WSR 13-04-056

PERMANENT RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed February 1, 2013, 11:04 a.m. , effective July 1, 2013 ]


Effective Date of Rule: July 1, 2013.

Purpose: Adoption and amendment of the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code, Commercial, chapter 51-11C WAC. The residential portion is adopted under chapter 51-11R WAC in a separate filing. The filing for chapter 51-11R WAC includes the repeal of the 2009 Washington State Energy Code, chapter 51-11 WAC.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.020 and 19.27A.025.

Other Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW.

Adopted under notice filed as WSR 12-16-088 on July 31, 2012.

Changes Other than Editing from Proposed to Adopted Version: 1. WAC 51-11C-10140, Section C101.4.3: Based on testimony received, the lighting alterations in existing buildings language was clarified and coordinated with the percentage requirements in Section C101.4.3.1.

2. WAC 51-11C-10140, Section C101.4.4: Based on testimony received by the council, the language regarding change in use or occupancy was clarified. An exception was also added to allow a ten percent higher energy use for existing buildings when using either the component performance method or total building performance method to comply with the code. This makes it much easier to comply and rehabilitate existing buildings.

3. WAC 51-11C-10140, Section C101.4.5: This section was coordinated with requirements for semi-heated spaces. An exception was also added to allow a ten percent higher energy use for existing buildings when using either the component performance method or total building performance method to comply with the code.

4. WAC 51-11C-10150, Section C101.5.2: Based on testimony received, low energy buildings were exempted from all thermal envelope requirements, not just the wall requirements.

5. WAC 51-11C-10150, Section C101.5.2.1: This section was added to coordinate with the requirements for semi-heated space.

6. WAC 51-11C-20204, Definition of Daylight Zone: Based on testimony received, the description of under atrium glazing (which was proposed in 2011 and tabled at that time) was included in this definition to assist in the design of multi-story atriums.

7. WAC 51-11C-20212, Definition of Low Voltage Lighting: Based on testimony received, the definition of low voltage lighting was modified to remove the amperage reference. It was suggested there are products available with ratings above the twenty-five amp specification.

8. WAC 51-11C-20219, Definition of Semi-Heated Space: Based on testimony provided, the definition of semi-heated space was modified and simplified to apply a single set of criteria to all climate zones.

9. WAC 51-11C-30100, Section C301: Sections C301.2 (Warm humid counties) and C301.3 (International climate zones) were removed for clarity since these designations are not used in Washington state.

10. WAC 51-11C-402131, Equation C402.1: Target UA - Based on testimony received, the formula was adjusted to split out vertical glazing and skylights, to correlate with IECC language.

11. WAC 51-11C-402121, Table C402.1.2: Mass Wall Envelope Requirements - The Council, after reviewing all testimony regarding mass wall U-values, voted to move forward with Option 2 and the less stringent requirements for U-values. The associated footnote (d) was modified for better clarity and enforceability.

Unheated slabs - the perimeter insulation F-value was changed to 0.54. See item 12 for more information.

12. WAC 51-11C-402220 [51-11C-402200], Table C402.2: Based on comments received, the thermal block requirement for Roof, Metal Building was changed to R-3.5 for consistency with ASHRAE.

13. WAC 51-11C-402220 [51-11C-402200], Table C402.2: Based on the cost-benefit analysis performed, the perimeter insulation required for unheated slabs was reduced from R-20 to R-10. The analysis showed negligible energy savings for the proposed increase in insulation.

14. WAC 51-11C-402200, Table C402.2: Footnote f - The table for continuous insulation values using metal fasteners was modified based on information from an ASHRAE study showing less heat loss than previously estimated. In addition, the definition for continuous insulation was modified to reflect this information.

15. WAC 51-11C-40225, Section C402.2.5: Corrected the mass floor material weight reference (12 120 pcf) per the International Code Council errata.

16. WAC 51-11C-40232, Section C402.3.2: Skylight Area - "Storage" was removed from the list of occupancy types, and the requirement was limited to single story buildings. The missing equation C4-1 (ICC errata) was also added.

17. WAC 51-11C-40241, Section C402.4.1.2: Air Barrier Testing - Based on testimony received, the council amended this section to require air barrier testing for all commercial buildings.

18. WAC 51-11C-403231, Tables C403.2.3.1(1) editorial corrections: A-D: Correct table title;

A: Corrected EER value for Air conditioners, water cooled >760,000 Btu/hr; IEER value for condensing unit, air cooled; removed small duct high velocity (air cooled) category per ASHRAE 90.1 errata

B: Add "greater than or equal to" symbols;

D: Correct VRF EER in D: 11.2 11.0

19. WAC 51-11C-403232, Table C403.2.3.1(2): Corrected through the wall, air cooled (cooling mode) SEER values per ASHRAE 90.1 errata; removed single duct high velocity, air cooled category per ASHRAE 90.1 errata.

20. WAC 51-11C-403233, Table C403.2.3(3): Corrected efficiency requirements for PTHP (heating mode) new construction per the International Code Council errata; fixed references to with/without louvered sides in room air conditioner categories; added ASHRAE 90.1 labeling requirements for replacement units as alternate in footnote b.

21. WAC 51-11C-40324, Section C403.2.4: Added reference to Sections C403.4.5 through C403.4.10 to the scoping section to include requirements from WSEC.

22. WAC 51-11C-403244, Section C403.2.4.4: Shut Off Damper Controls - Based on testimony received, an exception was added to correlate with the International Mechanical Code.

23. WAC 51-11C-403248, Sections C403.2.4.8 and C403.2.4.9: Added missing language from 2009 WSEC to the thermostatic control requirements.

24. WAC 51-11C-403553, Section C403.2.5.3: Garage Ventilation - Based on testimony received, the controls were correlated with the International Mechanical Code requirements.

25. WAC 51-11C-403294, Section C403.2.12: Fan and Pump Systems - Clarification that the requirements apply to motor nameplate horsepower.

26. WAC 51-11C-40331, Section C403.3.1.1: Economizers (Simple systems) - Based on testimony received, language from the 2009 WSEC was included for integrated controls in equipment >65,000 Btu/h for clarity and to maintain the stringency from the WSEC.

27. WAC 51-11C-40341, Section C403.4.1: Economizers - In response to testimony received, the 2009 WSEC economizer exception for chilled water systems was retained to provide additional flexibility, especially for existing buildings.

28. WAC 51-11C-40343, Section C403.4.3.4: Economizers (Complex systems) - Based on testimony received, additional language was provided to add clarification of part load requirements for heat pumps.

29. WAC 51-11C-40345, Section C403.4.5: VAV System requirements - Based on testimony received, an item was added to allow maintaining ventilation rates required by other codes or standards.

30. WAC 51-11C-404021, Table C404.2: Editorial adjustments to various errors in the table for greater than/less than symbols; correct placement of footnote c in instantaneous water heaters, gas.

31. WAC 51-11C-40406, Section C404.6: Pipe Insulation - Based on testimony received, a second exception was added for hot water piping outside of the recirculation zone.

32. WAC 51-11C-40410, Section C404.10: Corrected reference in scoping section; corrected reference to ASHRAE 146.

33. WAC 51-11C-40501, Section C405.1: Dwelling Unit Lighting - Based on testimony received, the original IECC requirement for percentage of high efficacy lighting was retained, changing from fifty percent to seventy-five percent of lamps.

34. WAC 51-11C-405022, Section C405.2.2.3.3: Added this section with "Reserved" to clarify this section of the IECC is not adopted.

35. WAC 51-11C-405023, Section C405.2.3: Emergency Lighting Controls - Based on testimony received, the language in this section was modified to clarify intent.

36. Sections 51-11C-40600 through 51-11C-40605, Section C406: Commercial Additional Energy Efficiency Measures - Based on testimony provided and in light of legal questions, this section was not adopted. To coordinate this change with the total building performance method, the percentage cited in Section C401.2 was also modified.

37. WAC 51-11C-407051, Table C407.5.1: Total Building Performance method - the following modifications were made based on testimony received at the public hearings:

- The standard reference design specifications for heat pumps was modified to include heat pump and package terminal heat pump reference standards.

- Modify footnote h to ensure air-source heat pumps with auxiliary heat are modeled consistently.

38. WAC 51-11C-40801, Section C408.1, Commissioning: Added service water heating and energy metering into the scoping sections since there are commissioning requirements for these systems.

39. WAC 51-11C-40901, C409.1: Metering, General - Based on testimony provided the threshold for the size of buildings requiring metering was increased to 50,000 square feet.

40. WAC 51-11C-40903, C409.3: Metering, end use - Based on testimony, an exception was provided to end use metering for electrical energy fed through VFDs.

41. WAC 51-11C-40904, C409.4: Metering, meters - Based on testimony provided, adjustments were made to the accuracy requirements to be more in line with current capabilities; the display requirements were modified to allow on-line displays and third party services.

42. WAC 51-11C-40905, C409.5.1.1: Metering, existing buildings - The requirements for existing buildings were modified to coordinate with the increased size threshold and the language simplified.

43. WAC 51-11C-50000, Chapter 5: Updated Reference Standards for NFRC from 2007 to 2010 editions; added ANSI/ASME A17.1, IAPMO/UPC and NEMA TP-1.

44. WAC 51-11C-610337: Table A103.3.7.1(1): Based on testimony given at the public hearings, note 5 was added to the CMU tables to provide information on the origin of the values.

45. WAC 51-11C-610337: Table A103.3.7.1(2) - Add missing footnotes to table for Default U-Factors for Concrete and Masonry Walls: Made various corrections to errors in U-values.

Corrected reference for metal clips based on the change described in item 14.

Corrected U-values under continuous insulation, no framing.

46. WAC 51-11C-610337: Table A103.3.7.2 - Add missing footnotes to table for Peripheral Edges of Intermediate Concrete Floors.

47. WAC 51-11C-61041, Table A104.1: Corrected U-value for Below grade walls, 3.5 foot: 0.0278.

48. WAC 51-11C-61081, Section A108.1, Air infiltration: Corrected section reference to air leakage requirements in the residential code, chapter 51-11R WAC.

A final cost-benefit analysis is available by contacting Tim Nogler, P.O. Box 41449, Olympia, WA 98504-1449, phone (360) 407-9277, fax (360) 586-9088, e-mail sbcc@ga.wa.gov, or see https://fortress.wa.gov/ga/apps/SBCC/File.ashx?cid=2422.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Comply with Federal Statute: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Federal Rules or Standards: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Recently Enacted State Statutes: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted at Request of a Nongovernmental Entity: New 288, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted on the Agency's Own Initiative: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted in Order to Clarify, Streamline, or Reform Agency Procedures: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Number of Sections Adopted Using Negotiated Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; Pilot Rule Making: New 0, Amended 0, Repealed 0; or Other Alternative Rule Making: New 288, Amended 0, Repealed 0.

Date Adopted: November 30, 2012.

C. Ray Allshouse

Council Chair

OTS-4907.4

Chapter 51-11C WAC

STATE BUILDING CODE ADOPTION AND AMENDMENT OF THE 2012 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE, COMMERCIAL


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10000   Chapter 1 [CE] -- Scope and administration.  

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10100   Section C101 -- Scope and general requirements.  


C101.1 Title. This code shall be known as the International Energy Conservation Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such. It is referred to herein as "this code."


C101.2 Scope. This code applies to commercial buildings and the buildings sites and associated systems and equipment.


EXCEPTION: The provisions of this code do not apply to temporary growing structures used solely for the commercial production of horticultural plants including ornamental plants, flowers, vegetables, and fruits. "Temporary growing structure" means a structure that has the sides and roof covered with polyethylene, polyvinyl, or similar flexible synthetic material and is used to provide plants with either frost protection or increased heat retention. A temporary growing structure is not considered a building for purposes of this code.

C101.3 Intent. This code shall regulate the design and construction of buildings for the effective use and conservation of energy over the useful life of each building. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve this objective. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmental requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordinances.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10140   Section C101.4 -- Applicability.  


C101.4 Applicability. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern.


C101.4.1 Existing buildings. Except as specified in this chapter, this code shall not be used to require the removal, alteration or abandonment of, nor prevent the continued use and maintenance of, an existing building or building system lawfully in existence at the time of adoption of this code.


C101.4.2 Historic buildings. The building official may modify the specific requirements of this code for historic buildings and require in lieu of alternate requirements which will result in a reasonable degree of energy efficiency. This modification may be allowed for those buildings or structures that are listed in the state or national register of historic places; designated as a historic property under local or state designation law or survey; certified as a contributing resource with a national register listed or locally designated historic district; or with an opinion or certification that the property is eligible to be listed on the national or state registers of historic places either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district by the state historic preservation officer or the keeper of the national register of historic places.


C101.4.3 Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this code as they relate to new construction without requiring the unaltered portion(s) of the existing building or building system to comply with this code. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. An addition shall be deemed to comply with this code if the addition alone complies or if the existing building and addition comply with this code as a single building.


EXCEPTION: The following need not comply provided the energy use of the building is not increased:
1. Storm windows installed over existing fenestration.
2. Glass only replacements in an existing sash and frame.
3. Existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are insulated to full depth with insulation having a minimum nominal value of R-3.0 per inch installed per Section C402.
4. Construction where the existing roof, wall or floor cavity is not exposed.
5. Reroofing for roofs where neither the sheathing nor the insulation is exposed. Roofs without insulation in the cavity and where the sheathing or insulation is exposed during reroofing shall be insulated either above or below the sheathing.
6. Replacement of existing doors that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided, however, that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned space from the exterior shall not be removed.
7. Alterations to lighting systems only that replace less than 60 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power.
8. Alterations that replace only the bulb and ballast within the existing luminaires in a space provided that the alteration does not increase the installed interior lighting power.

C101.4.3.1 Lighting and motors. Alterations that replace 60 percent or more of the luminaires in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions shall comply with Sections C405.5 and C405.6. Where less than 60 percent of the fixtures in a space enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions are new, the installed lighting wattage shall be maintained or reduced.

Where new wiring is being installed to serve added fixtures and/or fixtures are being relocated to a new circuit, controls shall comply with Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.2.3, C405.2.3, C405.3.4, and as applicable C408.3. In addition, office areas less than 300 ft2 enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, and all meeting and conference rooms, and all school classrooms, shall be equipped with occupancy sensors that comply with Section C405.2.2 and C408.3. Where a new lighting panel (or a moved lighting panel) with all new raceway and conductor wiring from the panel to the fixtures is being installed, controls shall also comply with the other requirements in Sections C405.2.2 and C408.3.

Where new walls or ceiling-height partitions are added to an existing space and create a new enclosed space, but the lighting fixtures are not being changed, other than being relocated, the new enclosed space shall have controls that comply with Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3 and C408.3.

Those motors which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section C403.2.13.


C101.4.3.2 Mechanical systems. Those parts of systems which are altered or replaced shall comply with Section C403. Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing mechanical system that will cause the existing mechanical system to become out of compliance.

All new systems in existing buildings, including packaged unitary equipment and packaged split systems, shall comply with Section C403.

Where mechanical cooling is added to a space that was not previously cooled, the mechanical cooling system shall comply with the economizer requirements in Section C403.3.1 or C403.4.1.


EXCEPTION: Alternate designs that are not in full compliance with this code may be approved when the building official determines that existing building or occupancy constraints make full compliance impractical or where full compliance would be economically impractical.

Alterations to existing mechanical cooling systems shall not decrease economizer capacity unless the system complies with Section C403.3.1 or C403.4.1. In addition, for existing mechanical cooling systems that do not comply with Sections C403.3.1 or Section 403.4.1, including both the individual unit size limits and the total building capacity limits on units without economizer, other alterations shall comply with Table C101.4.3.1.

When space cooling equipment is replaced, controls shall be installed to provide for integrated operation with economizer in accordance with Section C403.3.

Existing equipment currently in use may be relocated within the same floor or same tenant space if removed and reinstalled within the same permit.


C101.4.4 Change in occupancy or use. Spaces undergoing a change in occupancy from an F, S or U occupancy to an occupancy other than F, S or U shall comply with this code. Any space that is converted to a residential dwelling unit or portion thereof, from another use or occupancy shall comply with this code. Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table C405.5.2 (1) or (2) to another use in Table C405.5.2 (1) or (2), the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section C405.5.


EXCEPTION: Where the component performance building envelope option in Section C402.1.3 is used to comply with this section, the Proposed UA is allowed to be up to 110 percent of the Target UA. Where the total building performance option in Section C407 is used to comply with this section, the annual energy consumption of the proposed design is allowed to be 110 percent of the annual energy consumption otherwise allowed by Section C407.3 and Section C401.2 (3).


C101.4.5 Change in space conditioning. Any nonconditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space or semi-heated space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code. Any semi-heated space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code.


EXCEPTION: Where the component performance building envelope option in Section C402.1.3 is used to comply with this section, the Proposed UA is allowed to be up to 110 percent of the Target UA. Where the total building performance option in Section C407 is used to comply with this section, the annual energy consumption of the proposed design is allowed to be 110 percent of the annual energy consumption otherwise allowed by Section C407.3 and Section C401.2 (3).


C101.4.6 Mixed occupancy. Where a building includes both residential and commercial occupancies, each occupancy shall be separately considered and meet the applicable provisions of IECC -- Commercial Provisions or IECC -- Residential Provisions.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10143   Table C101.4.3.1 -- Economizer compliance options for mechanical alterations.  


Table C101.4.3.1

Economizer Compliance Options for Mechanical Alterations


Option A Option B

(alternate to A)

Option C

(alternate to A)

Option D

(alternate to A)

Unit Type Any alteration with new or replacement equipment Replacement unit of the same type with the same or smaller output capacity Replacement unit of the same type with a larger output capacity New equipment added to existing system or replacement unit of a different type
1. Packaged Units Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer:

C403.4.12, 3

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 3

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4

2. Split Systems Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capability

Only for new units

< 54,000 Btu/h replacing unit installed prior to 1991 (one of two):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5 Economizer: 50%6

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4

For units > 54,000 Btu/h or any units installed after 1991:

Option A

3. Water Source Heat Pump Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

(two of three):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Flow control valve7

Economizer: 50%6

(three of three):

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Flow control valve7

Economizer: 50%6 (except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer:

C403.4.12, 4 (except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

4. Hydronic Economizer using Air-Cooled Heat Rejection Equipment (Dry Cooler) Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: 14332

Efficiency: + 10/5%5

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Option A Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4

5. Air-Handling Unit (including fan coil units) where the system has an air-cooled chiller Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity Option A (except for certain pre-1991 systems8) Option A (except for certain pre-1991 systems8)

6. Air- Handling Unit (including fan coil units) and Water-cooled Process Equipment, where the system has a water-cooled chiller10 Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity Option A

(except for certain pre-1991 systems8 and certain 1991-2004 systems9)

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer:

C403.4.12, 4 (except for certain pre-1991 systems8 and certain 1991-2004 systems9)

7. Cooling Tower Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

No requirements Option A Option A
8. Air-Cooled Chiller Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Efficiency: + 5%11

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency (two of two): (1) + 10%12 and (2) multistage Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4

9. Water-

Cooled Chiller

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Efficiency (one of two): (1) + 10%13 or (2) plate frame heat exchanger15

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency (two of two): (1) + 15%14 and (2) plate frame heat exchanger15

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4

10. Boiler Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12

Efficiency: + 8%16

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: + 8%16

Economizer: Shall not decrease existing economizer capacity

Efficiency: min.1

Economizer: C403.4.12, 4



1 Minimum equipment efficiency shall comply with Section C403.2.3 and Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(9).
2 System and building shall comply with Section C403.4.1 (including both the individual unit size limits and the total building capacity limits on units without economizer). It is acceptable to comply using one of the exceptions to Section C403.4.1.
3 All equipment replaced in an existing building shall have air economizer complying with Sections C403.3.1 and C403.4.1 unless both the individual unit size and the total capacity of units without air economizer in the building is less than that allowed in Exception 1 to Section C403.3.1.
4 All separate new equipment added to an existing building shall have air economizer complying with Sections C403.3.1 and C403.4.1 unless both the individual unit size and the total capacity of units without air economizer in the building is less than that allowed in Exception 1 to Section C403.4.1.
5 Equipment shall have a capacity-weighted average cooling system efficiency:
a. For units with a cooling capacity below 54,000 Btu/h, a minimum of 10% greater than the requirements in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) (1.10 x values in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)).
b. For units with a cooling capacity of 54,000 Btu/h and greater, a minimum of 5% greater than the requirements in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) (1.05 x values in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)).
6 Minimum of 50% air economizer that is ducted in a fully enclosed path directly to every heat pump unit in each zone, except that ducts may terminate within 12 inches of the intake to an HVAC unit provided that they are physically fastened so that the outside air duct is directed into the unit intake. If this is an increase in the amount of outside air supplied to this unit, the outside air supply system shall be capable of providing this additional outside air and equipped with economizer control.
7 Have flow control valve to eliminate flow through the heat pumps that are not in operation with variable speed pumping control complying with Section C403.4.3 for that heat pump.
When the total capacity of all units with flow control valves exceeds 15% of the total system capacity, a variable frequency drive shall be installed on the main loop pump.
As an alternate to this requirement, have a capacity-weighted average cooling system efficiency that is 5% greater than the requirements in note 5 (i.e., a minimum of 15%/10% greater than the requirements in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) (1.15/1.10 x values in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)).
8 Systems installed prior to 1991 without fully utilized capacity are allowed to comply with Option B, provided that the individual unit cooling capacity does not exceed 90,000 Btu/h.
9 Economizer not required for systems installed with water economizer plate and frame heat exchanger complying with previous codes between 1991 and June 2013, provided that the total fan coil load does not exceed the existing or added capacity of the heat exchangers.
10 For water-cooled process equipment where the manufacturers' specifications require colder temperatures than available with waterside economizer, that portion of the load is exempt from the economizer requirements.
11 The air-cooled chiller shall have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 5% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table C403.2.3(7) (1.05 x IPLV values in Table C403.2.3(7)).
12 The air-cooled chiller shall:
a. Have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 10% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table C403.2.3(7) (1.10 x IPLV values in Table C403.2.3(7)); and
b. Be multistage with a minimum of two compressors.
13 The water-cooled chiller shall have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 10% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table C403.2.3(7) (1.10 x IPLV values in Table C403.2.3(7)).
14 The water-cooled chiller shall have an IPLV efficiency that is a minimum of 15% greater than the IPLV requirements in Table C403.2.3(7), (1.15 x IPLV values in Table C403.2.3(7)).
15 Economizer cooling shall be provided by adding a plate-frame heat exchanger on the waterside with a capacity that is a minimum of 20% of the chiller capacity at standard AHRI rating conditions.
16 The replacement boiler shall have an efficiency that is a minimum of 8% higher than the value in Table C403.2.3(5) (1.08 x value in Table C403.2.3(5)), except for electric boilers.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10150   Section C101.5 -- Compliance.  


C101.5 Compliance. Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC -- Residential Provisions. Commercial buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC -- Commercial Provisions.


C101.5.1 Compliance materials. The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, worksheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code.


C101.5.2 Low energy buildings. The following buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this code shall be exempt from all thermal envelope provisions of this code:

1. Those that are heated and/or cooled with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt/ft2 (10.7 W/m2) of floor area for space conditioning purposes.

2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.

3. Greenhouses isolated from any conditioned space and not intended for occupancy.


C101.5.2.1 Semi-heated spaces. A semi-heated space shall meet all of the building thermal envelope requirements, except that insulation is not required for opaque wall assemblies. Component performance calculations involving semi-heated spaces shall calculate fully insulated opaque walls for the Target UA calculation, and Total Building Performance calculations involving semi-heated spaces shall calculate fully insulated opaque walls for the Standard Reference Design.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10200   Section C102 -- Alternate materials -- Method of construction, design or insulating systems.  


C102.1 General. This code is not intended to prevent the use of any material, method of construction, design or insulating system not specifically prescribed herein, provided that such construction, design or insulating system has been approved by the code official as meeting the intent of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10300   Section C103 -- Construction documents.  


C103.1 General. Construction documents and other supporting data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.


EXCEPTION: The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other supporting data if the code official determines they are not necessary to confirm compliance with this code.

C103.2 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, as applicable, insulation materials and their R-values; fenestration U-factors and SHGCs; area-weighted U-factor and SHGC calculations; mechanical system design criteria; mechanical and service water heating system and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies; economizer description; equipment and systems controls; fan motor horsepower (hp) and controls; duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location; lighting fixture schedule with wattage and control narrative; and air sealing details.


C103.3 Examination of documents. The code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.


C103.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the code official issues a permit where construction documents are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped "Reviewed for Code Compliance." Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the code official. Work shall be done in accordance with the approved construction documents.

One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the code official or a duly authorized representative.


C103.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.


C103.3.3 Phased approval. The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of part of an energy conservation system before the construction documents for the entire system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire energy conservation system will be granted.


C103.4 Amended construction documents. Changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.


C103.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10400   Section C104 -- Inspections.  


C104.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official.


C104.2 Required approvals. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the code official. Where applicable, inspections shall include at least:


C104.2.1 Envelope


C104.2.1.1 Wall Insulation Inspection: To be made after all wall insulation and air vapor retarder sheet or film materials are in place, but before any wall covering is placed.


C104.2.1.2 Glazing Inspection: To be made after glazing materials are installed in the building.


C104.2.1.3 Exterior Roofing Insulation: To be made after the installation of the roof insulation, but before concealment.


C104.2.1.4 Slab/Floor Insulation: To be made after the installation of the slab/floor insulation, but before concealment.


C104.2.2 Mechanical


C104.2.2.1 Mechanical Equipment Efficiency and Economizer: To be made after all equipment and controls required by this code are installed and prior to the concealment of such equipment or controls.


C104.2.2.2 Mechanical Pipe and Duct Insulation: To be made after all pipe and duct insulation is in place, but before concealment.


C104.2.3 Lighting and motors


C104.2.3.1 Lighting Equipment and Controls: To be made after the installation of all lighting equipment and controls required by this code, but before concealment of the lighting equipment.


C104.2.3.2 Motor Inspections: To be made after installation of all equipment covered by this code, but before concealment.


C104.3 Final inspection. The building shall have a final inspection and not be occupied until approved.


C104.4 Reinspection. A building shall be reinspected when determined necessary by the code official.


C104.5 Approved inspection agencies. The code official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.


C104.6 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.


C104.7 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing.


C104.8 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official.


C104.8.1 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise, or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10500   Section C105 -- Validity.  


C105.1 General. If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10600   Section C106 -- Referenced standards.  


C106.1 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those listed in Chapter 5, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sections C106.1.1 and C106.1.2.


C106.1.1 Conflicts. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.


C106.1.2 Provisions in referenced codes and standards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard.


C106.2 Conflicting requirements. Where the provisions of this code and the referenced standards conflict, the provisions of this code shall take precedence.


C106.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.


C106.4 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. In addition to the requirements of this code, all occupancies shall conform to the provisions included in the State Building Code (chapter 19.27 RCW). In case of conflicts among the codes enumerated in RCW 19.27.031 (1) through (4) and this code, an earlier named code shall govern over those following. In the case of conflict between the duct sealing and insulation requirements of this code and the duct insulation requirements of Sections 603 and 604 of the International Mechanical Code, the duct insulation requirements of this code, or where applicable, a local jurisdiction's energy code shall govern.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10700   Section C107 -- Fees.  


C107.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees prescribed in Section C107.2 have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.


C107.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.


C107.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official, which shall be in addition to the required permit fees.


C107.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.


C107.5 Refunds. The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10800   Section C108 -- Stop work order.  


C108.1 Authority. Whenever the code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order.


C108.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.


C108.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.


C108.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-10900   Section C109 -- Board of appeals.  


C109.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the code official.


C109.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.


C109.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-11000   Section C110 -- Violations.   It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to erect or construct any building, or remodel or rehabilitate any existing building or structure in the state, or allow the same to be done, contrary to or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-11100   Section C111 -- Liability.   Nothing contained in this code is intended to be nor shall be construed to create or form the basis for any liability on the part of any city or county or its officers, employees or agents for any injury or damage resulting from the failure of a building to conform to the provisions of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20000   Chapter 2 [CE] -- Definitions.  

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20100   Section C201 -- General.  


C201.1 Scope. Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter.


C201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.


C201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the International Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, Uniform Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.


C201.4 Terms not defined. Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20200   Section C202 -- General definitions.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20201   Section C202.1 -- A.  

ABOVE-GRADE WALL. A wall enclosing conditioned space that is not a below-grade wall. This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts.

ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").

ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.

AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.

ATTIC AND OTHER ROOFS. All other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (i.e., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding roofs with insulation entirely above deck and metal building roofs.

AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20202   Section C202.2 -- B.  

BELOW-GRADE WALL. That portion of a wall in the building envelope that is entirely below the finish grade and in contact with the ground.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including any mechanical systems, service water heating systems and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and supporting the building.

BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner's project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.

BUILDING ENTRANCE. Any door, set of doors, doorway, or other form of portal that is used to gain access to the building from the outside by the public.

BUILDING SITE. A contiguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The below-grade walls, above-grade walls, floor, roof, and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space or provides a boundary between conditioned space, semiheated space and exempt or unconditioned space.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20203   Section C202.3 -- C.  

C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h ft2 x F) [W/(m2 x K)].

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) - COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) - HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.

COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of "Residential buildings."

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.

CONDITIONED SPACE. An area or room within a building being heated or cooled, containing uninsulated ducts, or with a fixed opening directly into an adjacent conditioned space.

CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER. A combination of materials and assemblies that restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope.

