Chapter 11.104A RCW

WASHINGTON PRINCIPAL AND INCOME ACT OF 2002

Sections

ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS; FIDUCIARY DUTIES AND POWERS; REMEDIES
11.104A.001Short title.
11.104A.005Definitions.
11.104A.010Fiduciary dutiesGeneral principles.
11.104A.020Fiduciary's power to adjust.
11.104A.030Judicial control of discretionary powers.
11.104A.040Power to convert to unitrust.
ARTICLE 2
DECEDENT'S ESTATE OR TERMINATING INCOME INTEREST
11.104A.050Determination and distribution of net income.
11.104A.060Distribution to residuary and remainder beneficiaries.
ARTICLE 3
APPORTIONMENT AT BEGINNING AND END
OF INCOME INTEREST
11.104A.070When right to income begins and ends.
11.104A.080Apportionment of receipts and disbursements when decedent dies or income interest begins.
11.104A.090Apportionment when income interest ends.
ARTICLE 4
ALLOCATION OF RECEIPTS DURING
ADMINISTRATION OF TRUST
PART 1: RECEIPTS FROM ENTITIES
11.104A.100Character of receipts.
11.104A.110Distribution from trust or estate.
11.104A.120Business and other activities conducted by trustee.
PART 2: RECEIPTS NOT NORMALLY APPORTIONED
11.104A.130Principal receipts.
11.104A.140Rental property.
11.104A.150Obligation to pay money.
11.104A.160Insurance policies and similar contracts.
PART 3: RECEIPTS NORMALLY APPORTIONED
11.104A.170Insubstantial allocations not required.
11.104A.180Deferred compensation, annuities, and similar payments.
11.104A.190Liquidating asset.
11.104A.200Minerals, water, and other natural resources.
11.104A.210Timber.
11.104A.220Property not productive of income.
11.104A.230Derivatives and options.
11.104A.240Asset-backed securities.
ARTICLE 5
ALLOCATION OF DISBURSEMENTS DURING
ADMINISTRATION OF TRUST
11.104A.250Disbursements from income.
11.104A.260Disbursements from principal.
11.104A.270Transfers from income to principal for depreciation.
11.104A.280Transfers from income to reimburse principal.
11.104A.290Income taxes.
11.104A.300Adjustments between principal and income because of taxes.
ARTICLE 6
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
11.104A.900Uniformity of application and constructionRCW 11.68.090 prevails.
11.104A.901Application of chapter 11.96A RCW.
11.104A.904Effective date2002 c 345.
11.104A.905Application of act to existing trusts and estates.
11.104A.906Transitional matters.
11.104A.907ConstructionChapter applicable to state registered domestic partnerships2009 c 521.


Short title. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

This chapter may be cited as the Washington principal and income act of 2002.



Definitions. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

In this chapter:
(1) "Accounting period" means a calendar year unless another twelve-month period is selected by a fiduciary. The term includes a portion of a calendar year or other twelve-month period that begins when an income interest begins or ends when an income interest ends.
(2) "Beneficiary" includes, in the case of a decedent's estate, an heir, legatee, and devisee and, in the case of a trust, an income beneficiary and a remainder beneficiary.
(3) "Fiduciary" means a personal representative or a trustee. The term includes an executor, administrator, successor personal representative, special administrator, and a person performing substantially the same function.
(4) "Income" means money or property that a fiduciary receives as current return from a principal asset. The term includes a portion of receipts from a sale, exchange, or liquidation of a principal asset, to the extent provided in Article 4 of this chapter.
(5) "Income beneficiary" means a person to whom net income of a trust is or may be payable.
(6) "Income interest" means the right of an income beneficiary to receive all or part of net income, whether the terms of the trust require it to be distributed or authorize it to be distributed in the trustee's discretion.
(7) "Mandatory income interest" means the right of an income beneficiary to receive net income that the terms of the trust require the fiduciary to distribute.
(8) "Net income" means the total receipts allocated to income during an accounting period minus the disbursements made from income during the period, plus or minus transfers under this chapter to or from income during the period.
(9) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, or government; governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality; public corporation; or any other legal or commercial entity.
(10) "Principal" means property held in trust for distribution to a remainder beneficiary.
(11) "Remainder beneficiary" means a person entitled to receive principal, including when an income interest ends.
(12) "Terms of a trust" means the manifestation of the intent of a settlor or decedent with respect to the trust, expressed in a manner that admits of its proof in a judicial proceeding. The "terms of a trust" shall include without limitation such modifications as may be made from time to time with respect to the trust under chapter 11.96A RCW or otherwise under Washington or applicable federal laws.
(13) "Trustee" includes an original, additional, or successor trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court.



Fiduciary dutiesGeneral principles. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In allocating receipts and disbursements to or between principal and income, and with respect to any matter within the scope of this chapter, a fiduciary:
(1) Shall administer a trust or estate in accordance with the terms of the trust or the will, even if there is a different provision in this chapter;
(2) May administer a trust or estate by the exercise of a discretionary power of administration given to the fiduciary by the terms of the trust or the will, even if the exercise of the power produces a result different from a result required or permitted by this chapter;
(3) Shall administer a trust or estate in accordance with this chapter if the terms of the trust or the will do not contain a different provision or do not give the fiduciary a discretionary power of administration; and
(4) Shall add a receipt or charge a disbursement to principal to the extent that the terms of the trust and this chapter do not provide a rule for allocating the receipt or disbursement to or between principal and income.
(b) In exercising the power to adjust under RCW 11.104A.020 (a) or (e) or another discretionary power of administration regarding a matter within the scope of this chapter, whether granted by the terms of a trust, a will, or this chapter, a fiduciary shall administer a trust or estate impartially, based on what is fair and reasonable to all of the beneficiaries, except to the extent that the terms of the trust or the will clearly manifest an intention that the fiduciary shall or may favor one or more of the beneficiaries. A determination in accordance with this chapter is presumed to be fair and reasonable to all of the beneficiaries.



