WSR 10-16-091

EXPEDITED RULES

BUILDING CODE COUNCIL


[ Filed July 30, 2010, 1:34 p.m. ]

Title of Rule and Other Identifying Information: Chapter 51-11 WAC, the Washington State Energy Code, 2009 Edition.

NOTICE

THIS RULE IS BEING PROPOSED UNDER AN EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS THAT WILL ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR THE AGENCY TO HOLD PUBLIC HEARINGS, PREPARE A SMALL BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT, OR PROVIDE RESPONSES TO THE CRITERIA FOR A SIGNIFICANT LEGISLATIVE RULE. IF YOU OBJECT TO THIS USE OF THE EXPEDITED RULE-MAKING PROCESS, YOU MUST EXPRESS YOUR OBJECTIONS IN WRITING AND THEY MUST BE SENT TO Tim Nogler, State Building Code Council, P.O. Box 41011, Olympia, WA 98504-1011 , AND RECEIVED BY October 5, 2010.


Purpose of the Proposal and Its Anticipated Effects, Including Any Changes in Existing Rules: Correcting references, table borders and correlation errors in the Washington State Energy Code, chapter 51-11 WAC, 2009 Edition as outlined below.

WAC 51-11-0402: In the exception to Section 402.2, the percentage by which the proposed design is required to beat the standard design was lowered to eight percent to correlate with the change made to lower the number of points required by Section 901 in WSR 10-03-115.

WAC 51-11-0625: Footnote 1 of Table 6-1 was adjusted to represent the current percentage of glazing referenced in the table.

WAC 51-11-0900: The exception to Section 901 was edited as noted for WAC 51-11-0402.

WAC 51-11-1007: Table 1007-F was reformatted to have column and row headers in the appropriate places. In addition, nonapplicable footnote references were eliminated in Table 9-1.

WAC 51-11-1334: Equation 13-3 was modified to use the new definitions from Equation 13-1 established in WSR 10-03-115.

WAC 51-11-1416: The section reference in Section 1416.2 was corrected.

WAC 51-11-1438: Some text in Section 1438.1 that should have been part of the main section was inadvertently included in the exception.

Reasons Supporting Proposal: A number of editorial errors were identified in the rules filed under WSR 10-03-115. This rule corrects those errors.

Statutory Authority for Adoption: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045.

Statute Being Implemented: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW.

Rule is not necessitated by federal law, federal or state court decision.

Name of Proponent: State building code council, governmental.

Name of Agency Personnel Responsible for Drafting: Krista Braaksma, P.O. Box 41011, (360) 902-7290; Implementation and Enforcement: Local jurisdictions.

June 30, 2010

John C. Cochran

Council Chair

OTS-3491.1


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-0402   Systems analysis.  


402.1 Special Requirements for Single-Family Residential:


402.1.1 Energy Budgets: Proposed buildings designed in accordance with this section shall be designed to use no more energy from nonrenewable sources for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating than a standard building whose enclosure elements and energy consuming systems are designed in accordance with section 502.2 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone, and heating system type and cooling system and whose mechanical system type is the same as the proposed building and which complies with Section 503 of this Code. Energy derived from renewable sources may be excluded from the total annual energy consumption attributed to the alternative building.


402.1.2 Calculation of Energy Consumption: The application for a building permit shall include documentation which demonstrates, using a calculation procedure as listed in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate, that the proposed building's annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use does not exceed the annual space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water heating energy use of a standard building conforming to Chapter 5 of this Code for the appropriate climate zone. The total calculated annual energy consumption shall be shown in units of kWh/ft2-yr or Btu/ft2-yr of conditioned area.


402.1.3 Input Values: The following standardized input values shall be used in calculating annual space heating budgets:


PARAMETER VALUE
Thermostat set point, heating

Thermostat set point, cooling

Thermostat night set back

Thermostat night set back period

65 F

78 F

65 F

0 hours

Internal gain 3000 Btu/h
Domestic Hot Water Heater

Setpoint

120 F

Domestic Hot Water Consumption
20 gallons/person/day.
Minimum heat storage Calculated using standard engineering practice for the actual building or as approved.

Site weather data

Typical meteorological year (TMY) or ersatz TMY data for the closest appropriate TMY site or other sites as approved.
Heating and cooling equipment

efficiency

Equipment shall comply with Section 1411.

The standard building shall be modeled with glazing area distributed equally among the four cardinal directions. Parameter values that may be varied by the building designer to model energy saving options include, but are not limited to, the following:


1. Overall thermal transmittance, Uo, of building envelope or individual building components;


2. Heat storage capacity of building;


3. Glazing orientation; area; and solar heat coefficients; (where Chapter 5 does not contain SHGC requirements, the standard design shall be modeled with glazing SHGC as determined by Tables 13-1 and 13-2. SHGC values shall be determined in accordance with Section 1312.2.)


4. Heating system efficiency.


Parameter values that may not be varied:


Domestic hot water consumption.


402.1.4 Solar Shading and Access: Building designs using passive solar features with eight percent or more south facing equivalent glazing to qualify shall provide to the building official a sun chart or other approved documentation depicting actual site shading for use in calculating compliance under this section. The building shall contain at least forty-five Btu/F for each square foot of south facing glass.


402.1.5 Infiltration: Infiltration levels used shall be set at 0.35 air changes per hour for thermal calculation purposes only.


402.1.6 Heat Pumps: The heating season performance factor (HSPF) for heat pumps shall be calculated using procedures consistent with section 5.2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Test Procedure for Central Air Conditioners, including heat pumps published in the December 27, 1979 Federal Register Vol. 44, No. 24.10 CFR 430. Climate data as specified above, the proposed buildings overall thermal performance value (Btu/F) and the standardized input assumptions specified above shall be used to model the heat pumps HSPF.


402.2 Energy Analysis: Compliance with this chapter will require an analysis of the annual energy usage, hereinafter called an annual energy analysis.