CONTINUOUS INSULATION (CI). Insulation that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than service openings and penetrations by metal fasteners with a cross-sectional area, as measured in the plane of the surface, of less than 0.04% of the opaque surface area of the assembly. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.

CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20204   Section C202.4 -- D.  

DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM. An electronic system managed by the building owner to collect, tabulate and display metering information.

DAYLIGHT ZONE. (See also Fig. C202.4)

1. Under skylights. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus either 70 percent of the floor-to-ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.

2. Adjacent to vertical fenestration. The area adjacent to vertical fenestration which receives daylight through the fenestration. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed analysis is provided, the primary daylight zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance equal to the window head height and the secondary daylighted zone extends from the edge of the primary zone to a distance equal to two times the window head height or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylight zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus 2 feet (610 mm) on each side, or the window width plus the distance to an opaque partition, or the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.

3. In parking garages. The area within 20 feet of any portion of a perimeter wall that has a net opening to wall ratio of at least 40 percent and no exterior obstructions within 20 feet.

4. Under atrium glazing. The area at the floor directly beneath the atrium and the top floor under the atrium whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the distance between the floor and ceiling height. Levels below the top floor that are not directly beneath the atrium are unaffected.


Figure C202.1


DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system where pump(s) prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon demand for hot water.

DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, SHGC, or VT.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20205   Section C202.5 -- E.  

ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.

ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.

ENCLOSED SPACE. A volume surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows.

END USE CATEGORY. A load or group of loads that consume energy in a common or similar manner.

ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.

ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.

ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.

ENERGY SOURCE METER. A meter placed at the source of the incoming energy that measures the energy delivered to the whole building or metered space.

ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50 percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.

EQUIPMENT ROOM. A space that contains either electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, machinery, water pumps or hydraulic pumps that are a function of the building's services.

EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and below-grade walls.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20206   Section C202.6 -- F.  

FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan's shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses (belts, gears, etc.).

FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.

FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors. Fenestration includes products with glass and nonglass glazing materials.

FENESTRATION AREA. Total area of the fenestration measured using the rough opening, and including the glazing, sash and frame.

FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.

FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.

F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h x ft x F) [W/(m x K)].

FURNACE ELECTRICITY RATIO. The ratio of furnace electricity use to total furnace energy computed as ratio = (3.412 x EAE)/1000 x EF + 3.412 x EAE) where EAE (average annual auxiliary electrical consumption) and EF (average annual fuel energy consumption) are defined in Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations and EF is expressed in millions of Btus per year.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20207   Section C202.7 -- G.  

GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20208   Section C202.8 -- H.  

HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.

HEATED SLAB-ON-GRADE FLOOR. Slab-on-grade floor construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.

HIGH-EFFICACY LUMINAIRES. Luminaires with compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

1. 60 Lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;

2. 50 Lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and

3. 40 Lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20209   Section C202.9 -- I.  

INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-2.

INSULATION ENTIRELY ABOVE DECK. A roof with all insulation:

1. Installed above (outside of) the roof structure; and

2. Continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members).

INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (IEER). A single-number figure of merit expressing cooling part-load EER efficiency for unitary air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for the equipment.

INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP, or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20210   Section C202.10 -- J.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20211   Section C202.11 -- K.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20212   Section C202.12 -- L.  

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. A lighting system consisting of an isolating power supply, the low voltage luminaires, and associated equipment that are all identified for the use. The output circuits of the power supply operate at 30 volts (42.4 volts peak) or less under all load conditions.

LUMINAIRE. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the housing designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps, and connect the lamps to the power supply.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20213   Section C202.13 -- M.  

MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see "Automatic").

METAL BUILDING ROOF. A roof that:

1. Is constructed with a metal, structural, weathering surface;

2. Has no ventilated cavity; and

3. Has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., does not include composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate) and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations:

a. Metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members;

b. Metal roofing separated from the steel framing members by insulation;

c. Insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in a or b.

METAL BUILDING WALL. A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).

METER. A device that measures the flow of energy.

MICROCELL. A wireless communication facility consisting of an antenna that is either: (a) Four (4) feet in height and with an area of not more than 580 square inches; or (b) if a tubular antenna, no more than four (4) inches in diameter and no more than six (6) feet in length; and the associated equipment cabinet that is six (6) feet or less in height and no more than 48 square feet in floor area.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20214   Section C202.14 -- N.  

NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor horsepower rating stamped on the motor nameplate.

NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at ARI standard rating conditions.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20215   Section C202.15 -- O.  

ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biomass, or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20216   Section C202.16 -- P.  

PERSONAL WIRELESS SERVICE FACILITY. A wireless communication facility (WCF), including a microcell, which is a facility for the transmission and/or reception of radio frequency signals and which may include antennas, equipment shelter or cabinet, transmission cables, a support structure to achieve the necessary elevation, and reception and/or transmission devices or antennas.

PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20217   Section C202.17 -- Q.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20218   Section C202.18 -- R.  

READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see "Accessible").

REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32F that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of 3,000 ft2 or greater.

REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32F that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of 3,000 ft2 or greater.

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) as well as Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.

R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h ft2 F/Btu) [(m2 K)/W].

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20219   Section C202.19 -- S.  

SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.

SEMI-HEATED SPACE. An enclosed space within a building, including adjacent connected spaces separated by an uninsulated component (e.g., basements, utility rooms, garages, corridors), which:

1. Is heated but not cooled, and has a maximum heating system output capacity of 3.4 Btu/(h-ft2) but not greater than 8 Btu/(h-ft2);

2. Is not a cold storage space or frozen storage space.

SERVICE WATER HEATING. Heating water for domestic or commercial purposes other than space heating and process requirements.

SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls is included in this definition.

SLAB BELOW GRADE. Any portion of a slab floor in contact with the ground which is more than 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

SLAB-ON-GRADE FLOOR. That portion of a slab floor of the building envelope that is in contact with the ground and that is either above grade or is less than or equal to 24 inches below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

SMALL BUSINESS. Any business entity (including a sole proprietorship, corporation, partnership or other legal entity) which is owned and operated independently from all other businesses, which has the purpose of making a profit, and which has fifty or fewer employees.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.

STEEL-FRAMED WALL. A wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by steel framing members (i.e., typical steel stud walls and curtain wall systems).

STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings, with or without mulled windows and doors.

SUBSYSTEM METER. A meter placed downstream of the energy supply meter that measures the energy delivered to a load or a group of loads.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure's exterior walls and roof.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20220   Section C202.20 -- T.  

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s). The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.

THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20221   Section C202.21 -- U.  

U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h ft2 F) [W/(m2 K)].

UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GRADE FLOOR. A slab-on-grade floor that is not a heated slab-on-grade floor.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20222   Section C202.22 -- V.  

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

VERTICAL FENESTRATION. All fenestration other than skylights.

VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light, visible transmittance, includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20223   Section C202.23 -- W.  

WALK-IN COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32F that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 ft2.

WALK-IN FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32F that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 ft2.

WALL. That portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that is vertical or tilted at an angle of 60 degrees from horizontal or greater. This includes above-grade walls and below-grade walls, between floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, and foundation walls.

WOOD-FRAMED AND OTHER WALLS. All other wall types, including wood stud walls.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-20224   Section C202.24 -- X, Y, Z.  

ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30000   Chapter 3 [CE] -- General requirements.  

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30100   Section C301 -- Climate zones.  


C301.1 General. Climate zones from Table C301.1 shall be used in determining the applicable requirements from Chapter 4.


Table C301.1

Climate Zones and Moisture Regimes

Designations by State and County


Key: A - Moist, B - Dry, C - Marine. Absence of moisture designation indicates moisture regime is irrelevant.
WASHINGTON
5B Adams 4C Grays Harbor 4C Pierce
5B Asotin 4C Island 4C San Juan
5B Benton 4C Jefferson 4C Skagit
5B Chelan 4C King 5B Skamania
4C Clallam 4C Kitsap 4C Snohomish
4C Clark 5B Kittitas 5B Spokane
5B Columbia 5B Klickitat 6B Stevens
4C Cowlitz 4C Lewis 4C Thurston
5B Douglas 5B Lincoln 4C Wahkiakum
6B Ferry 4C Mason 5B Walla Walla
5B Franklin 6B Okanogan 4C Whatcom
5B Garfield 4C Pacific 5B Whitman
5B Grant 6B Pend Oreille 5B Yakima

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30200   Section C302 -- Design conditions.  


C302.1 Interior design conditions. The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72F (22C) for heating and minimum of 75F (24C) for cooling.


C302.2 Exterior design conditions. The heating or cooling outdoor design temperatures shall be selected from Appendix C.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30300   Section C303 -- Materials, systems and equipment.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30310   Section 303.1 -- Identification.  


C303.1 Identification. Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code.


C303.1.1 Building thermal envelope insulation. An R-value identification mark shall be applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building thermal envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternately, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown or sprayed insulation (fiberglass and cellulose), the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thickness of the areas covered and R-value of installed thickness shall be listed on the certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site.


C303.1.1.1 Blown or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation. The thickness of blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation (fiberglass or cellulose) shall be written in inches (mm) on markers that are installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access opening. Spray polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer.


C303.1.2 Insulation mark installation. Insulating materials shall be installed such that the manufacturer's R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.


C303.1.3 Fenestration product rating. U-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table C303.1.3(1), C303.1.3(2) or C303.1.3(4). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and visible transmittance (VT) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC or VT shall be assigned a default SHGC or VT from Table C303.1.3(3).


EXCEPTION: Units without NFRC ratings produced by a small business may be assigned default U-factors from Table C303.1.3(5) for vertical fenestration.

C303.1.4 Insulation product rating. The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (C.F.R. Title 16, Part 460) in units of h x ft2 x F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75F (24C).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-303131   Table C303.1.3(1) -- Default glazed fenestration U-factor.  


Table C303.1.3(1)

Default Glazed Fenestration U-Factor


FRAME TYPE SINGLE PANE DOUBLE PANE SKY-LIGHT
Metal 1.20 0.80
Metal with Thermal Break 1.10 0.65 See Table

C303.1.3(4)

Nonmetal or Metal Clad 0.95 0.55
Glazed Block 0.60

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-303132   Table C303.1.3(2) -- Default door U-factors.  


Table C303.1.3(2)

Default Door U-Factors

See Appendix A, Section A107

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-303133   Table C303.1.3(3) -- Default glazed fenestration SHGC and VT.  


Table C303.1.3(3)

Default Glazed Fenestration SHGC and VT


SINGLE GLAZED DOUBLE GLAZED GLAZE BLOCK
Clear Tinted Clear Tinted
SHGC 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
VT 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-303134   Table C303.1.3(4) -- Default U-factors for skylights.  


Table C303.1.3(4)

Default U-Factors for Skylights


Frame Type
Aluminum Without Thermal Break Aluminum With Thermal Break Reinforced Vinyl/Aluminum-

Clad Wood or Vinyl

Wood or Vinyl-Clad Wood/Vinyl Without Reinforcing
Fenestration Type
Single Glazing
glass U-1.58 U-1.51 U-1.40 U-1.18
acrylic/polycarb U-1.52 U-1.45 U-1.34 U-1.11
Double Glazing
air U-1.05 U-0.89 U-0.84 U-0.67
argon U-1.02 U-0.86 U-0.80 U-0.64
Double Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.96 U-0.80 U-0.75 U-0.59
argon U-0.91 U-0.75 U-0.70 U-0.54
Double Glazing, e = 0.10
air U-0.94 U-0.79 U-0.74 U-0.58
argon U-0.89 U-0.73 U-0.68 U-0.52
Double Glazing, e = 0.05
air U-0.93 U-0.78 U-0.73 U-0.56
argon U-0.87 U-0.71 U-0.66 U-0.50
Triple Glazing
air U-0.90 U-0.70 U-0.67 U-0.51
argon U-0.87 U-0.69 U-0.64 U-0.48
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20
air U-0.86 U-0.68 U-0.63 U-0.47
argon U-0.82 U-0.63 U-0.59 U-0.43
Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.82 U-0.64 U-0.60 U-0.44
argon U-0.79 U-0.60 U-0.56 U-0.40
Triple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.81 U-0.62 U-0.58 U-0.42
argon U-0.77 U-0.58 U-0.54 U-0.38
Quadruple Glazing, e = 0.10 on 2 surfaces
air U-0.78 U-0.59 U-0.55 U-0.39
argon U-0.74 U-0.56 U-0.52 U-0.36
krypton U-0.70 U-0.52 U-0.48 U-0.32

1 U-factors are applicable to both glass and plastic, flat and domed units, all spacers and gaps.
2 Emissivities shall be less than or equal to the value specified.
3 Gap fill shall be assumed to be air unless there is a minimum of 90 percent argon or krypton.
4 Aluminum frame with thermal break is as defined in footnote 1 to Table C303.1.3(5).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-303135   Table C303.1.3(5) -- Small business compliance default table.  


Table C303.1.3(5)

Small Business Compliance Table

Default U-Factors for Vertical Glazing


Vertical Glazing Description Frame Type
Any Frame Aluminum Thermal Break2 Wood/Vinyl/

Fiberglass

Panes Low-e1 Spacer Fill
Double3 A Any Argon 0.48 0.41 0.32
B Any Argon 0.46 0.39 0.30
C Any Argon 0.44 0.37 0.28
C High Performance Argon 0.42 0.35 Deemed to comply5
Triple4 A Any Air 0.50 0.44 0.26
B Any Air 0.45 0.39 0.22
C Any Air 0.41 0.34 0.20
Any double low-e Any Air 0.35 0.32 0.18

1 Low-eA (emissivity) shall be 0.24 to 0.16.
Low-eB (emissivity) shall be 0.15 to 0.08.
Low-eC (emissivity) shall be 0.07 or less.
2 Aluminum Thermal Break = An aluminum thermal break framed window shall incorporate the following minimum design characteristics:
a) The thermal conductivity of the thermal break material shall be not more than 3.6 Btu-in/h/ft2/F;
b) The thermal break material must produce a gap in the frame material of not less than 0.210 inches; and
c) All metal framing members of the products exposed to interior and exterior air shall incorporate a thermal break meeting the criteria in a) and b) above.
3 A minimum air space of 0.375 inches between panes of glass is required for double glazing.
4 A minimum air space of 0.25 inches between panes of glass is required for triple glazing.
5 Deemed to comply glazing shall not be used for performance compliance.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30320   Section C303.2 -- Installation.  


C303.2 Installation. All materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and the International Building Code.


C303.2.1 Protection of exposed foundation insulation. Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawlspace walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of the insulation's thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend a minimum of 6 inches (153 mm) below grade.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-30330   Section C303.3 -- Maintenance information.  


C303.3 Maintenance information. Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance. Required regular maintenance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40000   Chapter 4 [CE] -- Commercial energy efficiency.  

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40100   Section C401 -- General.  


C401.1 Scope. The requirements contained in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings, or portions of commercial buildings.


C401.2 Application. Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following:

1. The requirements of Sections C402, C403, C404, C405, C408 and C409.

2. The requirements of Section C407, C408, C409, C402.4, C403.2, C404, C405.2, C405.3, C405.4, C405.6 and C405.7. The building energy consumption shall be equal to or less than 93 percent of the standard reference design building.


C401.2.1 Application to existing buildings. Additions, alterations and repairs to existing buildings shall comply with Sections C402, C403, C404, C405, C408 and C409.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40200   Section C402 -- Building envelope requirements.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40210   Section C402.1 -- General (Prescriptive).  


C402.1 General (Prescriptive). The building thermal envelope shall comply with Section C402.1.1. Section C402.1.2 or Section C402.1.3 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-values specified in Section C402.1.1. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with C402.5. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with C402.6.


EXCEPTION: Unstaffed equipment shelters or cabinets used solely for personal wireless service facilities.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40211   Section C402.1.1 -- Insulation and fenestration criteria.  


C402.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Tables C402.2 and C402.3 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the "Group R" column of Table C402.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the "All other" column of Table C402.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40212   Section C402.1.2 -- U-Factor alternative.  


C402.1.2 U-factor alternative. An assembly with a U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor equal or less than that specified in Table C402.1.2 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table C402.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor from the "Group R" column of Table C402.1.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-factor, C-factor or F-factor from the "All other" column of Table C402.1.2. The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Appendix A. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Appendix A, values shall be calculated in accordance with the ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals using the framing factors listed in Appendix A where applicable and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402121   Table C402.1.2 -- Opaque thermal envelope assembly requirements.  


Table C402.1.2

Opaque Thermal Envelope Assembly Requirementsa

CLIMATE ZONE 5 AND MARINE 4 6
All Other Group R All Other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.034 U-0.031 U-0.032 U-0.031
Metal buildings U-0.031 U-0.031 U-0.029 U-0.031
Attic and other U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021
Walls, Above Grade
Mass U-0.104d U-0.078 U-0.078 U-0.071
Metal building U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.044
Steel framed U-0.055 U-0.055 U-0.049 U-0.044
Wood framed and other U-0.054 U-0.054 U-0.051 U-0.044
Walls, Below Grade
Below-grade wallb Same as above grade Same as above grade Same as above grade Same as above grade
Floors
Mass U-0.031 U-0.031 U-0.031 U-0.031
Joist/framing U-0.029 U-0.029 U-0.029 U-0.029
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.52
Heated slabsc F-0.55 F-0.55 F-0.55 F-0.55

a Use of opaque assembly U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors from Appendix A is required unless otherwise allowed by Section C402.1.2.
b Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the F-factor requirements for heated slabs.
c Heated slab F-factors shall be determined specifically for heated slabs. Unheated slab factors shall not be used.
d Exception: Integral insulated concrete block walls complying with ASTM C90 with all cores filled and meeting both of the following:
1 At least 50 percent of cores must be filled with vermiculite or equivalent fill insulation; and
2 The building thermal envelope encloses one or more of the following uses: Warehouse (storage and retail), gymnasium, auditorium, church chapel, arena, kennel, manufacturing plant, indoor swimming pool, pump station, water and waste water treatment facility, storage facility, storage area, motor vehicle service facility. Where additional uses not listed (such as office, retail, etc.) are contained within the building, the exterior walls that enclose these areas may not utilize this exception and must comply with the appropriate mass wall U-factor from Table C402.1.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40213   Section C402.1.3 -- Component performance option.  


C402.1.3 Component performance building envelope option.


C402.1.3.1 General. Buildings or structures whose design heat loss rate (UAp) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC * Ap) are less than or equal to the target heat loss rate (UAt) and solar heat gain coefficient rate (SHGC * At) shall be considered in compliance with this section. The stated U-factor, F-factor or allowable area of any component assembly, listed in Table C402.1.2 and Table C402.3, such as roof/ceiling, opaque wall, opaque door, fenestration, floor over conditioned space, slab-on-grade floor, radiant floor or opaque floor may be increased and the U-factor or F-factor for other components decreased, provided that the total heat gain or loss for the entire building envelope does not exceed the total resulting from compliance to the U-factors, F-factors or allowable areas specified in this section. Compliance shall be calculated in total for the building envelope for nonresidential spaces and for residential spaces.


C402.1.3.2 Component U-factors. The U-factors for typical construction assemblies are included in Chapter 3 and Appendix A. These values shall be used for all calculations. Where proposed construction assemblies are not represented in Chapter 3 or Appendix A, values shall be calculated in accordance with the ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals, using the framing factors listed in Appendix A.

For envelope assemblies containing metal framing, the U-factor shall be determined by one of the following methods:

1. Results of laboratory measurements according to acceptable methods of test.

2. ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals where the metal framing is bonded on one or both sides to a metal skin or covering.

3. The zone method as provided in ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals.

4. Effective framing/cavity R-values as provided in Appendix A.

When return air ceiling plenums are employed, the roof/ceiling assembly shall:

a. For thermal transmittance purposes, not include the ceiling proper nor the plenum space as part of the assembly; and

b. For gross area purposes, be based upon the interior face of the upper plenum surface.

5. Tables in ASHRAE 90.1-2010 Normative Appendix A.


C402.1.3.3 UA calculations. The target UAt and the proposed UAp shall be calculated using Equations C402-1 and C402-2 and the corresponding areas and U-factors from Table C402.1.2 and Table C402.3. For the target UAt calculation, the skylights shall be located in roof/ceiling area up to the maximum skylight area per Section C402.3.1 and the remainder of the fenestration allowed per Section C402.3.1 shall be located in the wall area.


C402.1.3.4 SHGC rate calculations. Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Table C402.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equations C402-3 and C402-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table C402.3.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402131   Equation C402-1 -- Target UAt.  


Equation C402-1

Target UAt



UAt = UradtAradt + UmrtAmrt + UratArat + UmwtAmwt + UmbwtAmbwt + UsfwtAsfwt + UwfwtAwfwt + UfmtAfmt + UfjtAfjt + FstPst +FsrtPsrt + UdstAdst + UdrtAdrt + UvgtAvgt + UvgmtAvgmt + UvgmotAvgmot + UvgdtAvgdt+ UogtAogt
Uat = The target combined specific heat transfer of the gross roof/ceiling assembly, exterior wall and floor area.
Where:
Uradt = The thermal transmittance value for roofs with the insulation entirely above deck found in Table C402.1.2.
Umrt = The thermal transmittance value for metal building roofs found in Table C402.1.2.
Urat = The thermal transmittance value for attic and other roofs found in Table C402.1.2.
Umwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque mass walls found in Table C402.1.2.
Umbwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque metal building walls found in Table C402.1.2.
Usfwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque steel-framed walls found in Table C402.1.2.
Uwfwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque wood framed and other walls found in Table C402.1.2.
Ufmt = The thermal transmittance value for mass floors over unconditioned space found in Table C402.1.2.
Ufjt = The thermal transmittance value for joist floors over unconditioned space found in Table C402.1.2.
Fst = The F-factor for slab-on-grade floors found in Table C402.1.2.
Fsrt = The F-factor for radiant slab floors found in Table C402.1.2.
Udst = The thermal transmittance value for opaque swinging doors found in Table C402.2.
Udrt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque roll-up or sliding doors found in Table C402.2.
Uvgt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical fenestration with nonmetal framing found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uvgmt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical fenestration with fixed metal framing found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uvgmot = The thermal transmittance value for vertical fenestration with operable metal framing found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uvgdt = The thermal transmittance value for entrance doors found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uogt = The thermal transmittance for skylights found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed skylight area as a percent of gross exterior roof area.
Afmt = The proposed mass floor over unconditioned space area, Afm.
Afjt = The proposed joist floor over unconditioned space area, Afj.
Pst = The proposed linear feet of slab-on-grade floor perimeter, Ps.
Psrt = The proposed linear feet of radiant slab floor perimeter, Prs.
Adst = The proposed opaque swinging door area, Ads.
Adrt = The proposed opaque roll-up or sliding door area, Adr.
and
If the vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area does not exceed the maximum allowed in Section C402.3.1:
Amwt = The proposed opaque above grade mass wall area, Amw.
Ambwt = The proposed opaque above grade metal building wall area, Ambw.
Asfwt = The proposed opaque above grade steel framed wall area, Amfw.
Awfwt = The proposed opaque above grade wall wood framed and other area, Aw.
Avgt = The proposed vertical fenestration area with nonmetal framing, Avg.
Avgmt = The proposed vertical fenestration area with fixed metal framing, Avgm.
Avgmot = The proposed vertical fenestration area with operable metal framing, Avgmo.
Avgdt = The proposed entrance door area, Avgd.
or
If the vertical fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area exceeds the maximum allowed in Section C402.3.1, the area of each fenestration element shall be reduced in the base envelope design by the same percentage and the net area of each wall type increased proportionately by the same percentage so that the total vertical fenestration area is exactly equal to the allowed percentage per Section C402.3.1 of the gross wall area.
and
If the skylight area as a percent of gross exterior roof area does not exceed the maximum allowed in Section C402.3.1:
Aradt = The proposed roof area with insulation entirely above the deck, Arad.
Amrt = The proposed roof area for metal buildings, Amr.
Arat = The proposed attic and other roof area, Aor.
Aogat = The proposed skylight area, Aogor.
or
If the skylight area as a percent of gross exterior roof area exceeds the maximum allowed in Section C402.3.1, the area of each skylight element shall be reduced in the base envelope design by the same percentage and the net area of each roof type increased proportionately by the same percentage so that the total skylight area is exactly equal to the allowed percentage per Section C402.3.1 of the gross roof area.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402132   Equation C402-2 -- Proposed UAp.  


Equation C402-2

Proposed UAp



UAp = UradArad + UmrAmr + UraAra + UmwAmw + UmbwAmbw + UsfwAsfw + UwfowAwfow + UfmAfm + UfjAfj + FsPs + FsrPsr + UdsAds + UdrAdr + UvgAvg + UvgmfAvgmf + UvgmoAvgmo + UvgdAvgd + UogAog
Where:
UAp = The combined proposed specific heat transfer of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
Urad = The thermal transmittance of the roof area where the insulation is entirely above the roof deck.
Arad = Opaque roof area where the insulation is entirely above the roof deck.
Umr = The thermal transmittance of the metal building roof area.
Amr = Opaque metal building roof area.
Ura = The thermal transmittance of the roof over attic and other roof area.
Ara = Opaque roof over attic and other roof area.
Umw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque mass wall area.
Amw = Opaque mass wall area (not including opaque doors).
Umbw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque metal building wall area.
Ambw = Opaque metal building wall area (not including opaque doors).
Usfw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque steel framed wall area.
Asfw = Opaque steel framed wall area (not including opaque doors).
Uwfw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque wood framed and other wall area.
Awfw = Opaque wood framed and other wall area (not including opaque doors).
Ufm = The thermal transmittance of the mass floor over unconditioned space area.
Afm = Mass floor area over unconditioned space.
Ufj = The thermal transmittance of the joist floor over unconditioned space area.
Afj = Joist floor area over unconditioned space.
Fs = Slab-on-grade floor component F-factor.
Ps = Linear feet of slab-on-grade floor perimeter.
Fsr = Radiant floor component F-factor.
Psr = Lineal feet of radiant floor perimeter.
Uds = The thermal transmittance value of the opaque swinging door area.
Ads = Opaque swinging door area.
Udr = The thermal transmittance value of the opaque roll-up or sliding door area.
Adr = Opaque roll-up or sliding door area.
Uvg = The thermal transmittance of the vertical fenestration area with nonmetal framing.
Avg = Vertical fenestration area with nonmetal framing.
Uvgmf = The thermal transmittance of the vertical fenestration area with fixed metal framing.
Avgmf = Vertical fenestration area with fixed metal framing.
Uvgmo = The thermal transmittance of the vertical fenestration area with operable metal framing.
Avgmo = Vertical fenestration area with operable metal framing.
Uvgd = The thermal transmittance of the vertical fenestration area for entrance doors.
Avgd = Vertical fenestration area for entrance doors.
Uog = The thermal transmittance for the skylights.
Aog = Skylight area.
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into subelements as:
Umw1Amw1 + Umw2Amw2 + Usfw1Asfw1 + ...etc.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402133   Equation C402-3 -- Target SHGCAt.  


Equation C402-3

Target SHGCAt


SHGCAt = SHGCt (Aogt + Avgt + Avgmt + Avgmot + Avgdt)
Where:
SHGCAt = The target combined specific heat gain of the target fenestration area.
SHGCt = The solar heat gain coefficient for fenestration found in Table C402.3 which corresponds to the proposed total fenestration area as a percent of gross exterior wall area, and Aogt, Avgt, Avgmt, Avgmot and Avgdt are defined under Equation C402-1.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402134   Equation C402-4 -- Proposed SHGCAp.  


Equation C402-4

Proposed SHGCAp


SHGCAp = SHGCogAog + SHGCvgAvg
Where:
SHGCAt = The combined proposed specific heat gain of the proposed fenestration area.
SHGCog = The solar heat gain coefficient of the skylights.
Aog = The skylight area.
SHGCvg = The solar heat gain coefficient of the vertical fenestration.
Avg = The vertical fenestration area.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40214   Section C402.1.4 -- Semi-heated spaces.  


C402.1.4 Semi-heated spaces. All spaces shall comply with the requirements in Section C402 unless they meet the definition for semi-heated spaces. For semi-heated spaces, the building envelope shall comply with the same requirements as that for conditioned spaces in Section C402; however, for semi-heated spaces heated by other than electric resistance heating equipment, wall insulation is not required for those walls that separate semi-heated spaces from the exterior provided that the space meets all the requirements of semi-heated space. Semi-heated spaces shall be calculated separately from other conditioned spaces for compliance purposes. Building envelope assemblies separating conditioned space from semi-heated space shall comply with exterior envelope insulation requirements. When choosing the uninsulated wall option, the wall shall not be included in Component Performance Building Envelope Option calculation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40220   Section C402.2 -- Specific insulation requirements.  


C402.2 Specific insulation requirements (Prescriptive). Opaque assemblies shall comply with Table C402.2. Where two or more layers of continuous insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the continuous insulation boards shall be installed in accordance with Section C303.2. If the continuous insulation board manufacturer's installation instructions do not address installation of two or more layers, the edge joints between each layer of continuous insulation boards shall be staggered.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402200   Table C402.2 -- Opaque thermal envelope requirements.  