Fiduciary's power to adjust. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) A trustee may adjust between principal and income to the extent the trustee considers necessary if the trustee invests and manages trust assets as a prudent investor, the terms of the trust describe the amount that may or must be distributed to a beneficiary by referring to the trust's income, and the trustee determines, after applying the rules in RCW 11.104A.010(a), that the trustee is unable to comply with RCW 11.104A.010(b).
(b) In deciding whether and to what extent to exercise the power conferred by subsection (a) of this section, a trustee shall consider all factors relevant to the trust and its beneficiaries, including the following factors to the extent they are relevant:
(1) The nature, purpose, and expected duration of the trust;
(2) The intent of the settlor;
(3) The identity and circumstances of the beneficiaries;
(4) The needs for liquidity, regularity of income, and preservation and appreciation of capital;
(5) The assets held in the trust; the extent to which they consist of financial assets, interests in closely held enterprises, tangible and intangible personal property, or real property; the extent to which an asset is used by a beneficiary; and whether an asset was purchased by the trustee or received from the settlor;
(6) The net amount allocated to income under the other sections in this chapter and the increase or decrease in the value of the principal assets, which the trustee may estimate as to assets for which market values are not readily available;
(7) Whether and to what extent the terms of the trust give the trustee the power to invade principal or accumulate income or prohibit the trustee from invading principal or accumulating income, and the extent to which the trustee has exercised a power from time to time to invade principal or accumulate income;
(8) The actual and anticipated effect of economic conditions on principal and income and effects of inflation and deflation; and
(9) The anticipated tax consequences of an adjustment.
(c) A trustee may not make an adjustment:
(1) That diminishes the income interest in a trust that requires all of the income to be paid at least annually to a spouse and for which an estate tax or gift tax marital deduction would be allowed, in whole or in part, if the trustee did not have the power to make the adjustment;
(2) That reduces the actuarial value of the income interest in a trust to which a person transfers property with the intent to qualify for a gift tax exclusion;
(3) That changes the amount payable to a beneficiary as a fixed annuity or a fixed fraction of the value of the trust assets;
(4) From any amount that is permanently set aside for charitable purposes under a will or the terms of a trust unless both income and principal are so set aside;
(5) If possessing or exercising the power to make an adjustment causes an individual to be treated as the owner of all or part of the trust for income tax purposes, and the individual would not be treated as the owner if the trustee did not possess the power to make an adjustment;
(6) If possessing or exercising the power to make an adjustment causes all or part of the trust assets to be included for estate tax purposes in the estate of an individual who has the power to remove a trustee or appoint a trustee, or both, and the assets would not be included in the estate of the individual if the trustee did not possess the power to make an adjustment;
(7) If the trustee is a beneficiary of the trust; or
(8) If the trustee is not a beneficiary, but the adjustment would benefit the trustee directly or indirectly.
(d) If subsection (c)(5), (6), (7), or (8) of this section applies to a trustee and there is more than one trustee or an additional trustee who is appointed by a court order, a binding agreement, or otherwise under chapter 11.96A RCW, a cotrustee to whom the provision does not apply may make the adjustment unless the exercise of the power by the remaining trustee or trustees is not permitted by the terms of the trust.
(e) A personal representative serving with nonintervention powers under chapter 11.68 RCW may adjust between principal and income to the extent the personal representative considers necessary, if the personal representative invests and manages assets of the estate as a prudent investor and the personal representative determines, after applying the rules of RCW 11.104A.010(a), that the personal representative is unable to comply with RCW 11.104A.010(b). In deciding whether and to what extent to exercise the power conferred by this subsection, the personal representative shall consider all factors relevant to the estate and its beneficiaries, including factors comparable to those a trustee would consider under subsection (b) of this section if considering such an adjustment. A personal representative may not make an adjustment under circumstances comparable to those that are described in subsection (c) of this section and that prohibit a trustee from making such an adjustment, although a copersonal representative, or an additional personal representative who is appointed by a court order, a binding agreement, or otherwise under chapter 11.96A RCW, to whom such limitations do not apply may make the adjustment unless the exercise of the power by the remaining personal representative or personal representatives is not permitted by the terms of a will.
(f) A fiduciary may release the entire power conferred by subsection (a) of this section or may release only the power to adjust from income to principal or the power to adjust from principal to income if the fiduciary is uncertain about whether possessing or exercising the power will cause a result described in subsection (c)(1) through (6) or (8) of this section or if the fiduciary determines that possessing or exercising the power will or may deprive the trust of a tax benefit or impose a tax burden not described in subsection (c) of this section. The release may be permanent or for a specified period, including a period measured by the life of an individual.
(g) Terms of a trust that limit the power of a fiduciary to make an adjustment between principal and income do not affect the application of this section unless it is clear from the terms of the trust that the terms are intended to deny the fiduciary the power of adjustment conferred by subsection (a) of this section.
(h) Unless a beneficiary has requested the fiduciary in writing that the fiduciary consider an adjustment, nothing in this section imposes a duty on the fiduciary to make an adjustment and the fiduciary is not liable for not considering whether to make an adjustment under this section.



Judicial control of discretionary powers. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) A court shall not change a fiduciary's decision to exercise or not to exercise a discretionary power conferred by this chapter unless it determines that the decision was an abuse of the fiduciary's discretion. A court shall not determine that a fiduciary abused its discretion merely because the court would have exercised the discretion in a different manner or would not have exercised the discretion.
(b) The decisions to which subsection (a) of this section apply include:
(1) A determination under RCW 11.104A.020 (a) or (e) of whether and to what extent an amount should be transferred from principal to income or from income to principal.
(2) A determination of: (i) The factors that are relevant to the trust or estate and its beneficiaries; (ii) the extent to which they are relevant; and (iii) the weight, if any, to be given to the relevant factors, in deciding whether and to what extent to exercise the power conferred by RCW 11.104A.020 (a) or (e).
(3) A determination under RCW 11.104A.040(g).
(c) If a court determines that a fiduciary has abused its discretion, the remedy is to restore the income and remainder beneficiaries to the positions they would have occupied if the fiduciary had not abused its discretion, according to the following principles:
(1) To the extent that the abuse of discretion has resulted in no distribution to a beneficiary or a distribution that is too small, the court may require the fiduciary to distribute from the trust to the beneficiary an amount that the court determines will restore the beneficiary, in whole or in part, to his or her appropriate position.
(2) To the extent that the abuse of discretion has resulted in a distribution to a beneficiary that is too large, the court may restore the beneficiaries, the trust, or both, in whole or in part, to their appropriate positions by requiring the fiduciary to withhold an amount from one or more future distributions to the beneficiary who received the distribution that was too large or requiring that beneficiary to return some or all of the distribution to the trust.
(3) To the extent that the court does not restore under (1) and (2) of this subsection the beneficiaries, the trust, or both, to the positions they would have occupied if the fiduciary had not abused its discretion, the court may require the fiduciary to pay an appropriate amount from its own funds to one or more of the beneficiaries or the trust, or both. The fiduciary has no liability under this section unless the beneficiary alleging the abuse of discretion establishes that the fiduciary did not exercise its discretion in good faith and with honest judgment.
(d) Upon a petition by the fiduciary, the court having jurisdiction over the trust or estate shall determine whether a proposed exercise or nonexercise by the fiduciary of a discretionary power conferred by the act will result in an abuse of the fiduciary's discretion. If the petition describes the proposed exercise or nonexercise of the power and contains sufficient information to inform the beneficiaries of the reasons for the proposal, the facts upon which the fiduciary relies, and an explanation of how the income and remainder beneficiaries will be affected by the proposed exercise or nonexercise of the power, a beneficiary who challenges the proposed exercise or nonexercise has the burden of establishing that it will result in an abuse of discretion.
(e) The fiduciary shall be reimbursed for any and all costs, including without limitation all attorneys' fees and costs of defense, and all liabilities that the fiduciary may incur in connection with any claim or action relating in any way to the fiduciary's exercise of its discretion under this chapter, except to the extent that the beneficiary establishes that the fiduciary did not exercise its discretion in good faith and with honest judgment. All attorneys' fees and costs shall be advanced to the fiduciary as incurred and shall only be collected from the fiduciary after it has been determined that the fiduciary did not exercise its discretion in good faith and with honest judgment.