EXCEPTIONS: Chapters 5, and 6 of this Code establish criteria for different energy-consuming and enclosure elements of the building which, will eliminate the requirement for an annual systems energy analysis while meeting the intent of this Code.
A building designed in accordance with this chapter will be deemed as complying with this Code if the calculated annual energy consumption is ((16)) 8 percent less than a similar building (defined as a "standard design") whose enclosure elements and energy-consuming systems are designed in accordance with Chapter 5.
For an alternate building design to be considered similar to a "standard design," it shall utilize the same energy source(s) for the same functions and have equal floor area and the same ratio of envelope area to floor area, environmental requirements, occupancy, climate data and usage operational schedule.

402.3 Design: The standard design, conforming to the criteria of Chapter 5 and the proposed alternative design shall be designed on a common basis as specified herein:


The comparison shall be expressed as kBtu or kWh input per square foot of conditioned floor area per year at the building site.


402.4 Analysis Procedure: The analysis of the annual energy usage of the standard and the proposed alternative building and system design shall meet the following criteria:


a. The building heating/cooling load calculation procedure used for annual energy consumption analysis shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of effect of factors specified in section 402.5.


b. The calculation procedure used to simulate the operation of the building and its service systems through a full-year operating period shall be detailed to permit the evaluation of the effect of system design, climatic factors, operational characteristics, and mechanical equipment on annual energy usage. Manufacturer's data or comparable field test data shall be used when available in the simulation of systems and equipment. The calculation procedure shall be based upon eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours of operation of the building and its service systems.


402.5 Calculation Procedure: The calculation procedure shall cover the following items:


a. Design requirements -- Environmental requirements as required in Chapter 3.


b. Climatic data -- Coincident hourly data for temperatures, solar radiation, wind and humidity of typical days in the year representing seasonal variation.


c. Building data -- Orientation, size, shape, mass, air, moisture and heat transfer characteristics.


d. Operational characteristics -- Temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, control mode for occupied and unoccupied hours.


e. Mechanical equipment -- Design capacity, part load profile.


f. Building loads -- Internal heat generation, lighting, equipment, number of people during occupied and unoccupied periods.

EXCEPTION: Single-family residential shall comply with calculation procedures in Chapter 8, or an approved alternate.

402.6 Documentation: Proposed alternative designs, submitted as requests for exception to the standard design criteria, shall be accompanied by an energy analysis comparison report. The report shall provide technical detail on the two building and system designs and on the data used in and resulting from the comparative analysis to verify that both the analysis and the designs meet the criteria of Chapter 4 of this Code.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-0402, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0402, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025 and 19.27A.045. 98-03-003, 51-11-0402, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0402, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0402, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-0625   Table 6-1.  

TABLE 6-1
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
CLIMATE ZONE 1

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall

int4 Below Grade

Wall

ext4 Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 13% 0.34 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
II.* 25% 0.32 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-10 R-30 R-10 2'
III. Unlimited 0.30 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-10 R-30 R-10 2'

* Reference Case
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of ((13)) 15%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the ((15)) 25% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-10, continuous or on the interior as a framed wall. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4. For slabs inside a foundation wall, the insulation shall be installed to provide a thermal break (TB) between the slab edge and the foundation. Monolithic slabs shall include insulation, installed outside the foundation wall, and shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Monolithic slabs shall also include R-10 insulation under the nonload bearing portions of the slab.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. Reserved.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.35 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

TABLE 6-2
PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS0,1 FOR SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL
CLIMATE ZONE 2

Option Glazing Area10:

% of

Floor

Glazing U-Factor Door9

U-

Factor

Ceiling2 Vaulted Ceiling3 Wall12 Above Grade Wall int4 Below Grade Wall

ext4 Below Grade

Floor5 Slab6

on

Grade

Vertical Overhead11
I. 12% 0.32 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-21 int7 R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'
II.* 15% 0.32 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-19

+R-58

R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'
III. Unlimited 0.30 0.50 0.20 R-49 or R-38 adv R-38 R-19

+R-58

R-21 TB R-12 R-30 R-10 2'

* Reference Case.
0. Nominal R-values are for wood frame assemblies only or assemblies built in accordance with Section 601.1.
1. Minimum requirements for each option listed. For example, if a proposed design has a glazing ratio to the conditioned floor area of 13%, it shall comply with all of the requirements of the 15% glazing option (or higher). Proposed designs which cannot meet the specific requirements of a listed option above may calculate compliance by Chapters 4 or 5 of this Code.
2. Requirement applies to all ceilings except single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings complying with note 3. 'Adv' denotes Advanced Framed Ceiling.
3. Requirement applicable only to single rafter or joist vaulted ceilings.
4. Below grade walls shall be insulated either on the exterior to a minimum level of R-12, continuous or on the interior as a framed wall. Exterior insulation installed on below grade walls shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to the manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.2.
5. Floors over crawl spaces or exposed to ambient air conditions.
6. Required slab perimeter insulation shall be a water resistant material, manufactured for its intended use, and installed according to manufacturer's specifications. See Section 602.4. For slabs inside a foundation wall, the insulation shall be installed to provide a thermal break (TB) between the slab edge and the foundation. Monolithic slabs shall include insulation, installed outside the foundation wall, and shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance of 24 inches or downward and then horizontally for a minimum combined distance of 24 inches. Monolithic slabs shall also include R-10 insulation under the nonload bearing portions of the slab.
7. Int. denotes standard framing 16 inches on center with headers insulated with a minimum of R-10 insulation.
8. Reserved.
9. Doors, including all fire doors, shall be assigned default U-factors from Table 10-6C.
10. Where a maximum glazing area is listed, the total glazing area (combined vertical plus overhead) as a percent of gross conditioned floor area shall be less than or equal to that value. Overhead glazing with U-factor of U = 0.35 or less is not included in glazing area limitations.
11. Overhead glazing shall have U-factors determined in accordance with NFRC 100 or as specified in Section 502.1.5.
12. Log and solid timber walls with a minimum average thickness of 3.5" are exempt from this insulation requirement.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-0625, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0625, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04; 02-24-076, 51-11-0625, filed 12/4/02, effective 5/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0625, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02; 01-03-010, 51-11-0625, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-0625, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0625, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27, 19.27A and 34.05 RCW. 94-05-059, 51-11-0625, filed 2/10/94, effective 4/1/94. Statutory Authority: Chapter 19.27A RCW. 92-01-140, 51-11-0625, filed 12/19/91, effective 7/1/92.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-0900   Chapter 0900 -- Additional residential energy efficiency requirements.  