Table C402.2

Opaque Thermal Envelope Requirementsa, f

CLIMATE ZONE 5 AND MARINE 4 6
All Other Group R All Other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck R-30ci R-38ci R-30ci R-38ci
Metal buildings (with R-3.5 thermal blocks)a, b R-25 +

R-11 LS

R-25 +

R-11 LS

R-25 +

R-11 LS

R-30 +

R-11 LS

Attic and other R-49 R-49 R-49 R-49
Walls, Above Grade
Mass R-9.5ci R-13.3ci R-11.4ci R-15.2ci
Metal building R-13 +

R-13ci

R-13 +

R-13ci

R-13 +

R-13ci

R-19 +

R-16ci

Steel framed R-13 +

R-10ci

R-19 +

R-8.5ci

R-13 +

R-12.5ci

R-19 +

R-14ci

Wood framed and other R-21 int R-21 int R-13 +

R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ci

R-21 +

R-5ci

Walls, Below Grade
Below-grade walld Same as above grade Same as above grade Same as above grade Same as above grade
Floors
Mass R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci
Joist/framing R-30e R-30e R-38e R-38e
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs R-10 for 24" below R-10 for 24" below R-10 for 48" below R-15 for 48" below
Heated slabsd R-10 perimeter & under entire slab R-10 perimeter & under entire slab R-10 perimeter & under entire slab R-10 perimeter & under entire slab
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37
Roll-up or sliding R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. ci = Continuous insulation. NR = No requirement.
LS = Liner system -- A continuous membrane installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins.
a Assembly descriptions can be found in Chapter 2 and Appendix A.
b Where using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block shall be provided, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method in Table C402.1.2.
c R-5.7ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with materials having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu-in/h-ft2 F.
d Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the exterior insulation requirements for heated slabs.
e Steel floor joist systems shall be insulated to R-38 + R-10ci.
f For roof, wall or floor assemblies where the proposed assembly would not be continuous insulation, two alternate nominal R-value compliance options for assemblies with isolated metal penetrations of otherwise continuous insulation are:

Assemblies with continuous insulation (see definition) Alternate option for assemblies with metal penetrations, greater than 0.04% but less than 0.08%
R-11.4ci R-14.3
R-13.3ci R-16.6
R-15.2ci R-19.0
R-30ci R-38
R-38ci R-48
R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-9.4
R-13 + R-10ci R-13 + R-12.5
R-13 + R-12.5ci R-13 + R-15.6
R-13 + R-13ci R-13 + R-16.3
R-19 + R-8.5ci R-19 + R-10.6
R-19 + R-14ci R-19 + R-17.5
R-19 + R-16ci R-19 + R-20
R-20 + R-3.8ci R-20 + R-4.8
R-21 + R-5ci R-21 + R-6.3

These alternate nominal R-value compliance options are allowed for projects complying with all of the following:


1. The ratio of the cross-sectional area, as measured in the plane of the surface, of metal penetrations of otherwise continuous insulation to the opaque surface area of the assembly is greater than 0.0004 (0.04%), but less than 0.0008 (0.08%).
2. The metal penetrations of otherwise continuous insulation are isolated or discontinuous (e.g., brick ties or other discontinuous metal attachments, offset brackets supporting shelf angles that allow insulation to go between the shelf angle and the primary portions of the wall structure). No continuous metal elements (e.g., metal studs, z-girts, z-channels, shelf angles) penetrate the otherwise continuous portion of the insulation.
3. Building permit drawings shall contain details showing the locations and dimensions of all the metal penetrations (e.g., brick ties or other discontinuous metal attachments, offset brackets, etc.) of otherwise continuous insulation. In addition, calculations shall be provided showing the ratio of the cross-sectional area of metal penetrations of otherwise continuous insulation to the overall opaque wall area.

For other cases where the proposed assembly is not continuous insulation, see Section C402.1.2 for determination of U-factors for assemblies that include metal other than screws and nails.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40221   Section C402.2.1 -- Roof assembly.  


C402.2.1 Roof assembly. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on construction materials used in the roof assembly. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5, whichever is less.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table C402.2.
2. Unit skylight curbs included as a component of an NFRC 100 rated assembly shall not be required to be insulated.

Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation.


C402.2.1.1 Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance. Low-sloped roofs, with a slope less than 2 units vertical in 12 horizontal, directly above cooled conditioned spaces in Climate Zones 1, 2, and 3 shall comply with one or more of the options in Table C402.2.1.1.


EXCEPTIONS: The following roofs and portions of roofs are exempt from the requirements in Table C402.2.1.1:
1. Portions of roofs that include or are covered by:
1.1. Photovoltaic systems or components.
1.2. Solar air or water heating systems or components.
1.3. Roof gardens or landscaped roofs.
1.4. Above-roof decks or walkways.
1.5. Skylights.
1.6. HVAC systems, components, and other opaque objects mounted above the roof.
2. Portions of roofs shaded during the peak sun angle on the summer solstice by permanent features of the building, or by permanent features of adjacent buildings.
3. Portions of roofs that are ballasted with a minimum stone ballast of 17 pounds per square foot (psf) (74 kg/m2) or 23 psf (117 kg/m2) pavers.
4. Roofs where a minimum of 75 percent of the roof area meets a minimum of one of the exceptions above.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402211   Table C402.2.1.1 -- Reflectance and emittance options.  


Table C402.2.1.1

Reflectance and Emittance Optionsa


Three-year aged solar reflectanceb of 0.55 and three-year aged thermal emittancec of 0.75
Initial solar reflectanceb of 0.70 and initial thermal emittancec of 0.75
Three-year-aged solar reflectance indexd of 64 initial solar reflectance indexd of 82

a The use of area-weighted averages to meet these requirements shall be permitted. Materials lacking initial tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance, shall be assigned both an initial solar reflectance of 0.10 and an initial thermal emittance of 0.90. Materials lacking three-year aged tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance shall be assigned both a three-year aged solar reflectance of 0.10 and a three-year aged thermal emittance of 0.90.
b Solar reflectance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1549, ASTM E 903 or ASTM E 1918.
c Thermal emittance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1371 or ASTM E 408.
d Solar reflectance index (SRI) shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h x ft2 x F (12W/m2 x K). Calculation of aged SRI shall be based on aged tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance. Calculation of initial SRI shall be based on initial tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40222   Section C402.2.2 -- Classification of walls.  
C402.2.2 Classification of walls. Walls associated with the building envelope shall be classified in accordance with Section C202.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40223   Section C402.2.3 -- Above-grade walls.  


C402.2.3 Thermal resistance of above-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating materials installed in the wall cavity between the framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units (CMU) shall not be used in determining compliance with Table C402.2.

"Mass walls" shall include walls weighing not less than:

1. 35 psf (170 kg/m2) of wall surface area; or

2. 25 psf (120 kg/m2) of wall surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (1,900 kg/m3).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40224   Section C402.2.4 -- Below-grade walls.  


C402.2.4 Thermal resistance of below-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed in, or continuously on, the below-grade walls shall be as specified in Table C402.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40225   Section C402.2.5 -- Floors over unconditioned space.  


C402.2.5 Floors over outdoor air or unconditioned space. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the floor framing or continuously on the floor assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on construction materials used in the floor assembly.

"Mass floors" shall include floors weighing not less than:

1. 35 psf (170 kg/m2) of floor surface area; or

2. 25 psf (120 kg/m2) of floor surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1,900 kg/m3).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40226   Section C402.2.6 -- Slab on grade.  


C402.2.6 Slabs on grade. Where the slab on grade is in contact with the ground, the minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors shall be as specified in Table C402.2. The insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance as shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by a minimum of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil.


EXCEPTION: Where the slab-on-grade floor is greater than 24 inches (61 mm) below the finished exterior grade, perimeter insulation is not required.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40227   Section C402.2.7 -- Opaque doors.  


C402.2.7 Opaque doors. Opaque doors (doors having less than 50 percent glass area) shall meet the applicable requirements for doors as specified in Table C402.2 and be considered as part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building envelope.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40228   Section C402.2.8 -- Insulation of radiant heating systems.  


C402.2.8 Insulation of radiant heating systems. Radiant panels, and associated U-bends and headers, designed for sensible heating of an indoor space through heat transfer from the thermally effective panel surfaces to the occupants or indoor space by thermal radiation and natural convection and the bottom surfaces of floor structures incorporating radiant heating shall be insulated with a minimum of R-3.5 (0.62 m2/K × W).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40230   Section C402.3 -- Fenestration (Prescriptive).  


C402.3 Fenestration (Prescriptive). Fenestration shall comply with Table C402.3. Automatic daylighting controls specified by this section shall comply with Section C405.2.2.3.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-402300   Table C402.3 -- Building envelope requirements -- Fenestration.  


Table C402.3

Building Envelope Requirements -- Fenestration


CLIMATE ZONE 5 AND MARINE 4 6
Vertical Fenestration
U-factor
Nonmetal framing (all)a 0.30 0.30
Metal framing (fixed)b 0.38 0.36
Metal framing (operable)c 0.40 0.40
Metal framing (entrance doors)d 0.60 0.60
SHGC
SHGC 0.40 0.40
Skylights
U-factor 0.50 0.50
SHGC 0.35 0.35

NR= No requirement.
a "Nonmetal framing" includes framing materials other than metal, with or without metal reinforcing or cladding.
b "Metal framing" includes metal framing, with or without thermal break. "Fixed" includes curtain wall, storefront, picture windows, and other fixed windows.
c "Metal framing" includes metal framing, with or without thermal break. "Operable" includes openable fenestration products other than "entrance doors."
d "Metal framing" includes metal framing, with or without thermal break. "Entrance door" includes glazed swinging entrance doors. Other doors which are not entrance doors, including sliding glass doors, are considered "operable."

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40231   Section C402.3.1 -- Maximum area.  


C402.3.1 Maximum area. The vertical fenestration area (not including opaque doors and opaque spandrel panels) shall not exceed 30 percent of the gross above-grade wall area. The skylight area shall not exceed 3 percent of the gross roof area.


C402.3.1.1 Increased vertical fenestration area with daylighting controls. In Climate Zones 1 through 6, a maximum of 40 percent of the gross above-grade wall area shall be permitted to be vertical fenestration, provided:

1. No less than 50 percent of the conditioned floor area is within a daylight zone;

2. Automatic daylighting controls are installed in daylight zones; and

3. Visible transmittance (VT) of vertical fenestration is greater than or equal to 1.1 times solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).


EXCEPTION: Fenestration that is outside the scope of NFRC 200 is not required to comply with Item 3.

C402.3.1.2 Increased skylight area with daylighting controls. The skylight area shall be permitted to be a maximum of 5 percent of the roof area provided automatic daylighting controls are installed in daylight zones under skylights.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40232   Section C402.3.2 -- Minimum skylight fenestration area.  


C402.3.2 Minimum skylight fenestration area. For single story buildings only, in an enclosed space greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2), directly under a roof with ceiling heights greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), and used as an office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, distribution/sorting area, transportation, or workshop, the total daylight zone under skylights shall be not less than half the floor area and shall provide a minimum skylight area to daylight zone under skylights of either:

1. Not less than 3 percent with a skylight VT of at least 0.40; or

2. Provide a minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1 percent determined in accordance with Equation C4-1.


Skylight Effective Aperture = (085 x Skylight Area x Skylight VT x WF)/Daylight zone under skylight

(Equation C4-1)

where:
Skylight area = Total fenestration area of skylights.
Skylight VT = Area weighted average visible transmittance of skylights.
WF = Area weighted average well factor, where well factor is 0.9 if light well depth is less than 2 feet (610 mm), or 0.7 if light well depth is 2 feet (610 mm) or greater.
Light well depth = Measure vertically from the underside of the lowest point of the skylight glazing to the ceiling plane under the skylight.

EXCEPTION: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:
1. Buildings in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
2. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).
3. Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.
4. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.

C402.3.2.1 Lighting controls in daylight zones under skylights. All lighting in the daylight zone shall be controlled by automatic daylighting controls that comply with Section C405.2.2.3.2.


EXCEPTION: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:
1. Buildings in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
2. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).
3. Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.
4. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.

C402.3.2.2 Haze factor. Skylights in office, storage, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, and distribution/sorting area spaces shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze factor greater than 90 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1003.


EXCEPTION: Skylights designed to exclude direct sunlight entering the occupied space by the use of fixed or automated baffles, or the geometry of skylight and light well need not comply with Section C402.3.2.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40233   Section C402.3.3 -- Maximum U-factor and SHGC.  


C402.3.3 Maximum U-factor and SHGC. For vertical fenestration, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table C402.3, based on the window projection factor. For skylights, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table C402.3.

The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation C4-2.

PF = A/B


(Equation C4-2)

where:
PF = Projection factor (decimal).
A = Distance measured horizontally from the furthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.
B = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device.

Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately.


C402.3.3.1 SHGC adjustment. Where the fenestration projection factor for a specific vertical fenestration product is greater than or equal to 0.2, the required maximum SHGC from Table C402.3 shall be adjusted by multiplying the required maximum SHGC by the multiplier specified in Table C402.3.3.1 corresponding with the orientation of the fenestration product and the projection factor.


Table C402.3.3.1

SHGC Adjustment Multipliers


PROJECTION

FACTOR

ORIENTED WITHIN 45 DEGREES OF TRUE NORTH ALL OTHER ORIENTATION
0.2 ≤ PF < 0.5 1.1 1.2
PF ≥ 0.5 1.2 1.6

C402.3.3.2 Increased vertical fenestration SHGC. In Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3, vertical fenestration entirely located not less than 6 feet (1729 mm) above the finished floor shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.40.


C402.3.3.3 Reserved.


C402.3.3.4 Reserved.


C402.3.3.5 Dynamic glazing. For compliance with Section C402.3.3, the SHGC for dynamic glazing shall be determined using the manufacturer's lowest-rated SHGC, and the VT/SHGC ratio shall be determined using the maximum VT and maximum SHGC. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40234   Section C402.3.4 -- Area-weighted U-factor.  
C402.3.4 Area-weighted U-factor. An area-weighted average shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.3. Individual fenestration products from different fenestration product categories listed in Table C402.3 shall not be combined in calculating area-weighted average U-factor.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40240   Section C402.4 -- Air leakage.  


C402.4 Air leakage (Mandatory). The thermal envelope of buildings shall comply with Sections C402.4.1 through C402.4.8.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40241   Section C402.4.1 -- Air barriers.  


C402.4.1 Air barriers. A continuous air barrier shall be provided throughout the building thermal envelope. The air barriers shall be permitted to be located on the inside or outside of the building envelope, located within the assemblies composing the envelope, or any combination thereof. The air barrier shall comply with Sections C402.4.1.1 and C402.4.1.2.


EXCEPTION: Air barriers are not required in buildings located in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3.

C402.4.1.1 Air barrier construction. The continuous air barrier shall be constructed to comply with the following:

1. The air barrier shall be continuous for all assemblies that are the thermal envelope of the building and across the joints and assemblies.

2. Air barrier joints and seams shall be sealed, including sealing transitions in places and changes in materials. Air barrier penetrations shall be sealed in accordance with Section C402.4.2. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.

3. Recessed lighting fixtures shall comply with Section C404.2.8. Where similar objects are installed which penetrate the air barrier, provisions shall be made to maintain the integrity of the air barrier.


EXCEPTION: Buildings that comply with Section C402.4.1.2.3 are not required to comply with Items 1 and 3.

C402.4.1.2 Air barrier compliance options. A continuous air barrier for the opaque building envelope shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2.3.


C402.4.1.2.1 Materials. Materials with an air permeability no greater than 0.004 cfm/ft2 (0.02 L/s m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inches water gauge (w.g.) (75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178 shall comply with this section. Materials in Items 1 through 15 shall be deemed to comply with this section provided joints are sealed and materials are installed as air barriers in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

1. Plywood with a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

2. Oriented strand board having a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

3. Extruded polystyrene insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

4. Foil-back polyisocyanurate insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

5. Closed cell spray foam a minimum density of 1.5 pcf (2.4 kg/m3) having a thickness of not less than 1 1/2 inches (36 mm).

6. Open cell spray foam with a density between 0.4 and 1.5 pcf (0.6 and 2.4 kg/m3) and having a thickness of not less than 4.5 inches (113 mm).

7. Exterior or interior gypsum board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

8. Cement board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

9. Built up roofing membrane.

10. Modified bituminous roof membrane.

11. Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane.

12. A Portland cement/sand parge, or gypsum plaster having a thickness of not less than 5/8 inch (16 mm).

13. Cast-in-place and precast concrete.

14. Fully grouted concrete block masonry.

15. Sheet steel or aluminum.


C402.4.1.2.2 Assemblies. Assemblies of materials and components with an average air leakage not to exceed 0.04 cfm/ft2 (0.2 L/s m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inches of water gauge (w.g.)(75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2357, ASTM E 1677 or ASTM E 283 shall comply with this section. Assemblies listed in Items 1 and 2 shall be deemed to comply provided joints are sealed and requirements of Section C402.4.1.1 are met.

1. Concrete masonry walls coated with one application either of block filler and two applications of a paint or sealer coating;

2. A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco or plaster minimum 1/2 inch (12 mm) in thickness.


C402.4.1.2.3 Building test. The completed building shall be tested and the air leakage rate of the building envelope shall not exceed 0.40 cfm/ft2 at a pressure differential of 0.3 inches water gauge (2.0 L/s m2 at 75 Pa) in accordance with ASTM E 779 or an equivalent method approved by the code official. A report that includes the tested surface area, floor area, air by volume, stories above grade, and leakage rates shall be submitted to the building owner and the Code Official. If the tested rate exceeds that defined here, a visual inspection of the air barrier shall be conducted and any leaks noted shall be sealed to the extent practicable. An additional report identifying the corrective actions taken to seal air leaks shall be submitted to the building owner and the Code Official and any further requirement to meet the leakage air rate will be waived.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40242   Section C402.4.2 -- Air barrier penetrations.  


C402.4.2 Air barrier penetrations. Penetrations of the air barrier and paths of air leakage shall be caulked, gasketed or otherwise sealed in a manner compatible with the construction materials and location. Joints and seals shall be sealed in the same manner or taped or covered with a moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material. Sealing materials shall be appropriate to the construction materials being sealed. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40243   Section C402.4.3 -- Air leakage of fenestration.  


C402.4.3 Air leakage of fenestration. The air leakage of fenestration assemblies shall meet the provisions of Table C402.4.3. Testing shall be in accordance with the applicable reference test standard in Table C402.4.3 by an accredited, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Field-fabricated fenestration assemblies that are sealed in accordance with Section C402.4.1.
2. Fenestration in buildings that comply with Section C402.4.1.2.3 are not required to meet the air leakage requirements in Table C402.4.3.
3. Custom exterior windows and doors manufactured by a small business provided they meet the applicable provisions of Chapter 24 of the International Building Code. Once visual inspection has confirmed the presence of a gasket, operable windows and doors manufactured by small business shall be permitted to be sealed off at the frame prior to the test.

Table C402.4.3

Maximum Air Infiltration Rate

for Fenestration Assemblies


FENESTRATION ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM RATE (CFM/FT2) TEST PROCEDURE
Windows 0.20a AAMA/

WDMA/

Sliding doors 0.20a
Swinging doors 0.20a CSA101/I.S.2

/A440

Skylights - With condensation weepage openings 0.30 or

NFRC 400

Skylights - All other 0.20a
Curtain walls 0.06 NFRC 400 or
Storefront glazing 0.06 ASTM E 283 at
Commercial glazed swinging entrance doors 1.00 1.57 psf

(75 Pa)

Revolving doors 1.00
Garage doors 0.40 ANSI/DASMA 105,

NFRC 400, or

ASTM E 283 at

Rolling doors 1.00 1.57 psf (75 Pa)

For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.
a The maximum rate for windows, sliding and swinging doors, and skylights is permitted to be 0.3 cfm per square foot of fenestration or door area when tested in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 at 6.24 psf (300 Pa).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40244   Section C402.4.4 -- Doors and access openings.  


C402.4.4 Doors and access openings to shafts, chutes, stairways, and elevator lobbies. Doors and access openings from conditioned space to shafts, chutes, stairways and elevator lobbies shall either meet the requirements of Section C402.4.3 or shall be gasketed, weatherstripped or sealed.


EXCEPTION: Door openings required to comply with Section 715 or 715.4 of the International Building Code; or doors and door openings required by the International Building Code to comply with UL 1784 shall not be required to comply with Section C402.4.4.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40245   Section C402.4.5 -- Air intakes, exhaust openings, stairways and shafts.  


C402.4.5 Air intakes, exhaust openings, stairways and shafts. Stairway enclosures and elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be provided with dampers in accordance with Sections C402.4.5.1 and C402.4.5.2.


C402.4.5.1 Stairway and shaft vents. Stairway and shaft vents shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers with a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.

Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall be installed with controls so that they are capable of automatically opening upon:

1. The activation of any fire alarm initiating device of the building's fire alarm system; or

2. The interruption of power to the damper.


C402.4.5.2 Outdoor air intakes and exhausts. Outdoor air supply, exhaust openings and relief outlets shall be provided with Class IA motorized dampers which close automatically when the system is off. Return air dampers shall be equipped with motorized dampers. Dampers shall have a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers having a maximum leakage rate of 20 cfm/ft2 (101.6 L/s m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D are permitted to be used for relief openings in buildings less than three stories in height above grade if equipment has less than 5,000 cfm total supply flow.
2. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers for ventilation air intakes shall be protected from direct exposure to wind.
3. Gravity dampers smaller than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension shall be permitted to have a leakage of 40 cfm/ft2 (203.2 L/s m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.
4. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers in Group R occupancies where the design outdoor air intake or exhaust capacity does not exceed 400 cfm (189 L/s).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40246   Section C402.4.6 -- Loading dock weatherseals.  


C402.4.6 Loading dock weatherseals. Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40247   Section C402.4.7 -- Vestibules.  


C402.4.7 Vestibules. All building entrances shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. The installation of one or more revolving doors in the building entrance shall not eliminate the requirement that a vestibule be provided on any doors adjacent to revolving doors.

Interior and exterior doors shall have a minimum distance between them of not less than 7 feet. The exterior envelope of conditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a conditioned space. Either the interior or exterior envelope of unconditioned vestibules shall comply with the requirements for a conditioned space. The building lobby is not considered a vestibule.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Buildings in Climate Zones 1 and 2.
2. Doors not intended to be used by the public, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms, or intended solely for employee use.
3. Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.
4. Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m2) in area and are separate from the building entrance.
5. Revolving doors.
6. Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.
7. Building entrances in buildings that are less than four stories above grade and less than 10,000 ft2 in area.
8. Elevator doors in parking garages provided that the elevators have an enclosed lobby at each level of the garage.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40248   Section C402.4.8 -- Recessed lighting.  


C402.4.8 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate of not more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40250   Section C402.5 -- Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers.  


C402.5 Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Shall be equipped with automatic door closers that firmly close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch of full closure.


EXCEPTION: Doors wider than 3 feet 9 inches or taller than 7 feet.

2. Doorways shall have strip doors (curtains), spring-hinged doors, or other method of minimizing infiltration when doors are open.

3. Walk-in coolers shall contain wall, ceiling, and door insulation of at least R-25 and walk-in freezers at least R-32.


EXCEPTION: Glazed portions of doors or structural members.

4. Walk-in freezers shall contain floor insulation of at least R-28.

5. Transparent reach-in doors for walk-in freezers and windows in walk-in freezer doors shall be of triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass.

6. Transparent reach-in doors for walk-in coolers and windows in walk-in cooler doors shall be double-pane glass with heat-reflective treated glass and gas filled; or triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40260   Section C402.6 -- Refrigerated warehouse coolers and freezers.  


C402.6 Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Shall be equipped with automatic door closers that firmly close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch of full closure.


EXCEPTION: Doors wider than 3 feet 9 inches or taller than 7 feet.

2. Doorways shall have strip doors (curtains), spring-hinged doors, or other method of minimizing infiltration when doors are open.

3. Refrigerated warehouse coolers shall contain wall, ceiling, and door insulation of at least R-25 and refrigerated warehouse freezers at least R-32.


EXCEPTION: Glazed portions of doors or structural members.

4. Refrigerated warehouse freezers shall contain floor insulation of at least R-28.

5. Transparent reach-in doors for refrigerated warehouse freezers and windows in refrigerated warehouse freezer doors shall be of triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass.

6. Transparent reach-in doors for refrigerated warehouse coolers and windows in refrigerated warehouse cooler doors shall be double-pane glass with heat-reflective treated glass and gas filled; or triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass.

[]

OTS-4948.4


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40300   Section C403 -- Mechanical systems.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40310   Section C403.1 -- General.  


C403.1 General. Mechanical systems and equipment serving heating, cooling, ventilating, and other needs shall comply with Section C403.2 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

1. Section C403.3 (Simple systems); or

2. Section C403.4 (Complex systems).


EXCEPTION: Energy using equipment used by a manufacturing, industrial or commercial process other than for conditioning spaces or maintaining comfort and amenities for the occupants and not otherwise regulated by C403.2.3, Tables C403.2.1 (1) through (9) inclusive, C403.2.4.5, C403.2.5.4, C403.2.8, C403.2.13, C403.4.6, C403.5, C403.6, C404.2, or Table C404.2. Data center HVAC equipment is not covered by this exception.

Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with Section C403.5. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with Section C403.6.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40320   Section C403.2 -- Provisions applicable to all mechanical systems.  


C403.2 Provisions applicable to all mechanical systems (Mandatory). Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Sections C403.2.1 through C403.2.11.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40321   Section C403.2.1 -- Calculation of heating and cooling loads.  


C403.2.1 Calculation of heating and cooling loads. Design loads shall be determined in accordance with the procedures described in ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183. The design loads shall account for the building envelope, lighting, ventilation and occupancy loads based on the project design. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved where energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook. Alternatively, design loads shall be determined by an approved equivalent computation procedure, using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40322   Section C403.2.2 -- Equipment and systems sizing.  


C403.2.2 Equipment and system sizing. The output capacity of heating and cooling equipment and systems shall not exceed the loads calculated in accordance with Section C403.2.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling shall satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.
2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that have the capability to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40323   Section C403.2.3 -- HVAC equipment performance requirements.  


C403.2.3 HVAC equipment performance requirements. Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C403.2.3(1), C403.2.3(2), C403.2.3(3), C403.2.3(4), C403.2.3(5), C403.2.3(6), C403.2.3(7) and C403.2.3(8) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. Plate-type liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers shall meet the minimum requirements of Table C403.2.3(9). The efficiency shall be verified through certification and listed under an approved certification program or, if no certification program exists, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

Gas-fired and oil-fired forced air furnaces with input ratings ≥ 225,000 Btu/h (65 kW) and all unit heaters shall also have an intermittent ignition or interrupted device (IID), and have either mechanical draft (including power venting) or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. All furnaces with input ratings ≥ 225,000 Btu/h (65 kW), including electric furnaces, that are not located within the conditioned space shall have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating.

Chilled water plants and buildings with more than 500 tons total capacity shall not have more than 100 tons provided by air-cooled chillers.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where the designer demonstrates that the water quality at the building site fails to meet manufacturer's specifications for the use of water-cooled equipment.
2. Air-cooled chillers with minimum efficiencies at least 10 percent higher than those listed in Table C403.2.3(7).
3. Replacement of existing equipment.

C403.2.3.1 Water-cooled centrifugal chilling packages. Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44F (7C) leaving chilled-water temperature and 85F (29C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full-load kW/ton and NPLV ratings adjusted using Equations C4-3 and C4-4.


Adjusted minimum full-load COP ratings = (Full-load COP from Table 6.8.1C of AHRI Standard 550/590) × Kadj

(Equation C4-3)

Adjusted minimum NPLV rating = (IPLV from Table 6.8.1C of AHRI Standard 550/590) × Kadj

(Equation C4-4)

Where:
Kadj = A × B
A = 0.0000015318 × (LIFT)4 - 0.000202076 × (LIFT)3 + 0.0101800 × (LIFT)2 - 0.264958 × LIFT + 3.930196
B = 0.0027 × Lvg Evap (C) + 0.982
LIFT = LvgCond - LvgEvap
LvgCond = Full-load condenser leaving water temperature (C)
LvgEvap = Full-load leaving evaporator temperature (C)
SI units shall be used in the Kadj equation.

The adjusted full-load and NPLV values shall only be applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full-load design ranges:

1. The leaving evaporator fluid temperature is not less than 36F (2.2C).

2. The leaving condenser fluid temperature is not greater than 115F (46.1C).

3. LIFT is not less than 20F (11.1C) and not greater than 80F (44.4C).


EXCEPTION: Centrifugal chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges need not comply with this code.

C403.2.3.2 Positive displacement (air- and water-cooled) chilling packages. Equipment with a leaving fluid temperature higher than 32F (0C), shall meet the requirements of Table C403.2.3(7) when tested or certified with water at standard rating conditions, in accordance with the referenced test procedure.


C403.2.3.3 Packaged electric heating and cooling equipment. Packaged electric equipment providing both heating and cooling with a total cooling capacity greater than 20,000 Btu/h shall be a heat pump.


EXCEPTION: Unstaffed equipment shelters or cabinets used solely for personal wireless service facilities.

C403.2.3.4 Humidification. If an air economizer is required on a cooling system for which humidification equipment is to be provided to maintain minimum indoor humidity levels, then the humidifier shall be of the adiabatic type (direct evaporative media or fog atomization type).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Health care facilities where WAC 246-320-525 allows only steam injection humidifiers in duct work downstream of final filters.
2. Systems with water economizer.
3. 100% outside air systems with no provisions for air recirculation to the central supply fan.
4. Nonadiabatic humidifiers cumulatively serving no more than 10% of a building's air economizer capacity as measured in cfm. This refers to the system cfm serving rooms with stand alone or duct mounted humidifiers.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403231   Table C403.2.3(1) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Electrically operated unitary air conditioners and condensing units.  


