General standards for maximum emissions.

(1) All sources and emissions units are required to meet the emission standards of this chapter. Where an emission standard listed in another chapter is applicable to a specific emissions unit, such standard takes precedence over a general emission standard listed in this chapter. When two or more emissions units are connected to a common stack and the operator elects not to provide the means or facilities to sample emissions from the individual emissions units, and the relative contributions of the individual emissions units to the common discharge are not readily distinguishable, then the emissions of the common stack must meet the most restrictive standard of any of the connected emissions units.
All emissions units are required to use reasonably available control technology (RACT) which may be determined for some sources or source categories to be more stringent than the applicable emission limitations of any chapter of Title 173 WAC. Where current controls are determined to be less than RACT, the permitting authority shall, as provided in RCW 70.94.154, define RACT for each source or source category and issue a rule or regulatory order requiring the installation of RACT.
(2) Visible emissions. No person shall cause or allow the emission for more than three minutes, in any one hour, of an air contaminant from any emissions unit which at the emission point, or within a reasonable distance of the emission point, exceeds twenty percent opacity except:
(a) When the emissions occur due to soot blowing/grate cleaning and the operator can demonstrate that the emissions will not exceed twenty percent opacity for more than fifteen minutes in any eight consecutive hours. The intent of this provision is to allow the soot blowing and grate cleaning necessary to the operation of boiler facilities. This practice, except for testing and trouble shooting, is to be scheduled for the same approximate times each day and the permitting authority must be advised of the schedule.
(b) When the owner or operator of a source supplies valid data to show that the presence of uncombined water is the only reason for the opacity to exceed twenty percent.
(c) When two or more emission units are connected to a common stack, the permitting authority may allow or require the use of an alternate time period if it is more representative of normal operations.
(d) When an alternate opacity limit has been established per RCW 70.94.331 (2)(c).
(e) Exemptions from twenty percent opacity standard.
(i) Visible emissions reader certification testing. Visible emissions from the "smoke generator" used for testing and certification of visible emissions readers per the requirements of 40 C.F.R. Part 60, Appendix A, test method 9 (in effect on the date in WAC 173-400-025) and ecology methods 9A and 9B shall be exempt from compliance with the twenty percent opacity limitation while being used for certifying visible emission readers.
(ii) Military training exercises. Visible emissions resulting from military obscurant training exercises are exempt from compliance with the twenty percent opacity limitation provided the following criteria are met:
(A) No visible emissions shall cross the boundary of the military training site/reservation.
(B) The operation shall have in place methods, which have been reviewed and approved by the permitting authority, to detect changes in weather that would cause the obscurant to cross the site boundary either during the course of the exercise or prior to the start of the exercise. The approved methods shall include provisions that result in cancellation of the training exercise, cease the use of obscurants during the exercise until weather conditions would allow such training to occur without causing obscurant to leave the site boundary of the military site/reservation.
(iii) Firefighter training. Visible emissions from fixed and mobile firefighter training facilities while being used to train firefighters and while complying with the requirements of chapter 173-425 WAC.
(3) Fallout. No person shall cause or allow the emission of particulate matter from any source to be deposited beyond the property under direct control of the owner or operator of the source in sufficient quantity to interfere unreasonably with the use and enjoyment of the property upon which the material is deposited.
(4) Fugitive emissions. The owner or operator of any emissions unit engaging in materials handling, construction, demolition or other operation which is a source of fugitive emission:
(a) If located in an attainment area and not impacting any nonattainment area, shall take reasonable precautions to prevent the release of air contaminants from the operation.
(b) If the emissions unit has been identified as a significant contributor to the nonattainment status of a designated nonattainment area, the owner or operator shall be required to use reasonable and available control methods, which shall include any necessary changes in technology, process, or other control strategies to control emissions of the air contaminants for which nonattainment has been designated.
(5) Odors. Any person who shall cause or allow the generation of any odor from any source or activity which may unreasonably interfere with any other property owner's use and enjoyment of his property must use recognized good practice and procedures to reduce these odors to a reasonable minimum.
(6) Emissions detrimental to persons or property. No person shall cause or allow the emission of any air contaminant from any source if it is detrimental to the health, safety, or welfare of any person, or causes damage to property or business.
(7) Sulfur dioxide. No person shall cause or allow the emission of a gas containing sulfur dioxide from any emissions unit in excess of one thousand ppm of sulfur dioxide on a dry basis, corrected to seven percent oxygen for combustion sources, and based on the average of any period of sixty consecutive minutes, except:
When the owner or operator of an emissions unit supplies emission data and can demonstrate to the permitting authority that there is no feasible method of reducing the concentration to less than one thousand ppm (on a dry basis, corrected to seven percent oxygen for combustion sources) and that the state and federal ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide will not be exceeded. In such cases, the permitting authority may require specific ambient air monitoring stations be established, operated, and maintained by the owner or operator at mutually approved locations. All sampling results will be made available upon request and a monthly summary will be submitted to the permitting authority.
(8) Concealment and masking. No person shall cause or allow the installation or use of any means which conceals or masks an emission of an air contaminant which would otherwise violate any provisions of this chapter.
(9) Fugitive dust.
(a) The owner or operator of a source or activity that generates fugitive dust must take reasonable precautions to prevent that fugitive dust from becoming airborne and must maintain and operate the source to minimize emissions.
(b) The owner or operator of any existing source or activity that generates fugitive dust that has been identified as a significant contributor to a PM-10 or PM-2.5 nonattainment area is required to use reasonably available control technology to control emissions. Significance will be determined by the criteria found in WAC 173-400-113(4).
[Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.152, 70.94.331, 70.94.860. WSR 16-12-099 (Order 16-01), § 173-400-040, filed 5/31/16, effective 7/1/16. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. WSR 11-06-060 (Order 09-01), § 173-400-040, filed 3/1/11, effective 4/1/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.152. WSR 05-03-033 (Order 03-07), § 173-400-040, filed 1/10/05, effective 2/10/05. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW, RCW 70.94.141, [70.94.]152, [70.94.]331, [70.94.]510 and 43.21A.080. WSR 01-17-062 (Order 99-06), § 173-400-040, filed 8/15/01, effective 9/15/01. Statutory Authority: [RCW 70.94.331, 70.94.510 and chapter 70.94 RCW.] WSR 00-23-130 (Order 98-27), § 173-400-040, filed 11/22/00, effective 12/23/00. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.94 RCW. WSR 93-18-007 (Order 93-03), § 173-400-040, filed 8/20/93, effective 9/20/93; WSR 91-05-064 (Order 90-06), § 173-400-040, filed 2/19/91, effective 3/22/91. Statutory Authority: Chapters 43.21A and 70.94 RCW. WSR 83-09-036 (Order DE 83-13), § 173-400-040, filed 4/15/83. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.94.331. WSR 80-11-059 (Order DE 80-14), § 173-400-040, filed 8/20/80. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.21A.080 and 70.94.331. WSR 79-06-012 (Order DE 78-21), § 173-400-040, filed 5/8/79; Order DE 76-38, § 173-400-040, filed 12/21/76. Formerly WAC 18-04-040.]
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