901 Additional Residential Energy Efficiency Requirements. Dwelling units permitted under this Code shall comply with all provisions of Chapter 5 of this Code and develop 1 credit from Table 9-1.


EXCEPTION: Buildings complying using Chapter 4 Building Design by Systems Analysis shall meet this provision of this section by demonstrating that the proposed building energy use is ((16)) 8 percent less than the target building energy use.

TABLE 9-1
ENERGY CREDITS (DEBITS)

OPTION DESCRIPTION CREDIT(S)
1a HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 1:

Gas, propane or oil-fired furnace or boiler with minimum AFUE of 92%,

or

Air-source heat pump with minimum HSPF of 8.5.

1.0
1b HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 2:

Closed-loop ground source heat pump;

with a minimum COP of 3.3.

2.0
1c HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC EQUIPMENT 3:

DUCTLESS SPLIT SYSTEM HEAT PUMPS, ZONAL CONTROL:

In home where the primary space heating system is zonal electric heating, a ductless heat pump system shall be installed and provide heating to at least one zone of the housing unit.

1.0
2 HIGH EFFICIENCY HVAC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:1

All heating and cooling system components installed inside the conditioned space. All combustion equipment shall be direct vent or sealed combustion.

Locating system components in conditioned crawl spaces is not permitted under this option.

Electric resistance heat is not permitted under this option.

Direct combustion heating equipment with AFUE less than 80% is not permitted under this option.

1.0
3a EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 1:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = 0.28 floor R-38, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5-1 by 5%, as determined using EQUATION 1.((1))

0.5
3b EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 2:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications: Window U = 0.25 and wall R-21 plus R-4 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full, and R-21 plus R-5 below grade basement walls.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 15%, as determined using EQUATION 1.((1))

1.0
3c SUPER-EFFICIENT BUILDING ENVELOPE 3:

Prescriptive compliance is based on Table 6-1, Option III with the following modifications:

Window U = 0.22 and wall R-21 plus R-12 and R-38 floor, slab on grade R-10 full, below grade slab R-10 full and R-21 plus R-12 below grade basement walls and R-49 advanced ceiling and vault.

or

Component performance compliance: Reduce the Target UA from Table 5.1 by 30%, as determined using EQUATION 1.((1))

2.0
4a AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00020 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00020 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

0.5
4b ADDITIONAL AIR LEAKAGE CONTROL AND EFFICIENT VENTILATION:

Envelope leakage reduced to SLA of 0.00015 building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than specific leakage area of 0.00015 when tested with a blower door at a pressure difference of 50 PA. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation, and combustion appliances.

and

All whole house ventilation requirements as determined by Section M1508 of the Washington State Residential Code shall be met with a heat recovery ventilation system in accordance with Section M1508.7 of that Code.

1.0
5a EFFICIENT WATER HEATING:((1))

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.62.

or

Electric Water Heater with a minimum EF of 0.93.

and for both cases

All showerhead and kitchen sink faucets installed in the house shall meet be rated at 1.75 GPM or less. All other lavatory faucets shall be rated at 1.0 GPM or less.2

0.5
5b HIGH EFFICIENCY WATER HEATING:((1))

Water heating system shall include one of the following:

Gas, propane or oil water heater with a minimum EF of 0.82.

or

Solar water heating supplementing a minimum standard water heater. Solar water heating will provide a rated minimum savings of 85 therms or 2000 kWh based on the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) Annual Performance of OG-300 Certified Solar Water Heating Systems.

or

Electric heat pump water heater with a minimum EF of 2.0.

1.5
6 SMALL DWELLING UNIT 1:((1))

Dwelling units less than 1500 square feet in floor area with less than 300 square feet of window + door area. Additions to existing building that are less than 750 square feet of heated floor area.

1.0
7 LARGE DWELLING UNIT 1:((1))

Dwelling units exceeding 5000 square feet of floor area shall be assessed a deduction for purposes of complying with Section 901 of this Code.

-1.0
8 RENEWABLE ELECTRIC ENERGY:

For each 1200 kWh of electrical generation provided annually by on-site wind or solar equipment a 0.5 credit shall be allowed, up to 3 credits. Generation shall be calculated as follows:

For solar electric systems, the design shall be demonstrated to meet this requirement using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory calculator PVWATTs. Documentation noting solar access shall be included on the plans.


For wind generation projects designs shall document annual power generation based on the following factors:

The wind turbine power curve; average annual wind speed at the site; frequency distribution of the wind speed at the site and height of the tower.

[0.5]

Footnotes: 1. Interior Duct Placement: Ducts included as Option 2 of Table 9-1 shall be placed wholly within the heated envelope of the housing unit. The placement shall be inspected and certified to receive the credits associated with this option.
EXCEPTION: Ducts complying with this section may have up to 5% of the total linear feet of ducts located in the exterior cavities or buffer spaces of the dwelling. If this exception is used the ducts will be tested to the following standards:
Post-construction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 1 CFM per 100 ft2 of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
2. Plumbing Fixtures Flow Ratings. Low flow plumbing fixtures (water closets and urinals) and fittings (faucets and showerheads) shall comply with the following requirements:
(a) Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets: Maximum flow rate - 3.8 L/min (1.0 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(b) Residential kitchen faucets: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
(c) Residential showerheads: Maximum flow rate - 6.6 L/min (1.75 gal/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-0900, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-0900, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 02-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/18/01, effective 7/1/02. Statutory Authority: Chapters 19.27 and 19.27A RCW and 1994 c 226. 95-01-126, 51-11-0900, filed 12/21/94, effective 6/30/95. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-0900, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]

Reviser's note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section occurred in the copy filed by the agency and appear in the Register pursuant to the requirements of RCW 34.08.040.
AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-1007   Section 1007 Ceilings.  