Power to convert to unitrust. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a)(1) In this section, "beneficiary" means a person who has an interest in the trust to be converted and who has the legal capacity to act in his, her, or its own right with respect to all actions that such person may take under this section.
(2) In this section, "unitrust" means both a trust converted into a unitrust under this section and a trust initially established as a unitrust. Unless inconsistent with the terms of the trust or will, subsections (f), (g), (h), (i), and (m) of this section apply to the unitrust initially so established.
(b) Unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the trust, a trustee may release the power to make adjustments under RCW 11.104A.020 and convert a trust into a unitrust as described in this section if all of the following apply:
(1) The trustee determines that the conversion will enable the trustee better to carry out the intent of the settlor or testator and the purposes of the trust.
(2) The trustee gives written notice of the trustee's intention to release the power to adjust and to convert the trust into a unitrust and of how the unitrust will operate, including what initial decisions the trustee will make under this section, to each beneficiary who, on the date the notice is given:
(i) Is a distributee or permissible distributee of trust income or principal; or
(ii) Would be a distributee or permissible distributee of trust principal if the interests of the distributees described in (2)(i) of this subsection terminated and the trust then terminated immediately before the notice was given and if no powers of appointment were exercised.
(3) There is at least one beneficiary under (2)(i) of this subsection and at least one other person who is a beneficiary under (2)(ii) of this subsection.
(4) No beneficiary objects to the conversion to a unitrust in a writing delivered to the trustee within sixty days after the notice is given under (2) of this subsection.
(c) The parties, as defined by *RCW 11.96A.030(4), may agree to convert a trust to or from a unitrust by means of a binding agreement under chapter 11.96A RCW.
(d)(1) The trustee may petition the court under chapter 11.96A RCW to order a conversion to a unitrust if either of the following apply:
(i) A party, as defined by *RCW 11.96A.030(4), timely objects to the conversion to a unitrust; or
(ii) There are no beneficiaries under (2)(i) and (ii) of this subsection.
(2) A party, as defined by *RCW 11.96A.030(4), may request a trustee to convert to a unitrust. If the trustee does not convert, the party, as defined by *RCW 11.96A.030(4), may petition the court to order the conversion.
(3) The court shall approve the conversion or direct the requested conversion if the court concludes that the conversion will enable the trustee to better carry out the intent of the settlor or testator and the purposes of the trust.
(e) In deciding whether to exercise a power to convert to a unitrust under this section, a trustee may consider, among other things, the factors set forth in RCW 11.104A.020(b).
(f) After a trust is converted to a unitrust, all of the following apply:
(1) The trustee shall follow an investment policy seeking a total return for the investments held by the trust, whether the return is to be derived:
(i) From appreciation of principal;
(ii) From earnings and distributions from principal; or
(iii) From both.
(2) The trustee shall make regular distributions in accordance with the terms of the trust, or the terms of the will, as the case may be, construed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(3) Unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the trust, the term "income" in the terms of a trust or a will means an annual distribution, the "unitrust distribution," equal to the percentage, the "payout percentage," that is no less than three percent and no more than five percent and that the trustee may determine in the trustee's discretion from time to time, or, if the trustee makes no determination, that shall be four percent of the net fair market value of the trust's assets, whether such assets would be considered income or principal under other provisions of this chapter, averaged over the lesser of:
(i) The three preceding years; or
(ii) The period during which the trust has been in existence.
(g) The trustee may in the trustee's discretion from time to time determine all of the following:
(1) The effective date of a conversion to a unitrust.
(2) The provisions for prorating a unitrust distribution for a short year in which a beneficiary's right to payments commences or ceases.
(3) The frequency of unitrust distributions during the year.
(4) The effect of other payments from or contributions to the trust on the trust's valuation.
(5) Whether to value the trust's assets annually or more frequently.
(6) What valuation dates to use.
(7) How frequently to value nonliquid assets and whether to estimate their value.
(8) Whether to omit from the calculations trust property occupied or possessed by a beneficiary.
(9) Any other matters necessary for the proper functioning of the unitrust.
(h)(1) Expenses which would be deducted from income if the trust were not a unitrust may not be deducted from the unitrust distribution.
(2) Unless otherwise provided by the terms of the trust, the unitrust distribution shall be paid from net income, as such term would be determined if the trust were not a unitrust. To the extent net income is insufficient, the unitrust distribution shall be paid from net realized short-term capital gains. To the extent net income and net realized short-term capital gains are insufficient, the unitrust distribution shall be paid from net realized long-term capital gains. To the extent net income and net realized short-term and long-term capital gains are insufficient, the unitrust distribution shall be paid from the principal of the trust.
(3) To the extent necessary to cause gains from the sale or exchange of unitrust assets to be treated as income under any federal, state, or local income tax (for example, section 643 of the Internal Revenue Code and its regulations, including Treasury Regulation § 1.643(b)-1, as amended or renumbered), the trustee has the discretionary power to allocate the gains to income, so long as the power is reasonably and impartially exercised.
(i) The trustee or, if the trustee declines to do so, a beneficiary may petition the court:
(1) To change the payout percentage.
(2) To provide for a distribution of net income, as would be determined if the trust were not a unitrust, in excess of the unitrust distribution if such distribution is necessary to preserve a tax benefit.
(3) To average the valuation of the trust's net assets over a period other than three years.
(4) To reconvert from a unitrust.
(j) Upon a reconversion, the power to adjust under RCW 11.104A.020 is revived.
(k) A conversion to a unitrust does not affect a provision in the terms of a trust directing or authorizing the trustee to distribute principal or authorizing a beneficiary to withdraw a portion or all of the principal.
(l) A trustee may not possess or exercise any power under this section in any of the following circumstances:
(1) The unitrust distribution would be made from any amount that is permanently set aside for charitable purposes under the terms of a trust and for which a charitable deduction from a federal gift or estate tax has been taken unless both income and principal are so set aside.
(2) The possession or exercise of the power would cause an individual to be treated as the owner of all or part of the trust for federal income tax purposes and the individual would not be treated as the owner if the trustee did not possess or exercise the power.
(3) The possession or exercise of the power would cause all or any part of the trust estate to be subject to any federal gift or estate tax with respect to the individual and the trust estate would not be subject to such taxation if the trustee did not possess or exercise the power.
(4) The possession or exercise of the power would result in the disallowance of a federal gift or estate tax marital deduction which would be allowed if the trustee did not have the power.
(5) The trustee is a beneficiary of the trust.
(m) If subsection (l)(2), (3), or (5) of this section applies to a trustee and there is more than one trustee or an additional trustee who is appointed by a court order, a binding agreement, or otherwise under chapter 11.96A RCW, a cotrustee to whom subsection (l)(2), (3), or (5) of this section does not apply may possess and exercise the power unless the possession or exercise of the power by the remaining trustee or trustees is not permitted by the terms of the trust. If subsection (l)(2), (3), or (5) of this section restricts all trustees from possessing or exercising a power under this section, the trustee may petition a court under chapter 11.96A RCW for the court to effect the intended conversion or action.
(n) A trustee may release any power conferred by this section if any of the following applies:
(1) The trustee is uncertain about whether possessing or exercising the power will cause a result described in subsection (l)(2), (3), or (4) of this section.
(2) The trustee determines that possessing or exercising the power will or may deprive the trust of a tax benefit or impose a tax burden not described in subsection (l) of this section.
The release may be permanent or for a specified period, including a period measured by the life of an individual.