Table C403.2.3(1)A

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Electrically Operated Unitary Air Conditioners and Condensing Units


Minimum Efficiency
Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section Type Subcategory or Rating Condition Before 6/1/2011 As of 6/1/2011 Test Procedurea
Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 13.0 SEER 13.0 SEER
Single Package 13.0 SEER 13.0 SEER
Through-the-wall (air cooled) ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split System 12.0 SEER 12.0 SEER AHRI 210/240
Single Package 12.0 SEER 12.0 SEER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.2 EER

11.4 IEER

11.2 EER

11.4 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

Air conditioners, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

11.0 IEER

10.8 EER

11.0 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h and

< 760,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 10.0 EER

10.1 IEER

10.0 EER

10.1 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 9.8 EER

9.9 IEER

9.8 EER

9.9 IEER

≥760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 9.7 EER

9.8 IEER

9.7 EER

9.8 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 9.5 EER

9.6 IEER

9.5 EER

9.6 IEER

< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

AHRI 210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.5 EER

11.7 IEER

12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 11.3 EER

11.5 IEER

11.9 EER

12.1 IEER

Air conditioners, water cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

12.5 EER

12.7 IEER

AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

11.0 IEER

12.3 EER

12.5 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h and

< 760,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.1 IEER

12.4 EER

12.6 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

10.9 IEER

12.2 EER

12.4 IEER

≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.1 IEER

12.2 EER

12.4 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

10.9 IEER

12.0 EER

12.2 IEER

< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

AHRI 210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.5 EER

11.7 IEER

12.1 EER

12.3 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 11.3 EER

11.5 IEER

11.9 EER

12.1 IEER

Air conditioners, evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

12.0 EER

12.2 IEER

AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

11.0 IEER

11.8 EER

12.0 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h and

< 760,000 Btu/h

Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.1 IEER

11.9 EER

12.1 IEER

All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

10.9 IEER

12.2 EER

11.9 IEER

≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.1 EER

11.7 EER

11.9 EER

All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

10.9 EER

11.5 EER

11.7 EER

Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER

11.4 IEER

10.5 EER

11.8 IEER

Condensing units, water cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER

13.6 IEER

13.5 EER

14.0 IEER

AHRI 365
Condensing units, evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER

13.6 IEER

13.5 EER

14.0 IEER


For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
aChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
bSingle-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.


Table C403.2.3(1)B

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Air Conditioners and Condensing Units Serving Computer Rooms


Equipment Type Net Sensible Cooling Capacitya Minimum Scop-127b Efficiency Downflow Units/upflow Units Test Procedure
Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/h (< 19 kW) 2.20/2.09 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 19 kW and < 70 kW) 2.10/1.99
≥ 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 70 kW) 1.90/1.79
Air conditioners, water cooled < 65,000 Btu/h (< 19 kW) 2.60/2.49 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 19 kW and < 70 kW) 2.50/2.39
≥ 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 70 kW) 2.40/2.29
Air conditioners, water cooled with fluid economizer < 65,000 Btu/h (< 19 kW) 2.55/2.44 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 19 kW and < 70 kW) 2.45/2.34
≥ 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 70 kW) 2.35/2.24
Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol) < 65,000 Btu/h (< 19 kW) 2.50/2.39 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 19 kW and < 70 kW) 2.15/2.04
≥ 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 70 kW) 2.10/1.99
Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol) with fluid economizer < 65,000 Btu/h (< 19 kW) 2.45/2.34 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 19 kW and < 70 kW) 2.10/1.99
≥ 240,000 Btu/h (≥ 70 kW) 2.05/1.94

aNet sensible cooling capacity: The total gross cooling capacity less the latent cooling less the energy to the air movement system (Total Gross - Latent - Fan Power).
b Sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP-127): A ratio calculated by dividing the net sensible cooling capacity in watts by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters and humidifiers) at conditions defined in ASHRAE Standard 127. The net sensible cooling capacity is the gross sensible capacity minus the energy dissipated into the cooled space by the fan system.

Table C403.2.3(1)C

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Electrically Operated Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioners


Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section Type Subcategory or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
VRF Air Conditioners,

Air Cooled

< 65,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System 13.0 SEER AHRI 1230
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric

Resistance (or none)

VRF Multi-Split System 11.2 EER

13.1 IEER

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric

Resistance (or none)

VRF Multi-Split System 11.0 EER

12.9 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric

Resistance (or none)

VRF Multi-split System 10.0 EER

11.6 IEER


Table C403.2.3(1)D

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Electrically Operated Variable Refrigerant Flow Air-to-Air and Applied Heat Pumps


Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section Type Subcategory or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
VRF Air Cooled (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System 13.0 SEER AHRI 1230
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none)

VRF Multi-Split System 11.0 EER

12.9 IEER

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none)

VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery 10.8 EER

12.7 IEER

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none) VRF Multi-Split System 10.6 EER

12.3 IEER

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none) VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery 10.4 EER

12.1 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none) VRF Multi-Split System 9.5 EER

11.0 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or none) VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery 9.3 EER

10.8 IEER

VRF Water Source

(cooling mode)

< 65,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

86F entering water

12.0 EER AHRI 1230
< 65,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

86F entering water

11.8 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

86F entering water

12.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

86F entering water

11.8 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

86F entering water

10.0 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

86F entering water

9.8 EER
VRF Groundwater Source (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

59F entering water

16.2 EER AHRI 1230
< 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

59F entering water

16.0 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

59F entering water

13.8 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

59F entering water

13.6 EER
VRF Ground Source (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

77F entering water

13.4 EER AHRI 1230
< 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

77F entering water

13.2 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System

77F entering water

11.0 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h All VRF Multi-Split System with Heat Recovery

77F entering water

10.8 EER
VRF Air Cooled (heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/h

(cooling capacity)

-- VRF Multi-Split System 7.7 HSPF AHRI 1230
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) -- VRF Multi-Split System

47F db/43F wb outdoor air

17F db/15F wb outdoor air

3.3 COP

2.25 COP

≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) -- VRF Multi-Split System

47F db/43F wb outdoor air

17F db/15F wb outdoor air

3.2 COP

2.05 COP

VRF Water Source

(heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(cooling capacity)

-- VRF Multi-Split System

68F entering water

4.2 COP AHRI 1230
≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) -- VRF Multi-Split System

68F entering water

3.9 COP
VRF Groundwater Source

(heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(cooling capacity)

-- VRF Multi-Split System

50F entering water

3.6 COP AHRI 1230
≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) -- VRF Multi-Split System

50F entering water

3.3 COP
VRF Ground Source

(heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(cooling capacity)

-- VRF Multi-Split System

32F entering water

3.1 COP AHRI 1230
≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) -- VRF Multi-Split System

32F entering water

2.8 COP

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11-403232   Table C403.2.3(2) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Electrically operated unitary and applied heat pumps.  


Table C403.2.3(2)

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Electrically Operated Unitary and Applied Heat Pumps


Equipment Type Size Category Heating Section Type Subcategory or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiency Test Procedurea
Air cooled (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 13.0 SEER AHRI 210/240
Single Packaged 13.0 SEER
Through-the-wall, air cooled (cooling mode) ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split System 12.0 SEER
Single Packaged 12.0 SEER
Air cooled (cooling mode) ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER

11.2 IEER

AHRI 340/360
All Other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER

11.0 IEER

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 10.6 EER

10.7 IEER

All Other Split System and Single Package 10.4 EER

10.5 IEER

≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 9.5 EER

9.6 IEER

All Other Split System and Single Package 9.3 EER

9.4 IEER

Water source (cooling mode) < 17,000 Btu/h All 86F entering water 11.2 EER ISO 13256-1
≥ 17,000 Btu/h and < 65,000 Btu/h All 86F entering water 12.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h All 86F entering water 12.0 EER
Ground water source (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All 59F entering water 16.2 EER
Ground water source (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All 77F entering water 13.4 EER
Water-source water to water (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All 86F entering water 10.6 EER ISO 13256-2
59F entering water 16.3 EER
Ground water source brine to water (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All 77F entering fluid 12.1 EER
Air cooled (heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 7.7 HSPF AHRI 210/240
Single Package 7.7 HSPF
Through-the-wall, (air cooled, heating mode) ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb (cooling capacity) Split System 7.4 HSPF
Single Package 7.4 HSPF
Small-duct high velocity (air cooled, heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 6.8 HSPF
Air cooled

(heating mode)

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 47F db/43F wb Outdoor Air 3.3 COP AHRI 340/360
17F db/15F wb Outdoor Air 2.25 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 47F db/43F wb Outdoor Air 3.2 COP
17F db/15F wb Outdoor Air 2.05 COP
Water source (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 68F entering water 4.2 COP ISO 13256-1
Ground water source (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 50F entering water 3.6 COP
Ground source (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 32F entering fluid 3.1 COP
Water-source water to water (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 68F entering water 3.7 COP ISO 13256-2
50F entering water 3.1 COP
Ground source brine to water (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) 32F entering fluid 2.5 COP

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, C = [(F) - 32]/1.8.
aChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
bSingle-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403233   Table C403.2.3(3) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Electrically operated PTAC, PTHP, SPVAC, SPVHP, room air conditioners.  


Table C403.2.3(3) Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Electrically Operated Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners, Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Single-Package Vertical Air Conditioners, Single-Package Vertical Heat Pumps, Room Air Conditioners and Room Air-Conditioner Heat Pumps

Minimum Efficiency
Equipment Type Size Category (Input) Subcategory or Rating Condition Before 10/08/2012 As of 10/08/2012 Test Procedurea
PTAC (cooling mode) new construction All Capacities 95F db outdoor air 12.5 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 13.8 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER AHRI 310/380
PTAC (cooling mode) replacementsb All Capacities 95F db outdoor air 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode) new construction All Capacities 95F db outdoor air 12.3 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 14.0 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode) replacementsb All Capacities 95F db outdoor air 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (heating mode) new construction All Capacities 3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP 3.7 - (0.052 × Cap/1000) COP
PTHP (heating mode) replacementsb All Capacities 2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP 2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
SPVAC (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER 9.0 EER AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER 8.6 EER
SPVHP (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER 9.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 95F db/75F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER 8.6 EER
SPVHP (heating mode) <65,000 Btu/h 47F db/43F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP 3.0 COP AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 47F db/43F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP 3.0 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 47F db/43F wb outdoor air 2.9 COP 2.9 COP
Room air conditioners, with louvered sides < 6,000 Btu/h 9.7 SEER 9.7 SEER ANSI/AHA-MRAC-1
≥ 6,000 Btu/h and < 8,000 Btu/h 9.7 EER 9.7 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 14,000 Btu/h 9.8 EER 9.8 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h 9.7 SEER 9.7 SEER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 8.5 EER
Room air conditioners, without louvered sides < 8,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER 9.0 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 8.5 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 8.5 EER
Room air-conditioner heat pumps with louvered sides < 20,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER 9.0 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 8.5 EER
Room air-conditioner heat pumps without louvered sides < 14,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 8.5 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h 8.0 EER 8.0 EER
Room air conditioner casement only All capacities 8.7 EER 8.7 EER
Room air conditioner casement-slider All capacities 9.5 EER 9.5 EER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, C = [(F) - 32]/1.8.
"Cap" = The rated cooling capacity of the product in Btu/h. If the unit's capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. If the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculations.
aChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
bReplacement unit shall be factory labeled as follows: "MANUFACTURED FOR NONSTANDARD SIZE APPLICATIONS ONLY; NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW STANDARD PROJECTS" or "MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS." Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) in height and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in width.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403234   Table C403.2.3(4) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Warm air furnaces and unit heaters.  


Table 403.2.3(4)

Warm Air Furnaces and Combination Warm Air Furnaces/Air-Conditioning Units, Warm Air Duct Furnaces and Unit Heaters, Minimum Efficiency Requirements


Equipment Type Size Category (Input) Subcategory or Rating Condition Minimum Efficiencyd, e Test Procedurea
Warm air furnaces, gas fired < 225,000 Btu/h -- 78% AFUE or 80% Etc DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430 or ANSI Z21.47
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityc 80% Etf ANSI Z21.47
Warm air furnaces, oil fired < 225,000 Btu/h -- 78% AFUE or 80% Etc DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430 or UL 727
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityb 81% Etg UL 727
Warm air duct furnaces, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80% Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80% Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, oil fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80% Ec UL 731

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
aChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
bMinimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
cCombination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating.
d Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.
e Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.
f Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
g Et = Thermal efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403235   Table C403.2.3(5) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Gas- and oil-fired boilers.  


Table C403.2.3(5)

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers


Equipment Typea Subcategory or Rating Condition Size Category (Input) Minimum Efficiency Test Procedure
Boilers, hot water Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb

80% Et 10 C.F.R. Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 82% Ec
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb

82% Et 10 C.F.R. Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 84% Ec
Boilers, steam Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/h 75% AFUE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
Gas-fired - All, except natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb

79% Et 10 C.F.R. Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 79% Et
Gas-fired-natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb

77% Et
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 77% Et
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb

81% Et 10 C.F.R. Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 81% Et

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses).
Et = Thermal efficiency. See referenced standard document for detailed information.
aThese requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.
bMaximum capacity minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
cIncludes oil-fired (residual).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403236   Table C403.2.3(6) -- Reserved.  


Table C403.2.3(6)

Reserved

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403237   Table C403.2.3(7) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Water chilling packages.  


Table C403.2.3(7)

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Water Chilling Packagesa


As of 1/1/2010b
Before 1/1/2010 Path A Path B
Equipment Type Size Category Units Full Load IPLV Full Load IPLV Full Load IPLV Test Procedurec
Air cooled chillers < 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥10.416 ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.500 NA NA AHRI 550/590
≥ 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.750 NA NA
Air cooled without condenser, electrical operated All capacities EER ≥ 10.586 ≥ 11.782 Air cooled chillers without condensers shall be rated with matching condensers and comply with the air cooled chiller efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, reciprocating All capacities kW/ton ≤ 0.837 ≤ 0.696 Reciprocating units shall comply with water cooled positive displacement efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, positive displacement < 75 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.790 ≤ 0.676 ≤ 0.780 ≤ 0.630 ≤ 0.800 ≤ 0.600
≥75 tons and

< 150 tons

kW/ton ≤ 0.775 ≤ 0.615 ≤ 0.790 ≤ 0.586
≥ 150 tons and

< 300 tons

kW/ton ≤ 0.717 ≤ 0.627 ≤ 0.680 ≤ 0.580 ≤ 0.718 ≤ 0.540
≥ 300 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.571 ≤ 0.620 ≤ 0.540 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.490
Water cooled, electrically operated, centrifugal < 150 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.703 ≤ 0.669 ≤ 0.634 ≤ 0.596 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.450
≥ 150 tons and

< 300 tons

kW/ton ≤ 0.634 ≤ 0.596
≥ 300 tons and

< 600 tons

kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.600 ≤ 0.400
≥600 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.570 ≤ 0.539 ≤ 0.590 ≤ 0.400
Air cooled, absorption single effect All capacities COP ≥ 0.600 NR ≥ 0.600 NR NA NA AHRI 560
Water cooled, absorption single effect All capacities COP ≥ 0.700 NR ≥ 0.700 NR NA NA
Absorption double effect, indirect fired All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.050 ≥1.000 ≥ 1.050 NA NA
Absorption double effect, direct fired All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 NA NA

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 W, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, C = [(F) - 32]/1.8.
NA = Not applicable, not to be used for compliance;
NR = No requirement.
a The centrifugal chiller equipment requirements, after adjustment in accordance with Section C403.2.3.1 or Section C403.2.3.2, do not apply to chillers used in low-temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is less than 36F. The requirements do not apply to positive displacement chillers with leaving fluid temperatures less than or equal to 32F. The requirements do not apply to absorption chillers with design leaving fluid temperatures less than 40F.
b Compliance with this standard can be obtained by meeting the minimum requirements of Path A or B. However, both the full load and IPLV shall be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A or B.
c Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403238   Table C403.2.3(8) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Heat rejection equipment.  


Table C403.2.3(8)

Minimum Efficiency Requirements -- Heat Rejection Equipment


Equipment Typea Total System Heat Rejection Capacity at Rated Conditions Subcategory or Rating Condition Performance Requiredb, c, d Test Proceduree, f
Propeller or axial fan open circuit cooling towers All 95F Entering Water

85F Leaving Water

75F Entering wb

≥ 38.2 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201
Centrifugal fan open circuit cooling towers All 95F Entering Water

85F Leaving Water

75F Entering wb

≥ 20.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201
Propeller or axial fan closed circuit cooling towers All 102F Entering Water

90F Leaving Water

75F Entering wb

≥ 14.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201
Centrifugal closed circuit cooling towers All 102F Entering Water

90F Leaving Water

75F Entering wb

≥ 7.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201
Air cooled condensers All 125F Condensing Temperature

R-22 Test Fluid

190F Entering Gas Temperature

15F Subcooling

95F Entering db

≥ 176,000

Btu/h hp

AHRI 460

For SI: C = [(F) - 32]/1.8, L/s kW = (gpm/hp)/(11.83), COP = (Btu/h hp)/(2550.7).
db = dry bulb temperature, F;
wb = wet bulb temperature, F.
a The efficiencies and test procedures for both open and closed circuit cooling towers are not applicable to hybrid cooling towers that contain a combination of wet and dry heat exchange sections.
b For purposes of this table, open circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.
c For purposes of this table, closed circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the sum of the fan nameplate rated motor power and the spray pump nameplate rated motor power.
dFor purposes of this table, air cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.
eChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
fIf a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program, or, if a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, but the product is not listed in the existing certification program, the ratings shall be verified by an independent laboratory test report.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403239   Table C403.2.3(9) -- Minimum efficiency requirements -- Heat transfer equipment.  

Table C403.2.3(9)

Heat Transfer Equipment



Equipment Type Subcategory Minimum

Efficiency

Test

Procedurea

Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers Plate type NR AHRI 400

NR = No requirement.
aChapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40324   Section C403.2.4 -- HVAC system controls.  


C403.2.4 HVAC system controls. Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with thermostatic controls as specified in Section C403.2.4.1, C403.2.4.2, C403.2.4.3, C403.2.4.4, C403.4.1, C403.4.2, C403.4.3, C403.4.4, C403.4.5, C403.4.6, C403.4.7, C403.4.8, C403.4.9, or C403.4.10.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403241   Section C403.2.4.1 -- Thermostatic controls.  


C403.2.4.1 Thermostatic controls. The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. At a minimum, each floor of a building shall be considered as a separate zone. Controls on systems required to have economizers and serving single zones shall have multiple cooling stage capability and activate the economizer when appropriate as the first stage of cooling. See Section C403.3.1 or C403.4.1 for further economizer requirements. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, at least one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.


EXCEPTION: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses or gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided:
1. The perimeter system includes at least one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within +/-45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15,240 mm); and
2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by a thermostat located within the zones served by the system.

C403.2.4.1.1 Heat pump supplementary heat. Unitary air cooled heat pumps shall include microprocessor controls that minimize supplemental heat usage during start-up, set-up, and defrost conditions. These controls shall anticipate need for heat and use compression heating as the first stage of heat. Controls shall indicate when supplemental heating is being used through visual means (e.g., LED indicators). Heat pumps equipped with supplementary heaters shall be installed with controls that prevent supplemental heater operation above 40F.


EXCEPTION: Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs) of less than 2 tons (24,000 Btu/hr) cooling capacity provided with controls that prevent supplementary heater operation above 40F.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403242   Section C403.2.4.2 -- Setpoint overlap restriction.  


C403.2.4.2 Setpoint overlap restriction. Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall provide a temperature range or deadband of at least 5F (2.8C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is capable of being shut off or reduced to a minimum.


EXCEPTION: Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403243   Section C403.2.4.3 -- Off-hour controls.  


C403.2.4.3 Off-hour controls. For all occupancies other than Group R, each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Zones that will be operated continuously.
2. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.

C403.2.4.3.1 Thermostatic setback capabilities. Thermostatic setback controls shall have the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55F (13C) or up to 85F (29C).


C403.2.4.3.2 Automatic setback and shutdown capabilities. Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for at least 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer capable of being adjusted to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.


C403.2.4.3.3 Automatic start capabilities. Automatic start controls shall be provided for each HVAC system. The controls shall be capable of automatically adjusting the daily start time of the HVAC system in order to bring each space to the desired occupied temperature immediately prior to scheduled occupancy.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403244   Section C403.2.4.4 -- Shutoff damper controls.  


C403.2.4.4 Shutoff damper controls. Both outdoor air supply and exhaust ducts shall be equipped with motorized dampers that will automatically shut when the systems or spaces served are not in use or during building warm-up, cooldown, and setback.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Gravity relief dampers serving systems less than 5,000 cfm total supply shall be permitted in buildings less than three stories in height.
2. Gravity dampers shall be permitted for buildings of any height located in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3.
3. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers in Group R occupancies where the design outdoor air intake or exhaust capacity does not exceed 400 cfm (189 L/s).
4. Systems serving areas which require continuous operation.
5. Combustion air intakes.
6. Operation of dampers shall be allowed during ventilation prepurge one hour before expected occupancy and for unoccupied period precooling during the cooling season.
7. Dampers are not required in systems where specifically prohibited by the International Mechanical Code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403245   Section C403.2.4.5 -- Snowmelt system controls.  


C403.2.4.5 Snow melt system controls. Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50F (10C) and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40F (4C) so that the potential for snow or ice accumulation is negligible.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403246   Section C403.2.4.6 -- Combustion heating equipment controls.  


C403.2.4.6 Combustion heating equipment controls. Combustion heating equipment with a capacity over 225,000 Btu/h shall have modulating or staged combustion control.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Boilers.
2. Radiant heaters.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403247   Section C403.2.4.7 -- Hotel/motel controls.  


C403.2.4.7 Group R-1 hotel/motel guest rooms. For hotel and motel guest rooms, a minimum of one of the following control technologies shall be required in hotels/motels with over 50 guest rooms such that the space temperature would automatically setback (winter) or set up (summer) by no less than 5F (3C) or hotel and motel guest rooms, a minimum of:

1. Controls that are activated by the room occupant via the primary room access method - Key, card, deadbolt, etc.

2. Occupancy sensor controls that are activated by the occupant's presence in the room.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403248   Section C403.2.4.8 -- Residential occupancy controls.  


C403.2.4.8 Group R-2 and R-3 dwelling units. The primary space conditioning system within each dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one programmable thermostat for the regulation of space temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable schedule (weekdays/weekends) and be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day.

Each additional system provided within the dwelling unit shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems controlled by an occupant sensor that is capable of shutting the system off when no occupant is sensed for a period of up to 30 minutes.
2. Systems controlled solely by a manually operated timer capable of operating the system for no more than two hours.
3. Ductless heat pumps.

Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows: When used to control heating only: 55F to 75F; when used to control cooling only: 70F to 85F.


C403.2.4.9 Group R-2 sleeping units. The primary space conditioning system within each sleeping unit shall be provided with at least one programmable thermostat for the regulation of space temperature. The thermostat shall allow for, at a minimum, a 5-2 programmable schedule (weekdays/weekends) and be capable of providing at least two programmable setback periods per day.

Each additional system provided within the sleeping unit shall be provided with at least one adjustable thermostat for the regulation of temperature.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems controlled by an occupant sensor that is capable of shutting the system off when no occupant is sensed for a period of up to 30 minutes.
2. Systems controlled solely by a manually operated timer capable of operating the system for no more than two hours.
3. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 3,400 Btu/h (1 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.
4. Ductless heat pumps.

Each thermostat shall be capable of being set by adjustment or selection of sensors as follows: When used to control heating only: 55F to 75F; when used to control cooling only: 70F to 85F.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403249   Section C403.2.4.9 -- Direct digital control system capabilities.  


C403.2.4.10 Direct digital control system capabilities. All complex systems equipped with direct digital control (DDC) systems and all buildings with total cooling capacity exceeding 780,000 Btu/h (2,662 kW) shall have the following capability:

1. Trending: All control system input and output points shall be accessible and programmed for trending, and a graphic trending package shall be provided with the control system.

2. Demand Response Setpoint Adjustment: Control logic shall increase the cooling zone set points by at least 2F (1C) and reduce the heating zone set points by at least 2F (1C) when activated by a demand response signal. The demand response signal shall be a binary input to the control system or other interface approved by the serving electric utility.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40325   Section C403.2.5 -- Ventilation.  


C403.2.5 Ventilation. Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403251   Section C403.2.5.1 -- Demand control ventilation.  


C403.2.5.1 Demand controlled ventilation. Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for spaces larger than 500 square feet (50 m2) and with an occupant load greater than 25 people per 1000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3 of the International Mechanical Code) and served by systems with one or more of the following:

1. An air-side economizer;

2. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper; or

3. A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1400 L/s).


EXCEPTION: Demand control ventilation is not required for systems and spaces as follows:
1. Systems with energy recovery complying with Section C403.2.6.
2. Multiple-zone systems without direct digital control of individual zones communicating with a central control panel.
3. System with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,000 cfm (472 L/s).
4. Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (600 L/s).
5. Ventilation provided for process loads only.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403252   Section C403.2.5.2 -- Occupancy sensors.  


C403.2.5.2 Occupancy sensors. Classrooms, gyms, auditoriums and conference rooms larger than 500 square feet of floor area shall have occupancy sensor control that will either close outside air dampers or turn off serving equipment when the space is unoccupied except where equipped with another means to automatically reduce outside air intake below design rates when spaces are partially occupied.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403253   Section C403.2.5.3 -- Loading dock and parking garage ventilation system controls.  


C403.2.5.3 Enclosed loading dock and parking garage exhaust ventilation system control. Mechanical ventilation systems for enclosed loading docks and parking garages shall be designed to exhaust the airflow rates (maximum and minimum) determined in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

Ventilation systems shall be equipped with a control device that operates the system automatically upon detection of vehicle operation or the presence of occupants by approved automatic detection devices. Each of the following types of controllers shall be capable of shutting off fans or modulating fan speed. Control devices shall not reduce airflow rates below the minimum requirement in accordance with the International Mechanical Code during scheduled periods of occupied operation.

1. Gas sensor controllers used to activate the exhaust ventilation system shall stage or modulate fan speed upon detection of specified gas levels. All equipment used in sensor controlled systems shall be designed for the specific use and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The system shall be arranged to operate automatically by means of carbon monoxide detectors applied in conjunction with nitrogen dioxide detectors. Garages and loading docks shall be equipped with a controller and a full array of carbon monoxide (CO) sensors set to maintain levels of carbon monoxide below 35 parts per million (ppm). Additionally, a full array of nitrogen dioxide detectors shall be connected to the controller set to maintain the nitrogen dioxide level below the OSHA standard for eight hour exposure. Spacing and location of the sensors shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer recommendations.

2. Occupant detection sensors used to activate the system shall detect entry into the parking garage along both the vehicle and pedestrian pathways.


C403.2.5.3.1 System activation devices for enclosed loading docks. Ventilation systems for enclosed loading docks shall be activated by one of the following:

1. Gas sensors installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code; or

2. Occupant detection sensors used to activate the system that detects entry into the loading area along both the vehicle and pedestrian pathways.


C403.2.5.3.2 System activation devices for enclosed parking garages. Ventilation systems for enclosed parking garages shall be activated by gas sensors.


EXCEPTION: A parking garage ventilation system having a total design capacity under 8,000 cfm may use occupant sensors.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403254   Section C403.2.5.4 -- Exhaust systems.  


C403.2.5.4 Exhaust systems.


C403.2.5.4.1 Kitchen hoods. Each kitchen area with total exhaust capacity larger than 2,000 cfm shall be provided with make-up air sized so that at least 50% of exhaust air volume be (a) unheated or heated to no more than 60F and (b) uncooled or cooled without the use of mechanical cooling.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where hoods are used to exhaust ventilation air which would otherwise exfiltrate or be exhausted by other fan systems. A detailed accounting of exhaust airflows shall be provided on the plans that accounts for the impact of any required demand controlled ventilation.
2. Certified grease extractor hoods that require a face velocity no greater than 60 fpm.

C403.2.5.4.2 Laboratory exhaust systems. Buildings with laboratory exhaust systems having a total exhaust rate greater than 5,000 cfm (2,360 L/s) shall include heat recovery systems to preconditioned makeup air from laboratory exhaust. The heat recovery system shall be capable of increasing the outside air supply temperature at design heating conditions by 25F (13.9C) in Climate Zones 4C/5B and 35F (19.4C) in Climate Zone 6B. A provision shall be made to bypass or control the heat recovery system to permit air economizer operation as required by Section C403.4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Variable air volume laboratory exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and make-up air volume to 50% or less of design values; or
2. Direct make-up (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75% of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2F (1.1C) below room set point, cooled to no cooler than 3F (1.7C) above room set point, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control; or
3. Combined Energy Reduction Method: VAV exhaust and room supply system capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volumes and a heat recovery system to precondition makeup air from laboratory exhaust that when combined will produce the same energy reduction as achieved by a heat recovery system with a 50% sensible recovery effectiveness as required above. For calculation purposes, the heat recovery component can be assumed to include the maximum design supply airflow rate at design conditions. The combined energy reduction (QER) shall meet the following:

QER QMIN
QMIN = CFMS (TR - TO) 1.1 0.6
QER = CFMS (TR - TO) 1.1(A + B)/100
Where:
QMIN = Energy recovery at 60% sensible effectiveness (Btu/h)
QER = Combined energy reduction (Btu/h)
CFMS = The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute
TR = Space return air dry bulb at winter design conditions
TO = Outdoor air dry bulb at winter design conditions
A = Percentage that the exhaust and makeup air volumes can be reduced from design conditions
B = Percentage sensible heat recovery effectiveness

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40326   Section C403.2.6 -- Energy recovery.  


