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23B.02.010  <<  23B.02.020 >>   23B.02.030

RCW 23B.02.020

Articles of incorporation.

(1) The articles of incorporation must set forth:

     (a) A corporate name for the corporation that satisfies the requirements of RCW 23B.04.010;

     (b) The number of shares the corporation is authorized to issue in accordance with RCW 23B.06.010 and 23B.06.020;

     (c) The street address of the corporation's initial registered office and the name of its initial registered agent at that office in accordance with RCW 23B.05.010; and

     (d) The name and address of each incorporator in accordance with RCW 23B.02.010.

     (2) The articles of incorporation or bylaws must either specify the number of directors or specify the process by which the number of directors will be fixed, unless the articles of incorporation dispense with a board of directors pursuant to RCW 23B.08.010.

     (3) Unless its articles of incorporation provide otherwise, a corporation is governed by the following provisions:

     (a) The board of directors may adopt bylaws to be effective only in an emergency as provided by RCW 23B.02.070;

     (b) A corporation has the purpose of engaging in any lawful business under RCW 23B.03.010;

     (c) A corporation has perpetual existence and succession in its corporate name under RCW 23B.03.020;

     (d) A corporation has the same powers as an individual to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out its business and affairs, including itemized powers under RCW 23B.03.020;

     (e) All shares are of one class and one series, have unlimited voting rights, and are entitled to receive the net assets of the corporation upon dissolution under RCW 23B.06.010 and 23B.06.020;

     (f) If more than one class of shares is authorized, all shares of a class must have preferences, limitations, and relative rights identical to those of other shares of the same class under RCW 23B.06.010;

     (g) If the board of directors is authorized to designate the number of shares in a series, the board may, after the issuance of shares in that series, reduce the number of authorized shares of that series under RCW 23B.06.020;

     (h) The board of directors must approve any issuance of shares under RCW 23B.06.210;

     (i) Shares may be issued pro rata and without consideration to shareholders under RCW 23B.06.230;

     (j) Shares of one class or series may not be issued as a share dividend with respect to another class or series, unless there are no outstanding shares of the class or series to be issued, or a majority of votes entitled to be cast by such class or series approve as provided in RCW 23B.06.230;

     (k) A corporation may issue rights, options, or warrants for the purchase of shares of the corporation under RCW 23B.06.240;

     (l) A shareholder has, and may waive, a preemptive right to acquire the corporation's unissued shares as provided in RCW 23B.06.300;

     (m) Shares of a corporation acquired by it may be reissued under RCW 23B.06.310;

     (n) The board may authorize and the corporation may make distributions not prohibited by statute under RCW 23B.06.400;

     (o) The preferential rights upon dissolution of certain shareholders will be considered a liability for purposes of determining the validity of a distribution under RCW 23B.06.400;

     (p) Corporate action may be approved by shareholders by unanimous consent of all shareholders entitled to vote on the corporate action, unless the approval of a lesser number of shareholders is permitted as provided in RCW 23B.07.040, which shareholder consent shall be in the form of a record;

     (q) Unless this title requires otherwise, the corporation is required to give notice only to shareholders entitled to vote at a meeting and the notice for an annual meeting need not include the purpose for which the meeting is called under RCW 23B.07.050;

     (r) A corporation that is a public company shall hold a special meeting of shareholders if the holders of at least ten percent of the votes entitled to be cast on any issue proposed to be considered at the meeting demand a meeting under RCW 23B.07.020;

     (s) Subject to statutory exceptions, each outstanding share, regardless of class, is entitled to one vote on each matter voted on at a shareholders' meeting under RCW 23B.07.210;

     (t) A majority of the votes entitled to be cast on a matter by a voting group constitutes a quorum, unless the title provides otherwise under RCW 23B.07.250 and 23B.07.270;

     (u) Corporate action on a matter, other than election of directors, by a voting group is approved if the votes cast within the voting group favoring the corporate action exceed the votes cast opposing the corporate action, unless this title requires a greater number of affirmative votes under RCW 23B.07.250;