1007.1 General: Table 10-7 lists heat-loss coefficients for the opaque portion of exterior ceilings below vented attics, vaulted ceilings, and roof decks in units of Btu/hft2F of ceiling.

They are derived from procedures listed in Standard RS-1, listed in Chapter 7. Ceiling U-factors are modified for the buffering effect of the attic, assuming an indoor temperature of 65 F and an outdoor temperature of 45F.

Metal Framed Ceilings: The nominal R-values in Table 10-5A(2) - EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR METAL FRAMING AND CAVITY ONLY may be used for purposes of calculating metal framed ceiling section U-factors in lieu of the ASHRAE zone calculation method as provided in Chapter 27 of Standard RS-1.

Metal building roofs have a different construction and are addressed in Table 10-7(F).


1007.2 Component Description: The four types of ceilings are characterized as follows:

Ceilings Below a Vented Attic: Attic insulation is assumed to be blown-in, loose-fill fiberglass with a K-value of 2.6 hrft2F/Btu per inch. Full bag count for specified R-value is assumed in all cases. Ceiling dimensions for flat ceiling calculations are forty-five by thirty feet, with a gabled roof having a 4/12 pitch. The attic is assumed to vent naturally at the rate of three air changes per hour through soffit and ridge vents. A void fraction of 0.002 is assumed for all attics with insulation baffles. Standard-framed, unbaffled attics assume a void fraction of 0.008.

Attic framing is either standard or advanced. Standard framing assumes tapering of insulation depth around the perimeter with resultant decrease in thermal resistance. An increased R-value is assumed in the center of the ceiling due to the effect of piling leftover insulation. Advanced framing assumes full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior walls. Advanced framing does not change from the default value.

U-factors for flat ceilings below vented attics with standard framing may be modified with the following table:


U-Factor for

Standard Framing

Roof Pitch R-30 R-38
4/12 .036 .031
5/12 .035 .030
6/12 .034 .029
7/12 .034 .029
8/12 .034 .028
9/12 .034 .028
10/12 .033 .028
11/12 .033 .027
12/12 .033 .027

Vented scissors truss attics assume a ceiling pitch of 2/12 with a roof pitch of either 4/12 or 5/12. Unbaffled standard framed scissors truss attics are assumed to have a void fraction of 0.016.

Vaulted Ceilings: Insulation is assumed to be fiberglass batts installed in roof joist cavities. In the vented case, at least 1.5-inches between the top of the batts and the underside of the roof sheathing is left open for ventilation in each cavity. A ventilation rate of 3.0 air changes per hour is assumed. In the unvented or dense pack case, the ceiling cavity is assumed to be fully packed with insulation, leaving no space for ventilation.


EXCEPTION: Where spray polyurethane foam meets the requirements of Section 502.1.6.3 or 1313.2, the cavity shall be filled to the depth to achieve R-value requirements.

Roof Decks: Rigid insulation is applied to the top of roof decking with no space left for ventilation. Roofing materials are attached directly on top of the insulation. Framing members are often left exposed on the interior side.

Metal Truss Framing: Overall system tested values for the roof/ceiling Uo for metal framed truss assemblies from approved laboratories shall be used, when such data is acceptable to the building official.

Alternatively, the Uo for roof/ceiling assemblies using metal truss framing may be obtained from Tables 10-7A, 10-7B, 10-7C, 10-7D and 10-7E.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling, Table 10-7A.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-3 Sheathing, Table 10-7B.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-5 Sheathing, Table 10-7C.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-10 Sheathing, Table 10-7D.


Steel Truss Framed Ceiling with R-15 Sheathing, Table 10-7E.


Metal Building Roof, Table 10-7F: The base assembly is a roof where the insulation is compressed when installed beneath metal roof panels attached to the steel structure (purlins). Additional assemblies include continuous insulation, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

Single Layer. The rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Double Layer. The first rated R-value of insulation is for insulation installed perpendicular to and draped over purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer and parallel to the purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Continuous Insulation. For continuous insulation (e.g., insulation boards or blankets), it is assumed that the insulation is installed below the purlins and is uninterrupted by framing members. Insulation exposed to the conditioned space or semiheated space shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a continuous air barrier.

Liner System (Ls). A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

Filled Cavity. The first rated R-value of insulation is for faced insulation installed parallel to the purlins. The second rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation installed above the first layer, parallel to and between the purlins and compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. The facer of the first layer of insulation is of sufficient width to be continuously sealed to the top flange of the purlins and to accommodate the full thickness of the second layer of insulation. A supporting structure retains the bottom of the first layer at the prescribed depth required for the full thickness of the second layer of insulation being installed above it. A minimum R-5 (R-0.9) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required, unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor.

U-factors for Metal Building Roofs. U-factors for metal building roofs shall be taken from Table 10-7F, provided the average purlin spacing is at least 52 in. and the R-value of the thermal spacer block is greater than or equal to the thermal spacer block R-value indicated in Table 10-7F for the assembly. It is not acceptable to use the U-factors in Table 10-7F if additional insulated sheathing is not continuous.


Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck (uninterrupted by framing), Table 10-7G: The base assembly is continuous insulation over a structural deck. Added insulation is continuous and uninterrupted by framing. For the insulation, the first column lists the R-value for continuous insulation with a uniform thickness; the second column lists the comparable area-weighted average R-value for continuous insulation provided that the insulation thickness is never less than R-5 (except at roof drains) and that the slope is no greater than 1/4 inch per foot.


