222-24-040  <<  222-24-041 >>   222-24-042

WAC 222-24-041

*Water crossing structures in Type S and F Waters.

(1) In Type Sand F Waters, bridges are preferred as water crossing structures in order to ensure free and unimpeded fish passage for adult and juvenile fishes and preserve spawning and rearing habitat. Pier placement waterward of the ordinary high water line shall be avoided where practical. Other structures which may be approved include, in descending order of preference: Temporary culverts; bottomless arch culverts; arch culverts; round culverts; and fords. Corrugated culverts are generally preferred over smooth surfaced culverts. Culvert baffles and downstream control weirs are discouraged except to correct fish passage problems at existing structures.
(2) An approved forest practices application is required for construction, structural work, and maintenance associated with any bridge structure. Typical maintenance includes painting and other activities where there is potential for wastage of paint, sandblasting material, sediments, or bridge parts into the water, or where the work, including equipment operation, occurs waterward of the ordinary high water line.
(3) Water crossing structure projects shall incorporate mitigation measures as necessary to achieve no-net-loss of productive capacity of fish and shellfish habitat.
(4) Bridge construction.
(a) Excavation for and placement of the foundation and superstructure shall be outside the ordinary high water line unless the construction site is separated from the stream by use of an approved dike, cofferdam, or similar structure.
(b) The bridge structure or stringers shall be placed in a manner to minimize damage to the bed.
(c) Alteration or disturbance of bank or bank vegetation shall be limited to that necessary to construct the project. All disturbed areas shall be protected from erosion within seven days of completion of the project, using vegetation or other means. The banks shall be revegetated with native or other approved woody species, or stabilized with the other erosion control techniques, and maintained as necessary to ensure survival. See board manual section 5 for technical guidance.
(d) Removal of existing or temporary structures shall be accomplished so that the structure and associated material does not enter the stream.
(e) The bridge shall be constructed, according to the approved design, to pass the 100-year flood level and debris likely to be encountered. Exception shall be granted if applicant provides hydrologic or other information that supports alternative design criteria.
(f) Wastewater from project activities and water removed from within the work area shall be routed and deposited to the forest floor in an upland area, or above the 100-year flood level if present, to allow removal of fine sediment and other contaminants prior to being discharged to typed waters.
(g) Structures containing concrete shall be sufficiently cured prior to contact with water to avoid leaching.
(h) Abutments, piers, piling, sills, approach fills, etc., shall not constrict the flow so as to cause any appreciable increase (not to exceed 0.2 feet) in backwater elevation (calculated at the 100-year flood level) or channel wide scour and shall be aligned to cause the least effect on the hydraulics of the watercourse.
(i) Riprap materials used for structure protection shall be angular rock and the placement shall be installed according to an approved design to withstand the 100-year flood level.
(j) Wood or other materials treated with preservatives shall be sufficiently cured to minimize leaching into the water or bed. The use of creosote or pentachlorophenol is not allowed.
(5) Temporary culvert installation. The allowable placement of temporary culverts and time limitations shall be determined by the department based on the specific fish resources of concern at the proposed location of the culvert. See board manual section 5 for guidance on temporary culvert installation.
(a) Where fish passage is a concern, temporary culverts shall be installed according to an approved design to provide adequate fish passage. In these cases, the temporary culvert installation shall meet the fish passage design criteria in Table 1 in subsection (6) of this section.
(b) Where culverts are left in place during the period of September 30th to June 15th, the culvert shall be designed to maintain structural integrity to the 100-year flood level with consideration of the debris loading likely to be encountered.
(c) Where culverts are left in place during the period June 16th to September 30th, the culvert shall be designed to maintain structural integrity at a peak flow expected to occur once in 100 years during the season of installation.
(d) Disturbance of the bed and banks shall be limited to that necessary to place the culvert and any required channel modification associated with it. Affected bed and bank areas outside the culvert shall be restored to preproject condition following installation of the culvert.
(e) The culvert shall be installed in the dry, or in isolation from stream flow by the installation of a bypass flume or culvert, or by pumping the stream flow around the work area. Exception may be granted if siltation or turbidity is reduced by installing the culvert in the flowing stream. The bypass reach shall be limited to the minimum distance necessary to complete the project. Fish stranded in the bypass reach shall be safely removed to the flowing stream.
(f) Wastewater from project activities and dewatering shall be routed and deposited to the forest floor in an upland area, or above the 100-year flood level if present, to allow removal of fine sediment and other contaminants prior to being discharged to typed waters.
(g) Imported fill which will remain in the stream after culvert removal shall consist of clean rounded gravel ranging in size from one-quarter to three inches in diameter. The use of angular rock may be approved from June 16th to September 30th, where rounded rock is unavailable. Angular rock shall be removed from the watercourse and the site restored to preproject conditions upon removal of the temporary culvert.
(h) The culvert and fill shall be removed and the disturbed bed and bank areas shall be reshaped to preproject configuration. All disturbed areas shall be protected from erosion, within seven days of completion of the project, using vegetation or other means. The banks shall be revegetated with native or other approved woody species, or stabilized with other approved erosion control techniques, and maintained as necessary to ensure survival. See board manual section 5 for technical guidance.
(i) The temporary culvert shall be removed and the approaches shall be blocked to vehicular traffic prior to the expiration of the work window as conditioned for the specific hydraulic project in the forest practices application.
