296-62-07711  <<  296-62-07712 >>   296-62-07713

Requirements for asbestos activities in construction and shipyard work.

(1) Methods of compliance, the following engineering controls and work practices of this section must be used for construction work defined in WAC 296-155-012 and for all ship repair defined in WAC 296-304-010.
(2) Engineering controls and work practices for all operations covered by this section. The employer must use the following engineering controls and work practices in all operations covered by this section, regardless of the levels of exposure:
(a) Vacuum cleaners equipped with HEPA filters to collect all debris and dust containing ACM and PACM, except as provided in subsection (10)(b) of this section in the case of roofing material.
(b) Wet methods, or wetting agents, to control employee exposures during asbestos handling, mixing, removal, cutting, application, and cleanup, except where employers demonstrate that the use of wet methods is infeasible due to, for example, the creation of electrical hazards, equipment malfunction, and, in roofing, except as provided in subsection (10)(b) of this section.
(c) Asbestos must be handled, mixed, applied, removed, cut, scored, or otherwise worked in a wet saturated state to prevent the emission of airborne fibers unless the usefulness of the product would be diminished thereby.
(d) Prompt cleanup and disposal of wastes and debris contaminated with asbestos in leak-tight containers except in roofing operations, where the procedures specified in this section apply.
(3) In addition to the requirements of subsection (2) of this section, the employer must use the following control methods to achieve compliance with the TWA permissible exposure limit and excursion limit prescribed by WAC 296-62-07705:
(a) Local exhaust ventilation equipped with HEPA filter dust collection systems;
(b) Enclosure or isolation of processes producing asbestos dust;
(c) Ventilation of the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees and toward a filtration or collection device equipped with a HEPA filter;
(d) Use of other work practices and engineering controls that the department can show to be feasible;
(e) Wherever the feasible engineering and work practice controls described above are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit and/or excursion limit prescribed in WAC 296-62-07705, the employer must use them to reduce employee exposure to the lowest levels attainable by these controls and must supplement them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of WAC 296-62-07715.
(4) Prohibitions. The following work practices and engineering controls must not be used for work related to asbestos or for work which disturbs ACM or PACM, regardless of measured levels of asbestos exposure or the results of initial exposure assessments:
(a) High-speed abrasive disc saws that are not equipped with point or cut ventilator or enclosures with HEPA filtered exhaust air;
(b) Compressed air used to remove asbestos, or materials containing asbestos, unless the compressed air is used in conjunction with an enclosed ventilation system designed to capture the dust cloud created by the compressed air;
(c) Dry sweeping, shoveling or other dry cleanup of dust and debris containing ACM and PACM;
(d) Employee rotation as a means of reducing employee exposure to asbestos.
(5) Cleanup.
(a) After completion of asbestos work (removal, demolition, and renovation operations), all surfaces in and around the work area must be cleared of any asbestos debris.
(b) Encapsulant must be applied to all areas where asbestos has been removed to ensure binding of any remaining fibers.
(6) Class I requirements. The following engineering controls and work practices and procedures must be used:
(a) All Class I work, including the installation and operation of the control system must be supervised by a competent person as defined in WAC 296-62-07703;
(b) For all Class I jobs involving the removal of more than twenty-five linear or ten square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material; for all other Class I jobs, where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment according to WAC 296-62-07709(3), or where employees are working in areas adjacent to the regulated area, while the Class I work is being performed, the employer must use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:
(i) Critical barriers must be placed over all the openings to the regulated area, except where activities are performed outdoors; or
(ii) The employer must use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area surveillance during each work shift at each boundary of the regulated area, showing no visible asbestos dust; and perimeter area monitoring showing that clearance levels contained in 40 C.F.R. Part 763, Subpart E, of the EPA Asbestos in Schools Rule are met, or that perimeter area levels, measured by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) are no more than background levels representing the same area before the asbestos work began. The results of such monitoring must be made known to the employer no later than twenty-four hours from the end of the work shift represented by such monitoring. Exception: For work completed outdoors where employees are not working in areas adjacent to the regulated areas, (a) of this subsection is satisfied when the specific control methods in subsection (7) of this section are used;
(c) For all Class I jobs, HVAC systems must be isolated in the regulated area by sealing with a double layer of 6 mil plastic or the equivalent;
(d) For all Class I jobs, impermeable dropcloths shall be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity;
(e) For all Class I jobs, all objects within the regulated area must be covered with impermeable dropcloths or plastic sheeting which is secured by duct tape or an equivalent;
(f) For all Class I jobs where the employer cannot produce a negative exposure assessment, or where exposure monitoring shows that a PEL is exceeded, the employer must ventilate the regulated area to move contaminated air away from the breathing zone of employees toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.