C403.2.6 Energy recovery.


C403.2.6.1 Energy recovery ventilation systems. Any system with minimum outside air requirements at design conditions greater than 5,000 CFM or any system required by Table C403.2.6 shall include an energy recovery system. The energy recovery system shall have the capability to provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of not less than 50 percent of the difference between the outdoor air and return air enthalpies, at design conditions. Where an air economizer is required, the energy recovery system shall include a bypass or controls which permit operation of the economizer as required by Section C403.4. Where a single room or space is supplied by multiple units, the aggregate ventilation (cfm) of those units shall be used in applying this requirement.


EXCEPTION: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:
1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the International Mechanical Code.
2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include at least one of the following features:
2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.
2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2F (1.1C) above room setpoint, cooled to no cooler than 3F (1.7C) below room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.
3. Systems serving spaces that are heated to less than 60F (15.5C) and are not cooled.
4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site solar energy.
5. Heating energy recovery in Climate Zones 1 and 2.
6. Cooling energy recovery in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7 and 8.
7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil.
8. Multi-zone systems with cold deck supply air and zone reheat where the minimum outdoor air is less than 70 percent of total supply air.
9. Systems serving residential multifamily spaces where the largest source of air exhausted at a single location at the building exterior is less than 25 percent of the design outdoor air flow rate.

C403.2.6.2 Condensate systems. On-site steam heating systems shall have condensate water heat recovery. On-site includes a system that is located within or adjacent to one or more buildings within the boundary of a contiguous area or campus under one ownership and which serves one or more of those buildings.

Buildings using steam generated off-site with steam heating systems which do not have condensate water recovery shall have condensate water recovery.


C403.2.6.3 Condenser heat recovery. Facilities having food service, meat or deli departments and having 500,000 Btu/h or greater of remote refrigeration condensers shall have condenser waste heat recovery from freezers and coolers and shall use the waste heat for service water heating, space heating or for dehumidification reheat. Facilities having a gross conditioned floor area of 40,000 ft2 or greater and 1,000,000 Btu/h or greater of remote refrigeration shall have condenser waste heat recovery from freezers and coolers and shall use the waste heat for service water heating, and either for space heating or for dehumidification reheat for maintaining low space humidity.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403261   Table C403.2.6 -- Energy recovery requirement.  


Table C403.2.6

Energy Recovery Requirement


Percent (%) Outdoor Air at Full Design Airflow Rate
Climate Zone ≥ 30% and < 40% ≥ 40% and < 50% ≥ 50% and < 60% ≥ 60% and < 70% ≥ 70% and < 80% ≥ 80%
Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm)
3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B NR NR NR NR ≥5000 ≥ 5000
1B, 2B, 5C NR NR ≥ 26000 ≥ 12000 ≥ 5000 ≥ 4000
6B ≥ 11000 ≥ 5500 ≥ 4500 ≥ 3500 ≥ 2500 ≥ 1500
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A ≥ 5500 ≥ 4500 ≥ 3500 ≥ 2000 ≥ 1000 > 0
7, 8 ≥ 2500 ≥ 1000 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0

NR = Not required.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40327   Section C403.2.7 -- Duct and plenum insulation and sealing.  


C403.2.7 Duct and plenum insulation and sealing.


C403.2.7.1 Ducts, shafts and plenums conveying outside air from the exterior of the building to the mechanical system shall meet all air leakage and building envelope insulation requirements of Section C402, plus building envelope vapor control requirements from the International Building Code, extending continuously from the building exterior to an automatic shutoff damper or heating or cooling equipment. For the purposes of building envelope insulation requirements, duct surfaces shall meet the requirements for metal framed walls per Table C402.1.2. Duct surfaces included as part of the building envelope shall not be used in the calculation of maximum glazing area as described in Section 402.3.1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Outside air ducts serving individual supply air units with less than 2,800 cfm of total supply air capacity, provided these are insulated to R-7.
2. Unheated equipment rooms with combustion air louvers, provided they are isolated from conditioned space at sides, top and bottom of the room with R-11 nominal insulation.

C403.2.7.2 All other supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with a minimum of R-6 insulation where located in unconditioned spaces and a minimum of R-8 insulation where located outside the building. Where located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by minimum insulation value as required for exterior walls by Section C402.2.3.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where located within equipment.
2. Where the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum does not exceed 15F (8C).

Supply ducts which convey supply air at temperatures less than 55F or greater than 105F shall be insulated with a minimum of R-3.3 insulation where located within conditioned space.

All ducts, air handlers, and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code.


C403.2.7.3 Duct construction. Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.


C403.2.7.3.1 Low-pressure duct systems. All longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.


EXCEPTION: Continuously welded and locking-type longitudinal joints and seams on ducts operating at static pressures less than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) pressure classification.

C403.2.7.3.2 Medium-pressure duct systems. All ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.7. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.


C403.2.7.3.3 High-pressure duct systems. Ducts designed to operate at static pressures in excess of 3 inches water gauge (w.g.) (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.7. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak-tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 6.0 as determined in accordance with Equation C4-5.


(Equation C4-5)

CL = F/P0.65
Where:
F = The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.
P = The static pressure of the test.

Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling at least 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections meet the requirements of this section.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40328   Section C403.2.8 -- Piping insulation.  


C403.2.8 Piping insulation. All piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table C403.2.8.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.
2. Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and 840, respectively.
3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 60F (15C) and 105F (41C).
4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.
5. Strainers, control valves, and balancing valves associated with piping 1 inch (25 mm) or less in diameter.
6. Direct buried piping that conveys fluids at or below 60F (15C).

C403.2.8.1 Protection of piping insulation. Piping insulation exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that due to sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesives tape shall not be permitted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403281   Table C403.2.8 -- Minimum pipe insulation thickness.  


Table C403.2.8

Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness (thickness in inches)a


Fluid Operating Temperature Range and Usage (F) Insulation Conductivity Nominal Pipe or Tube Size (inches)
Conductivity

Btu in. /(h ft2 F)b

Mean

Rating

Temperature, F

< 1 1 to < 1-1/2 1-1/2 to < 4 4 to < 8 ≥ 8
> 350 0.32 - 0.34 250 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
251 - 350 0.29 - 0.32 200 3.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5
201 - 250 0.27 - 0.30 150 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
141 - 200 0.25 - 0.29 125 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0
105 - 140 0.21 - 0.28 100 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
40 - 60 0.21 - 0.27 75 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
< 40 0.20 - 0.26 75 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5

a For piping smaller than 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of these thicknesses by 1 inch (25 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b) but not to a thickness less than 1 inch (25 mm).
bFor insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:

T = r{(1 + t/r)K/k - 1}
Where:
T = Minimum insulation thickness,
r = Actual outside radius of pipe,
t = Insulation thickness listed in the table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size,
K = Conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature (Btu × in/h × ft2 × F) and
k = The upper value of the conductivity range listed in the table for the applicable fluid temperature.

c For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping, reduction of these thicknesses by 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b but not to thicknesses less than 1 inch (25 mm).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40329   Section C403.2.9 -- Mechanical system commissioning and completion requirements.  


C403.2.9 Mechanical systems commissioning and completion requirements. Mechanical systems shall be commissioned and completed in accordance with Section C408.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403291   Section C403.2.10 -- Air system design and control.  


C403.2.10 Air system design and control. Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower (hp) exceeding 5 horsepower (hp) (3.7 kW) shall meet the provisions of Sections C403.2.10.1 through C403.2.10.2.


C403.2.10.1 Allowable fan floor horsepower. Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in Table C403.2.10.1(1). This includes supply fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability. Single zone variable-air-volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation.


EXCEPTION: The following fan systems are exempt from allowable fan floor horsepower requirement.
1. Hospital, vivarium and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust and/or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.
2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp or less.

C403.2.10.2 Motor nameplate horsepower. For each fan, the selected fan motor shall be no larger than the first available motor size greater than the brake horsepower (bhp). The fan brake horsepower (bhp) shall be indicated on the design documents to allow for compliance verification by the code official.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. For fans less than 6 bhp (4413 W), where the first available motor larger than the brake horsepower has a nameplate rating within 50 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.
2. For fans 6 bhp (4413 W) and larger, where the first available motor larger than the bhp has a nameplate rating within 30 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.
3. For fans used only in approved life safety applications such as smoke evacuation.

C403.2.10.3 Fractional hp fan motors. Motors for fans that are 1/12 hp or greater and less than 1 hp shall be electronically commutated motors or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 70 percent when rated in accordance with DOE 10 C.F.R. 431. These motors shall also have the means to adjust motor speed for either balancing or remote control. Belt-driven fans may use sheave adjustments for airflow balancing in lieu of a varying motor speed.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Motors in the airstream within fan-coils and terminal units that operate only when providing heating to the space served.
2. Motors installed in space conditioning equipment certified under Section C403.2.3.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403292   Table C403.2.10.1 -- Fan power limitation.  


Table C403.2.10.1(1)

Fan Power Limitation


Limit Constant Volume Variable Volume
Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hp Allowable nameplate motor hp hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0011 hp ≤ CFMS ×

0.0015

Option 2: Fan system bhp Allowable fan system bhp bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.00094 + A bhp ≤ CFMS× 0.0013 + A

Where:
CFMS = The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute.
hp = The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.
bhp = The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.
A = Sum of [PD × CFMD/4131]
For SI: 1 cfm = 0.471 L/s.
Where:
PD = Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table C403.2.10.1(2) in. w.c.
CFMD = The design airflow through each applicable device from Table C403.2.10.1(2) in cubic feet per minute.
For SI: 1 bhp = 735.5 W, 1 hp = 745.5 W.

Table C403.2.10.1(2)

Fan Power Limitation Pressure Drop Adjustment


Device Adjustment
Credits
Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems 0.5 inch w.c. (2.15 inches w.c. for laboratory and vivarium systems)
Return and/or exhaust air flow control devices 0.5 inch w.c.
Exhaust filters, scrubbers, or other exhaust treatment The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 - 12 0.5 inch w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 - 15 0.9 inch w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition
Carbon and other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition
Biosafety cabinet Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition
Energy recovery device, other than coil runaround loop (2.2 × energy recovery effectiveness) 0.5 inch w.c. for each airstream
Coil runaround loop 0.6 inch w.c. for each airstream
Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another cooling coil Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions
Sound attenuation section 0.15 inch w.c.
Exhaust system serving fume hoods 0.35 inch w.c.
Laboratory and vivarium exhaust systems in high-rise buildings 0.25 inch w.c./100 feet of vertical duct exceeding 75 feet

w.c. = water column.
For SI: 1 inch w.c.= 249 Pa, 1 inch= 25.4 mm.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403293   Section C403.2.11 -- Heating outside a building.  


C403.2.11 Heating outside a building. Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems.

Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically deenergized when no occupants are present.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403294   Section C403.2.12 -- System criteria.  


C403.2.12 System criteria. For fan and pump motors 7.5 hp and greater including motors in or serving custom and packaged air handlers serving variable air volume fan systems, constant volume fans, heating and cooling hydronic pumping systems, pool and service water pumping systems, domestic water pressure boosting systems, cooling tower fan, and other pump or fan motors where variable flows are required, there shall be:

1. Variable speed drives; or

2. Other controls and devices that will result in fan and pump motor demand of no more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of design air volume for fans when static pressure set point equals 1/3 the total design static pressure, and 50 percent of design water flow for pumps, based on manufacturer's certified test data. Variable inlet vanes, throttling valves (dampers), scroll dampers or bypass circuits shall not be allowed.


EXCEPTION: Variable speed devices are not required for motors that serve:
1. Fans or pumps in packaged equipment where variable speed drives are not available as a factory option from the equipment manufacturer.
2. Fans or pumps that are required to operate only for emergency fire-life-safety events (e.g., stairwell pressurization fans, elevator pressurization fans, fire pumps, etc.).

C403.2.12.1 Heat rejection equipment. The requirements of this section apply to heat rejection equipment used in comfort cooling systems such as air-cooled condensers, open cooling towers, closed-circuit cooling towers, and evaporative condensers.


EXCEPTION: Heat rejection devices included as an integral part of equipment listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(3).

Heat rejection equipment shall have a minimum efficiency performance not less than values specified in Table C403.2.3(8). These requirements apply to all propeller, axial fan and centrifugal fan cooling towers. Table C403.2.3(8) specifies requirements for air-cooled condensers that are within rating conditions specified within the table.


C403.2.12.1.1 Variable flow controls. Cooling tower fans 7.5 hp and greater shall have control devices that vary flow by controlling the leaving fluid temperature or condenser temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.


C403.2.12.1.2 Limitation on centrifugal fan cooling towers. Open cooling towers with a combined rated capacity of 1,100 gpm and greater at 95F condenser water return, 85F condenser water supply and 75F outdoor wet-bulb temperature shall meet the energy efficiency requirement for axial fan open circuit cooling towers.


EXCEPTION: Open circuit cooling towers that are ducted (inlet or discharge) or have external sound attenuation that requires external static pressure capability.

C403.2.12.2 Large volume fan systems. Single or multiple fan systems serving a zone or adjacent zones without separating walls with total air flow over 10,000 cfm (3,540 L/s) are required to reduce airflow based on space thermostat heating and cooling demand. A variable speed drive shall reduce airflow to a maximum 75 percent of peak airflow or minimum ventilation air requirement as required by Section 403 of the International Mechanical Code, whichever is greater.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems where the function of the supply air is for purposes other than temperature control, such as maintaining specific humidity levels or supplying an exhaust system.
2. Dedicated outdoor air supply unit(s) with heat recovery where airflow is equal to the minimum ventilation requirements and other fans cycle off unless heating or cooling is required.
3. An area served by multiple units where designated ventilation units have 50 percent or less of total area airflow and nonventilation unit fans cycle off when heating or cooling is not required.

All air-conditioning equipment and air-handling units with direct expansion cooling and a cooling capacity at AHRI conditions greater than or equal to 110,000 Btu/h that serve single zones shall have their supply fans controlled by two-speed motors or variable speed drives. At cooling demands less than or equal to 50 percent, the supply fan controls shall be able to reduce the airflow to no greater than the larger of the following:

1. Two-thirds of the full fan speed; or

2. The volume of outdoor air required to meet the ventilation requirements of Section 403 of the International Mechanical Code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403295   Section C403.2.13 -- Electric motor efficiency.  


C403.2.13 Electric motor efficiency. Design A and B squirrel-cage, T-frame induction permanently wired polyphase motors of 1 hp or more having synchronous speeds of 3,600, 1,800 and 1,200 rpm shall have a nominal full-load motor efficiency no less than the corresponding values for energy efficient motors provided in NEMA Standard MG-1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Motors used in systems designed to use more than one speed of a multi-speed motor.
2. Motors used as a component of the equipment meeting the minimum equipment efficiency requirements of Section C403.2.3 and Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(9) provided that the motor input is included when determining the equipment efficiency.
3. Motors that are an integral part of specialized process equipment.
4. Where the motor is integral to a listed piece of equipment for which no complying motor has been approved.

Fan motors less than 1 hp in series terminal units shall be electronically commutated motors, or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 65 percent when rated in accordance with NEMA Standard MG-1 at full load rating conditions.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40330   Section C403.3 -- Simple HVAC systems and equipment.  


C403.3 Simple HVAC systems and equipment (Prescriptive). This section applies to unitary or packaged HVAC systems listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(8), each serving one zone and controlled by a single thermostat in the zone served. It also applies to two-pipe heating systems serving one or more zones, where no cooling system is installed.

To qualify as a simple system, systems shall have no active humidification or simultaneous heating and cooling and shall be one of the following:

1. Air cooled, constant volume packaged equipment, which provide heating, cooling or both, and require only external connection to duct work and energy services with cooling capacity of 135,000 Btu/h or less.

2. Air cooled, constant volume split systems, which provide heating, cooling or both, with cooling capacity of 84,000 Btu/h or less.

3. Heating only systems which have a capacity of less than 1,000 cfm or which have a minimum outside air supply of less than 30 percent of the total air circulation.

The combined airflow rate of all simple systems serving single rooms must be less than 10,000 cfm or they do not qualify as simple systems.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40331   Section C403.3.1 -- Economizers.  


C403.3.1 Economizers. Each cooling system that has a fan shall include an air economizer meeting the requirements of Sections C403.3.1.1 through C403.3.1.1.4.


EXCEPTION: Economizers are not required for the systems listed below:
1. Qualifying small equipment: This exception shall not be used for unitary cooling equipment installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to the outdoors. This exception is allowed to be used for other cooling units and split systems with a total cooling capacity rated in accordance with Section C403.2.3 of less than 33,000 Btu/h (hereafter referred to as qualifying small systems) provided that these are high-efficiency cooling equipment with SEER and EER values more than 15 percent higher than minimum efficiencies listed in Tables C403.2.3 (1) through (3), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify for this exception. The total capacity of all qualifying small equipment without economizers shall not exceed 72,000 Btu/h per building, or 5 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving residential occupancies is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizers in a building. Redundant units are not counted in the capacity limitations. This exception shall not be used for the shell-and-core permit or for the initial tenant improvement or for Total Building Performance.
2. Systems with dehumidification that affect other systems so as to increase the overall building energy consumption. New humidification equipment shall comply with Section C403.2.3.4.
3. For residential occupancies, cooling units installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors with a total cooling capacity less than 20,000 Btu/h and other cooling units with a total cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h provided that these are high-efficiency cooling equipment with IEER, SEER, and EER values more than 15 percent higher than minimum efficiencies listed in Tables C403.2.3 (1) through (10), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify for this exception. For split systems and VRF systems, compliance is based on the cooling capacity of individual fan coil units.
4. Where the cooling efficiency meets or exceeds the efficiency requirements in Table C403.3.1(2).

Table C403.3.1(2)

Equipment Efficiency Performance

Exception for Economizers


Climate Zones Cooling Equipment Performance Improvement (EER OR IPLV)
2B 10% Efficiency Improvement
3B 15% Efficiency Improvement
4B 20% Efficiency Improvement

C403.3.1.1 Air economizers. Air economizers shall comply with Sections C403.3.1.1.1 through C403.3.1.1.4.


C403.3.1.1.1 Design capacity. Air economizer systems shall be capable of modulating outdoor air and return air dampers to provide up to 100 percent of the design supply air quantity as outdoor air for cooling.


C403.3.1.1.2 Control signal. Economizer dampers shall be capable of being sequenced with the mechanical cooling equipment and shall not be controlled by only mixed air temperature. Air economizers on systems with cooling capacity greater than 65,000 Btu/h shall be capable of providing partial cooling even when additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the remainder of the cooling load.


EXCEPTION: The use of mixed air temperature limit control shall be permitted for systems that are both controlled from space temperature (such as single zone systems) and having cooling capacity less than 65,000 Btu/h.

C403.3.1.1.3 High-limit shutoff. Air economizers shall be capable of automatically reducing outdoor air intake to the design minimum outdoor air quantity when outdoor air intake will no longer reduce cooling energy usage. High-limit shutoff control types for specific climates shall be chosen from Table C403.3.1.1.3(1). High-limit shutoff control settings for these control types shall be those specified in Table C403.3.1.1.3(2).


C403.3.1.1.4 Relief of excess outdoor air. Systems shall be capable of relieving excess outdoor air during air economizer operation to prevent over-pressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40332   Section C403.3.2 -- Hydronic system controls.  


C403.3.2 Hydronic system controls. Hydronic systems of at least 300,000 Btu/h (87,930 W) design output capacity supplying heated and chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that meet the requirements of Section C403.4.3.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40340   Section C403.4 -- Complex HVAC systems and equipment.  


C403.4 Complex HVAC systems and equipment (prescriptive). This section applies to HVAC equipment and systems not covered in Section C403.3.

For buildings with a total equipment cooling capacity of 300 tons and above, the equipment shall comply with one of the following:

1. No one unit shall have a cooling capacity of more than 2/3 of the total installed cooling equipment capacity;

2. The equipment shall have a variable speed drive; or

3. The equipment shall have multiple compressors.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40341   Section C403.4.1 -- Economizers.  


C403.4.1 Economizers. Air economizers shall be provided on all new systems including those serving computer server rooms, electronic equipment, radio equipment, and telephone switchgear. Economizers shall comply with Sections C403.4.1.1 through C403.4.1.4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Water-cooled refrigeration equipment serving chilled beams and chilled ceiling space cooling systems only which are provided with a water economizer meeting the requirements of Section C403.4.1. Water economizer capacity per building shall not exceed 500 tons. This exception shall not be used for Total Building Performance.
2. Systems complying with all of the following criteria:
2.1. Consist of multiple water source heat pumps connected to a common water loop;
2.2. Have a minimum of 60 percent air economizer;
2.3. Have water source heat pumps with an EER at least 15 percent higher for cooling and a COP at least 15 percent higher for heating than that specified in Section C403.2.3;
2.4. Where provided, have a central boiler or furnace efficiency of 90 percent minimum for units up to 199,000 Btu/h; and
2.5. Provide heat recovery with a minimum 50 percent heat recovery effectiveness as defined in Section C403.2.6 to preheat the outside air supply.
3. Chilled water terminal units connected to systems with chilled water generation equipment with IPLV values more than 25 percent higher than minimum part load efficiencies listed in Table C403.2.3(7), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify for this exception. The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h per building, or 20 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater. That portion of the equipment serving Group R Occupancy is not included in determining the total capacity of all units without economizers in a building. This exception shall not be used for the initial permit (this includes any initial permit for the space including, but not limited to, the shell-and-core permit, built-to-suit permit, and tenant improvement permit) or for Total Building Performance Method.
4. For Group R occupancies, cooling units installed outdoors or in a mechanical room adjacent to outdoors with a total cooling capacity less than 20,000 Btu/h and other cooling units with a total cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h provided that these are high-efficiency cooling equipment with SEER and EER values more than 15 percent higher than minimum efficiencies listed in Tables C403.2.3 (1) through (3), in the appropriate size category, using the same test procedures. Equipment shall be listed in the appropriate certification program to qualify for this exception. For split systems, compliance is based on the cooling capacity of individual fan coil units.
5. Equipment used to cool any dedicated server room, electronic equipment room or telecom switch room provided that they completely comply with Option a, b, or c in the table below. The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 240,000 Btu/h per building or 10 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater. This exception shall not be used for Total Building Performance.

Equipment Type Higher Equipment Efficiency Part-Load Control Economizer
Option a Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)a +15%b Required over 85,000 Btu/hc None Required
Option b Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)a +5%d Required over 85,000 Btu/hc Waterside Economizer
Option c ASHRAE Standard 127f +0%g Required over 85,000 Btu/hc Waterside Economizer

Notes for Exception 5:
aFor a system where all of the cooling equipment is subject to the AHRI standards listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2), the system shall comply with all of the following (note that if the system contains any cooling equipment that exceeds the capacity limits in Table C403.2.3(1) or C403.2.3(2), or if the system contains any cooling equipment that is not included in Table C403.2.3(1) or C403.2.3(2), then the system is not allowed to use this option).
bThe cooling equipment shall have an EER value and an IPLV value that is a minimum of 15 percent greater than the value listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) (1.15 x values in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)).
cFor units with a total cooling capacity over 85,000 Btu/h, the system shall utilize part-load capacity control schemes that are able to modulate to a part-load capacity of 50 percent of the load or less that results in the compressor operating at the same or higher EER at part loads than at full load (e.g., minimum of two-stages of compressor unloading such as cylinder unloading, two-stage scrolls, dual tandem scrolls, but hot gas bypass is not credited as a compressor unloading system).
dThe cooling equipment shall have an EER value and an IPLV value that is a minimum of 5 percent greater than the value listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) (1.05 x values in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2)).
eThe system shall include a water economizer in lieu of air economizer. Water economizers shall be capable of providing the total concurrent cooling load served by the connected terminal equipment lacking airside economizer, at outside air temperatures of 50F dry-bulb/45F wet-bulb and below. For this calculation, all factors including solar and internal load shall be the same as those used for peak load calculations, except for the outside temperatures. The equipment shall be served by a dedicated condenser water system unless a nondedicated condenser water system exists that can provide appropriate water temperatures during hours when waterside economizer cooling is available.
fFor a system where all cooling equipment is subject to ASHRAE Standard 127.
gThe cooling equipment subject to the ASHRAE Standard 127 shall have an EER value and an IPLV value that is equal or greater than the value listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) and C403.2.3(2) when determined in accordance with the rating conditions ASHRAE Standard 127 (i.e., not the rating conditions in AHRI Standard 210/240 or 340/360). This information shall be provided by an independent third party.
6. Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems, multiple-zone split-system heat pumps, consisting of multiple, individually metered indoor units with multi-speed fan motors, served on a single common refrigeration circuit with an exterior reverse-cycle heat pump with variable speed compressor(s) and variable speed condenser fan(s). These systems shall also be capable of providing simultaneous heating and cooling operation, where recovered energy from the indoor units operating in one mode can be transferred to one or more indoor units operating in the other mode, and shall serve at least 20 percent internal (no perimeter wall within 12') and 20 percent perimeter zones (as determined by conditioned floor area) and the outdoor unit shall be at least 65,000 Btu/h in total capacity. Systems utilizing this exception shall have 50 percent heat recovery effectiveness as defined by Section C403.2.6 on the outside air. For the purposes of this exception, dedicated server rooms, electronic equipment rooms or telecom switch rooms are not considered perimeter zones. This exception shall be limited to buildings of 60,000 square feet and less.

C403.4.1.1 Design capacity. Water economizer systems shall be capable of cooling supply air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outdoor air temperatures of 50F dry-bulb (10C dry-bulb)/45F wet-bulb (7.2C wet-bulb) and below.


EXCEPTION: Systems in which a water economizer is used and where dehumidification requirements cannot be met using outdoor air temperatures of 50F dry-bulb (10C dry-bulb)/45F wet-bulb (7.2C wet-bulb) shall satisfy 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 45F dry-bulb (7.2C dry-bulb)/40F wet-bulb (4.5C wet-bulb).

C403.4.1.2 Maximum pressure drop. Precooling coils and water-to-water heat exchangers used as part of a water economizer system shall either have a waterside pressure drop of less than 15 feet (4572 mm) of water or a secondary loop shall be created so that the coil or heat exchanger pressure drop is not seen by the circulating pumps when the system is in the normal cooling (noneconomizer) mode.


C403.4.1.3 Integrated economizer control. Economizer systems shall be integrated with the mechanical cooling system and be capable of providing partial cooling even where additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the remainder of the cooling load.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Direct expansion systems that include controls that reduce the quantity of outdoor air required to prevent coil frosting at the lowest step of compressor unloading, provided this lowest step is no greater than 25 percent of the total system capacity.
2. Individual direct expansion units that have a rated cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h (15,827 W) and use nonintegrated economizer controls that preclude simultaneous operation of the economizer and mechanical cooling.

C403.4.1.4 Economizer heating system impact. HVAC system design and economizer controls shall be such that economizer operation does not increase the building heating energy use during normal operation.


EXCEPTION: Economizers on VAV systems that cause zone level heating to increase due to a reduction in supply air temperature.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40342   Section C403.4.2 -- VAV fan control.  


C403.4.2 Variable air volume (VAV) fan control. Individual VAV fans with motors of 7.5 horsepower (5.6 kW) or greater shall be:

1. Driven by a mechanical or electrical variable speed drive;

2. Driven by a vane-axial fan with variable-pitch blades; or

3. The fan shall have controls or devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 30 percent of their design wattage at 50 percent of design airflow when static pressure set point equals one-third of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer's certified fan data.


C403.4.2.1 Static pressure sensor location. Static pressure sensors used to control VAV fans shall be placed in a position such that the controller setpoint is no greater than one-third the total design fan static pressure, except for systems with zone reset control complying with Section C403.4.2.2. For sensors installed downstream of major duct splits, at least one sensor shall be located on each major branch to ensure that static pressure can be maintained in each branch.


C403.4.2.2 Set points for direct digital control. For systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure setpoint shall be reset based on the zone requiring the most pressure, i.e., the setpoint is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40343   Section C403.4.3 -- Hydronic systems controls.  


C403.4.3 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.3.1 through C403.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls capable of sequencing operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146,550 W) input design capacity shall include either a multi-staged or modulating burner.


C403.4.3.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.


C403.4.3.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15F (8.3C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30F (16.7C) apart.


C403.4.3.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump systems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.1 through C403.4.3.3.3.


C403.4.3.3.1 Temperature dead band. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are capable of providing a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20F (11.1C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.


EXCEPTION: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on real time conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20F (11C) shall be permitted.

C403.4.3.3.2 Heat rejection. Heat rejection equipment shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.2.1 and C403.4.3.3.2.2.


EXCEPTION: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.

C403.4.3.3.2.1 Climate Zones 3 and 4. For Climate Zones 3 and 4:

1. If a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.

2. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.

3. If an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.


C403.4.3.3.2.2 Climate Zones 5 through 8. For Climate Zones 5 through 8, if an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used, then a separate heat exchanger shall be provided to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, and heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop and providing an automatic valve to stop the flow of fluid.


C403.4.3.3.3 Isolation valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5 kW) shall have a two-way (but not three-way) valve. For the purposes of this section, pump system power is the sum of the nominal power demand (i.e., nameplate horsepower at nominal motor efficiency) of motors of all pumps that are required to operate at design conditions to supply fluid from the heating or cooling source to all heat transfer devices (e.g., coils, heat exchanger) and return it to the source. This converts the system into a variable flow system and, as such, the primary circulation pumps shall comply with the variable flow requirements in Section C403.4.3.6.