NOTES:

*Reviser's note: RCW 11.96A.030 was alphabetized pursuant to RCW 1.08.015(2)(k), changing subsection (4) to subsection (5).
Clarification of lawsEnforceability of actSeverability2006 c 360: See notes following RCW 11.108.070.



Determination and distribution of net income. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

After a decedent dies, and subject to chapter 11.10 RCW, in the case of an estate, or after an income interest in a trust ends, the following rules apply:
(1) A fiduciary of an estate or of a terminating income interest shall determine the amount of net income and net principal receipts received from property specifically given to a beneficiary under the rules in Articles 3 through 5 of this chapter which apply to trustees and the rules in subsection (5) of this section. The fiduciary shall distribute the net income and net principal receipts to the beneficiary who is to receive the specific property.
(2) A fiduciary shall determine the remaining net income of a decedent's estate or a terminating income interest under the rules in Articles 3 through 5 of this chapter which apply to trustees, except to the extent that the following apply:
(i) The fiduciary shall include in net income all income from property used to discharge liabilities;
(ii) The fiduciary shall pay from income or principal, in the fiduciary's discretion, family allowances; fees of attorneys, accountants, and fiduciaries; court costs and other expenses of administration; and interest on death taxes, but the fiduciary may pay those expenses from income of property passing to a trust for which the fiduciary claims an estate tax marital or charitable deduction only to the extent that the payment of those expenses from income will not cause the reduction or loss of the deduction; and
(iii) The fiduciary shall pay from principal all other disbursements made or incurred in connection with the settlement of a decedent's estate or the winding up of a terminating income interest, including debts, funeral expenses, disposition of remains, and death taxes and related penalties that are apportioned to the estate or terminating income interest by the will, the terms of the trust, or applicable law.
(3) A fiduciary shall distribute to a beneficiary who receives a pecuniary amount outright the interest or any other amount provided by the will, the terms of a trust, or applicable law from net income determined under subsection (2) of this section or from principal to the extent that net income is insufficient. Otherwise, no outright gift of a pecuniary amount whether under a will, or under a trust after an income interest ends shall receive interest or any other income.
(4) A fiduciary shall distribute the net income remaining after distributions required by subsection (3) of this section in the manner described in RCW 11.104A.060 to all other beneficiaries, including a beneficiary who receives a pecuniary amount in trust, even if the beneficiary holds an unqualified power to withdraw assets from the trust or other presently exercisable general power of appointment over the trust.
(5) A fiduciary may not reduce principal or income receipts from property described in subsection (1) of this section because of a payment described in RCW 11.104A.250 or 11.104A.260 to the extent that the will, the terms of the trust, or applicable law requires the fiduciary to make the payment from assets other than the property or to the extent that the fiduciary recovers or expects to recover the payment from a third party. The net income and principal receipts from the property are determined by including all of the amounts the fiduciary receives or pays with respect to the property, whether those amounts accrued or became due before, on, or after the date of a decedent's death or an income interest's terminating event, and by making a reasonable provision for amounts that the fiduciary believes the estate or terminating income interest may become obligated to pay after the property is distributed.

NOTES:

Clarification of lawsEnforceability of actSeverability2006 c 360: See notes following RCW 11.108.070.



Distribution to residuary and remainder beneficiaries. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) Each beneficiary described in RCW 11.104A.050(4) is entitled to receive a portion of the net income equal to the beneficiary's fractional interest in undistributed principal assets, using values as of the distribution date. If a fiduciary makes more than one distribution of assets to beneficiaries to whom this section applies, each beneficiary, including one who does not receive part of the distribution, is entitled, as of each distribution date, to the net income the fiduciary has received after the date of death or terminating event or earlier distribution date but has not distributed as of the current distribution date.
(b) In determining a beneficiary's share of net income, the following rules apply:
(1) The beneficiary is entitled to receive a portion of the net income equal to the beneficiary's fractional interest in the undistributed principal assets immediately before the distribution date, including assets that later may be sold to meet principal obligations.
(2) The beneficiary's fractional interest in the undistributed principal assets must be calculated without regard to property specifically given to a beneficiary and property required to pay pecuniary amounts not in trust.
(3) The beneficiary's fractional interest in the undistributed principal assets must be calculated on the basis of the aggregate value of those assets as of the distribution date without reducing the value by any unpaid principal obligation.
(4) The distribution date for purposes of this section may be the date as of which the fiduciary calculates the value of the assets if that date is reasonably near the date on which assets are actually distributed.
(c) If a fiduciary does not distribute all of the collected but undistributed net income to each person as of a distribution date, the fiduciary shall maintain appropriate records showing the interest of each beneficiary in that net income.
(d) A fiduciary may apply the rules in this section, to the extent that the fiduciary considers it appropriate, to net gain or loss realized after the date of death or terminating event or earlier distribution date from the disposition of a principal asset if this section applies to the income from the asset.