(j) Temporary culverts must be removed prior to the expiration of the forest practices application.
(6) Permanent culvert installation.
(a) In fish bearing waters or waters upstream of a fish passage barrier (which can reasonably be expected to be corrected, and if corrected, fish presence would be reestablished), culverts shall be designed and installed so as not to impede fish passage. Culverts shall only be approved for installation in spawning areas where full replacement of impacted habitat is provided by the applicant.
(b) To facilitate fish passage, culverts shall be designed to the following standards:
(i) Culverts may be approved for placement in small streams if placed on a flat gradient with the bottom of the culvert placed below the level of the stream bed a minimum of twenty percent of the culvert diameter for round culverts, or twenty percent of the vertical rise or structure height for elliptical culverts (this depth consideration does not apply within bottomless culverts). Footings of bottomless culverts shall be buried sufficiently deep so they will not become exposed by scour within the culvert. The twenty percent placement below the stream bed shall be measured at the culvert outlet. The culvert width at the bed, or footing width, shall be equal to or greater than the average width of the bed of the stream.
(ii) Where culvert placement is not feasible as described in (b)(i) of this subsection, the culvert design shall include the elements in(b)(ii)(A) through (E) of this subsection:
(A) Water depth at any location within culverts as installed and without a natural bed shall not be less than that identified in Table 1. The low flow design, to be used to determine the minimum depth of flow in the culvert, is the two-year seven-day low flow discharge for the subject basin or ninety-five percent exceedance flow for migration months of the fish species of concern. Where flow information is unavailable for the drainage in which the project will be conducted, calibrated flows from comparable gauged drainages may be used, or the depth may be determined using the installed no-flow condition.
(B) The high flow design discharge, used to determine maximum velocity in the culvert (see Table 1), is the flow that is not exceeded more than ten percent of the time during the months of adult fish migration. The two-year peak flood flow may be used where stream flow data are unavailable.
(C) The hydraulic drop is the abrupt drop in water surface measured at any point within or at the outlet of a culvert. The maximum hydraulic drop criteria must be satisfied at all flows between the low and high flow design criteria.
(D) The bottom of the culvert shall be placed below the natural channel grade a minimum of twenty percent of the culvert diameter for round culverts, or twenty percent of the vertical rise or structural height for elliptical culverts (this depth consideration does not apply within bottomless culverts). The downstream bed elevation, used for hydraulic calculations and culvert placement in relation to bed elevation, shall be taken at a point downstream at least four times the average width of the stream (this point need not exceed twenty-five feet from the downstream end of the culvert). The culvert capacity for flood design flow shall be determined by using the remaining capacity of the culvert.
Table 1
Fish Passage Design Criteria for Culvert Installation
Criteria
Adult Trout
> 6 in. (150 mm)
Adult Pink, Chum
Salmon
Adult
Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Steelhead
1. Velocity, Maximum (fps)
Culvert Length (ft)
a. 10 - 60
4.0
5.0
6.0
b. 60 - 100
4.0
4.0
5.0
c. 100 - 200
3.0
3.0
4.0
d. > 200
2.0
2.0
3.0
2. Flow Depth
Minimum (ft)
0.8
0.8
1.0
3. Hydraulic Drop, Maximum (ft)
0.8
0.8
1.0
(E) Appropriate statistical or hydraulic methods must be applied for the determination of flows in (b)(ii)(A) and (B) of this subsection. These design flow criteria may be modified for specific proposals as necessary to address unusual fish passage requirements, where other approved methods of empirical analysis are provided, or where the fish passage provisions of other special facilities are approved by the department.
(F) Culvert design shall include consideration of flood capacity for current conditions and future changes likely to be encountered within the stream channel, and debris and bedload passage.
(c) Culverts shall be installed according to an approved design to maintain structural integrity to the 100-year flood level with consideration of the debris loading likely to be encountered. Exception may be granted if the applicant provides justification for a different level or a design that routes the flow past the culvert without jeopardizing the culvert or associated fill.
(d) Disturbance of the bed and banks shall be limited to that necessary to place the culvert and any required channel modification associated with it. Affected bed and bank areas outside the culvert and associated fill shall be revegetated with native or other approved woody species, or stabilized with other approved erosion control techniques, and maintained as necessary to ensure survival. See board manual section 5 for technical guidance.
(e) Fill associated with the culvert installation shall be protected from erosion to the 100-year flood level.
(f) Culverts shall be designed and installed to avoid inlet scouring and shall be designed in a manner to prevent erosion of stream banks downstream of the project.
(g) Where fish passage criteria are required, the culvert facility shall be maintained by the landowner(s), such that fish passage design criteria in Table 1 are not exceeded. If the structure becomes a hindrance to fish passage, the landowner shall be responsible for obtaining an approved forest practices application and providing prompt repair.
(h) The culvert shall be installed in the dry or in isolation from the stream flow by the installation of a bypass flume or culvert, or by pumping the stream flow around the work area. Exception may be granted if siltation or turbidity is reduced by installing the culvert in the flowing stream. The bypass reach shall be limited to the minimum distance necessary to complete the project. Fish stranded in the bypass reach shall be safely removed to the flowing stream.
(i) Wastewater from project activities and dewatering shall be routed to the forest floor in an upland area, or above the 100-year flood level if present, as necessary to allow removal of fine sediment and other contaminants prior to being discharged to any typed water or wetland.
(7) Alternative designs will be considered if they can be demonstrated to meet or exceed fish protection standards. Alternative designs may require additional review.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 76.09.040(3). WSR 13-21-032, § 222-24-041, filed 10/8/13, effective 12/30/13.]
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