C403.4.3.4 Part load controls. Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (87,930 W) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that have the capability to:

1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures using zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature, or outside air temperature as an indicator of building heating or cooling demand. The temperature shall be capable of being reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference; and

2. Reduce system pump flow by at least 50 percent of design flow rate utilizing adjustable speed drive(s) on pump(s), or multiple-staged pumps where at least one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off or control valves designed to modulate or step down, and close, as a function of load, or other approved means.

Hydronic systems serving hydronic heat pumps are exempt from item 1, and only those hydronic systems with a total pump system power greater than 3 hp (2.2 kw) shall have controls meeting the requirements of item 2, above.


C403.4.3.5 Pump isolation. Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down and automatically shut off flow to chillers that are shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.


EXCEPTION: Chillers that are piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential.

Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down and automatically shut off flow to chillers that are shut down.


C403.4.3.6 Variable flow controls. Individual pumps requiring variable speed control per Section C403.4.9 shall be controlled in one of the following manners:

1. For systems having a combined pump motor horsepower less than or equal to 20 hp (15 kW) and without direct digital control of individual coils, pump speed shall be a function of either:

1.1. Required differential pressure; or

1.2. Reset directly based on zone hydronic demand, or other zone load indicators; or

1.3. Reset directly based on pump power and pump differential pressure.

2. For systems having a combined pump motor horsepower that exceeds 20 hp (15 kW) or smaller systems with direct digital control, pump speed shall be a function of either:

2.1. The static pressure set point as reset based on the valve requiring the most pressure; or

2.2. Directly controlled based on zone hydronic demand.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-403431   Table C403.4.3.1.1.3 -- High limit shutoff controls.  


Table C403.3.1.1.3(1)

High-limit Shutoff Control Options for Air Economizers


Climate Zones Allowed Control Types Prohibited Control Types
1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, 8 Fixed dry-bulb

Differential dry-bulb

Electronic enthalpya

Differential enthalpy

Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures

Fixed enthalpy
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A Fixed dry-bulb

Fixed enthalpy

Electronic enthalpya

Differential enthalpy

Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures

Differential dry-bulb
All other climates Fixed dry-bulb

Differential dry-bulb

Fixed enthalpy

Electronic enthalpya

Differential enthalpy

Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures

--

aElectronic enthalpy controllers are devices that use a combination of humidity and dry-bulb temperature in their switching algorithm.

Table C403.3.1.1.3(2)

High-limit Shutoff Control Setting for Air Economizers


Required High Limit (Economizer off When):
Device Type Climate Zone Equation Description
Fixed dry-bulb 1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, 8 TOA > 75F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75F
5A, 6A, 7A TOA > 70F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 70F
All other zones TOA > 65F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 65F
Differential dry-bulb 1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B, 7, 8 TOA > TRA Outdoor air temperature exceeds return air temperature
Fixed enthalpy All hOA > 28 Btu/lba Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds 28 Btu/lb of dry aira
Electronic enthalpy All (TOA, RHOA) > A Outdoor air temperature/RH exceeds the "A” setpoint curveb
Differential enthalpy All hOA > Hra Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds return air enthalpy
Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures All DPOA > 55F or TOA > 75F Outdoor air dry-bulb exceeds 75F or outside dew-point exceeds 55F (65 gr/lb)

For SI: C = (F - 32) × 5/9, 1 Btu/lb = 2.33 kJ/kg.
a At altitudes substantially different than sea level, the fixed enthalpy limit shall be set to the enthalpy value at 75F and 50 percent relative humidity. As an example, at approximately 6,000 feet elevation the fixed enthalpy limit is approximately 30.7 Btu/lb.
b Setpoint "A" corresponds to a curve on the psychometric chart that goes through a point at approximately 75F and 40 percent relative humidity and is nearly parallel to dry-bulb lines at low humidity levels and nearly parallel to enthalpy lines at high humidity levels.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40344   Section C403.4.4 -- Heat rejection equipment fan speed control.  


C403.4.4 Heat rejection equipment fan speed control. Each fan powered by a motor of 7.5 hp (5.6 kW) or larger shall have controls that automatically change the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40345   Section C403.4.5 -- Requirements for complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones.  


C403.4.5 Requirements for complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Sections C403.4.5.1 through C403.4.5.4 shall apply to complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be VAV systems which, during periods of occupancy, are designed and capable of being controlled to reduce primary air supply to each zone to one of the following before reheating, recooling or mixing takes place:

1. Thirty percent of the maximum supply air to each zone.

2. Three hundred cfm (142 L/s) or less where the maximum flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.

3. The minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

4. Minimum flow rates required by applicable codes or standards for occupant health and safety.


EXCEPTION: The following define where individual zones or where entire air distribution systems are exempted from the requirement for VAV control:
1. Reserved.
2. Zones or supply air systems where at least 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered or site-solar energy source.
3. Zones where special humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs.
4. Zones with a peak supply air quantity of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less and where the flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.
5. Zones where the volume of air to be reheated, recooled or mixed is no greater than the volume of outside air required to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.
6. Zones or supply air systems with thermostatic and humidistatic controls capable of operating in sequence the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zones and which are capable of preventing reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated.

C403.4.5.1 Single duct variable air volume (VAV) systems, terminal devices. Single duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capable of reducing the supply of primary supply air before reheating or recooling takes place.


C403.4.5.2 Dual duct and mixing VAV systems, terminal devices. Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices which are capable of reducing the flow from one duct to a minimum before mixing of air from the other duct takes place.


C403.4.5.3 Reserved.


C403.4.5.4 Supply-air temperature reset controls. Multiple zone HVAC systems shall include controls that automatically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air temperature. The controls shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature at least 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mixing of heated and cooled supply air.
2. Seventy-five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site solar energy sources.
3. Zones with peak supply air quantities of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40346   Section C403.4.6 -- Heat recovery for service water heating.  


C403.4.6 Heat recovery for service water heating. Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water cooled systems exceeds 1,500,000 Btu/hr of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 250,000 Btu/hr.

The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:

1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or

2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85F (29C).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40347   Section C403.4.7 -- Hot gas bypass limitation.  


C403.4.7 Hot gas bypass limitation. Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multiple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indicated in Table C403.4.7.


EXCEPTION: Unitary packaged systems with cooling capacities not greater than 90,000 Btu/h (26,379 W).

Table C403.4.7

Maximum Hot Gas Bypass Capacity


Rated Capacity Maximum Hot Gas Bypass Capacity (% of total capacity)
≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50
> 240,000 Btu/h 25

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40350   Section C403.5 -- Walk-in coolers and freezers.  


C403.5 Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Anti-sweat heaters without anti-sweat heater controls shall have a total door rail, glass, and frame heater power draw of less than or equal to 7.1 watts per square foot of door opening for walk-in freezers, and 3.0 watts per square foot of door opening for walk-in coolers.

2. Anti-sweat heater controls shall reduce the energy use of the anti-sweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane.

3. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 horsepower and less than 460 volts shall use electronically commutated motors (brushless direct current motors) or 3-phase motors.

4. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 horsepower shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40360   Section C403.6 -- Refrigerated warehouse coolers and freezers.  


C403.6 Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 horsepower and less than 460 volts shall use electronically commutated motors (brushless direct current motors) or 3-phase motors.

2. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 horsepower shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40400   Section C404 -- Service water heating (Mandatory).  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40401   Section C404.1 -- General.  


C404.1 General. This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40402   Section C404.2 -- Service water-heating equipment performance efficiency.  


C404.2 Service water-heating equipment performance efficiency. Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Table C404.2. The efficiency shall be verified through certification and listed under an approved certification program, or if no certification program exists, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-404021   Table C404.2 -- Minimum performance of water-heating equipment.  


Table C404.2

Minimum Performance of Water-Heating Equipment


Equipment Type Size Category (input) Subcategory or Rating Condition Performance Requireda, b Test Procedure
≤ 12 kW Resistance 0.97 - 0.00 132V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
Water heaters, electric > 12 kW Resistance 1.73V + 155 SL, Btu/h ANSI Z21.10.3
≤ 24 amps and ≤ 250 volts Heat pump 0.93 - 0.00 132V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
≤ 75,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.67 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
Storage water heaters, gas > 75,000 Btu/h and ≤ 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h ANSI Z21.10.3
> 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h
> 50,000 Btu/h and < 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 (Btu/h)/gal and < 2 gal 0.62 - 0.00 19V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
Instantaneous water heaters, gas ≥ 200,000 Btu/hc ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 80% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h
Storage water heaters, oil ≤ 105,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
> 105,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 78% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h ANSI Z21.10.3
≤ 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 2 gal 0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 C.F.R. Part 430
Instantaneous water heaters, oil > 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 78% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h
Hot water supply boilers, gas and oil ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
Hot water supply boilers, gas ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 80% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h
Hot water supply boilers, oil ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and > 10 gal 78% Et (Q/800 + 110√V) SL, Btu/h
Pool heaters, gas and oil All -- 78% Et ASHRAE 146
Heat pump pool heaters All -- 4.0 COP AHRI 1160
Unfired storage tanks All -- Minimum insulation requirement R-12.5 (h ft2 F)/Btu (none)

For SI: C = [(F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078 W/L.
aEnergy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons.
bStandby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation, Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the SL equation for electric water heaters, V is the rated volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers, V is the rated volume in gallons.
cInstantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200,000 Btu/h must comply with these requirements if the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180F or higher.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40403   Section C404.3 -- Temperature controls.  


C404.3 Temperature controls. Service water-heating equipment shall be provided with controls to allow a setpoint of 110F (43C) for equipment serving dwelling units and 90F (32C) for equipment serving other occupancies. The outlet temperature of lavatories in public facility rest rooms shall be limited to 110F (43C).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40404   Section C404.4 -- Heat traps.  


C404.4 Heat traps. Water-heating equipment not supplied with integral heat traps and serving noncirculating systems shall be provided with heat traps on the supply and discharge piping associated with the equipment.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40405   Section C404.5 -- Water heater installation.  
C404.5 Water heater installation. Electric water heaters in unconditioned spaces or on concrete floors shall be placed on an incompressible, insulated surface with a minimum thermal resistance of R-10.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40406   Section C404.6 -- Pipe insulation.  


C404.6 Pipe insulation. For automatic-circulating hot water and heat-traced systems, piping shall be insulated with not less than 1 inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h × ft2 × F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K). The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping in nonhot-water-supply temperature maintenance systems served by equipment without integral heat traps shall be insulated with 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of material having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h × ft2 × F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K).


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Heat-traced piping systems shall meet the insulation thickness requirements per the manufacturer's installation instructions. Untraced piping within a heat traced system shall be insulated with not less than 1 inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h × ft2 × F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K).
2. Hot water piping that is part of the final pipe run to the plumbing fixture and is not part of the automatic-circulating hot water recirculation path is not required to meet the minimum insulation requirements of C404.6.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40407   Section C404.7 -- Hot water system controls.  
C404.7 Hot water system controls. Circulating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be turned off either automatically or manually when there is limited hot water demand. Ready access shall be provided to the operating controls.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40408   Section C404.8 -- Shut-off controls.  


C404.8 Shut-off controls. Systems designed to maintain usage temperatures in hot water pipes, such as circulating hot water systems or heat traced pipes, shall be equipped with automatic time switches or other controls to turn off the system during periods of nonuse.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40409   Section C404.9 -- Domestic hot water meters.  
C404.9 Domestic hot water meters. Each individual dwelling unit in a Group R-2 multi-family residential occupancy with central service shall be provided with a domestic hot water meter to allow for domestic hot water billing based on actual domestic hot water usage.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40410   Section C404.10 -- Pools and in-ground spas.  
C404.10 Pools and in-ground permanently installed spas (mandatory). Pools and in-ground permanently installed spas shall comply with Sections C404.10.1 through C404.10.4.


C404.10.1 Heaters. Heat pump pool heaters shall have a minimum COP of 4.0 determined in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 146. Other pool heating equipment shall comply with the applicable efficiencies in Section C404.2.3.

All heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch that is mounted outside of the heater to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with constant burning pilot lights.


C404.10.2 Time switches. Time switches or other control method that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on all heaters and pumps. Heaters, pumps and motors that have built in timers shall be deemed in compliance with this requirement.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
2. Where pumps are required to operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

C404.10.3 Covers. Heated pools and in-ground permanently installed spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90F shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12, and the sides and bottom of the pool shall also have a minimum insulation value of R-12.


C404.10.4 Heat recovery. Heated indoor swimming pools, spas or hot tubs with water surface area greater than 200 square feet shall provide for energy conservation by an exhaust air heat recovery system that heats ventilation air, pool water or domestic hot water. The heat recovery system shall be capable of decreasing the exhaust air temperature at design heating conditions (80F indoor) by 36F (10C) in Climate Zones 4C and 5B and 48F (26.7C) in Climate Zone 6B.


EXCEPTION: Pools, spas or hot tubs that include system(s) that provide equivalent recovered energy on an annual basis through one of the following methods:
1. Renewable energy;
2. Dehumidification heat recovery;
3. Waste heat recovery; or
4. A combination of these system sources capable of providing at least 70 percent of the heating energy required over an operating season.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40500   Section C405 -- Electrical power and lighting systems.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40501   Section C405.1 -- General.  


C405.1 General (mandatory). This section covers lighting system controls, the connection of ballasts, the maximum lighting power for interior applications, electrical energy consumption, minimum acceptable lighting equipment for exterior applications, and minimum efficiencies for motors and transformers.


EXCEPTION: Dwelling units within commercial buildings shall not be required to comply with Sections C405.2 through C405.5 provided that a minimum of 75 percent of the lamps in permanently installed light fixtures shall be high efficacy lamps.

Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with C405.10. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with C405.11.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40502   Section C405.2 -- Electrical power and lighting systems.  


C405.2 Lighting controls (mandatory). Lighting systems shall be provided with controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3, C405.2.4 and C405.2.5.


EXCEPTION: Industrial or manufacturing process areas, as may be required for production and safety.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405021   Section C405.2.1 -- Manual lighting controls.  


C405.2.1 Manual lighting controls. All buildings shall include manual lighting controls that meet the requirements of Sections C405.2.1.1 and C405.2.1.2.


C405.2.1.1 Interior lighting controls. Each area enclosed by walls or floor-to-ceiling partitions shall have at least one manual control for the lighting serving that area. The required controls shall be located within the area served by the controls or be a remote switch that identifies the lights served and indicates their status.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that need to be continuously lighted.
2. Lighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egress.

C405.2.1.2 Light reduction controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also allow the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by at least 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or other approved method:

1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires;

2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps;

3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires independently of the outer lamps; or

4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp.


EXCEPTION: Light reduction controls need not be provided in the following areas and spaces:
1. Areas that have only one luminaire, with rated power less than 100 watts.
2. Areas that are controlled by an occupant-sensing device.
3. Corridors, equipment rooms, storerooms, restrooms, public lobbies, electrical or mechanical rooms.
4. Sleeping unit (see Section C405.2.3).
5. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m2).
6. Daylight spaces complying with Section C405.2.2.3.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405022   Section C405.2.2 -- Additional lighting controls.  


C405.2.2 Additional lighting controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also have controls that meet the requirements of Sections C405.2.2.1, C405.2.2.2 and C405.2.2.3.


EXCEPTION: Additional lighting controls need not be provided in the following spaces:
1. Sleeping units.
2. Spaces where patient care is directly provided.
3. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security.
4. Lighting intended for continuous operation.

C405.2.2.1 Automatic time switch control devices. Automatic time switch controls shall be installed to control lighting in all areas of the building. Automatic time switches shall have a minimum 7 day clock and be capable of being set for 7 different day types per week and incorporate an automatic holiday "shut-off" feature, which turns off all loads for at least 24 hours and then resumes normally scheduled operations. Automatic time switches shall also have program back-up capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for at least 10 hours, if power is interrupted.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Emergency egress lighting does not need to be controlled by an automatic time switch.
2. Lighting in spaces controlled by occupancy sensors does not need to be controlled by automatic time switch controls.

The automatic time switch control device shall include an override switching device that complies with the following:

1. The override switch shall be in a readily accessible location;

2. The override switch shall be located where the lights controlled by the switch are visible; or the switch shall provide a mechanism which announces the area controlled by the switch;

3. The override switch shall permit manual operation;

4. The override switch, when initiated, shall permit the controlled lighting to remain on for a maximum of 2 hours; and

5. Any individual override switch shall control the lighting for a maximum area of 5,000 square feet (465 m2).


EXCEPTION: Within malls, arcades, auditoriums, single tenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas:
1. The time limit shall be permitted to exceed 2 hours provided the override switch is a captive key device; and
2. The area controlled by the override switch is permitted to exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m2), but shall not exceed 20,000 square feet (1860 m2).

C405.2.2.2 Occupancy sensors. Occupancy sensors shall be installed in all classrooms, conference/meeting rooms, employee lunch and break rooms, private offices, restrooms, warehouse spaces, storage rooms and janitorial closets, and other spaces 300 square feet (28 m2) or less enclosed by floor-to-ceiling height partitions. These automatic control devices shall be installed to automatically turn off lights within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the space, and shall either be manual on or shall be controlled to automatically turn the lighting on to not more than 50 percent power.


EXCEPTION: Full automatic-on controls shall be permitted to control lighting in public corridors, stairways, restrooms, primary building entrance areas and lobbies, and areas where manual-on operation would endanger the safety or security of the room or building occupants.

C405.2.2.3 Daylight zone control. Daylight zones shall be designed such that lights in the daylight zone are controlled independently of general area lighting and are controlled in accordance with Section C405.2.2.3.2. Each daylight control zone shall not exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m2). Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration are allowed to be controlled by a single controlling device provided that they do not include zones facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e., north, east, south, west). The primary daylight zone shall be controlled separately from the secondary daylight zone. Daylight zones under skylights more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the perimeter shall be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration. Controls shall:

1. Control only luminaires within the daylit area.

2. Incorporate time-delay circuits to prevent cycling of light level changes of less than three minutes.


EXCEPTION: Daylight zones enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and containing two or fewer light fixtures are not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting.

C405.2.2.3.1 Reserved.


C405.2.2.3.2 Automatic daylighting controls. Setpoint and other controls for calibrating the lighting control device shall be readily accessible.

Daylighting controls device shall be capable of automatically reducing the lighting power in response to available daylight by either one of the following methods:

1. Continuous dimming using dimming ballasts and daylight-sensing automatic controls that are capable of reducing the power of general lighting in the daylit zone continuously to less than 20 percent of rated power at maximum light output.

2. Stepped dimming using multi-level switching and daylight-sensing controls that are capable of reducing lighting power automatically. The system shall provide a minimum of two control channels per zone and be installed in a manner such that at least one control step is between 50 percent and 70 percent of design lighting power and another control step is no greater than 35 percent of design power, and the system is capable of automatically turning the system off.


C405.2.2.3.3 Reserved.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405023   Section C405.2.3 -- Specific application controls.  


C405.2.3 Specific application controls. Specific application controls shall be provided for the following:

1. Display and accent light shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

2. Lighting in cases used for display case purposes shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

3. Hotel and motel sleeping units and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles. Where a hotel/motel includes more than 50 rooms, controls shall be automatic to ensure all power to the lights and switched outlets are turned off when the occupant is not in the room.

4. Supplemental task lighting, including permanently installed under-shelf or under-cabinet lighting, shall be automatically shut off whenever that space is unoccupied and shall have a control device integral to the luminaires or be controlled by a wall-mounted control device provided the control device is readily accessible.

5. Lighting for nonvisual applications, such as plant growth and food warming, shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

6. Lighting equipment that is for sale or for demonstrations in lighting education shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

7. Luminaires serving the exit access and providing means of egress illumination required by Section 1006.1 of the International Building Code, including luminaires that function as both normal and emergency means of egress illumination shall be controlled by a combination of listed emergency relay and occupancy sensors, or signal from another building control system, that automatically shuts off the lighting when the areas served by that illumination are unoccupied.


EXCEPTION: Means of egress illumination serving the exit access that does not exceed 0.05 watts per square foot of building area is exempt from this requirement.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405024   Section C405.2.4 -- Exterior lighting controls.  


C405.2.4 Exterior lighting controls. Lighting not designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by either a combination of a photosensor and a time switch, or an astronomical time switch. Lighting designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by an astronomical time switch or photosensor. All time switches shall be capable of retaining programming and the time setting during loss of power for a period of at least 10 hours.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405025   Section C405.2.5 -- Area controls.  


C405.2.5 Area controls. The maximum lighting power that may be controlled from a single switch or automatic control shall not exceed that which is provided by a 20 ampere circuit loaded to not more than 80 percent. A master control may be installed provided the individual switches retain their capability to function independently. Circuit breakers may not be used as the sole means of switching.


EXCEPTION: Areas less than 5 percent of the building footprint for footprints over 100,000 ft2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40503   Section C405.3 -- Reserved.  


C405.3 Reserved.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40504   Section C405.4 -- Exit signs.  


C405.4 Exit signs (mandatory). Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per side.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40505   Section C405.5 -- Interior lighting power requirements.  


C405.5 Interior lighting power requirements (prescriptive). A building complies with this section if its total connected lighting power calculated under Section C405.5.1 is no greater than the interior lighting power calculated under Section C405.5.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405051   Section C405.5.1 -- Total connected interior lighting power.  


C405.5.1 Total connected interior lighting power. The total connected interior lighting power (watts) shall be the sum of the watts of all interior lighting equipment as determined in accordance with Sections C405.5.1.1 through C405.5.1.4.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment is not included in calculating total connected lighting power.
1.1. Professional sports arena playing field lighting.
1.2. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation.
1.3. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including the visually impaired and other medical and age-related issues.
1.4. Casino gaming areas.
1.5. General area lighting power in industrial and manufacturing occupancies dedicated to the inspection or quality control of goods and products.
2. Lighting equipment used for the following shall be exempt provided that it is in addition to general lighting and is controlled by an independent control device:
2.1. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes.
2.2. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments.
3. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.
4. Lighting for photographic processes.
5. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by the manufacturer.
6. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
7. Advertising signage or directional signage.
8. In restaurant buildings and areas, lighting for food warming or integral to food preparation equipment.
9. Lighting equipment that is for sale.
10. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities.
11. Lighting approved because of safety or emergency considerations, inclusive of exit lights.
12. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
13. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
14. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff.
15. Lighting used for aircraft painting.

C405.5.1.1 Screw lamp holders. The wattage shall be the maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire.


C405.5.1.2 Low-voltage lighting. The wattage shall be the specified wattage of the transformer supplying the system.


C405.5.1.3 Other luminaires. The wattage of all other lighting equipment shall be the wattage of the lighting equipment verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or other approved sources.


C405.5.1.4 Line-voltage lighting track and plug-in busway. The wattage shall be:

1. The specified wattage of the luminaires included in the system with a minimum of 50 W/lin ft. (162 W/lin. m);

2. The wattage limit of the system's circuit breaker; or

3. The wattage limit of other permanent current limiting device(s) on the system.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405052   Section C405.5.2 -- Interior lighting power requirements.  


C405.5.2 Interior lighting power. The total interior lighting power allowance (watts) is determined according to Table C405.5.2(1) using the Building Area Method, or Table C405.5.2(2) using the Space-by-Space Method, for all areas of the building covered in this permit. For the Building Area Method, the interior lighting power allowance is the floor area for each building area type listed in Table C405.5.2(1) times the value from Table C405.5.2(1) for that area. For the purposes of this method, an "area" shall be defined as all contiguous spaces that accommodate or are associated with a single building area type as listed in Table C405.5.2(1). Where this method is used to calculate the total interior lighting power for an entire building, each building area type shall be treated as a separate area. For the Space-by-Space Method, the interior lighting power allowance is determined by multiplying the floor area of each space times the value for the space type in Table C405.5.2(2) that most closely represents the proposed use of the space, and then summing the lighting power allowances for all spaces. Tradeoffs among spaces are permitted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405053   Table C405.5.2(1) -- Interior lighting power allowances -- Building area method.  


Table C405.5.2(1)

Interior Lighting Power Allowances -- Building Area Method


Building Area Type LPD (w/ft2)
Automotive facility 0.82
Convention center 1.08
Court house 1.05
Dining: Bar lounge/leisure 0.99
Dining: Cafeteria/fast food 0.90
Dining: Family 0.89
Dormitory 0.61
Exercise center 0.88
Fire station 0.71
Gymnasium 0.95
Health care clinic 0.87
Hospital 1.20
Hotel 1.00
Library 1.18
Manufacturing facility 1.11
Motel 0.88
Motion picture theater 0.83
Multifamily 0.60
Museum 1.00
Office 0.90
Parking garage 0.20
Penitentiary 0.90
Performing arts theater 1.25
Police station 0.90
Post office 0.87
Religious building 1.05
Retail 1.33
School/university 0.99
Sports arena 0.78
Town hall 0.92
Transportation 0.77
Warehouse 0.50
Workshop 1.20

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405054   Table C405.5.5.2(2) -- Interior lighting power allowances -- Space-by-space method.  


Table C405.5.2(2)

Interior Lighting Power Allowances -- Space-by-Space Method


Common Space-by-Space Types LPD (w/ft2)
Atrium - First 40 feet in height 0.03 per ft. ht.
Atrium - Above 40 feet in height 0.02 per ft. ht.
Audience/seating area - Permanent
For auditorium 0.79
For performing arts theater 2.43
For motion picture theater 1.14
Classroom/lecture/training 1.24
Conference/meeting/multipurpose 1.23
Corridor/transition 0.66
Dining area
Bar/lounge/leisure dining 1.31
Family dining area 0.89
Dressing/fitting room performing arts theater 0.40
Electrical/mechanical 0.95
Food preparation 0.99
Laboratory for classrooms 1.28
Laboratory for medical/industrial/research 1.81
Lobby 0.90
Lobby for performing arts theater 2.00
Lobby for motion picture theater 0.52
Locker room 0.75
Lounge recreation 0.73
Office - Enclosed 1.11
Office - Open plan 0.98
Restroom 0.98
Sales area 1.68a
Stairway 0.69
Storage 0.63
Workshop 1.59
Building Specific Space-by-space Types
Automotive - Service/repair 0.67
Bank/office - Banking activity area 1.38
Convention center
Exhibit space 1.45
Audience/seating area 0.82
Courthouse/police station/penitentiary
Courtroom 1.72
Confinement cells 1.10
Judge chambers 1.17
Penitentiary audience seating 0.43
Penitentiary classroom 1.34
Penitentiary dining 1.07
Dormitory living quarters 0.38
Fire stations
Engine rooms 0.56
Sleeping quarters 0.25
Gymnasium/fitness center
Fitness area 0.72
Gymnasium audience/seating 0.43
Playing area 1.20
Health care clinic/hospital
Corridors/transition 0.89
Emergency 2.26
Exam/treatment 1.66
Medical supplies 1.27
Nursery 0.88
Nurse station 0.87
Operating room 1.89
Patient room 0.62
Pharmacy 1.14
Physical therapy 0.91
Radiology/imaging 1.32
Recovery 1.15
Hotel
Dining area 0.82
Guest rooms 1.11
Hotel lobby 1.06
Highway lodging dining 0.88
Highway lodging guest rooms 0.75
Library
Card file and cataloguing 0.72
Reading area 0.93
Stacks 1.71
Manufacturing
Corridors/transition 0.41
Detailed manufacturing 1.29
Equipment room 0.95
Extra high bay (> 50-foot floor-ceiling height) 1.05
High bay (25 - 50-foot floor-ceiling height) 1.23
Low bay (< 25-foot floor-ceiling height) 1.19
Museum
General exhibition 1.05
Restoration 1.02
Parking garage - Garage areas 0.19
Post office
Sorting area 0.94
Religious building
Audience seating 1.53
Fellowship hall 0.64
Worship pulpit/choir 1.53
Retail
Dressing/fitting area 0.87
Mall concourse 1.10
Sales area 1.68a
Sports arena
Audience seating 0.43
Court sports area - Class 4 0.72
Court sports area - Class 3 1.20
Court sports area - Class 2 1.92
Court sports area - Class 1 3.01
Ring sports area 2.68
Transportation
Air/train/bus baggage area 0.76
Airport concourse 0.36
Audience seating 0.54
Terminal - Ticket counter 1.08
Warehouse
Fine material storage 0.95
Medium/bulky material 0.58

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = 11 W/m2.
aWhere lighting equipment is specified to be installed to highlight specific merchandise in addition to lighting equipment specified for general lighting and is switched or dimmed on circuits different from the circuits for general lighting, the smaller of the actual wattage of the lighting equipment installed specifically for merchandise, or additional lighting power as determined below shall be added to the interior lighting power determined in accordance with this line item.

Calculate the additional lighting power as follows:

Additional Interior

Lighting Power

Allowance

= 500 watts + (Retail Area 1 × 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 2 × 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 3 × 1.4 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 4 × 2.5 W/ft2).
Where:
Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.
Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.
Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.
Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.

EXCEPTION: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided that justification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40506   Section C405.6 -- Exterior lighting.  


C405.6 Exterior lighting (mandatory). Where the power for exterior lighting is supplied through the energy service to the building, all exterior lighting shall comply with Sections C405.6.1 and C405.6.2.


EXCEPTION: Where approved because of historical, safety, signage or emergency considerations.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405061   Section C405.6.1 -- Exterior building grounds lighting.  