(7) Specific control methods for Class I work. In addition, Class I asbestos work must be performed using one or more of the following control methods according to the limitations stated below:
(a) Negative pressure enclosure (NPE) systems: NPE systems may be used where the configuration of the work area does not make the erection of the enclosure infeasible, with the following specifications and work practices:
(i) Specifications:
(A) The negative pressure enclosure (NPE) may be of any configuration;
(B) At least 4 air changes per hour must be maintained in the NPE;
(C) A minimum of -0.02 column inches of water pressure differential, relative to outside pressure, must be maintained within the NPE as evidenced by manometric measurements;
(D) The NPE must be kept under negative pressure throughout the period of its use; and
(E) Air movement must be directed away from employees performing asbestos work within the enclosure, and toward a HEPA filtration or collection device.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) Before beginning work within the enclosure and at the beginning of each shift, the NPE must be inspected for breaches and smoke-tested for leaks, and any leaks sealed.
(B) Electrical circuits in the enclosure must be deactivated, unless equipped with ground-fault circuit interrupters.
(b) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of piping and elbows and other connections with the following specifications and work practices:
(i) Specifications:
(A) Glove bags must be made of 6 mil thick plastic and must be seamless at the bottom.
(B) Glove bags used on elbows and other connections must be designed for that purpose and used without modifications.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) Each glove bag must be installed so that it completely covers the circumference of pipe or other structure where the work is to be done.
(B) Glove bags must be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to use.
(C) Glove bags may be used only once and may not be moved.
(D) Glove bags must not be used on surfaces whose temperature exceeds 150°F.
(E) Prior to disposal, glove bags must be collapsed by removing air within them using a HEPA vacuum.
(F) Before beginning the operation, loose and friable material adjacent to the glove bag/box operation must be wrapped and sealed in two layers of six mil plastic or otherwise rendered intact.
(G) Where system uses attached waste bag, such bag must be connected to collection bag using hose or other material which must withstand pressure of ACM waste and water without losing its integrity.
(H) Sliding valve or other device must separate waste bag from hose to ensure no exposure when waste bag is disconnected.
(I) At least two persons must perform Class I glove bag removal operations.
(c) Negative pressure glove bag systems. Negative pressure glove bag systems may be used to remove ACM or PACM from piping.
(i) Specifications: In addition to specifications for glove bag systems above, negative pressure glove bag systems must attach HEPA vacuum systems or other devices to bag during removal.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) The employer must comply with the work practices for glove bag systems in this section.
(B) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used during removal must run continually during the operation until it is completed at which time the bag must be collapsed prior to removal of the bag from the pipe.
(C) Where a separate waste bag is used along with a collection bag and discarded after one use, the collection bag may be reused if rinsed clean with amended water before reuse.
(d) Negative pressure glove box systems: Negative pressure glove boxes may be used to remove ACM or PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices:
(i) Specifications:
(A) Glove boxes must be constructed with rigid sides and made from metal or other material which can withstand the weight of the ACM and PACM and water used during removal.
(B) A negative pressure generator must be used to create negative pressure in the system.
(C) An air filtration unit must be attached to the box.
(D) The box must be fitted with gloved apertures.
(E) An aperture at the base of the box must serve as a bagging outlet for waste ACM and water.
(F) A back-up generator must be present on site.
(G) Waste bags must consist of 6 mil thick plastic double-bagged before they are filled or plastic thicker than 6 mil.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) At least two persons must perform the removal.
(B) The box must be smoke-tested for leaks and any leaks sealed prior to each use.
(C) Loose or damaged ACM adjacent to the box must be wrapped and sealed in two layers of 6 mil plastic prior to the job, or otherwise made intact prior to the job.
(D) A HEPA filtration system must be used to maintain pressure barrier in box.
(e) Water spray process system. A water spray process system may be used for removal of ACM and PACM from cold line piping if, employees carrying out such process have completed a forty-hour separate training course in its use, in addition to training required for employees performing Class I work. The system must meet the following specifications and shall be performed by employees using the following work practices:
(i) Specifications:
(A) Piping must be surrounded on three sides by rigid framing.