TABLE 10-7
DEFAULT U-FACTORS FOR CEILINGS

Ceilings Below Vented Attics

Standard Frame Advanced Frame
Flat Ceiling Baffled
R-19 0.049 0.047
R-30 0.036 0.032
R-38 0.031 0.026
R-49 0.027 0.020
R-60 0.025 0.017
Scissors Truss
R-30 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.043 0.031
R-38 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.040 0.025
R-49 (4/12 roof pitch) 0.038 0.020
R-30 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.039 0.032
R-38 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.035 0.026
R-49 (5/12 roof pitch) 0.032 0.020
Vaulted Ceilings
16" O.C. 24" O.C.
Vented
R-19 2x10 joist 0.049 0.048
R-30 2x12 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x14 joist 0.027 0.027
Unvented
R-30 2x10 joist 0.034 0.033
R-38 2x12 joist 0.029 0.027
R-21 + R-21 2x12 joist 0.026 0.025
Roof Deck
4x Beams, 48" O.C.
R-12.5 2" Rigid insulation 0.064
R-21.9 3.5" Rigid insulation 0.040
R-37.5 6" Rigid insulation 0.025
R-50 8" Rigid insulation 0.019

Table 10-7A

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.1075 0.0991 0.0928 0.0878 0.0839 0.0807 0.0780 0.0757 0.0737 0.0720 0.0706 0.0693 0.0681
30 0.0907 0.0823 0.0760 0.0710 0.0671 0.0638 0.0612 0.0589 0.0569 0.0552 0.0538 0.0525 0.0513
38 0.0844 0.0759 0.0696 0.0647 0.0607 0.0575 0.0548 0.0525 0.0506 0.0489 0.0474 0.0461 0.0449
49 0.0789 0.0704 0.0641 0.0592 0.0552 0.0520 0.0493 0.0470 0.0451 0.0434 0.0419 0.0406 0.0395

Table 10-7B

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-3 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0809 0.0763 0.0728 0.0701 0.0679 0.0661 0.0647 0.0634 0.0623 0.0614 0.0606 0.0599 0.0592
30 0.0641 0.0595 0.0560 0.0533 0.0511 0.0493 0.0478 0.0466 0.0455 0.0446 0.0438 0.0431 0.0424
38 0.0577 0.0531 0.0496 0.0469 0.0447 0.0430 0.0415 0.0402 0.0392 0.0382 0.0374 0.0367 0.0361
49 0.0523 0.0476 0.0441 0.0414 0.0393 0.0375 0.0360 0.0348 0.0337 0.0328 0.0319 0.0312 0.0306

Table 10-7C

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-5 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0732 0.0697 0.0670 0.0649 0.0633 0.0619 0.0608 0.0598 0.0590 0.0583 0.0577 0.0571 0.0567
30 0.0564 0.0529 0.0502 0.0481 0.0465 0.0451 0.0440 0.0430 0.0422 0.0415 0.0409 0.0403 0.0399
38 0.0501 0.0465 0.0438 0.0418 0.0401 0.0388 0.0376 0.0367 0.0359 0.0351 0.0345 0.0340 0.0335
49 0.0446 0.0410 0.0384 0.0363 0.0346 0.0333 0.0322 0.0312 0.0304 0.0297 0.0291 0.0285 0.0280

Table 10-7D

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-10 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0626 0.0606 0.0590 0.0578 0.0569 0.0561 0.0555 0.0549 0.0545 0.0541 0.0537 0.0534 0.0531
30 0.0458 0.0437 0.0422 0.0410 0.0401 0.0393 0.0387 0.0381 0.0377 0.0373 0.0369 0.0366 0.0363
38 0.0394 0.0374 0.0359 0.0347 0.0337 0.0330 0.0323 0.0318 0.0313 0.0309 0.0305 0.0302 0.0299
49 0.0339 0.0319 0.0304 0.0292 0.0283 0.0275 0.0268 0.0263 0.0258 0.0254 0.0251 0.0247 0.0245


Table 10-7E

Steel Truss1 Framed Ceiling UO with R-15 Sheathing2

Cavity Truss Span (ft)
R-value 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
19 0.0561 0.0550 0.0541 0.0535 0.0530 0.0526 0.0522 0.0519 0.0517 0.0515 0.0513 0.0511 0.0509
30 0.0393 0.0382 0.0373 0.0367 0.0362 0.0358 0.0354 0.0351 0.0349 0.0347 0.0345 0.0343 0.0341
38 0.0329 0.0318 0.0310 0.0303 0.0298 0.0294 0.0291 0.0288 0.0285 0.0283 0.0281 0.0279 0.0278
49 0.0274 0.0263 0.0255 0.0249 0.0244 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0.0230 0.0228 0.0226 0.0225 0.0223

1 - Assembly values based on 24 inch on center truss spacing; 11 Truss member connections penetrating insulation (4 at the eaves, 7 in the interior space); 1/2 inch drywall ceiling; all truss members are 2x4 "C" channels with a solid web.
2 - Ceiling sheathing installed between bottom chord and drywall.

TABLE 10-7F
Default U-Factors for Metal Building Roofs


Insulation System Rated R-Value of Insulation Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Roof Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation (uninterrupted by framing) Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation
R-6.5 R-13 R-19.5 R-26 R-32.5 R-39
Standing Seam Roofs with Thermal Spacer Blocksa,b
None 1.280 0.137 0.073 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025
R-10 0.115 0.066 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021
Single R-11 0.107 0.063 0.045 0.035 0.028 0.024 0.021
Layer R-13 0.101 0.061 0.044 0.034 0.028 0.024 0.020
R-16 0.096 0.059 0.043 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-19 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.031 0.026 0.022 0.020
((R-10 + R-10 0.088 0.056 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-11 0.086 0.055 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-11 + R-11 0.085 0.055 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-13 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020))
R-10 + R-10 0.088 0.056 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-11 0.086 0.055 0.041 0.032 0.027 0.023 0.020
R-11 + R-11 0.085 0.055 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
R-10 + R-13 0.084 0.054 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.023 0.020
Double R-11 + R-13 0.082 0.053 0.040 0.032 0.026 0.022 0.020
Layer R-13 + R-13 0.075 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R10 + R-19 0.074 0.050 0.038 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-11 + R-19 0.072 0.049 0.037 0.030 0.025 0.022 0.019
R-13 + R-19 0.068 0.047 0.036 0.029 0.025 0.021 0.019
R-16 + R-19 0.065 0.046 0.035 0.029 0.024 0.021 0.018
R-19 + R-19 0.060 0.043 0.034 0.028 0.023 0.020 0.018
((R-19 + R-11 0.035))
R-19 + R-11 0.035
Liner R-25 + R-11 0.031
System R-30 + R-11 0.029
R-25 + R-11 + R-11 0.026
Filled Cavity with Thermal Spacer Blocksc
R-10 + R-19 0.057 0.042 0.033 0.027 0.023 0.020 0.018
Standing Seam Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
Liner

