The definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter unless the context clearly requires otherwise.
(1) "Active efforts" means the following:
(a) In any foster care placement or termination of parental rights proceeding of an Indian child under chapter 13.34 RCW and this chapter where the department or a supervising agency as defined in RCW 74.13.020 has a statutory or contractual duty to provide services to, or procure services for, the parent or parents or Indian custodian, or is providing services to a parent or parents or Indian custodian pursuant to a disposition order entered pursuant to RCW 13.34.130, the department or supervising agency shall make timely and diligent efforts to provide or procure such services, including engaging the parent or parents or Indian custodian in reasonably available and culturally appropriate preventive, remedial, or rehabilitative services. This shall include those services offered by tribes and Indian organizations whenever possible. At a minimum "active efforts" shall include:
(i) In any dependency proceeding under chapter 13.34 RCW seeking out-of-home placement of an Indian child in which the department or supervising agency provided voluntary services to the parent, parents, or Indian custodian prior to filing the dependency petition, a showing to the court that the department or supervising agency social workers actively worked with the parent, parents, or Indian custodian to engage them in remedial services and rehabilitation programs to prevent the breakup of the family beyond simply providing referrals to such services.
(ii) In any dependency proceeding under chapter 13.34 RCW, in which the petitioner is seeking the continued out-of-home placement of an Indian child, the department or supervising agency must show to the court that it has actively worked with the parent, parents, or Indian custodian in accordance with existing court orders and the individual service plan to engage them in remedial services and rehabilitative programs to prevent the breakup of the family beyond simply providing referrals to such services.
(iii) In any termination of parental rights proceeding regarding an Indian child under chapter 13.34 RCW in which the department or supervising agency provided services to the parent, parents, or Indian custodian, a showing to the court that the department or supervising agency social workers actively worked with the parent, parents, or Indian custodian to engage them in remedial services and rehabilitation programs ordered by the court or identified in the department or supervising agency's individual service and safety plan beyond simply providing referrals to such services.
(b) In any foster care placement or termination of parental rights proceeding in which the petitioner does not otherwise have a statutory or contractual duty to directly provide services to, or procure services for, the parent or Indian custodian, "active efforts" means a documented, concerted, and good faith effort to facilitate the parent's or Indian custodian's receipt of and engagement in services capable of meeting the criteria set out in (a) of this subsection.
(2) "Best interests of the Indian child" means the use of practices in accordance with the federal Indian child welfare act, this chapter, and other applicable law, that are designed to accomplish the following: (a) Protect the safety, well-being, development, and stability of the Indian child; (b) prevent the unnecessary out-of-home placement of the Indian child; (c) acknowledge the right of Indian tribes to maintain their existence and integrity which will promote the stability and security of their children and families; (d) recognize the value to the Indian child of establishing, developing, or maintaining a political, cultural, social, and spiritual relationship with the Indian child's tribe and tribal community; and (e) in a proceeding under this chapter where out-of-home placement is necessary, to prioritize placement of the Indian child in accordance with the placement preferences of this chapter.
(3) "Child custody proceeding" includes:
(a) "Foster care placement" which means any action removing an Indian child from his or her parent or Indian custodian for temporary placement in a foster home, institution, or with a relative, guardian, conservator, or suitable other person where the parent or Indian custodian cannot have the child returned upon demand, but where parental rights have not been terminated;
(b) "Termination of parental rights" which means any action resulting in the termination of the parent-child relationship;
(c) "Preadoptive placement" which means the temporary placement of an Indian child in a foster home or institution after the termination of parental rights but before or in lieu of adoptive placement; and
(d) "Adoptive placement" which means the permanent placement of an Indian child for adoption, including any action resulting in a final decree of adoption.
These terms shall not include a placement based upon an act which, if committed by an adult, would be deemed a crime or upon an award, in a dissolution proceeding of custody to one of the parents.
(4) "Court of competent jurisdiction" means a federal court, or a state court that entered an order in a child custody proceeding involving an Indian child, as long as the state court had proper subject matter jurisdiction in accordance with this chapter and the laws of that state, or a tribal court that had or has exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction pursuant to 25 U.S.C. Sec. 1911.
(5) "Department" means the department of social and health services and any of its divisions. "Department" also includes supervising agencies as defined in *RCW 74.13.020(12) with which the department entered into a contract to provide services, care, placement, case management, contract monitoring, or supervision to children subject to a petition filed under chapter 13.34 or 26.33 RCW.
(6) "Indian" means a person who is a member of an Indian tribe, or who is an Alaska native and a member of a regional corporation as defined in 43 U.S.C. Sec. 1606.
(7) "Indian child" means an unmarried and unemancipated Indian person who is under eighteen years of age and is either: (a) A member of an Indian tribe; or (b) eligible for membership in an Indian tribe and is the biological child of a member of an Indian tribe.
(8) "Indian child's family" or "extended family member" means an individual, defined by the law or custom of the child's tribe, as a relative of the child. If the child's tribe does not identify such individuals by law or custom, the term means an adult who is the Indian child's grandparent, aunt, uncle, brother, sister, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, niece, nephew, first or second cousin, or stepparent, even following termination of the marriage.
(9) "Indian child's tribe" means a tribe in which an Indian child is a member or eligible for membership.
(10) "Indian custodian" means an Indian person who under tribal law, tribal custom, or state law, has legal or temporary physical custody of an Indian child, or to whom the parent has transferred temporary care, physical custody, and control of an Indian child.
(11) "Indian tribe" or "tribe" means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians recognized as eligible for the services provided to Indians by the secretary of the interior because of their status as Indians, including any Alaska native village as defined in 43 U.S.C. Sec. 1602(c).
(12) "Member" and "membership" means a determination by an Indian tribe that a person is a member or eligible for membership in that Indian tribe.
(13) "Parent" means a biological parent or parents of an Indian child or a person who has lawfully adopted an Indian child, including adoptions made under tribal law or custom. "Parent" does not include an unwed father whose paternity has not been acknowledged or established under chapter 26.26 RCW or the applicable laws of other states.
(14) "Secretary of the interior" means the secretary of the United States department of the interior.
(15) "Tribal court" means a court or body vested by an Indian tribe with jurisdiction over child custody proceedings, including but not limited to a federal court of Indian offenses, a court established and operated under the code or custom of an Indian tribe, or an administrative body of an Indian tribe vested with authority over child custody proceedings.
(16) "Tribal customary adoption" means adoption or other process through the tribal custom, traditions, or laws of an Indian child's tribe by which the Indian child is permanently placed with a nonparent and through which the nonparent is vested with the rights, privileges, and obligations of a legal parent. Termination of the parent-child relationship between the Indian child and the biological parent is not required to effect or recognize a tribal customary adoption.
[2011 c 309 § 4.]
| *Reviser's note: RCW 74.13.020 was amended by 2011 c 330 § 4, changing subsection (12) to subsection (13).|