(B) A 360 degree water spray, delivered through nozzles supplied by a high pressure separate water line, must be formed around the piping.
(C) The spray must collide to form a fine aerosol which provides a liquid barrier between workers and the ACM and PACM.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) The system must be run for at least ten minutes before removal begins.
(B) All removal must take place within the water barrier.
(C) The system must be operated by at least three persons, one of whom must not perform removal, but must check equipment, and ensure proper operation of the system.
(D) After removal, the ACM and PACM must be bagged while still inside the water barrier.
(f) A small walk-in enclosure which accommodates no more than two persons (mini-enclosure) may be used if the disturbance or removal can be completely contained by the enclosure with the following specifications and work practices:
(i) Specifications:
(A) The fabricated or job-made enclosure must be constructed of 6 mil plastic or equivalent.
(B) The enclosure must be placed under negative pressure by means of a HEPA filtered vacuum or similar ventilation unit.
(C) Change room. A small change room made of 6-mil-thick polyethylene plastic should be contiguous to the mini-enclosure, and is necessary to allow the worker to vacuum off his/her protective coveralls and remove them before leaving the work area. While inside the enclosure, the worker should wear Tyvek disposable coveralls or equivalent and must use the appropriate HEPA-filtered dual cartridge respiratory protection. The advantages of mini-enclosures are that they limit the spread of asbestos contamination, reduce the potential exposure of bystanders and other workers who may be working in adjacent areas, and are quick and easy to install. The disadvantage of mini-enclosures is that they may be too small to contain the equipment necessary to create a negative-pressure within the enclosure; however, the double layer of plastic sheeting will serve to restrict the release of asbestos fibers to the area outside the enclosure.
(ii) Work practices:
(A) Before use, the mini-enclosure must be inspected for leaks and smoke-tested to detect breaches, and any breaches sealed.
(B) Before reuse, the interior must be completely washed with amended water and HEPA-vacuumed.
(C) During use, air movement must be directed away from the employee's breathing zone within the mini-enclosure.
(8) Alternative control methods for Class I work. Class I work may be performed using a control method which is not referenced in subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section, or which modifies a control method referenced in subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section, if the following provisions are complied with:
(a) The control method shall enclose, contain or isolate the processes or source of airborne asbestos dust, before it enters the breathing zone of employees.
(b) A certified industrial hygienist or licensed professional engineer who is also qualified as a project designer as defined in WAC 296-62-07703, shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls and shall certify in writing that the planned control method is adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under worst-case conditions of use, and that the planned control method will prevent asbestos contamination outside the regulated area, as measured by clearance sampling which meets the requirements of EPA's Asbestos in Schools rule issued under AHERA, or perimeter monitoring which meets the criteria in subsection (6)(b)(ii) of this section. Where the TSI or surfacing material to be removed is twenty-five linear or ten square feet or less, the evaluation required in subsection (8)(b) of this section may be performed by a competent person.
(c) Before work which involves the removal of more than twenty-five linear or ten square feet of thermal system insulation or surfacing material is begun using an alternative method which has been the subject of subsection (2)(a) through (3)(e) of this section required evaluation and certification, the employer shall include a copy of such evaluation and certification with notifications required by WAC 296-65-020, Notification requirements. The submission shall not constitute approval by WISHA.
(d) The evaluation of employee exposure required in WAC 296-62-07712(8) must include and be based on sampling and analytical data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under the worst-case conditions and by employees whose training and experiences are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.
(9) Work practices and engineering controls for Class II work.
(a) All Class II work must be supervised by a competent person as defined in WAC 296-62-07703.
(b) For all indoor Class II jobs, where the employer has not produced a negative exposure assessment according to WAC 296-62-07709(3), or where during the job, changed conditions indicate there may be exposure above the PEL or where the employer does not remove the ACM in a substantially intact state, the employer must use one of the following methods to ensure that airborne asbestos does not migrate from the regulated area:
(i) Critical barriers must be placed over all openings to the regulated area; or
(ii) The employer must use another barrier or isolation method which prevents the migration of airborne asbestos from the regulated area, as verified by perimeter area monitoring or clearance monitoring which meets the criteria set out in subsection (6)(b)(ii) of this section.
(c) Impermeable dropcloths must be placed on surfaces beneath all removal activity.
(d) All Class II asbestos work must be performed using the work practices and requirements set out above in subsection (2) of this section.