System

R-19 + R-11 0.040
Thru-Fastened Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks
R-10 0.184
((Liner R-11 0.182
System)) R-13 0.174
Single R-16 0.157
Layer R-19 0.151
((R-19 + R-11 0.044))
Liner R-19 + R-11 0.044
System
(Multiple R-values are listed in order from inside to outside)

a. A standing seam roof clip that provides a minimum 1.5 in. distance between the top of the purlins and the underside of the metal roof panels is required.
b. A minimum R-3 thermal spacer block is required.
c. A minimum R-5 thermal spacer block is required.

TABLE 10-7G
Assembly U-Factors for Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck
(uninterrupted by framing)


Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Minimum Throughout, Unsloped Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone: Average (R-5 minimum), Sloped (1/4 inch per foot maximum) Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly
R-0 Not Allowed U-1.282
R-1 Not Allowed U-0.562
R-2 Not Allowed U-0.360
R-3 Not Allowed U-0.265
R-4 Not Allowed U-0.209
R-5 Not Allowed U-0.173
R-6 R-7 U-0.147
R-7 R-8 U-0.129
R-8 R-9 U-0.114
R-9 R-10 U-0.102
R-10 R-12 U-0.093
R-11 R-13 U-0.085
R-12 R-15 U-0.078
R-13 R-16 U-0.073
R-14 R-18 U-0.068
R-15 R-20 U-0.063
R-16 R-22 U-0.060
R-17 R-23 U-0.056
R-18 R-25 U-0.053
R-19 R-27 U-0.051
R-20 R-29 U-0.048
R-21 R-31 U-0.046
R-22 R-33 U-0.044
R-23 R-35 U-0.042
R-24 R-37 U-0.040
R-25 R-39 U-0.039
R-26 R-41 U-0.037
R-27 R-43 U-0.036
R-28 R-46 U-0.035
R-29 R-48 U-0.034
R-30 R-50 U-0.032
R-35 R-61 U-0.028
R-40 R-73 U-0.025
R-45 R-86 U-0.022
R-50 R-99 U-0.020
R-55 R-112 U-0.018
R-60 R-126 U-0.016

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-1007, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020, 19.27A.045. 04-01-106, 51-11-1007, filed 12/17/03, effective 7/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1007, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1007, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.020 and 1990 c 2. 91-01-112, 51-11-1007, filed 12/19/90, effective 7/1/91.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-1334   Solar heat gain coefficient rate calculations.   Solar heat gain coefficient shall comply with Section 1323.3. The target SHGCAt and the proposed SHGCAp shall be calculated using Equation 13-3 and 13-4 and the corresponding areas and SHGCs from Table 13-1 or 13-2.

align="center"

Equation 13-1:
Target UA t


UAt = UradtAradt + UmrtAmrt + UrstArst + UortAort + UogcortAogcort + UogortAogort + UmwtAmwt + UmbwtAmbwt + UsfwtAsfwt + UwtAwt + UvgtAvgt + UvgmtAvgmt + UvgdtAvgdt + UdtAdt + UfmtAfmt + UfstAfst + UftAft + FstPst + FrstPrst
UAt = The target combined specific heat transfer of the gross roof/ceiling assembly, exterior wall and floor area.
Where:
Uradt = The thermal transmittance value for roofs with the insulation entirely above deck found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Umrt = The thermal transmittance value for metal building roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Urst = The thermal transmittance value for single rafter roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uort = The thermal transmittance value for attic and other roofs found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uogcort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing with curb found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uogort = The thermal transmittance for overhead glazing without curb found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Umwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque mass walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Umbwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque metal building walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Usfwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque steel framed walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uwt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque wood framed and other walls found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uvgt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical glazing with nonmetal framing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uvgmt = The thermal transmittance value for vertical glazing with metal framing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Uvgdt = The thermal transmittance value for entrance doors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area.
Udt = The thermal transmittance value for opaque doors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Ufmt = The thermal transmittance value for mass floors over unconditioned space found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Ufst = The thermal transmittance value for steel joist floors over unconditioned space found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Uft = The thermal transmittance value for wood framed or other floors over unconditioned space found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Fst = The F-factor for slab-on-grade floors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Frst = The F-factor for radiant slab floors found in Table 13-1 or 13-2.
Adt = The proposed opaque door area, Ad.
Afmt = The proposed mass floor over unconditioned space area, Afm.
Afst = The proposed steel joist floor over unconditioned space area, Afs.
Aft = The proposed wood framed and other floor over unconditioned space area, Af.
Pst = The proposed linear feet of slab-on-grade floor perimeter, Ps.
Prst = The proposed linear feet of radiant slab floor perimeter, Prs.
and;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area does not exceed the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2:
Aradt = The proposed roof area with insulation entirely above deck, Arad.
Amrt = The proposed roof area for metal building, Amr.
Arst = The proposed single rafter roof area, Aors.
Aort = The proposed attic and other roof area, Aor.
Aogcort = The proposed overhead glazing area with curbs, Aogcor.
Aogort = The proposed overhead glazing area without curbs, Aogor.
Amwt = The proposed opaque mass wall area, Amw.
Ambwt = The proposed opaque metal building wall area, Ambw.
Asfwt = The proposed opaque steel framed wall area, Asfw.
Awt = The proposed opaque wood framed and other wall area, Aw.
Avgt = The proposed vertical glazing area with nonmetal framing, Avg.
Avgmt = The proposed vertical glazing area with metal framing, Avgm.
Avgdt = The proposed entrance door area, Avgd.
or;
if the total amount of glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area exceeds the maximum allowed in Table 13-1 or 13-2, the area of each fenestration element shall be reduced in the base envelope design by the same percentage and the net area of each wall type adjusted proportionately by the same percentage so that the total overhead and vertical fenestration area is exactly equal to 40% of the gross wall area.