     (v) All shares of one or more classes or series that are entitled to vote will be counted together collectively on any matter at a meeting of shareholders under RCW 23B.07.260;

     (w) Directors are elected by cumulative voting under RCW 23B.07.280;

     (x) Directors are elected by a plurality of votes cast by shares entitled to vote under RCW 23B.07.280, except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or a bylaw adopted pursuant to RCW 23B.10.205;

     (y) A corporation must have a board of directors under RCW 23B.08.010;

     (z) All corporate powers must be exercised by or under the authority of, and the business and affairs of the corporation managed under the direction of, its board of directors under RCW 23B.08.010;

     (aa) The shareholders may remove one or more directors with or without cause under RCW 23B.08.080;

     (bb) A vacancy on the board of directors may be filled by the shareholders or the board of directors under RCW 23B.08.100;

     (cc) A corporation shall indemnify a director who was wholly successful in the defense of any proceeding to which the director was a party because the director is or was a director of the corporation against reasonable expenses incurred by the director in connection with the proceeding under RCW 23B.08.520;

     (dd) A director of a corporation who is a party to a proceeding may apply for indemnification of reasonable expenses incurred by the director in connection with the proceeding to the court conducting the proceeding or to another court of competent jurisdiction under RCW 23B.08.540;

     (ee) An officer of the corporation who is not a director is entitled to mandatory indemnification under RCW 23B.08.520, and is entitled to apply for court-ordered indemnification under RCW 23B.08.540, in each case to the same extent as a director under RCW 23B.08.570;

     (ff) The corporation may indemnify and advance expenses to an officer, employee, or agent of the corporation who is not a director to the same extent as to a director under RCW 23B.08.570;

     (gg) A corporation may indemnify and advance expenses to an officer, employee, or agent who is not a director to the extent, consistent with law, that may be provided by its articles of incorporation, bylaws, general or specific approval of its board of directors, or contract under RCW 23B.08.570;

     (hh) A corporation's board of directors may adopt certain amendments to the corporation's articles of incorporation without shareholder approval under RCW 23B.10.020;

     (ii) Unless this title or the board of directors requires a greater vote or a vote by voting groups, an amendment to the corporation's articles of incorporation must be approved by each voting group entitled to vote on the proposed amendment by two-thirds, or, in the case of a public company, a majority, of all the votes entitled to be cast by that voting group under RCW 23B.10.030;

     (jj) A corporation's board of directors may amend or repeal the corporation's bylaws unless this title reserves this power exclusively to the shareholders in whole or in part, or unless the shareholders in amending or repealing a bylaw provide expressly that the board of directors may not amend or repeal that bylaw under RCW 23B.10.200;

     (kk) Unless this title or the board of directors require a greater vote or a vote by voting groups, a plan of merger or share exchange must be approved by each voting group entitled to vote on the merger or share exchange by two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast by that voting group under RCW 23B.11.030;

     (ll) Approval by the shareholders of the sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition of all, or substantially all, the corporation's property in the usual and regular course of business is not required under RCW 23B.12.010;

     (mm) Approval by the shareholders of the mortgage, pledge, dedication to the repayment of indebtedness, or other encumbrance of any or all of the corporation's property, whether or not in the usual and regular course of business, is not required under RCW 23B.12.010;

     (nn) Unless the board of directors requires a greater vote or a vote by voting groups, a sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition of all or substantially all of the corporation's property, other than in the usual and regular course of business, must be approved by each voting group entitled to vote on such transaction by two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast by that voting group under RCW 23B.12.020; and

     (oo) Unless the board of directors requires a greater vote or a vote by voting groups, a proposal to dissolve must be approved by each voting group entitled to vote on the dissolution by two-thirds of all votes entitled to be cast by that voting group under RCW 23B.14.020.