When right to income begins and ends. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) An income beneficiary is entitled to net income from the date on which the income interest begins. An income interest begins on the date specified in the terms of the trust or, if no date is specified, on the date an asset becomes subject to a trust or successive income interest.
(b) An asset becomes subject to a trust:
(1) On the date it is transferred to the trust in the case of an asset that is transferred to a trust during the transferor's life;
(2) On the date of a testator's death in the case of an asset that becomes subject to a trust by reason of a will, even if there is an intervening period of administration of the testator's estate; or
(3) On the date of an individual's death in the case of an asset that is transferred to a fiduciary by a third party because of the individual's death.
(c) An asset becomes subject to a successive income interest on the day after the preceding income interest ends, as determined under subsection (d) of this section, even if there is an intervening period of administration to wind up the preceding income interest.
(d) An income interest ends on the day before an income beneficiary dies or another terminating event occurs, or on the last day of a period during which there is no beneficiary to whom a trustee may distribute income.



Apportionment of receipts and disbursements when decedent dies or income interest begins. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) A trustee shall allocate an income receipt or disbursement other than one to which RCW 11.104A.050(1) applies to principal if its due date occurs before a decedent dies in the case of an estate or before an income interest begins in the case of a trust or successive income interest.
(b) A trustee shall allocate an income receipt or disbursement to income if its due date occurs on or after the date on which a decedent dies or an income interest begins and it is a periodic due date. An income receipt or disbursement must be treated as accruing from day to day if its due date is not periodic or it has no due date. The portion of the receipt or disbursement accruing before the date on which a decedent dies or an income interest begins must be allocated to principal and the balance must be allocated to income.
(c) An item of income or an obligation is due on the date the payer is required to make a payment. If a payment date is not stated, there is no due date for the purposes of this chapter. Distributions to shareholders or other owners from an entity to which RCW 11.104A.100 applies are deemed to be due on the date fixed by the entity for determining who is entitled to receive the distribution or, if no date is fixed, on the declaration date for the distribution. A due date is periodic for receipts or disbursements that must be paid at regular intervals under a lease or an obligation to pay interest or if an entity customarily makes distributions at regular intervals.



Apportionment when income interest ends. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "undistributed income" means net income received before the date on which an income interest ends. The term does not include an item of income or expense that is due or accrued or net income that has been added or is required to be added to principal under the terms of the trust.
(b) When a mandatory income interest ends, the trustee shall pay to a mandatory income beneficiary who survives that date, or the estate of a deceased mandatory income beneficiary whose death causes the interest to end, the beneficiary's share of the undistributed income that is not disposed of under the terms of the trust unless the beneficiary has an unqualified power to revoke more than five percent of the trust principal immediately before the income interest ends. In the latter case, the undistributed income from the portion of the trust that may be revoked must be added to principal.
(c) When a trustee's obligation to pay a fixed annuity or a fixed fraction of the value of the trust's assets ends, the trustee shall prorate the final payment if and to the extent required by applicable law to accomplish a purpose of the trust or its settlor relating to income, gift, estate, or other tax requirements.



Character of receipts. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "entity" means a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, regulated investment company, real estate investment trust, common trust fund, or any other organization in which a trustee has an interest. "Entity" does not mean a trust or estate to which RCW 11.104A.110 applies, a business or activity to which RCW 11.104A.120 applies, or an asset-backed security to which RCW 11.104A.240 applies.
(b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a trustee shall allocate to income money received from an entity.
(c) A trustee shall allocate the following receipts from an entity to principal:
(1) Property other than money;
(2) Money received in one distribution or a series of related distributions in exchange for part or all of a trust's interest in the entity;
(3) Money received in total or partial liquidation of the entity; and
(4) Money received from an entity that is a regulated investment company or a real estate investment trust if the money distributed is a capital gain dividend for federal income tax purposes.
(d) Money is received in partial liquidation:
(1) To the extent that the entity, at or near the time of a distribution, indicates that it is a distribution in partial liquidation; or
(2) If the total amount of money and property distributed in a distribution or series of related distributions is greater than twenty percent of the entity's gross assets, as shown by the entity's year-end financial statements immediately preceding the initial distribution.
(e) Money is not received in partial liquidation, nor may it be taken into account under subsection (d)(2) of this section, to the extent that it does not exceed the amount of income tax that a trustee or beneficiary must pay on taxable income of the entity that distributes the money.
(f) A trustee may rely upon a statement made by an entity about the source or character of a distribution if the statement is made at or near the time of distribution by the entity's board of directors or other person or group of persons authorized to exercise powers to pay money or transfer property comparable to those of a corporation's board of directors.



Distribution from trust or estate. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

A trustee shall allocate to income an amount received as a distribution of income from a trust or an estate in which the trust has an interest other than a purchased interest in a trust that is an investment entity, and shall allocate to principal an amount received as a distribution of principal from such a trust or estate. If a trustee purchases an interest in a trust that is an investment entity, or a decedent or donor transfers an interest in such a trust to a trustee, RCW 11.104A.100 or 11.104A.240 applies to a receipt from the trust.



Business and other activities conducted by trustee. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) If a trustee who conducts a business or other activity determines that it is in the best interest of all the beneficiaries to account separately for the business or activity instead of accounting for it as part of the trust's general accounting records, the trustee may maintain separate accounting records for its transactions, whether or not its assets are segregated from other trust assets. The trustee shall maintain such records in accordance with principles of accounting that are generally accepted.
(b) A trustee who accounts separately for a business or other activity may determine the extent to which its net cash receipts must be retained for working capital, the acquisition or replacement of fixed assets, and other reasonably foreseeable needs of the business or activity, and the extent to which the remaining net cash receipts are accounted for as principal or income in the trust's general accounting records. If a trustee sells assets of the business or other activity, other than in the ordinary course of the business or activity, the trustee shall account for the net amount received as principal in the trust's general accounting records to the extent the trustee determines that the amount received is no longer required in the conduct of the business.
(c) Activities for which a trustee may maintain separate accounting records include:
(1) Retail, manufacturing, service, and other traditional business activities;
(2) Farming;
(3) Raising and selling livestock and other animals;
(4) Management of rental properties;
(5) Extraction of minerals and other natural resources;
(6) Timber operations; and
(7) Activities to which RCW 11.104A.230 applies.