align="center"

EQUATION 13-2
Proposed UAp

UAp = UmrAmr+ UadAad+ UrsArs+ UraAra+ UogcAogc+ UogAog+ UmwAmw+ UmbwAmbw+ UsfwAsfw+ UwfowAwfow+ UdAd+ UvgAvg+ UvgmAvgm+ UvgdAvgd+ UfmAfm+ UfsAfs+ UfwoAfwo+ FsPs+ FsrPsr
Where:
UAp = The combined proposed specific heat transfer of the gross exterior wall, floor and roof/ceiling assembly area.
Umr = The thermal transmittance of the metal building roof area.
Amr = Opaque metal building roof area.
Urad = The thermal transmittance of the roof area where the insulation is entirely above roof deck.
Arad = Opaque roof area where the insulation is entirely above roof deck.
Urs = The thermal transmittance of the single rafter roof area.
Ars = Opaque single rafter roof area.
Ura = The thermal transmittance of the roof over attic and other roof area.
Ara = Opaque roof over attic and other roof area.
Uogc = The thermal transmittance for the overhead glazing with curbs.
Aogc = Overhead glazing area with curbs.
Uog = The thermal transmittance for the overhead glazing without curbs.
Aog = Overhead glazing area without curbs.
Umw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque mass wall area.
Amw = Opaque mass wall area (not including opaque doors).
Umbw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque metal building wall area.
Ambw = Opaque metal building wall area (not including opaque doors).
Usfw = The thermal transmittance of the opaque steel framed wall area.
Asfw = Opaque steel framed wall area (not including opaque doors).
Uwfow = The thermal transmittance of the opaque wood framed and other wall area.
Awfow = Opaque wood framed and other wall area (not including opaque doors).
Uvg = The thermal transmittance of the vertical glazing area with nonmetal framing.
Avg = Vertical glazing area with nonmetal glazing.
Uvgmf = The thermal transmittance of the vertical glazing area with metal framing.
Avgmf = Vertical glazing area with metal framing.
Uvgd = The thermal transmittance of the vertical glazing area for entrance doors.
Avgd = Vertical glazing area for entrance doors.
Ud = The thermal transmittance value of the opaque door area.
Ad = Opaque door area.
Ufm = The thermal transmittance of the mass floor over unconditioned space area.
Afm = Mass floor area over unconditioned space.
Ufs = The thermal transmittance of the steel joist floor over unconditioned space area.
Afs = Steel joist floor area over unconditioned space.
Ufwo = The thermal transmittance of the wood framed and other floor over unconditioned space area.
Afwo = Wood framed and other floor area over unconditioned space.
Fs = Slab-on-grade floor component F-factor.
Ps = Linear feet of slab-on-grade floor perimeter.
Fsr = Radiant floor component F-factor.
Psr = Lineal feet of radiant floor perimeter.
NOTE: Where more than one type of wall, window, roof/ceiling, door and skylight is used, the U and A terms for those items shall be expanded into sub-elements as:
Umw1Amw1 + Umw2Amw2 + Usfw1Asfw1 + ...etc.
align="center"

EQUATION 13-3

Target SHGCAt

SHGCAt = SHGCt (((Aograt)) Aogcort + Aogort + Avgt + Avgmt + Avgot)
Where:
SHGCAt = The target combined specific heat gain of the target glazing area.
SHGCt = The solar heat gain coefficient for glazing found in Table 13-1 or 13-2 which corresponds to the proposed total glazing area as a percent of gross exterior wall area, and
((Aograt)) Aogcort, Aogort, Avgmt, Avgot and Avgt are defined under Equation 13-1.

align="center"

EQUATION 13-4

Proposed SHGCAp

SHGCAp = SHGCogAog + SHGCvgAvg
Where:
SHGCAt = The combined proposed specific heat gain of the proposed glazing area.
SHGCog = The solar heat gain coefficient of the overhead glazing.
Aog = The overhead glazing area.
SHGCvg = The solar heat gain coefficient of the vertical glazing.
Avg = The vertical glazing area.


TABLE 13-1

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS FOR CLIMATE ZONE 1



Nonresidential Residential, Other than Single-Family
Opaque Elements Assembly

Max. U-factor

Insulation Min. R-Value Assembly

Max. U-factor

Insulation Min. R-Value
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.034 R-30 c.i. U-0.031 R-38 c.i.
Metal building U-0.031 R-25 + R-11 Ls U-0.031 R-25 + R-11 Ls
Single-rafter U-0.027 R-38 U-0.027 R-38
Attic and other U-0.027 R-38 adv or R-49 U-0.027 R-38 adv or R-49
Walls, Above Grade
Mass1 U-0.150 R-5.7 c.i. U-0.090 R-11.4 c.i.
Metal building U-0.064 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.057 R-19 + R-8.5 c.i.
Steel framed U-0.064 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.057 R-19 + R-8.5 c.i.
Wood framed and other U-0.057 R-21 U-0.057 R-13 + R-6 c.i.
Walls, Below Grade
Below grade wall Same as above grade Same as above grade
Floors
Mass U-0.029 R-30 c.i. U-0.029 R-30 c.i.
Steel joist U-0.029 R-38 + R-4 c.i. U-0.029 R-38 + R-4 c.i.
Wood framed and other U-0.029 R-30 U-0.029 R-30
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. (with thermal break) F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. (with thermal break)
Heated F-0.360 R-10 c.i. (with thermal break) F-0.360 R-10 c.i. (with thermal break)
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.600 U-0.400
Nonswinging U-0.600 U-0.400