(10) Additional controls for Class II work. Class II asbestos work must also be performed by complying with the work practices and controls designated for each type of asbestos work to be performed, set out in this paragraph. Where more than one control method may be used for a type of asbestos work, the employer may choose one or a combination of designated control methods. Class II work also may be performed using a method allowed for Class I work, except that glove bags and glove boxes are allowed if they fully enclose the Class II material to be removed.
(a) For removing vinyl and asphalt flooring materials which contain ACM or for which in buildings constructed no later than 1980, the employer has not verified the absence of ACM according to WAC 296-62-07712 (10)(a)(ix). The employer must ensure that employees comply with the following work practices and that employees are trained in these practices according to WAC 296-62-07722.
(i) Flooring or its backing must not be sanded.
(ii) Vacuums equipped with HEPA filter, disposable dust bag, and metal floor tool (no brush) must be used to clean floors.
(iii) Resilient sheeting must be removed by cutting with wetting of the snip point and wetting during delamination. Rip-up of resilient sheet floor material is prohibited.
(iv) All scraping of residual adhesive and/or backing must be performed using wet methods.
(v) Dry sweeping is prohibited.
(vi) Mechanical chipping is prohibited unless performed in a negative pressure enclosure which meets the requirements of subsection (7)(a) of this section.
(vii) Tiles must be removed intact, unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.
(viii) When tiles are heated and can be removed intact, wetting may be omitted.
(ix) Resilient flooring material including associated mastic and backing must be assumed to be asbestos-containing unless an industrial hygienist determines that it is asbestos-free using recognized analytical techniques.
(b) For removing roofing material which contains ACM the employer must ensure that the following work practices are followed:
(i) Roofing material must be removed in an intact state to the extent feasible.
(ii) Wet methods must be used to remove roofing materials that are not intact, or that will be rendered not intact during removal, unless such wet methods are not feasible or will create safety hazards.
(iii) Cutting machines must be continuously misted during use, unless a competent person determines that misting substantially decreases worker safety.
(iv) When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and an aggregate surface using a power roof cutter, all dust resulting from the cutting operation must be collected by a HEPA dust collector, or must be HEPA vacuumed by vacuuming along the cut line. When removing built-up roofs with asbestos-containing roofing felts and a smooth surface using a power roof cutter, the dust resulting from the cutting operation must be collected either by a HEPA dust collector or HEPA vacuuming along the cut line, or by gently sweeping and then carefully and completely wiping up the still wet dust and debris left along the cut line. The dust and debris must be immediately bagged or placed in covered containers.
(v) Asbestos-containing material that has been removed from a roof must not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it must be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist:
(A) Any ACM that is not intact must be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift. While the material remains on the roof it must either be kept wet, placed in an impermeable waste bag, or wrapped in plastic sheeting.
(B) Intact ACM must be lowered to the ground as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.
(vi) Upon being lowered, unwrapped material must be transferred to a closed receptacle in such manner so as to preclude the dispersion of dust.
(vii) Roof level heating and ventilation air intake sources must be isolated or the ventilation system must be shut down.
(viii) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, removal or repair of sections of intact roofing less than twenty-five square feet in area does not require use of wet methods or HEPA vacuuming as long as manual methods which do not render the material nonintact are used to remove the material and no visible dust is created by the removal method used. In determining whether a job involves less than twenty-five square feet, the employer must include all removal and repair work performed on the same roof on the same day.
(c) When removing cementitious asbestos-containing siding and shingles or transite panels containing ACM on building exteriors (other than roofs, where subsection (10)(b) of this section applies) the employer must ensure that the following work practices are followed:
(i) Cutting, abrading or breaking siding, shingles, or transite panels, must be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release cannot be used.
(ii) Each panel or shingle must be sprayed with amended water prior to removal.
(iii) Unwrapped or unbagged panels or shingles must be immediately lowered to the ground via covered dust-tight chute, crane or hoist, or placed in an impervious waste bag or wrapped in plastic sheeting and lowered to the ground no later than the end of the work shift.
(iv) Nails must be cut with flat, sharp instruments.
(d) When removing gaskets containing ACM, the employer must ensure that the following work practices are followed:
(i) If a gasket is visibly deteriorated and unlikely to be removed intact, removal must be undertaken within a glove bag as described in subsection (7)(b) of this section.
(ii) (Reserved.)
(iii) The gasket must be immediately placed in a disposal container.
(iv) Any scraping to remove residue must be performed wet.