Principal receipts. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

A trustee shall allocate to principal:
(1) To the extent not allocated to income under this chapter, assets received from a transferor during the transferor's lifetime, a decedent's estate, a trust with a terminating income interest, or a payer under a contract naming the trust or its trustee as beneficiary;
(2) Money or other property received from the sale, exchange, liquidation, or change in form of a principal asset, including realized profit, subject to this article;
(3) Amounts recovered from third parties to reimburse the trust because of disbursements described in RCW 11.104A.260(a)(7) or for other reasons to the extent not based on the loss of income;
(4) Proceeds of property taken by eminent domain, but a separate award made for the loss of income with respect to an accounting period during which a current income beneficiary had a mandatory income interest is income;
(5) Net income received in an accounting period during which there is no beneficiary to whom a trustee may or must distribute income; and
(6) Other receipts as provided in Part 3 of this article.



Rental property. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from rental property pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate to income an amount received as rent of real or personal property, including an amount received for cancellation or renewal of a lease. An amount received as a refundable deposit, including a security deposit or a deposit that is to be applied as rent for future periods, must be added to principal and held subject to the terms of the lease and is not available for distribution to a beneficiary until the trustee's contractual obligations have been satisfied with respect to that amount.



Obligation to pay money. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) An amount received as interest, whether determined at a fixed, variable, or floating rate, on an obligation to pay money to the trustee, including an amount received as consideration for prepaying principal, must be allocated to income without any provision for amortization of premium.
(b) A trustee shall allocate to principal an amount received from the sale, redemption, or other disposition of an obligation to pay money to the trustee more than one year after it is purchased or acquired by the trustee, including an obligation whose purchase price or value when it is acquired is less than its value at maturity. If the obligation matures within one year after it is purchased or acquired by the trustee, an amount received in excess of its purchase price or its value when acquired by the trust must be allocated to income.
(c) This section does not apply to an obligation to which RCW 11.104A.180, 11.104A.190, 11.104A.200, 11.104A.210, 11.104A.230, or 11.104A.240 applies.



Insurance policies and similar contracts. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, a trustee shall allocate to principal the proceeds of a life insurance policy or other contract in which the trust or its trustee is named as beneficiary, including a contract that insures the trust or its trustee against loss for damage to, destruction of, or loss of title to a trust asset. The trustee shall allocate dividends on an insurance policy to income if the premiums on the policy are paid from income, and to principal if the premiums are paid from principal.
(b) A trustee shall allocate to income proceeds of a contract that insures the trustee against loss of occupancy or other use by an income beneficiary, loss of income, or, subject to RCW 11.104A.120, loss of profits from a business.
(c) This section does not apply to a contract to which RCW 11.104A.180 applies.



Insubstantial allocations not required. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

If a trustee determines that an allocation between principal and income required by RCW 11.104A.180, 11.104A.190, 11.104A.200, 11.104A.210, or 11.104A.240 is insubstantial, the trustee may allocate the entire amount to principal unless one of the circumstances described in RCW 11.104A.020(c) applies to the allocation. This power may be exercised by a cotrustee in the circumstances described in RCW 11.104A.020(d) and may be released for the reasons and in the manner described in RCW 11.104A.020(f). An allocation is presumed to be insubstantial if:
(1) The amount of the allocation would increase or decrease net income in an accounting period, as determined before the allocation, by less than ten percent; or
(2) The value of the asset producing the receipt for which the allocation would be made is less than ten percent of the total value of the trust's assets at the beginning of the accounting period.



Deferred compensation, annuities, and similar payments. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section:
(1) "Payment" means a payment that a trustee may receive over a fixed number of years or during the life of one or more individuals because of services rendered or property transferred to the payer in exchange for future payments. The term includes a payment made in money or property from the payer's general assets or from a separate fund created by the payer. For purposes of subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, the term also includes any payment from any separate fund, regardless of the reason for the payment.
(2) "Separate fund" includes a private or commercial annuity, an individual retirement account, and a pension, profit-sharing, stock-bonus, or stock-ownership plan.
(b) To the extent that a payment is characterized as interest, a dividend, or a payment made in lieu of interest or a dividend, a trustee shall allocate the payment to income. The trustee shall allocate to principal the balance of the payment and any other payment received in the same accounting period that is not characterized as interest, a dividend, or an equivalent payment.
(c) If no part of a payment is characterized as interest, a dividend, or an equivalent payment, a trustee shall allocate to income four percent of the total value of the interests of the trustee in the plan, annuity, or similar payment according to the most recent statement of value preceding the beginning of the accounting period and the balance to principal.
(d) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) of this section, subsections (f) and (g) of this section apply, and subsections (b) and (c) of this section do not apply, in determining the allocation of a payment made from a separate fund to:
(1) A trust to which an election to qualify for a marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 2056(b)(7) of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, as amended as of July 26, 2009, has been made; or
(2) A trust that qualifies for the marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 2056(b)(5) of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, as amended as of July 26, 2009.
(e) Subsections (d), (f), and (g) of this section do not apply if and to the extent that the series of payments would, without the application of subsection (d) of this section, qualify for the marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 2056(b)(7)(C) of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, as amended as of July 26, 2009.
(f) A trustee shall determine the internal income of each separate fund for the accounting period as if the separate fund were a trust subject to this section. Upon request of the surviving spouse, the trustee shall demand that the person administering the separate fund distribute the internal income to the trust. The trustee shall allocate a payment from the separate fund to income to the extent of the internal income of the separate fund and distribute that amount to the surviving spouse. The trustee shall allocate the balance of the payment to principal. Upon request of the surviving spouse, the trustee shall allocate principal to income to the extent the internal income of the separate fund exceeds payments made from the separate fund to the trust during the accounting period.
(g) If a trustee cannot determine the internal income of a separate fund but can determine the value of the separate fund, the internal income of the separate fund is deemed to equal four percent of the fund's value, according to the most recent statement of value preceding the beginning of the accounting period. If the trustee can determine neither the internal income of the separate fund nor the fund's value, the internal income of the fund is deemed to equal the product of the interest rate and the present value of the expected future payments, as determined under 26 U.S.C. Sec. 7520 of the federal internal revenue code of 1986, as amended as of July 26, 2009, for the month preceding the accounting period for which the computation is made.
(h) This section does not apply to a payment to which RCW 11.104A.190 applies.



Liquidating asset. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "liquidating asset" means an asset whose value will diminish or terminate because the asset is expected to produce receipts for a period of limited duration. The term includes a leasehold, patent, copyright, royalty right, and right to receive payments during a period of more than one year under an arrangement that does not provide for the payment of interest on the unpaid balance. The term does not include a payment subject to RCW 11.104A.180, resources subject to RCW 11.104A.200, timber subject to RCW 11.104A.210, an activity subject to RCW 11.104A.230, an asset subject to RCW 11.104A.240, or any asset for which the trustee establishes a reserve for depreciation under RCW 11.104A.270.
(b) A trustee shall allocate to income ten percent of the receipts from a liquidating asset and the balance to principal.



