrofitting, and difficulty of assembly installation.
(e) Purveyors may require approved backflow preventers commensurate with the degree of hazard as determined by the purveyor to be installed for premises isolation for connections serving premises that have characteristics such as, but not limited to, the following:
(i) Complex plumbing arrangements or plumbing potentially subject to frequent changes that make it impracticable to assess whether cross-connection hazards exist;
(ii) A repeated history of cross-connections being established or reestablished; or
(iii) Cross-connection hazards are unavoidable or not correctable, such as, but not limited to, tall buildings.
(5) Approved backflow preventers.
(a) The purveyor shall ensure that all backflow prevention assemblies relied upon by the purveyor are models included on the current list of backflow prevention assemblies approved for use in Washington state. The current approved assemblies list is available from the department upon request.
(b) The purveyor may rely on testable backflow prevention assemblies that are not currently approved by the department, if the assemblies:
(i) Were included on the department and/or USC list of approved backflow prevention assemblies at the time of installation;
(ii) Have been properly maintained;
(iii) Are commensurate with the purveyor's assessed degree of hazard; and
(iv) Have been inspected and tested at least annually and have successfully passed the annual tests.
(c) The purveyor shall ensure that an unlisted backflow prevention assembly is replaced by an approved assembly commensurate with the degree of hazard, when the unlisted assembly:
(i) Does not meet the conditions specified in (b)(i) through (iv) of this subsection;
(ii) Is moved; or
(iii) Cannot be repaired using spare parts from the original manufacturer.
(d) The purveyor shall ensure that AVBs meet the definition of approved atmospheric vacuum breakers as described in WAC 246-290-010.
(6) Approved backflow preventer installation.
(a) The purveyor shall ensure that approved backflow preventers are installed in the orientation for which they are approved (if applicable).
(b) The purveyor shall ensure that approved backflow preventers are installed in a manner that:
(i) Facilitates their proper operation, maintenance, inspection, in-line testing (as applicable), and repair using standard installation procedures acceptable to the department such as those in the USC Manual or PNWS-AWWA Manual;
(ii) Ensures that the assembly will not become submerged due to weather-related conditions such as flooding; and
(iii) Ensures compliance with all applicable safety regulations.
(c) The purveyor shall ensure that approved backflow assemblies for premises isolation are installed at a location adjacent to the meter or property line or an alternate location acceptable to the purveyor.
(d) When premises isolation assemblies are installed at an alternate location acceptable to the purveyor, the purveyor shall ensure that there are no connections between the point of delivery from the public water system and the approved backflow assembly, unless the installation of the connection meets the purveyor's cross-connection control requirements and is specifically approved by the purveyor.
(e) The purveyor shall ensure that approved backflow preventers are installed in accordance with the following time frames:
(i) For connections made on or after April 9, 1999, the following conditions shall be met before service is provided:
(A) The provisions of subsection (3)(d)(ii) of this section; and
(B) Satisfactory completion of the requirements of subsection (7) of this section.
(ii) For existing connections where the purveyor identifies a high health cross-connection hazard, the provisions of (3)(d)(ii) of this section shall be met:
(A) Within ninety days of the purveyor notifying the consumer of the high health cross-connection hazard; or
(B) In accordance with an alternate schedule acceptable to the purveyor.
(iii) For existing connections where the purveyor identifies a low cross-connection hazard, the provisions of subsection (3)(d)(ii) of this section shall be met in accordance with a schedule acceptable to the purveyor.
(f) The purveyor shall ensure that bypass piping installed around any approved backflow preventer is equipped with an approved backflow preventer that:
(i) Affords at least the same level of protection as the approved backflow preventer that is being bypassed; and
(ii) Complies with all applicable requirements of this section.
(7) Approved backflow preventer inspection and testing.
(a) For backflow preventers that protect the public water system, the purveyor shall ensure that:
(i) A CCS inspects backflow preventer installations to ensure that protection is provided commensurate with the assessed degree of hazard;
(ii) Either a BAT or CCS inspects:
(A) Air gaps installed in lieu of approved backflow prevention assemblies for compliance with the approved air gap definition; and
(B) Backflow prevention assemblies for correct installation and approval status.