(e) When performing any other Class II removal of asbestos-containing material for which specific controls have not been listed in subsection (10) of this section, the employer must ensure that the following work practices are complied with.
(i) The material must be thoroughly wetted with amended water prior to and during its removal.
(ii) The material must be removed in an intact state unless the employer demonstrates that intact removal is not possible.
(iii) Cutting, abrading or breaking the material must be prohibited unless the employer can demonstrate that methods less likely to result in asbestos fiber release are not feasible.
(iv) Asbestos-containing material removed, must be immediately bagged or wrapped, or kept wet until transferred to a closed receptacle, no later than the end of the work shift.
(f) Alternative work practices and controls. Instead of the work practices and controls listed in subsection (10) of this section, the employer may use different or modified engineering and work practice controls if the following provisions are complied with.
(i) The employer must demonstrate by data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used, that employee exposure will not exceed the PELs under any anticipated circumstances.
(ii) A competent person must evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and must certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions of use and that the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation must include and be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.
(11) Work practices and engineering controls for Class III asbestos work. Class III asbestos work must be conducted using engineering and work practice controls which minimize the exposure to employees performing the asbestos work and to bystander employees.
(a) The work must be performed using wet methods.
(b) To the extent feasible, the work must be performed using local exhaust ventilation.
(c) Where the disturbance involves drilling, cutting, abrading, sanding, chipping, braking, or sawing of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, the employer must use impermeable dropcloths, and must isolate the operation using mini-enclosures or glove bag systems according to subsection (7) of this section or another isolation method.
(d) Where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" for a job, or where monitoring results show the PEL has been exceeded, the employer must contain the area using impermeable dropcloths and plastic barriers or their equivalent, or must isolate the operation using a control system listed in and in compliance with subsection (7) of this section.
(e) Employees performing Class III jobs, which involve the disturbance of thermal system insulation or surfacing material, or where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" or where monitoring results show a PEL has been exceeded, must wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted according to provisions of WAC 296-62-07715.
(12) Class IV asbestos work. Class IV asbestos jobs must be conducted by employees trained according to the asbestos awareness training program set out in WAC 296-62-07722. In addition, all Class IV jobs must be conducted in conformity with the requirements set out in this section, mandating wet methods, HEPA vacuums, and prompt clean up of debris containing ACM and PACM.
(a) Employees cleaning up debris and waste in a regulated area where respirators are required must wear respirators which are selected, used and fitted according to provisions of WAC 296-62-07715.
(b) Employers of employees who clean up waste and debris in, and employers in control of, areas where friable thermal system insulation or surfacing material is accessible, must assume that such waste and debris contain asbestos.
(13) Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer who complies with all provisions of subsection (10)(a) and (b) of this section when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds will be deemed to be in compliance with this section. If an employer does not comply with all provisions of this subsection (13), or if during the course of the job the material does not remain intact, the provisions of subsection (10) of this section apply instead of this subsection (13).
(a) Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person who is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, must conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.
(b) All employees performing work covered by this subsection (13) must be trained in a training program that meets the requirements of WAC 296-62-07722.
(c) The material must not be sanded, abraded, or ground. When manual methods are used, materials must stay intact.
(d) Material that has been removed from a roof must not be dropped or thrown to the ground. Unless the material is carried or passed to the ground by hand, it must be lowered to the ground via covered, dust-tight chute, crane or hoist. All such material must be removed from the roof as soon as is practicable, but in any event no later than the end of the work shift.
(e) Where roofing products which have been labeled as containing asbestos pursuant to WAC 296-62-07721, installed on nonresidential roofs during operations covered by this subsection (13), the employer must notify the building owner of the presence and location of such materials no later than the end of the job.
(f) All removal or disturbance of pipeline asphaltic wrap must be performed using wet methods.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 06-05-027, § 296-62-07712, filed 2/7/06, effective 4/1/06. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.26.040 and 49.26.130. WSR 99-17-026, § 296-62-07712, filed 8/10/99, effective 11/10/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17.]050 and [49.17.]060. WSR 97-19-014, § 296-62-07712, filed 9/5/97, effective 11/5/97; WSR 97-01-079, § 296-62-07712, filed 12/17/96, effective 3/1/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 89-21-018 (Order 89-10), § 296-62-07712, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/24/89; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-62-07712, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; WSR 87-24-051 (Order 87-24), § 296-62-07712, filed 11/30/87.]
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