Minerals, water, and other natural resources. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from an interest in minerals or other natural resources pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate them as follows:
(1) If received as nominal delay rental or nominal annual rent on a lease, a receipt must be allocated to income;
(2) If received from a production payment, a receipt must be allocated to income if and to the extent that the agreement creating the production payment provides a factor for interest or its equivalent. The balance must be allocated to principal;
(3) If an amount received as a royalty, shut-in-well payment, take-or-pay payment, bonus, or delay rental is more than nominal, ninety percent must be allocated to principal and the balance to income; or
(4) If an amount is received from a working interest or any other interest not provided for in (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection, ninety percent of the net amount received must be allocated to principal and the balance to income.
(b) An amount received on account of an interest in water that is renewable must be allocated to income. If the water is not renewable, ninety percent of the amount must be allocated to principal and the balance to income.
(c) This chapter applies whether or not a decedent or donor was extracting minerals, water, or other natural resources before the interest became subject to the trust.
(d) If a trust owns an interest in minerals, water, or other natural resources on January 1, 2003, the trustee may allocate receipts from the interest as provided in this chapter or in the manner used by the trustee before January 1, 2003. If the trust acquires an interest in minerals, water, or other natural resources after January 1, 2003, the trustee shall allocate receipts from the interest as provided in this chapter.



Timber. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from the sale of timber and related products pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate the net receipts:
(1) To income to the extent that the amount of timber removed from the land does not exceed the rate of growth of the timber during the accounting periods in which a beneficiary has a mandatory income interest;
(2) To principal to the extent that the amount of timber removed from the land exceeds the rate of growth of the timber or the net receipts are from the sale of standing timber;
(3) To or between income and principal if the net receipts are from the lease of timberland or from a contract to cut timber from land owned by a trust, by determining the amount of timber removed from the land under the lease or contract and applying the rules in (1) and (2) of this subsection; or
(4) To principal to the extent that advance payments, bonuses, and other payments are not allocated pursuant to (1), (2), or (3) of this subsection.
(b) In determining net receipts to be allocated pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, a trustee shall deduct and transfer to principal a reasonable amount for depletion.
(c) This chapter applies whether or not a decedent or transferor was harvesting timber from the property before it became subject to the trust.
(d) If a trust owns an interest in timberland on January 1, 2003, the trustee may allocate net receipts from the sale of timber and related products as provided in this chapter or in the manner used by the trustee before January 1, 2003. If the trust acquires an interest in timberland after January 1, 2003, the trustee shall allocate net receipts from the sale of timber and related products as provided in this chapter.



Property not productive of income. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) If a marital deduction is allowed for all or part of a trust whose assets consist substantially of property that does not provide the spouse with sufficient income from or use of the trust assets, and if the amounts that the trustee transfers from principal to income under RCW 11.104A.020 and distributes to the spouse from principal pursuant to the terms of the trust are insufficient to provide the spouse with the beneficial enjoyment required to obtain the marital deduction, the spouse may require the trustee to make property productive of income, convert property within a reasonable time, or exercise the power conferred by RCW 11.104A.020(a). The trustee may decide which action or combination of actions to take.
(b) In cases not governed by subsection (a) of this section, proceeds from the sale or other disposition of an asset are principal without regard to the amount of income the asset produces during any accounting period.



Derivatives and options. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "derivative" means a contract or financial instrument or a combination of contracts and financial instruments which gives a trust the right or obligation to participate in some or all changes in the price of a tangible or intangible asset or group of assets, or changes in a rate, an index of prices or rates, or other market indicator for an asset or a group of assets.
(b) To the extent that a trustee does not account under RCW 11.104A.120 for transactions in derivatives, the trustee shall allocate to principal receipts from and disbursements made in connection with those transactions.
(c) If a trustee grants an option to buy property from the trust, whether or not the trust owns the property when the option is granted, grants an option that permits another person to sell property to the trust, or acquires an option to buy property for the trust or an option to sell an asset owned by the trust, and the trustee or other owner of the asset is required to deliver the asset if the option is exercised, an amount received for granting the option must be allocated to principal. An amount paid to acquire the option must be paid from principal. A gain or loss realized upon the exercise of an option, including an option granted to a settlor of the trust for services rendered, must be allocated to principal.



Asset-backed securities. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "asset-backed security" means an asset whose value is based upon the right it gives the owner to receive distributions from the proceeds of financial assets that provide collateral for the security. The term includes an asset that gives the owner the right to receive from the collateral financial assets only the interest or other current return or only the proceeds other than interest or current return. The term does not include an asset to which RCW 11.104A.100 or 11.104A.180 applies.
(b) If a trust receives a payment from interest or other current return and from other proceeds of the collateral financial assets, the trustee shall allocate to income the portion of the payment which the payer identifies as being from interest or other current return and shall allocate the balance of the payment to principal.
(c) If a trust receives one or more payments in exchange for the trust's entire interest in an asset-backed security in one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate the payments to principal. If a payment is one of a series of payments that will result in the liquidation of the trust's interest in the security over more than one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate ten percent of the payment to income and the balance to principal.



Disbursements from income. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

A trustee shall make the following disbursements from income to the extent that they are not disbursements to which RCW 11.104A.050(2) (ii) or (iii) applies:
(1) One-half of the regular compensation of the trustee and of any person providing investment advisory or custodial services to the trustee;
(2) One-half of all expenses for accountings, judicial proceedings, or other matters that involve both the income and remainder interests;
(3) All of the other ordinary expenses incurred in connection with the administration, management, or preservation of trust property and the distribution of income, including interest, ordinary repairs, regularly recurring taxes assessed against principal, and expenses of a proceeding or other matter that concerns primarily the income interest; and
(4) Recurring premiums on insurance covering the loss of a principal asset or the loss of income from or use of the asset.



Disbursements from principal. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) A trustee shall make the following disbursements from principal:
(1) The remaining one-half of the disbursements described in RCW 11.104A.250 (1) and (2);
(2) All of the trustee's compensation calculated on principal as a fee for acceptance, distribution, or termination, and disbursements made to prepare property for sale;
(3) Payments on the principal of a trust debt;
(4) Expenses of a proceeding that concerns primarily principal, including a proceeding to construe the trust or to protect the trust or its property;
(5) Premiums paid on a policy of insurance not described in RCW 11.104A.250(4) of which the trust is the owner and beneficiary;
(6) Estate, inheritance, and other transfer taxes, including penalties, apportioned to the trust; and
(7) Disbursements related to environmental matters, including reclamation, assessing environmental conditions, remedying and removing environmental contamination, monitoring remedial activities and the release of substances, preventing future releases of substances, collecting amounts from persons liable or potentially liable for the costs of those activities, penalties imposed under environmental laws or regulations and other payments made to comply with those laws or regulations, statutory or common law claims by third parties, and defending claims based on environmental matters.
(b) If a principal asset is encumbered with an obligation that requires income from that asset to be paid directly to the creditor, the trustee shall transfer from principal to income an amount equal to the income paid to the creditor in reduction of the principal balance of the obligation.
(c) For disbursements not covered in this section or RCW 11.104A.250, see RCW 11.104A.110(a)(4).