     (4) Unless its articles of incorporation or its bylaws provide otherwise, a corporation is governed by the following provisions:

     (a) The board of directors may approve the issuance of some or all of the shares of any or all of the corporation's classes or series without certificates under RCW 23B.06.260;

     (b) A corporation that is not a public company shall hold a special meeting of shareholders if the holders of at least ten percent of the votes entitled to be cast on any issue proposed to be considered at the meeting demand a meeting under RCW 23B.07.020;

     (c) A director need not be a resident of this state or a shareholder of the corporation under RCW 23B.08.020;

     (d) The board of directors may fix the compensation of directors under RCW 23B.08.110;

     (e) Members of the board of directors may participate in a meeting of the board by any means of similar communication by which all directors participating can hear each other during the meeting under RCW 23B.08.200;

     (f) Corporate action permitted or required by this title to be taken at a board of directors' meeting may be approved without a meeting if approved by all members of the board under RCW 23B.08.210;

     (g) Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice of the date, time, place, or purpose of the meeting under RCW 23B.08.220;

     (h) Special meetings of the board of directors must be preceded by at least two days' notice of the date, time, and place of the meeting, and the notice need not describe the purpose of the special meeting under RCW 23B.08.220;

     (i) A quorum of a board of directors consists of a majority of the number of directors under RCW 23B.08.240;

     (j) If a quorum is present when a vote is taken, the affirmative vote of a majority of directors present is the act of the board of directors under RCW 23B.08.240;

     (k) A board of directors may create one or more committees and appoint members of the board of directors to serve on them under RCW 23B.08.250; and

     (l) Unless approved by the shareholders, a corporation may indemnify, or make advances to, a director for reasonable expenses incurred in the defense of any proceeding to which the director was a party because of being a director only to the extent such action is consistent with RCW 23B.08.500 through 23B.08.580.

     (5) The articles of incorporation may contain the following provisions:

     (a) The names and addresses of the individuals who are to serve as initial directors;

     (b) The par value of any authorized shares or classes of shares;

     (c) Provisions not inconsistent with law related to the management of the business and the regulation of the affairs of the corporation;

     (d) Any provision that under this title is required or permitted to be set forth in the bylaws;

     (e) Provisions not inconsistent with law defining, limiting, and regulating the powers of the corporation, its board of directors, and shareholders;

     (f) Provisions authorizing corporate action to be approved by consent of less than all of the shareholders entitled to vote on the corporate action, in accordance with RCW 23B.07.040;

     (g) If the articles of incorporation authorize dividing shares into classes, the election of all or a specified number of directors may be effected by the holders of one or more authorized classes of shares under RCW 23B.08.040;

     (h) The terms of directors may be staggered under RCW 23B.08.060;

     (i) Shares may be redeemable or convertible (i) at the option of the corporation, the shareholder, or another person, or upon the occurrence of a designated event; (ii) for cash, indebtedness, securities, or other property; or (iii) in a designated amount or in an amount determined in accordance with a designated formula or by reference to extrinsic data or events under RCW 23B.06.010; and

     (j) A director's personal liability to the corporation or its shareholders for monetary damages for conduct as a director may be eliminated or limited under RCW 23B.08.320.

     (6) The articles of incorporation or the bylaws may contain the following provisions:

     (a) A restriction on the transfer or registration of transfer of the corporation's shares under RCW 23B.06.270;

     (b) Shareholders may participate in a meeting of shareholders by any means of communication by which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other under RCW 23B.07.080;

     (c) A quorum of the board of directors may consist of as few as one-third of the number of directors under RCW 23B.08.240;

     (d) If the corporation is registered as an investment company under the investment company act of 1940, a provision limiting the requirement to hold an annual meeting of shareholders as provided in RCW 23B.07.010(2); and

     (e) If the corporation is registered as an investment company under the investment company act of 1940, a provision establishing terms of directors which terms may be longer than one year as provided in RCW 23B.05.050.

     (7) The articles of incorporation need not set forth any of the corporate powers enumerated in this title.

[2009 c 189 § 3; 2002 c 297 § 11; 1997 c 19 § 1; 1996 c 155 § 5; 1994 c 256 § 27; 1989 c 165 § 27.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Construction -- 1994 c 256: See RCW 43.320.007.