C405.6.1 Exterior building grounds lighting. All exterior building grounds luminaires that operate at greater than 100 watts shall contain lamps having a minimum efficacy of 60 lumens per watt unless the luminaire is controlled by a motion sensor or qualifies for one of the exceptions under Section C405.6.2.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405062   Section C405.6.2 -- Exterior building lighting power.  


C405.6.2 Exterior building lighting power. The total exterior lighting power allowance for all exterior building applications is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated and are permitted in Table C405.6.2(2) for the applicable lighting zone. Tradeoffs are allowed only among exterior lighting applications listed in Table C405.6.2(2), Tradable Surfaces section. The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined from Table C405.6.2(1) unless otherwise specified by the local jurisdiction. Exterior lighting for all applications (except those included in the exceptions to Section C405.6.2) shall comply with the requirements of Section C405.6.1.


EXCEPTION: Lighting used for the following exterior applications is exempt where equipped with a control device independent of the control of the nonexempt lighting:
1. Specialized signal, directional and marker lighting associated with transportation;
2. Advertising signage or directional signage;
3. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer;
4. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production;
5. Athletic playing areas;
6. Temporary lighting;
7. Industrial production, material handling, transportation sites and associated storage areas;
8. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks; and
9. Used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildings.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405063   Table C405.6.2(1) -- Exterior lighting zones.  


Table C405.6.2(1)

Exterior Lighting Zones


Lighting Zone Description
1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas
3 All other areas
4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-405064   Table C405.6.2(2) -- Individual lighting power allowances for building exteriors.  


Table C405.6.2(2)

Individual Lighting Power Allowances for Building Exteriors


Lighting Zones
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Base Site Allowance (Base allowance is usable in tradable or nontradable surfaces.) 500 W 600 W 750 W 1300 W
Tradable Surfaces Uncovered Parking Areas
(Lighting power densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs and outdoor sales areas are tradable.) Parking areas and drives 0.04 W/ft2 0.06 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.13 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 10 feet wide 0.7 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot 0.8 W/linear foot 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10 feet wide or greater, plaza areas, special feature areas 0.14 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 0.16 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2
Stairways 0.75 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Pedestrian tunnels 0.15 W/ft2 0.15 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2 0.3 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width
Other doors 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width
Entry canopies 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2
Sales Canopies
Free standing and attached 0.6 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.8 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.5 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area" allowance No Allowance 10 W/linear foot 10 W/linear foot 30 W/linear foot
Nontradable Surfaces (Lighting power density calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.) Building facades No allowance 0.1 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.15 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 3.75 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.2 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositories 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area
Drive-up windows/doors 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40507   Section C405.7 -- Electrical energy consumption.  


C405.7 Electrical energy consumption (mandatory). In buildings having individual dwelling units, provisions shall be made to determine the electrical energy consumed by each tenant by separately metering individual dwelling units. A utility tenant meter meets this requirement.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40508   Section C405.8 -- Electric motors.  


C405.8 Electric motors. All permanently wired polyphase motors of 1 hp or more, which are not part of an HVAC system, shall comply with Section C403.2.13.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Motors that are an integral part of specialized process equipment.
2. Where the motor is integral to a listed piece of equipment for which no complying motor has been approved.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40509   Section C405.9 -- Transformers.  


C405.9 Transformers. The minimum efficiency of a low voltage dry-type distribution transformer shall be the Class I Efficiency Levels for distribution transformers specified in Table 4-2 of NEMA TP-1.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40510   Section C405.10 -- Walk-in coolers and freezers.  


C405.10 Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Lights shall use light sources with an efficacy of 40 lumens per watt or more, including ballast losses (if any). Light sources with an efficacy of less than 40 lumens per watt, including ballast losses (if any), may be used in conjunction with a timer or device that turns off the lights within 15 minutes of when the walk-in cooler or walk-in freezer is not occupied by people.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40511   Section C405.11 -- Refrigerated warehouse coolers and freezers.  


C405.11 Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers. Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with all of the following:

1. Lights shall use light sources with an efficacy of 40 lumens per watt or more, including ballast losses (if any). Light sources with an efficacy of less than 40 lumens per watt, including ballast losses (if any), may be used in conjunction with a timer or device that turns off the lights within 15 minutes of when the refrigerated warehouse cooler or refrigerated warehouse freezer is not occupied by people.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40512   Section C405.12 -- Escalators and moving walks.  


C405.12 Escalators and moving walks.


C405.12.1 Variable speed escalators. Where variable speed escalators and moving walks are permitted by the administrative authority, all escalators and moving walks shall reduce their operating speed to no more than 15 feet per minute when no passengers have been detected for a period of time not exceeding three times the amount of time required to transfer a passenger between landings. Such escalators and moving walks shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASME A17.1 for variable speed escalators and moving walks.


EXCEPTION: A power factor controller that reduces operating voltage in response to light loading conditions may be provided in place of the variable speed function.

C405.12.2 Regenerative drive. Escalators designed either for one-way down operation only or for reversible operation shall have variable frequency regenerative drives that supply electrical energy to the building electrical system when loaded with more than 5 passengers.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40513   Section C405.13 -- Electrical power and lighting systems commissioning and completion requirements.  


C405.13 Electrical power and lighting systems commissioning and completion requirements. Electrical power and lighting systems shall be commissioned and completed in accordance with Section C408.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40600   Section C406 -- Additional efficiency package options.  


Sections C406.1 through C406.4 are not adopted.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40700   Section C407 -- Total building performance.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40701   Section C407.1 -- Scope.  


C407.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compliance using total building performance. All systems and loads shall be included in determining the total building performance including, but not limited to: Heating systems, cooling systems, service water heating, fan systems, lighting power, receptacle loads and process loads.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40702   Section C407.2 -- Mandatory requirements.  


C407.2 Mandatory requirements. Compliance with this section requires that the criteria of Sections C402.4, C403.2, C404 and C405 be met.

The building permit application for projects utilizing this method shall include in one submittal all building and mechanical drawings and all information necessary to verify that the building envelope and mechanical design for the project corresponds with the annual energy analysis. If credit is proposed to be taken for lighting energy savings, then an electrical permit application shall also be submitted and approved prior to the issuance of the building permit. If credit is proposed to be taken for energy savings from other components, then the corresponding permit application (e.g., plumbing, boiler, etc.) shall also be submitted and approved prior to the building permit application. Otherwise, components of the project that would not be approved as part of a building permit application shall be modeled the same in both the proposed building and the standard reference design and shall comply with the requirements of this code.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40703   Section C407.3 -- Performance-based compliance.  


C407.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on total building performance requires that a proposed building (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy consumption based on site energy expressed in Btu and Btu per square foot of conditioned floor area that is less than or equal to the annual energy consumption of the standard reference design.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40704   Section C407.4 -- Documentation.  


C407.4 Documentation. Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.


C407.4.1 Compliance report. Building permit submittals shall include a report that documents that the proposed design has annual energy consumption less than or equal to the annual energy consumption of the standard reference design. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

1. Address of the building;

2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the proposed design as listed in Table C407.5.1(1). The inspection checklist shall show the estimated annual energy consumption for both the standard reference design and the proposed design;

3. Name of individual completing the compliance report; and

4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.


C407.4.2 Additional documentation. The code official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference design;

2. Thermal zoning diagrams consisting of floor plans showing the thermal zoning scheme for standard reference design and proposed design;

3. Input and output report(s) from the energy analysis simulation program containing the complete input and output files, as applicable. The output file shall include energy use totals and energy use by energy source and end-use served, total hours that space conditioning loads are not met and any errors or warning messages generated by the simulation tool as applicable;

4. An explanation of any error or warning messages appearing in the simulation tool output; and

5. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table C407.5.1(1).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40705   Section C407.5 -- Calculation procedure.  


C407.5 Calculation procedure. Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.


C407.5.1 Building specifications. The standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table C407.5.1(1). Table C407.5.1(1) shall include by reference all notes contained in Table C402.2.


C407.5.2 Thermal blocks. The standard reference design and proposed design shall be analyzed using identical thermal blocks as specified in Section C407.5.2.1, C407.5.2.2 or C407.5.2.3.


C407.5.2.1 HVAC zones designed. Where HVAC zones are defined on HVAC design drawings, each HVAC zone shall be modeled as a separate thermal block.


EXCEPTION: Different HVAC zones shall be allowed to be combined to create a single thermal block or identical thermal blocks to which multipliers are applied provided:
1. The space use classification is the same throughout the thermal block.
2. All HVAC zones in the thermal block that are adjacent to glazed exterior walls face the same orientation or their orientations are within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of each other.
3. All of the zones are served by the same HVAC system or by the same kind of HVAC system.

C407.5.2.2 HVAC zones not designed. Where HVAC zones have not yet been designed, thermal blocks shall be defined based on similar internal load densities, occupancy, lighting, thermal and temperature schedules, and in combination with the following guidelines:

1. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for interior and perimeter spaces. Interior spaces shall be those located more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall. Perimeter spaces shall be those located closer than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall.

2. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces adjacent to glazed exterior walls: A separate zone shall be provided for each orientation, except orientations that differ by no more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) shall be permitted to be considered to be the same orientation. Each zone shall include floor area that is 15 feet (4572 mm) or less from a glazed perimeter wall, except that floor area within 15 feet (4572 mm) of glazed perimeter walls having more than one orientation shall be divided proportionately between zones.

3. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having floors that are in contact with the ground or exposed to ambient conditions from zones that do not share these features.

4. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having exterior ceiling or roof assemblies from zones that do not share these features.


C407.5.2.3 Multifamily residential buildings. Residential spaces shall be modeled using one thermal block per space except that those facing the same orientations are permitted to be combined into one thermal block. Corner units and units with roof or floor loads shall only be combined with units sharing these features.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-407051   Table C407.5.1(1) -- Specifications for the standard reference and proposed design.  


Table C407.5.1(1)

Specifications for the Standard Reference and Proposed Designs


Building Component Characteristics Standard Reference Design Proposed Design
Space use classification Same as proposed The space use classification shall be chosen in accordance with Table C405.5.2 for all areas of the building covered by this permit. Where the space use classification for a building is not known, the building shall be categorized as an office building.
Roofs Type: Insulation entirely above deck As proposed
Gross area: Same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: From Table C402.1.2 As proposed
Solar absorptance: 0.75 As proposed
Emittance: 0.90 As proposed
Walls, above-grade Type: Mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise steel-framed wall As proposed
Gross area: Same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: From Table C402.1.2 As proposed
Solar absorptance: 0.75 As proposed
Emittance: 0.90 As proposed
Walls, below-grade Type: Mass wall As proposed
Gross area: Same as proposed As proposed
U-Factor: From Table C402.1.2 with insulation layer on interior side of walls As proposed
Floors, above-grade Type: Joist/framed floor As proposed
Gross area: Same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: From Table C402.1.2 As proposed
Floors, slab-on-grade Type: Unheated As proposed
F-factor: From Table C402.1.2 As proposed
Doors Type: Swinging As proposed
Area: Same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: From Table C402.2 As proposed
Vertical Fenestration Area As proposed
1. The proposed vertical fenestration area; where the proposed vertical fenestration area is less than 30 percent of above-grade wall area.
2. 30 percent of above-grade wall area; where the proposed vertical fenestration area is 30 percent or more of the above-grade wall area.
U-factor: From Table C402.3 for the same framing material as proposed As proposed
SHGC: From Table C402.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used As proposed
External shading and PF: None As proposed
Skylights Area As proposed
1. The proposed skylight area; where the proposed skylight area is less than 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly.
2. 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly; where the proposed skylight area is 3 percent or more of gross area of roof assembly.
U-factor: From Table C402.3 As proposed
SHGC: From Table C402.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used As proposed
Lighting, interior The interior lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Table C405.5.2. Where the occupancy of the building is not known, the lighting power density shall be 1.0 watt per square foot (10.73 W/m2) based on the categorization of buildings with unknown space classification as offices. As proposed
Automatic lighting controls (e.g., programmable controls or automatic controls for daylight utilization) shall be modeled in the standard reference design as required by Section C405.
Lighting, exterior The lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Table C405.6.2(2). Areas and dimensions of tradable and nontradable surfaces shall be the same as proposed. As proposed
Internal gains Same as proposed Receptacle, motor and process loads shall be modeled and estimated based on the space use classification. All end-use load components within and associated with the building shall be modeled to include, but not be limited to, the following: Exhaust fans, parking garage ventilation fans, exterior building lighting, swimming pool heaters and pumps, elevators, escalators, refrigeration equipment and cooking equipment.
Schedules Same as proposed Operating schedules shall include hourly profiles for daily operation and shall account for variations between weekdays, weekends, holidays and any seasonal operation. Schedules shall model the time-dependent variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads. The schedules shall be typical of the proposed building type as determined by the designer and approved by the jurisdiction.
Mechanical ventilation Same as proposed, except when modeling demand-control ventilation in the proposed design when its use is not required by Section C403.2.5.1 or occupancy sensor ventilation controls when their use is not required by Section C403.2.5.2. As proposed, in accordance with Section C403.2.5.
Heating systems Fuel type: Same as proposed design As proposed
Equipment typea: From Tables C407.5.1(2) and C407.5.1(3) As proposed
Efficiency: From Tables C403.2.3(2), C403.2.3(3), C403.2.3(4) and C403.2.3(5) As proposed
Preheat coils: If the HVAC system in the proposed design has a preheat coil and a preheat coil can be modeled in the standard reference design, the standard reference design shall be modeled with a preheat coil controlled in the same manner as the proposed design.
Capacityb: Sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, i.e., the ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by the sizing runs shall be the same for both the proposed design and standard reference design, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet heating load hours and no larger heating capacity safety factors are provided than in the proposed design. As proposed
Weather conditions used in sizing runs to determine standard reference design equipment capacities may be based either on hourly historical weather files containing typical peak conditions or on design days developed using 99.6% heating design temperatures and 1% dry-bulb and 1% wet-bulb cooling design temperatures.
Cooling systems Fuel type: Same as proposed design As proposed
Equipment typec: From Tables C407.5.1(2) and C407.5.1(3) As proposed
Efficiency: From Tables C403.2.3(1), C403.2.3(2) and C403.2.3(3) As proposed
Capacityb: Sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, i.e., the ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by the sizing runs shall be the same for both the proposed design and standard reference design, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet cooling load hours and no larger cooling capacity safety factors are provided than in the proposed design. As proposed
Economizerd: Same as proposed, in accordance with Section C403.4.1. The high-limit shutoff shall be a dry-bulb switch with a setpoint as determined by Table C403.3.1.1.3(2). As proposed
Energy recovery Standard reference design systems shall be modeled where required in Section C403.2.6. As proposed
Fan systems Airflow rate: System design supply airflow rates for the standard reference design shall be based on a supply-air-to-room-air temperature difference of 20F or the required ventilation air or makeup air, whichever is greater. If return or relief fans are specified in the proposed design, the standard reference design shall also be modeled with fans serving the same functions and sized for the standard reference design system supply fan air quantity less the minimum outdoor air, or 90% of the supply fan air quantity, whichever is larger. As proposed
Motor brake horsepower: System fan electrical power for supply, return, exhaust, and relief (excluding power to fan-powered VAV boxes) shall be calculated using the following formulas:

For systems 8 and 10,

Pfan = CFMS × 0.3

For all other systems,

Pfan = bhp × 746/Fan Motor Efficiency

Where:

Pfan = Electric power to fan motor (watts)

bhp = Brake horsepower of standard reference design fan motor from Table C403.2.10.1(1) Option 2

Fan motor = The efficiency from Table C403.2.13 for the efficiency next motor size greater than the bhp using the enclosed motor at 1800 rpm

CFMS = The standard reference design system maximum design supply fan airflow rate in cfm

As proposed
On-site renewable energy No on-site renewable energy shall be modeled in the standard reference design. As proposed. On-site renewable energy sources energy shall not be considered to be consumed energy and shall not be included in the proposed building performance.
Shading from adjacent structures/terrain Same as proposed. For the standard reference design and the proposed building, shading by permanent structures and terrain shall be taken into account for computing energy consumption whether or not these features are located on the building site. A permanent fixture is one that is likely to remain for the life of the proposed design.
Service water heating Fuel type: Same as proposed As proposed
Efficiency: From Table C404.2 As proposed
Capacity: Same as proposed
Same as proposed Demand: Service hot-water energy consumption shall be calculated explicitly based upon the volume of service hot water required and the entering makeup water and the leaving service hot water temperatures. Entering water temperatures shall be estimated based upon the location. Leaving temperatures shall be based upon the end-use requirements.

Service water loads and usage shall be the same for both the standard reference design and the proposed design and shall be documented by the calculation procedures recommended by the manufacturer's specifications or generally accepted engineering methods.

Where no service water hot water system exists or is specified in the proposed design, no service hot water heating shall be modeled. As proposed

aWhere no heating system exists or has been specified, the heating system shall be modeled as fossil fuel. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed design.
bThe ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by sizing runs shall be the same for both the standard reference design and proposed design.
cWhere no cooling system exists or no cooling system has been specified, the cooling system shall be modeled as an air-cooled single-zone system, one unit per thermal zone. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed design.
dReserved.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-407052   Table C407.5.1(2) -- HVAC systems map.  


Table C407.5.1(2)

HVAC Systems Map


Standard Reference Design HVAC System Typec
Condenser Cooling Sourcea Heating System Classificationb Single-Zone

Residential System

Single-Zone

Nonresidential System

All Other
Electric resistance System 5 System 5 System 1
Water/ground Heat pump System 6 System 6 System 6
Fossil fuel System 7 System 7 System 2
Electric resistance System 8 System 9 System 3
Air/none Heat pump System 8 System 9 System 3
Fossil fuel System 10 System 11 System 4

aSelect "water/ground" if the proposed design system condenser is water or evaporatively cooled; select "air/none" if the condenser is air cooled. Closed-circuit dry coolers shall be considered air cooled. Systems utilizing district cooling shall be treated as if the condenser water type were "water." If no mechanical cooling is specified or the mechanical cooling system in the proposed design does not require heat rejection, the system shall be treated as if the condenser water type were "Air." For proposed designs with ground-source or groundwater-source heat pumps, the standard reference design HVAC system shall be water-source heat pump (System 6).
bSelect the path that corresponds to the proposed design heat source: Electric resistance, heat pump (including air source and water source), or fuel fired. Systems utilizing district heating (steam or hot water) and systems with no heating capability shall be treated as if the heating system type were "fossil fuel." For systems with mixed fuel heating sources, the system or systems that use the secondary heating source type (the one with the smallest total installed output capacity for the spaces served by the system) shall be modeled identically in the standard reference design and the primary heating source type shall be used to determine standard reference design HVAC system type.
cSelect the standard reference design HVAC system category: The system under "single-zone residential system" shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves a residential space. The system under "single-zone nonresidential system" shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves other than residential spaces. The system under "all other" shall be selected for all other cases.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-407053   Table C407.5.1(3) -- Specifications for the standard reference design HVAC system description.  


Table C407.5.1(3)

Specifications for the Standard Reference Design HVAC System Descriptions


System No. System Type Fan Control Cooling Type Heating Type
1 Variable air volume with parallel fan-powered boxesa VAVd Chilled watere Electric resistance
2 Variable air volume with reheatb VAVd Chilled watere Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
3 Packaged variable air volume with parallel fan-powered boxesa VAVd Direct expansionc Electric resistance
4 Packaged variable air volume with reheatb VAVd Direct expansionc Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
5 Two-pipe fan coil Constant

volumei

Chilled watere Electric resistance
6 Water-source heat pump Constant

volumei

Direct expansionc Electric heat pump and boilerg
7 Four-pipe fan coil Constant

volumei

Chilled watere Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
8 Packaged terminal heat pump Constant

volumei

Direct expansionc Electric heat pumph
9 Packaged rooftop heat pump Constant

volumei

Direct expansionc Electric heat pumph
10 Packaged terminal air conditioner Constant

volumei

Direct expansion Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
11 Packaged rooftop air conditioner Constant

volumei

Direct expansion Fossil fuel furnace

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cfm/ft2 = 0.0004719, 1 Btu/h = 0.293/W, C = [(F) -32/1.8].
aVAV with parallel boxes: Fans in parallel VAV fan-powered boxes shall be sized for 50 percent of the peak design flow rate and shall be modeled with 0.35 W/cfm fan power. Minimum volume setpoints for fan-powered boxes shall be equal to the minimum rate for the space required for ventilation consistent with Section C403.4.5, Exception 5. Supply air temperature setpoint shall be constant at the design condition.
bVAV with reheat: Minimum volume setpoints for VAV reheat boxes shall be 0.4 cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply air temperature shall be reset based on zone demand from the design temperature difference to a 10F temperature difference under minimum load conditions. Design airflow rates shall be sized for the reset supply air temperature, i.e., a 10F temperature difference.
cDirect expansion: The fuel type for the cooling system shall match that of the cooling system in the proposed design.
dVAV: When the proposed design system has a supply, return or relief fan motor horsepower (hp) requiring variable flow controls as required by Section C403.2.12, the corresponding fan in the VAV system of the standard reference design shall be modeled assuming a variable speed drive. For smaller fans, a forward-curved centrifugal fan with inlet vanes shall be modeled. If the proposed design's system has a direct digital control system at the zone level, static pressure setpoint reset based on zone requirements in accordance with Section C403.4.2 shall be modeled.
eChilled water: For systems using purchased chilled water, the chillers are not explicitly modeled. Otherwise, the standard reference design's chiller plant shall be modeled with chillers having the number as indicated in Table C407.5.1(4) as a function of standard reference building chiller plant load and type as indicated in Table C407.5.1(5) as a function of individual chiller load. Where chiller fuel source is mixed, the system in the standard reference design shall have chillers with the same fuel types and with capacities having the same proportional capacity as the proposed design's chillers for each fuel type. Chilled water supply temperature shall be modeled at 44F design supply temperature and 56F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Chilled water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section C403.4.3.4. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no chilled water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The chilled water system shall be modeled as primary-only variable flow with flow maintained at the design rate through each chiller using a bypass. Chilled water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable-speed drives when required in Section C403.4.3.4. The heat rejection device shall be an axial fan cooling tower with variable speed fans if required in Section C403.4.4 or Section C403.2.12. Condenser water design supply temperature shall be 85F or 10F approach to design wet-bulb temperature, whichever is lower, with a design temperature rise of 10F. The tower shall be controlled to maintain a 70F leaving water temperature where weather permits, floating up to leaving water temperature at design conditions. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no condenser water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head, 60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). Each chiller shall be modeled with separate condenser water and chilled water pumps interlocked to operate with the associated chiller.
fFossil fuel boiler: For systems using purchased hot water or steam, the boilers are not explicitly modeled. Otherwise, the boiler plant shall use the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h and less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as required by the load. Hot water supply temperature shall be modeled at 180F design supply temperature and 130F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Hot water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section C403.4.3.4. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no hot water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head, 60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The hot water system shall be modeled as primary only with continuous variable flow. Hot water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable speed drives when required by Section C403.4.3.4.
gElectric heat pump and boiler: Water-source heat pumps shall be connected to a common heat pump water loop controlled to maintain temperatures between 60F and 90F. Heat rejection from the loop shall be provided by an axial fan closed-circuit evaporative fluid cooler with variable speed fans if required in Section C403.4.2 or Section C403.2.12. Heat addition to the loop shall be provided by a boiler that uses the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. If no boilers exist in the proposed design, the standard reference building boilers shall be fossil fuel. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h or less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as required by the load. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Pump system power shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 W/gpm, which is equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, with a 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. Loop flow shall be variable with flow shutoff at each heat pump when its compressor cycles off as required by Section C403.4.3.3. Loop pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable speed drives when required by Section C403.4.3.4.
hElectric heat pump: Electric air-source heat pumps shall be modeled with electric auxiliary heat. The system shall be controlled with a multistage space thermostat and an outdoor air thermostat wired to energize auxiliary heat only on the last thermostat stage and when outdoor air temperature is less than 40F. In heating operation the system shall be controlled to operate the heat pump as the first stage of heating, before energizing the electric auxiliary heat, down to a minimum outdoor air temperature of 35F for System No. 8 or 17F for System No. 9. If the Proposed Design utilizes the same system type as the Standard Design (PTHP or PSZ-HP), the Proposed Design shall be modeled with the same minimum outdoor air temperature for heat pump operation as the Standard Design. For temperatures below the stated minimum outdoor air temperatures, the electric auxiliary heat shall be controlled to provide the full heating load.
iConstant volume: Fans shall be controlled in the same manner as in the proposed design; i.e., fan operation whenever the space is occupied or fan operation cycled on calls for heating and cooling. If the fan is modeled as cycling and the fan energy is included in the energy efficiency rating of the equipment, fan energy shall not be modeled explicitly.

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-407054   Table C407.5.1(4) -- Number of chillers.  


Table C407.5.1(4)

Number of Chillers


Total Chiller Plant Capacity Number of Chillers
≤ 300 tons 1
> 300 tons, < 600 tons 2, sized equally
≥ 600 tons 2 minimum, with chillers added so that no chiller is larger than 800 tons, all sized equally

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 W.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-407055   Table C407.5.1(5) -- Water chiller types.  


Table C407.5.1(5)

Water Chiller Types


Individual Chiller Plant Capacity Electric-Chiller Type Fossil Fuel Chiller Type
≤ 100 tons Reciprocating Single-effect absorption, direct fired
> 100 tons, < 300 tons Screw Double-effect absorption, direct fired
≥ 300 tons Centrifugal Double-effect absorption, direct fired

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 W.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40706   Section C407.6 -- Calculation software tool.  
C407.6 Calculation software tools. Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standard reference design and the proposed design and shall include the following capabilities.

1. Building operation for a full calendar year (8,760 hours).

2. Climate data for a full calendar year (8,760 hours) and shall reflect approved coincident hourly data for temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed for the building location.

3. Ten or more thermal zones.

4. Thermal mass effects.

5. Hourly variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads.

6. Part-load performance curves for mechanical equipment.

7. Capacity and efficiency correction curves for mechanical heating and cooling equipment.

8. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table C407.5.1(1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (e.g., R-value, U-factor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE, SEER, EF, etc.).

9. Air-side economizers with integrated control.

10. Standard reference design characteristics specified in Table C407.5.1(1).


C407.6.1 Specific approval. Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable subsections of Section C407 and tested according to ASHRAE Standard 140 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.


C407.6.2 Input values. Where calculations require input values not specified by Sections C402, C403, C404 and C405, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.


C407.6.3 Exceptional calculation methods. When the simulation program does not model a design, material, or device of the proposed design, an Exceptional Calculation Method shall be used if approved by the building official. If there are multiple designs, materials, or devices that the simulation program does not model, each shall be calculated separately and Exceptional Savings determined for each. At no time shall the total Exceptional Savings constitute more than half of the difference between the baseline building performance and the proposed building performance. All applications for approval of an exceptional method shall include:

1. Step-by-step documentation of the Exceptional Calculation Method performed detailed enough to reproduce the results;

2. Copies of all spreadsheets used to perform the calculations;

3. A sensitivity analysis of energy consumption when each of the input parameters is varied from half to double the value assumed;

4. The calculations shall be performed on a time step basis consistent with the simulation program used; and

5. The Performance Rating calculated with and without the Exceptional Calculation Method.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40800   Section C408 -- System commissioning.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40801   Section C408.1 -- General.  


C408.1 General. This section covers the commissioning of the building mechanical systems in Section C403, service water heating systems in Section C404, electrical power and lighting systems in Section C405 and energy metering in Section C409. Prior to passing the final mechanical and electrical inspections or obtaining a certificate of occupancy, the registered design professional or approved agency shall provide evidence of systems commissioning and completion in accordance with the provisions of this section.

Copies of all documentation shall be given to the owner and made available to the code official upon request in accordance with Sections C408.1.2 and C408.1.3.


C408.1.1 Commissioning plan. A commissioning plan shall be developed by a registered design professional or approved agency and shall include the following items:

1. A narrative description of the activities that will be accomplished during each phase of commissioning, including the personnel intended to accomplish each of the activities.

2. Roles and responsibilities of the commissioning team.

3. A schedule of activities including systems testing and balancing, functional testing, and supporting documentation.

4. A listing of the specific equipment, appliances or systems to be tested and a description of the tests to be performed.

5. Functions to be tested.

6. Conditions under which the test will be performed.

7. Measurable criteria for performance.


C408.1.2 Preliminary commissioning report. A preliminary report of commissioning test procedures and results shall be completed and certified by the registered design professional or approved agency and provided to the building owner. The report shall be identified as "Preliminary Commissioning Report" and shall identify:

1. Itemization of deficiencies found during testing required by this section that have not been corrected at the time of report preparation.

2. Deferred tests that cannot be performed at the time of report preparation because of climatic conditions, with anticipated date of completion.

3. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests.

4. Record of progress and completion of operator training.


C408.1.2.1 Acceptance of report. Buildings, or portions thereof, shall not pass the final mechanical and electrical inspections or obtain a certificate of occupancy, until such time as the code official has received a letter of transmittal from the building owner acknowledging that the building owner has received the Preliminary Commissioning Report. Completion of the Commissioning Compliance Checklist (Figure C408.1.2.1) is deemed to satisfy this requirement.


C408.1.2.2 Copy of report. The code official shall be permitted to require that a copy of the Preliminary Commissioning Report be made available for review by the code official.


C408.1.3 Documentation requirements. The construction documents shall specify that the documents described in this section be provided to the building owner within 90 days of the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy.


C408.1.3.1 Record documents. Construction documents shall be updated to convey a record of the alterations to the original design. Such updates shall include updated mechanical, electrical and control drawings red-lined, or redrawn if specified, that show all changes to size, type and locations of components, equipment and assemblies.