(iii) A BAT tests approved backflow prevention assemblies for proper operation.
(b) The purveyor shall ensure that inspections and/or tests of approved air gaps and approved backflow assemblies that protect the public water system are conducted:
(i) When any of the following occur:
(A) Upon installation, repair, reinstallation, or relocation of an assembly;
(B) Upon installation or replumbing of an air gap;
(C) After a backflow incident involving the assembly or air gap; and
(ii) Annually thereafter, unless the purveyor requires more frequent testing for high hazard premises or for assemblies that repeatedly fail.
(c) The purveyor shall ensure that inspections of AVBs installed on irrigation systems are conducted:
(i) At the time of installation;
(ii) After a backflow incident; and
(iii) After repair, reinstallation, or relocation.
(d) The purveyor shall ensure that approved backflow prevention assemblies are tested using procedures acceptable to the department, such as those specified in the most recently published edition of the USC Manual. When circumstances, such as, but not limited to, configuration or location of the assembly, preclude the use of USC test procedures, the purveyor may allow, on a case-by-case basis, the use of alternate (non-USC) test procedures acceptable to the department.
(e) The purveyor shall ensure that results of backflow prevention assembly inspections and tests are documented and reported in a manner acceptable to the purveyor.
(f) The purveyor shall ensure that an approved backflow prevention assembly or AVB, whenever found to be improperly installed, defective, not commensurate with the degree of hazard, or failing a test (if applicable) is properly reinstalled, repaired, overhauled, or replaced.
(g) The purveyor shall ensure that an approved air gap, whenever found to be altered or improperly installed, is properly replumbed or, if commensurate with the degree of hazard, is replaced by an approved RPBA.
(8) Recordkeeping and reporting.
(a) Purveyors shall keep cross-connection control records for the following time frames:
(i) Records pertaining to the master list of service connections and/or consumer's premises required in subsection (3)(j)(i) of this section shall be kept as long as the premises pose a cross-connection hazard to the purveyor's distribution system;
(ii) Records regarding inventory information required in subsection (3)(j)(ii) of this section shall be kept for five years or for the life of the approved backflow preventer whichever is shorter; and
(iii) Records regarding backflow incidents and annual summary reports required in subsection (3)(j)(iii) of this section shall be kept for five years.
(b) Purveyors may maintain cross-connection control records in original form or transfer data to tabular summaries.
(c) Purveyors may maintain records or data in any media, such as paper, film, or electronic format.
(d) The purveyor shall complete the cross-connection control program summary report annually. Report forms and guidance on completing the report are available from the department.
(e) The purveyor shall make all records and reports required in subsection (3)(j) of this section available to the department or its representative upon request.
(f) The purveyor shall notify the department, authority having jurisdiction, and local health jurisdiction as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the next business day, when a backflow incident is known by the purveyor to have:
(i) Contaminated the public water system; or
(ii) Occurred within the premises of a consumer served by the purveyor.
(g) The purveyor shall:
(i) Document details of backflow incidents contaminating the public water system on a backflow incident report form available from the department; and
(ii) Include all backflow incident report(s) in the annual cross-connection program summary report referenced in (d) of this subsection, unless otherwise requested by the department.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.119A.180 and 43.20.050. WSR 08-03-061, § 246-290-490, filed 1/14/08, effective 2/14/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 (2) and (3) and 70.119A.080. WSR 03-08-037, § 246-290-490, filed 3/27/03, effective 4/27/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.02.050 [43.20.050]. WSR 99-07-021, § 246-290-490, filed 3/9/99, effective 4/9/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 91-02-051 (Order 124B), recodified as § 246-290-490, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: P.L. 99-339. WSR 89-21-020 (Order 336), § 248-54-285, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/10/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 34.04.045. WSR 88-05-057 (Order 307), § 248-54-285, filed 2/17/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 83-19-002 (Order 266), § 248-54-285, filed 9/8/83.]