Transfers from income to principal for depreciation. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) In this section, "depreciation" means a reduction in value due to wear, tear, decay, corrosion, or gradual obsolescence of a fixed asset having a useful life of more than one year.
(b) A trustee may transfer to principal a reasonable amount of the net cash receipts from a principal asset that is subject to depreciation, but may not transfer any amount for depreciation:
(1) Of that portion of real property used or available for use by a beneficiary as a residence or of tangible personal property held or made available for the personal use or enjoyment of a beneficiary; or
(2) Under this section if the trustee is accounting under RCW 11.104A.120 for the business or activity in which the asset is used.
(c) An amount transferred to principal need not be held as a separate fund.



Transfers from income to reimburse principal. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) If a trustee makes or expects to make a principal disbursement described in this section, the trustee may transfer an appropriate amount from income to principal in one or more accounting periods to reimburse principal or to provide a reserve for future principal disbursements.
(b) Principal disbursements to which subsection (a) of this section applies include the following, but only to the extent that the trustee has not been and does not expect to be reimbursed by a third party:
(1) An amount chargeable to income but paid from principal because it is unusually large, including extraordinary repairs;
(2) A capital improvement to a principal asset, whether in the form of changes to an existing asset or the construction of a new asset, including special assessments;
(3) Disbursements made to prepare property for rental, including tenant allowances, leasehold improvements, and broker's commissions;
(4) Periodic payments on an obligation secured by a principal asset to the extent that the amount transferred from income to principal for depreciation is less than the periodic payments; and
(5) Disbursements described in RCW 11.104A.260(a)(7).
(c) If the asset whose ownership gives rise to the disbursements becomes subject to a successive income interest after an income interest ends, a trustee may continue to transfer amounts from income to principal as provided in subsection (a) of this section.



Income taxes. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(1) A tax required to be paid by a trustee based on receipts allocated to income must be charged to income.
(2) A tax required to be paid by a trustee based on receipts allocated to principal must be charged to principal, even if the tax is called an income tax by the taxing authority.
(3) A tax required to be paid by a trustee on the trust's share of an entity's taxable income must be charged:
(a) To income to the extent that receipts from the entity are allocated only to income;
(b) To principal to the extent that receipts from the entity are allocated only to principal;
(c) Proportionately to income and principal to the extent that receipts from the entity are allocated to both income and principal;
(d) Otherwise to principal.
(4) Before applying subsections (1) through (3) of this section, the trustee must adjust income or principal receipts by the distributions to a beneficiary for which the trust receives an income tax deduction.



Adjustments between principal and income because of taxes. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(a) A fiduciary may make adjustments between principal and income to offset the shifting of economic interests or tax benefits between income beneficiaries and remainder beneficiaries which arise from:
(1) Elections and decisions, other than those described in subsection (b) of this section, that the fiduciary makes from time to time regarding tax matters;
(2) An income tax or any other tax that is imposed upon the fiduciary or a beneficiary as a result of a transaction involving or a distribution from the estate or trust; or
(3) The ownership by an estate or trust of an interest in an entity whose taxable income, whether or not distributed, is includable in the taxable income of the estate, trust, or a beneficiary.
(b) If the amount of an estate tax marital deduction or charitable contribution deduction is reduced because a fiduciary deducts an amount paid from principal for income tax purposes instead of deducting it for estate tax purposes, and as a result estate taxes paid from principal are increased and income taxes paid by an estate, trust, or beneficiary are decreased, each estate, trust, or beneficiary that benefits from the decrease in income tax shall reimburse the principal from which the increase in estate tax is paid. The total reimbursement must equal the increase in the estate tax to the extent that the principal used to pay the increase would have qualified for a marital deduction or charitable contribution deduction but for the payment. The proportionate share of the reimbursement for each estate, trust, or beneficiary whose income taxes are reduced must be the same as its proportionate share of the total decrease in income tax. An estate or trust shall reimburse principal from income.



Uniformity of application and constructionRCW 11.68.090 prevails. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

(1) In applying and construing chapter 345, Laws of 2002, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact similar laws.
(2) To the extent that this chapter is in conflict with RCW 11.68.090, RCW 11.68.090 prevails.



Application of chapter 11.96A RCW. (Effective until January 1, 2022. Recodified as RCW 11.104B.903.)

Nothing in chapter 345, Laws of 2002 is intended to restrict the application of chapter 11.96A RCW to issues, questions, or disputes that arise under or that relate to chapter 345, Laws of 2002. Any and all such issues, questions, or disputes shall be resolved judicially or nonjudicially under chapter 11.96A RCW.



Effective date2002 c 345. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

This act takes effect January 1, 2003.



Application of act to existing trusts and estates. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

Except as specifically provided otherwise in the terms of a trust or a will, chapter 345, Laws of 2002 shall apply to any receipt or expense received or incurred on or after January 1, 2003, by any trust or decedent's estate, whether established before, on, or after January 1, 2003, and whether the asset involved was acquired by the fiduciary before, on, or after January 1, 2003.



Transitional matters. (Effective until January 1, 2022.)

RCW 11.104A.180 applies to a trust described in RCW 11.104A.180(d) on and after the following dates:
(a) If the trust is not funded as of July 26, 2009, the date of the decedent's death.
(b) If the trust is initially funded in the calendar year beginning January 1, 2009, the date of the decedent's death.
(c) If the trust is not described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section, January 1, 2009.



ConstructionChapter applicable to state registered domestic partnerships2009 c 521. (Effective until January 1, 2022. Recodified as RCW 11.104B.904.)

For the purposes of this chapter, the terms spouse, marriage, marital, husband, wife, widow, widower, next of kin, and family shall be interpreted as applying equally to state registered domestic partnerships or individuals in state registered domestic partnerships as well as to marital relationships and married persons, and references to dissolution of marriage shall apply equally to state registered domestic partnerships that have been terminated, dissolved, or invalidated, to the extent that such interpretation does not conflict with federal law. Where necessary to implement chapter 521, Laws of 2009, gender-specific terms such as husband and wife used in any statute, rule, or other law shall be construed to be gender neutral, and applicable to individuals in state registered domestic partnerships.