C408.1.3.2 Manuals. An operating and maintenance manual shall be provided and include all of the following:

1. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.

2. Manufacturer's operation manuals and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.

3. Name and address of at least one service agency.

4. Controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, record documents, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field-determined setpoints shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices or, for digital control systems, in system programming instructions.

5. A narrative of how each system is intended to operate, including recommended setpoints. Sequence of operation is not acceptable for this requirement.


C408.1.3.3 System balancing report. A written report describing the activities and measurements completed in accordance with Section C408.2.2.


C408.1.3.4 Final commissioning report. A report of test procedures and results identified as "Final Commissioning Report" shall be delivered to the building owner and shall include:

1. Results of functional performance tests.

2. Disposition of deficiencies found during testing, including details of corrective measures used or proposed.

3. Functional performance test procedures used during the commissioning process including measurable criteria for test acceptance, provided herein for repeatability.


EXCEPTION: Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.

C408.1.4 Systems operation training. Training of the maintenance staff for equipment included in the manuals required by Section C408.1.3.2 shall include at a minimum:

1. Review of systems documentation.

2. Hands-on demonstration of all normal maintenance procedures, normal operating modes, and all emergency shutdown and start-up procedures.

3. Training completion report.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-408012   Figure C408.1.2.1 -- Commissioning compliance checklist.  


Figure C408.1.2.1

Commissioning Compliance Checklist


Project Name:
Project Information Project Address:
Commissioning Authority:
Commissioning Plan Commissioning Plan was used during construction and included items below
(Section 408.1.1) A narrative description of activities and the personnel intended to accomplish each one
Measurable criteria for performance
Functions to be tested
Systems Balancing Systems Balancing has been completed
(Section C408.2.2) Air and Hydronic systems are proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses.
Test ports are provided on each pump for measuring pressure across the pump.
Functional Testing HVAC Systems Equipment Testing has been completed (Section C408.2.3.1)
(Section C408.2.3, C408.3.1, C408.4.1, C408.4.1.3 and

C408.5.1)

HVAC equipment has been tested to demonstrate the installation and operation of components, systems and system-to-system interfacing relationships in accordance with approved plans and specifications
HVAC Controls Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.2.3.2)
HVAC controls have been tested to ensure that control devices are calibrated, adjusted and operate properly. Sequences of operation have been functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications
Economizers Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.2.3.3)
Economizers operate in accordance with manufacturer's specifications
Lighting Controls Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.3.1)
Lighting controls have been tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications
Service Water Heating System Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.4.1)
Service water heating equipment has been tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications
Pool and Spa Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.4.1.3)
Pools and spas have been tested to ensure that service water heating equipment, time switches and heat recovery equipment are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications
Metering System Functional Testing has been completed (Section C408.5.1)
Energy source meters, energy end-use meters, the energy metering data acquisition system and required display are calibrated adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications
Supporting Documents Manuals, record documents and training have been completed or are scheduled
(Section 408.1.3.2) System documentation has been provided to the owner or scheduled date:
Record documents have been submitted to owner or scheduled date:
Training has been completed or scheduled date:
Commissioning Report Preliminary Commissioning Report submitted to Owner and includes items below
(Section C408.1.2) Deficiencies found during testing required by this section which have not been corrected at the time of report preparation
Deferred tests, which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions
Certification I hereby certify that all requirements for Commissioning have been completed in accordance with the Washington State Energy Code, including all items above
Building Owner or Owner's Representative Date

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40802   Section C408.2 -- Mechanical systems commissioning and completion requirements.  


C408.2 Mechanical systems commissioning and completion requirements. Mechanical equipment and controls shall comply with Section C408.2.

Construction document notes shall clearly indicate provisions for commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section and are permitted to refer to specifications for further requirements. Exception: Systems which (a) qualify as simple systems using the criteria in Section C403.3, (b) are not required to have an economizer per Section C403.3.1, and (c) where the building total mechanical equipment capacity is less than 480,000 Btu/h (140,690 W) cooling capacity and 600,000 Btu/h (175,860 W) heating capacity.


C408.2.1 Reserved.


C408.2.2 Systems adjusting and balancing. HVAC systems shall be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within the tolerances provided in the product specifications. Test and balance activities shall include air system and hydronic system balancing.


C408.2.2.1 Air systems balancing. Each supply air outlet and zone terminal device shall be equipped with means for air balancing in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of the International Mechanical Code. Discharge dampers are prohibited on constant volume fans and variable volume fans with motors 10 hp (18.6 kW) and larger. Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp (0.74 kW), fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.


EXCEPTION: Fans with fan motors of 1 hp (0.74 kW) or less.

C408.2.2.2 Hydronic systems balancing. Individual hydronic heating and cooling coils shall be equipped with means for balancing and measuring flow. Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the capability to measure pressure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less.
2. Where throttling results in no greater than five percent of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed.

C408.2.3 Functional performance testing. Functional performance testing specified in Sections C408.2.3.1 through C408.2.3.3 shall be conducted. Written procedures which clearly describe the individual systematic test procedures, the expected systems' response or acceptance criteria for each procedure, the actual response or findings, and any pertinent discussion shall be followed. At a minimum, testing shall affirm operation during actual or simulated winter and summer design conditions and during full outside air conditions.


C408.2.3.1 Equipment. Equipment functional performance testing shall demonstrate the installation and operation of components, systems, and system-to-system interfacing relationships in accordance with approved plans and specifications such that operation, function, and maintenance serviceability for each of the commissioned systems is confirmed. Testing shall include all modes and sequence of operation, including under full-load, part-load and the following emergency conditions:

1. All modes as described in the sequence of operation;

2. Redundant or automatic back-up mode;

3. Performance of alarms; and

4. Mode of operation upon a loss of power and restoration of power.


C408.2.3.2 Controls. HVAC control systems shall be tested to document that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to document they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.


C408.2.3.3 Economizers. Air economizers shall undergo a functional test to determine that they operate in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40803   Section C408.3 -- Lighting system functional testing.  


C408.3 Lighting system functional testing. Controls for automatic lighting systems shall comply with Section C408.3.1.


C408.3.1 Functional testing. Testing shall ensure that control hardware and software are calibrated, adjusted, programmed and in proper working condition in accordance with the construction documents and manufacturer's installation instructions. Written procedures which clearly describe the individual systematic test procedures, the expected systems' response or acceptance criteria for each procedure, the actual response or findings, and any pertinent discussion shall be followed. At a minimum, testing shall affirm operation during normally occupied daylight conditions. The construction documents shall state the party who will conduct the required functional testing.

Where occupant sensors, time switches, programmable schedule controls, photosensors or daylighting controls are installed, the following procedures shall be performed:

1. Confirm that the placement, sensitivity and time-out adjustments for occupant sensors yield acceptable performance.

2. Confirm that the time switches and programmable schedule controls are programmed to turn the lights off.

3. Confirm that the placement and sensitivity adjustments for photosensor controls reduce electric light based on the amount of usable daylight in the space as specified.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40804   Section C408.4 -- Service water heating systems commissioning and completion requirements.  


C408.4 Service water heating systems commissioning and completion requirements. Service water heating equipment and controls shall comply with Section C408.4. Construction document notes shall clearly indicate provisions for commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section and are permitted to refer to specifications for further requirements.


EXCEPTION: The following systems are exempt from the commissioning requirements:
1. Service water heating systems in buildings where the largest service water heating system capacity is less than 200,000 Btu/h (58,562 W) and where there are no pools or in-ground permanently installed spas.

C408.4.1 Functional performance testing. Functional performance testing specified in Sections C408.4.1.1 through C408.4.1.3 shall be conducted. Written procedures which clearly describe the individual systematic test procedures, the expected systems' response or acceptance criteria for each procedure, the actual response or findings, and any pertinent discussion shall be followed. At a minimum, testing shall affirm operation with the system under 50 percent water heating load.


C408.4.1.1 Equipment. Equipment functional performance testing shall demonstrate the installation and operation of components, systems, and system-to-system interfacing relationships in accordance with approved plans and specifications such that operation, function, and maintenance serviceability for each of the commissioned systems is confirmed. Testing shall include all modes and sequence of operation, including under full-load, part-load and the following emergency conditions:

1. Redundant or automatic back-up mode;

2. Performance of alarms; and

3. Mode of operation upon a loss of power and restoration of power.


C408.4.1.2 Controls. Service water heating controls shall be tested to document that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to document they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.


C408.4.1.3 Pools and spas. Service water heating equipment, time switches, and heat recovery equipment which serve pools and in-ground permanently installed spas shall undergo a functional test to determine that they operate in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40805   Section C408.5 -- Metering system commissioning.  


C408.5 Metering system commissioning. Energy metering systems required by Section C409 shall comply with Section C408.5 and be included in the commissioning process required by Section C408.1. Construction documents shall clearly indicate provisions for commissioning in accordance with Section C408 and are permitted to refer to specifications for further requirements.


C408.5.1 Functional testing. Functional testing shall be conducted by following written procedures which clearly describe the individual systematic test procedures, the expected systems' response or acceptance criteria for each procedure, the actual response or findings, and any pertinent discussion. Functional testing shall document that energy source meters, energy end-use meters, the energy metering data acquisition system, and required energy consumption display are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. At a minimum, testing shall confirm that:

1. The metering system devices and components work properly under low and high load conditions.

2. The metered data is delivered in a format that is compatible with the data collection system.

3. The energy display is accessible to building operation and management personnel.

4. The energy display meets code requirements regarding views required in Section C409.4.3. The display shows energy data in identical units (e.g., kWh).

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40900   Section C409 -- Energy metering and energy consumption management.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40901   Section C409.1 -- General.  


C409.1 General. Buildings with a gross conditioned floor area over 50,000 square feet shall comply with Section C409. Buildings shall be equipped to measure, monitor, record and display energy consumption data for each energy source and end use category per the provisions of this section, to enable effective energy management.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Tenant spaces within buildings if the tenant space has its own utility service and utility meters.
2. Buildings in which there is no gross conditioned floor area over 25,000 square feet, including building common area, that is served by its own utility services and meters.

C409.1.1 Alternate metering methods. Where approved by the building official, energy use metering systems may differ from those required by this section, provided that they are permanently installed and that the source energy measurement, end use category energy measurement, data storage and data display have similar accuracy to and are at least as effective in communicating actionable energy use information to the building management and users, as those required by this section.


C409.1.2 Conversion factor. Any threshold stated in kW shall include the equivalent BTU/h heating and cooling capacity of installed equipment at a conversion factor of 3,412 Btu per kW at 50 percent demand.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40902   Section C409.2 -- Energy source metering.  


C409.2 Energy source metering. Buildings shall have a meter at each energy source. For each energy supply source listed in Section C409.2.1 through C409.2.4, meters shall collect data for the whole building or for each separately metered portion of the building where not exempted by the exception to Section C409.1.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Energy source metering is not required where end use metering for an energy source accounts for all usage of that energy type within a building, and the data acquisition system accurately totals the energy delivered to the building or separately metered portion of the building.
2. Solid fuels such as coal, firewood or wood pellets that are delivered via mobile transportation do not require metering.

C409.2.1 Electrical energy. This category shall include all electrical energy supplied to the building and its associated site, including site lighting, parking, recreational facilities, and other areas that serve the building and its occupants.


C409.2.2 Gas and liquid fuel supply energy. This category shall include all natural gas, fuel oil, propane and other gas or liquid fuel energy supplied to the building and site.


C409.2.3 District energy. This category shall include all net energy extracted from district steam systems, district chilled water loops, district hot water systems, or other energy sources serving multiple buildings.


C409.2.4 Site-generated renewable energy. This category shall include all net energy generated from on-site solar, wind, geothermal, tidal or other natural sources.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40903   Section C409.3 -- End-use metering.  


C409.3 End-use metering. Meters shall be provided to collect energy use data for each end-use category listed in Sections C409.3.1 through C409.3.2. These meters shall collect data for the whole building or for each separately metered portion of the building where not exempted by the exception to Section C409.1. Multiple meters may be used for any end-use category, provided that the data acquisition system totals all of the energy used by that category.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. HVAC and water heating equipment serving only an individual dwelling unit does not require end-use metering.
2. Separate metering is not required for fire pumps, stairwell pressurization fans or other life safety systems that operate only during testing or emergency.
3. End use metering is not required for individual tenant spaces not exceeding 2,500 square feet in floor area when a dedicated source meter meeting the requirements of Section C409.4.1 is provided for the tenant space.

C409.3.1 HVAC system energy use. This category shall include all energy including electrical, gas, liquid fuel, district steam and district chilled water that is used by boilers, chillers, pumps, fans and other equipment used to provide space heating, space cooling, dehumidification and ventilation to the building, but not including energy that serves process loads, water heating or miscellaneous loads as defined in Section C409.3. Multiple HVAC energy sources, such as gas, electric and steam, are not required to be summed together.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. All 120 volt equipment.
2. 208/120 volt equipment in a building where the main service is 480/277 volt power.
3. Electrical energy fed through variable frequency drives that are connected to the energy metering data acquisition center.

C409.3.2 Water heating energy use. This category shall include all energy used for heating of domestic and service hot water, but not energy used for space heating.


EXCEPTION: Water heating energy use less than 50 kW does not require end-use metering.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40904   Section C409.4 -- Measurement devices, data acquisition system and energy display.  


C409.4 Measurement devices, data acquisition system and energy display.


C409.4.1 Meters. Meters and other measurement devices required by this section shall have local displays or be configured to automatically communicate energy data to a data acquisition system. Source meters may be any digital-type meters. Current sensors or flow meters are allowed for end use metering, provided that they have an accuracy of +/- 5%. All required metering systems and equipment shall provide at least hourly data that is fully integrated into the data acquisition and display system per the requirements of Section C409.


C409.4.2 Data acquisition system. The data acquisition system shall store the data from the required meters and other sensing devices for a minimum of 36 months. For each energy supply and end use category required by C409.2 and C409.3, it shall provide real-time energy consumption data and logged data for any hour, day, month or year.


C409.4.3 Energy display. For each building subject to Section C409.2 and C409.3, either a readily accessible and visible display, or a web page or other electronic document accessible to building management or to a third-party energy data analysis service shall be provided in the building accessible by building operation and management personnel. The display shall graphically provide the current energy consumption rate for each whole building energy source, plus each end use category, as well as the average and peak values for any day, week or year.


C409.4.4 Commissioning. The entire system shall be commissioned in accordance with Section C408.5. Deficiencies found during testing shall be corrected and retested and the commissioning report shall be updated to confirm that the entire metering and data acquisition and display system is fully functional.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-40905   Section C409.5 -- Metering for existing buildings.  


C409.5 Metering for existing buildings.


C409.5.1 Existing buildings that were constructed subject to the requirements of this section. Where new or replacement systems or equipment are installed in an existing building that was constructed subject to the requirements of this section, metering shall be provided for such new or replacement systems or equipment so that their energy use is included in the corresponding end-use category defined in Section C409.2. This includes systems or equipment added in conjunction with additions or alterations to existing buildings.


C409.5.1.1 Small existing buildings. Metering and data acquisition systems shall be provided for additions over 25,000 square feet in accordance with the requirements of sections C409.2 and C409.3.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-50000   Chapter 5 [CE] -- Referenced standards.   This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 106.


AAMA American Architectural Manufacturers Association
1827 Walden Office Square
Suite 550
Schaumburg, IL 60173-4268
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A C440 -- 11

North American Fenestration Standard/Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights . . . . . . . . Table C402.4.3
AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers
1111 19th Street, N.W., Suite 402
Washington, D.C. 20036
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ANSI/AHAM RAC-1 -- 2008 Room Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(3)
AHRI Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute
4100 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 200
Arlington, VA 22203
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE
13256-1 (2005) Water-source Heat Pumps - Testing and Rating for Performance - Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(2)
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE
13256-2 (1998) Water-source Heat Pumps - Testing and Rating for Performance - Part 2: Water-to-water and Brine-to-water Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(2)
210/240 -- 08 Unitary Air Conditioning and Air-source Heat Pump Equipment . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(1),

Table C403.2.3(2)

310/380 -- 04 Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(3)
340/360 -- 2007 Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(1),

Table C403.2.3(2)

365 -- 09 Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning Condensing Units . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(1),

Table C403.2.3(6)

390 -- 03 Performance Rating of Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(3)
400 -- 01 Liquid to Liquid Heat Exchangers with Addendum 2 . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(9)
440 -- 08 Room Fan Coil . . . . . . . . C403.2.8
460 -- 05 Performance Rating Remote Mechanical Draft Air-cooled Refrigerant Condensers . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(8)
550/590 -- 03 Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle -- with Addenda . . . . . . . . C403.2.3.1,

Table C403.2.3(7),

Table C406.2(6)

560 -- 00 Absorption Water Chilling and Water-heating Packages . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(7)
1160 -- 08 Performance Rating of Heat Pump Pool Heaters . . . . . . . . Table C404.2
AMCA Air Movement and Control Association International
30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1806
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
500D -- 10 Laboratory Methods for Testing Dampers for Rating . . . . . . . . C402.4.5.1,

C402.4.5.2

ANSI American National Standards Institute
25 West 43rd Street
Fourth Floor
New York, NY 10036
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ANSI/ASME A17.1-2010 Safety code for elevators and escalators . . . . . . . . C405.12.1
Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3 -- 04 Gas Water Heaters, Volume III -- Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings Above 75,000 Btu per Hour, Circulating Tank and Instantaneous . . . . . . . . Table C404.2
Z21.47/CSA 2.3 -- 06 Gas-fired Central Furnaces . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(4),

Table C406.2(4)

Z83.8/CSA 2.6 -- 09 Gas Unit Heaters, Gas Packaged Heaters, Gas Utility Heaters and Gas-fired Duct Furnaces . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(4),

Table C406.2(4)

ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30329-2305
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA
Standard 127-2007 Method of Testing for Rating Computer and Data Processing Room Unitary Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . C403.4.1
Standard 183 -- 2007 Peak Cooling and Heating Load Calculations in Buildings, Except Low-rise Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . C403.2.1
ASHRAE -- 2004 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook -- 2004 . . . . . . . . C403.2.1
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE
13256-1 (2005) Water-source Heat Pumps -- Testing and Rating for Performance -- Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(2)
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE
13256-2 (1998) Water-source Heat Pumps -- Testing and Rating for Performance -- Part 2: Water-to-water and Brine-to-water Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(2)
90.1 -- 2010 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings

(ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 -- 2010)

. . . . . . . . C401.2,

C401.2.1,

C402.1.1,

Table C402.1.2,

Table C402.2,

Table C407.6.1

119 -- 88 (RA 2004) Air Leakage Performance for Detached Single-family Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . Table C405.5.2(1)
140 -- 2010 Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs . . . . . . . . C407.6.1
146 -- 2006 Testing and Rating Pool Heaters . . . . . . . . Table C404.2
ASTM ASTM International
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA
19428-2859
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
C 90 -- 08 Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units . . . . . . . . Table C402.2
C 1371 -- 04 Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1
C 1549 -- 04 Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using A Portable Solar Reflectometer . . . . . . . . Table C405.2.1.1
D 1003 -- 07e1 Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics . . . . . . . . C402.3.2.2
E 283 -- 04 Test Method for Determining the Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1,

C402.4.1.2.2,

Table C402.4.3,

C402.4.4,

C402.4.8

E 408 -- 71 (2002) Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-meter Techniques . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1
E 779 -- 03 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization . . . . . . . . C402.4.1.2.3
E 903 -- 96 Standard Test Method Solar Absorptance, Reflectance and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres (Withdrawn 2005) . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1
E 1677 -- 05 Standard Specification for an Air-retarder (AR) Material or System for Low-rise Framed Building Walls . . . . . . . . C402.4.1.2.2
E 1918 -- 97 Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal or Low-sloped Surfaces in the Field . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1
E 1980 -- (2001) Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-sloped Opaque Surfaces . . . . . . . . Table C402.2.1.1
E 2178 -- 03 Standard Test Method for Air Permanence of Building Materials . . . . . . . . C402.4.1.2.1
E 2357 -- 05 Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage of Air Barrier Assemblies . . . . . . . . C404.1.2.2
CSA Canadian Standards Association
5060 Spectrum Way
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A440 -- 11

North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights . . . . . . . . R402.4.3
CTI Cooling Technology Institute
2611 FM 1960 West, Suite A-101
Houston, TX 77068
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ATC 105 (00) Acceptance Test Code for Water Cooling Tower . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(8)
STD 201 -- 09 Standard for Certification of Water Cooling Towers Thermal Performances . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(8)
DASMA Door and Access Systems Manufacturers Association
1300 Sumner Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44115-2851
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
105 -- 92 (R2004) Test Method for Thermal Transmittance and Air Infiltration of Garage Doors . . . . . . . . Table C402.4.3
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
c/o Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402-9325
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
10 C.F.R., Part 430 -- 1998 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:
Test Procedures and Certification and Enforcement Requirement for Plumbing Products; and Certification and Enforcement Requirements for Residential Appliances; Final Rule . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(4),

Table C403.2.3(5),

Table C404.2,

Table C406.2(4),

Table C406.2(5)

10 C.F.R., Part 430, Subpart B, Appendix N -- 1998 Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers
. . . . . . . . C202
10 C.F.R., Part 431 -- 2004 Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards; Final Rules . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(5),

Table C406.2(5)

NAECA 87 -- (88) National Appliance Energy Conservation Act 1987 [(Public Law 100-12 (with Amendments of 1988-P.L. 100-357)] . . . . . . . . Tables C403.2.3 (1), (2), (4)
IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
4755 E. Philadelphia Street
Ontario, CA 91761
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
UPC -- 2012 Uniform Plumbing Code . . . . . . . . C201.3
ICC International Code Council, Inc.
500 New Jersey Avenue, N.W.,
6th Floor
Washington, DC 20001
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
IBC -- 12 International Building Code . . . . . . . . C201.3, C303.2, C402.4.4
IFC -- 12 International Fire Code . . . . . . . . C201.3
IFGC -- 12 International Fuel Gas Code . . . . . . . . C201.3
IMC -- 12 International Mechanical Code . . . . . . . . C403.2.5, C403.2.5.1, C403.2.6, C403.2.7, C403.2.7.1,

C403.2.7.1.1, C403.2.7.1.2, C403.2.7.1.3, C403.4.5, C408.2.2.1

IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
120 Wall Street, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10005-4001
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 -- 2010 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings . . . . . . . . C401.2, C401.2.1, C402.1.1, Table C402.1.2, Table C402.2, Table C407.6.1
ISO International Organization for Standardization
1, rue de Varembe, Case postale 56, CH-1211
Geneva, Switzerland
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1 (2005) Water-source Heat Pumps -- Testing and Rating for Performance -- Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . C403.2.3(2)
ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-2 (1998) Water-Source Heat Pumps -- Testing and Rating for Performance -- Part 2: Water-to-water and Brine-to-water Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . C403.2.3(2)
NEMA National Electric Manufacturers Association
1300 North 17th Street
Suite 1752
Rosslyn, VA 22209
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
TP-1-2002 Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers . . . . . . . . C405.9
NFRC National Fenestration Rating Council, Inc.
6305 Ivy Lane, Suite 140
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
100 -- 2010 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors . . . . . . . . C303.1.2,

C402.2.1

200 -- 2010 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Solar Heat Gain Coefficients and Visible Transmittance at Normal Incidence . . . . . . . . C303.1.3,

C402.3.1.1

400 -- 2010 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Air Leakage . . . . . . . . Table C402.4.3
SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc.
4021 Lafayette Center Drive
Chantilly, VA 20151-1209
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
SMACNA -- 85 HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual . . . . . . . . C403.2.7.1.3
UL Underwriters Laboratories
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
727 -- 06 Oil-fired Central Furnaces -- with Revisions through April 2010 . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(4), Table C406.2(4)
731 -- 95 Oil-fired Unit Heaters -- with Revisions through April 2010 . . . . . . . . Table C403.2.3(4),

Table C406.2(4)

US-FTC United States-Federal Trade Commission
600 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W.
Washington, DC 20580
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
C.F.R. Title 16

(May 31, 2005)

R-value Rule . . . . . . . . C303.1.4
WDMA Window and Door Manufacturers Association
1400 East Touhy Avenue, Suite 470
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A440 -- 11

North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights . . . . . . . . Table C402.4.3

[]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-60000   Appendix A -- Default heal loss coefficients.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61010   Section A101 -- General.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61011   Section A101.1 -- Scope.  


A101.1 Scope. The following defaults shall apply to Chapter 4 of both the (RE) and (CE) sections of the IECC. This chapter includes tables of seasonal average heat loss coefficients for specified nominal insulation.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61012   Section A101.2 -- Description.  


A101.2 Description. These coefficients were developed primarily from data and procedures from the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

Coefficients not contained in this chapter may be computed using the procedures listed in this reference if the assumptions in the following sections are used, along with data from the sources referenced above.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61013   Section A101.3 -- Air films.  


A101.3 Air films. Default R-values used for air films shall be as follows:


R-Value Condition
0.17 All exterior surfaces
0.61 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up
0.92 Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down
0.68 Interior vertical surfaces

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61014   Section A101.4 -- Compression of insulation.  


A101.4 Compression of insulation. Insulation which is compressed shall be rated in accordance with Table A101.4 or reduction in value may be calculated in accordance with the procedures in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.


Table A101.4

R-value of Fiberglass Batts Compressed Within Various Depth Cavities


Insulation R-Values at Standard Thickness
Rated R-Value 82 71 60 49 38 30 22 21 19 15 13 11
Standard Thickness, Inches 26.0 22.5 19.0 15.5 12 9.5 6.5 5.5 6 3.5 3.5 3.5
Nominal Lumber Sizes, Inches Actual Depth of Cavity, Inches Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity
Truss 26.0 82 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 22.5 -- 71 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 19.0 -- -- 60 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 15.5 -- -- -- 49 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Truss 12.0 -- -- -- -- 38 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 12 11.25 -- -- -- -- 37 -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 10 9.25 -- -- -- -- 32 30 -- -- -- -- -- --
2 x 8 7.25 -- -- -- -- 27 26 22 21 19 -- -- --
2 x 6 5.5 -- -- -- -- -- 21 20 21 18 -- -- --
2 x 4 3.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14 -- 13 15 13 11
2.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 9.8 --
1.5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.3 6.0

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61015   Section A101.5 -- Building materials.  


A101.5 Building materials. Default R-values used for building materials shall be as shown in Table A101.5.

Table A101.5

Default R-values for Building Materials



Material Nominal Size (in.) Actual Size (in.) R-Value (Heat Capacityc)
Air cavity (unventilated), between metal studs at 16 inches on centera - - 0.79
Air cavity (unventilated), all other depths and framing materials1 - - 0.91
Airfilm, exterior surfacesb - - 0.17
Airfilm, interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow upb - - 0.61
Airfilm, interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow downb - - 0.92
Airfilm, interior vertical surfacesb - - 0.68
Brick at R-0.12/in. (face brick, 75% solid/25% core area, 130 lbs/ft3) 4 3.5 0.32 (5.9)
Carpet and rubber pad - - 1.23
Concrete at R-0.0625/in., heavyweight (144 lbs/ft3) - 2 0.13 (HC-4.8)
- 4 0.25 (HC-9.6)
- 6 0.38 (HC-14.4)
- 8 0.50 (HC-19.2)
- 10 0.63 (HC-24.0)
- 12 0.75 (HC-28.8)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 6 - 0.80 (HC-11.4)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 6 - 0.51 (HC-13.2)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 6 - 1.33 (HC-6.7)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 6 - 0.82 (HC-9.0)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 8 - 1.05 (HC-15.5)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 8 - 0.69 (HC-17.9)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 8 - 1.44 (HC-9.6)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 8 - 0.98 (HC-12.0)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 10 - 1.30 (HC-19.7)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 10 - 0.87 (HC-22.6)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 10 - 1.61 (HC-11.9)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 10 - 1.11 (HC-14.8)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 12 - 1.53 (HC-23.9)
Concrete masonry units, solid grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 12 - 1.06 (HC-27.2)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, lightweight (95 lbs/ft3) 12 - 1.75 (HC-14.2)
Concrete masonry units, partly grouted, normal weight (135 lbs/ft3) 12 - 1.23 (HC-17.5)
Flooring, wood subfloor - 0.75 0.94
Gypsum board - 0.5 0.45
- 0.625 0.56
Metal deck - - 0
Roofing, built-up - 0.375 0.33
Sheathing, vegetable fiber board, 0.78 in. - 0.78 2.06
Soil at R-0.104/in. - 12 1.25
Steel, mild 1 0.0031807
Stucco - 0.75 0.08

aThere is no credit for cavities that are open to outside air.
bAir films do not apply to air cavities within an assembly.
cFor heat capacity for concrete and concrete masonry materials with densities other than the values listed in Table A101.5, see Tables A3.1B and A3.1C in ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61020   Section A102 -- Ceilings.  

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-61021   Section A102.1 -- General.  


A102.1 General. Table A102.1 lists heat loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings and roof decks in units of Btu/h ft2 F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65F and an outdoor temperature of 45F.


A102.1.1 Metal framed ceilings. The nominal R-values in Table A103.3.6.2: Effective R-Values for Metal Framing and Cavity Only may be used for purposes of calculating metal framed ceiling section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter 27 of the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook.

Metal building roofs have a different construction and are addressed in Table A102.2.5.

[]


NEW SECTION
WAC 51-11C-610211   Table A102.1 -- Default U-factors for ceilings.  


Table A102.1

Default U-factors for Ceilings


Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Ceilings Below Vented Attics
Flat Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings 16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck 4 x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5