Fenestration

0-40% of Wall

Assembly

Max. U-Factor

Assembly Max. SHGC Assembly

Max. U-Factor

Assembly Max. SHGC
Vertical Fenestration
Nonmetal framing: All U-0.32 SHGC-0.40 all OR U-0.32
Metal framing: Fixed/operable U-0.40 SHGC-0.45 all PLUS Permanent PF>0.50 on U-0.40
Entrance doors U-0.60 west, south and east U-0.60
Skylights
Without curb (i.e., sloped glazing) U-0.50 SHGC-0.35 all U-0.50 SHGC-0.35 all
With curb (i.e., individual unit skylights) U-0.60 U-0.60


c.i. = continuous insulation, Ls = liner system (see definitions).

Footnote
1. Nonresidential walls may be ASTM C90 concrete block walls, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btuin/hft2F.


TABLE 13-2

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

FOR CLIMATE ZONE 2



Nonresidential Residential, Other than Single-Family
Opaque Elements Assembly

Max. U-factor

Insulation Min. R-Value Assembly

Max. U-factor

Insulation Min. R-Value
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.034 R-30 c.i. U-0.031 R-38 c.i.
Metal building U-0.031 R-25 + R-11 Ls U-0.031 R-25 + R-11 Ls
Single-rafter U-0.027 R-38 U-0.027 R-38
Attic and other U-0.027 R-38 adv or R-49 U-0.027 R-38 adv or R-49
Walls, Above Grade
Mass U-0.123 R-7.6 c.i. U-0.080 R-13.3 c.i.
Metal building U-0.064 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.044 R-19 + R-16 c.i.
Steel framed U-0.064 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. U-0.044 R-19 + R-14 c.i.
Wood framed and other U-0.051 R-13 + R-7.5 c.i. OR

R-21 + R-2.5 c.i.

U-0.044 R-21+ R-5 c.i.
Walls, Below Grade
Below grade wall Same as above grade Same as above grade
Floors
Mass U-0.029 R-30 c.i. U-0.029 R-30 c.i.
Steel joist U-0.029 R-38 + R-4 c.i. U-0.029 R-38 + R-4 c.i.
Wood framed and other U-0.029 R-30 U-0.029 R-30
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. (with thermal break) F-0.540 R-10 for 24 in. (with thermal break)
Heated F-0.360 R-10 c.i. (with thermal break) F-0.360 R-10 c.i. (with thermal break)
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.600 U-0.400
Nonswinging U-0.600 U-0.400

Fenestration

0-40% of Wall

Assembly Max.

U-Factor

Assembly Max. SHGC Assembly Max.

U-Factor

Assembly Max. SHGC
Vertical Fenestration
Nonmetal framing: All U-0.32 SHGC-0.40 all OR U-0.32
Metal framing:

Fixed/operable

U-0.40 SHGC-0.45 all PLUS Permanent PF>0.50 on U-0.40
Entrance doors U-0.60 west, south and east U-0.60
Skylights
Without curb (i.e., sloped glazing) U-0.50 SHGC-0.35 all U-0.50 SHGC-0.35 all
With curb (i.e., individual unit skylights) U-0.60 U-0.60

c.i. = continuous insulation, Ls = liner system (see definitions).

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-1334, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1334, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045 and chapters 19.27, 19.27A, and 34.05 RCW. 05-01-013, 51-11-1334, filed 12/2/04, effective 7/1/05. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1334, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01; 98-03-003, 51-11-1334, filed 1/8/98, effective 7/1/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1334, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-1416   Commissioning and completion requirements.  


1416.1 General. Drawing notes or specifications shall require commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section.


1416.2 Commissioning Scope. Commissioning in compliance with this section and Section ((1513.7)) 1513.8 shall be required for new systems or modified portions of systems, with a heating capacity of 600K Btu/h or a cooling capacity of 40 tons or more.


1416.2.1 Buildings which require commissioning shall go through a commissioning process that includes as a minimum:

1. Commissioning plan;

2. Systems testing and balancing;

3. HVAC equipment and HVAC controls functional testing;

4. Supporting documentation in the form of operation and maintenance and record documents;

5. Commissioning report.


1416.3 Commissioning Requirements.


1416.3.1 Commissioning Plan. Commissioning plan shall include:

1. A general description of the commissioning process activities including the systems to be commissioned;

2. The scope of the commissioning process including systems testing and balancing, functional testing, and supporting documentation;

3. Roles and responsibilities of the commissioning team;

4. A schedule of activities including systems testing and balancing, functional testing, and supporting documentation;

5. Functional test procedures and forms.


1416.3.2 Systems Testing and Balancing.


1416.3.2.1 General. All HVAC air and hydronic systems shall be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards.


1416.3.2.2 Air Systems Balancing. Throttling losses shall be minimized by balancing the systems or adjusting the speed of fans with motors greater than 1 hp.


1416.3.2.3 Hydronic Systems Balancing. Throttling losses shall be minimized by balancing the systems, or trimming the pump impeller or adjusting the pump speed.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 10 hp or less.
2. Throttling is an acceptable method of balancing only if the power draw does not exceed that of equivalent system with the impeller trimmed by more than 5 percent.

All hydronic heating or cooling coils with design flow exceeding 20 gpm (76 L/m) shall be equipped with dedicated pressure testing ports to enable testing of pressure drop through the coil. All hydronic heating or cooling systems served by pump(s) exceeding 5 hp (3.7 kW) shall be equipped with accessible pressure testing ports to enable testing supply and return pressure near the end of each major hydronic run.


1416.3.3 Systems, Equipment, and Controls Functional Testing. All HVAC systems, equipment, and controls as well as and lighting controls as specified in Section ((1513.7)) 1513.8 shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with sequences of operation prescribed in the construction documents. Written procedures which clearly describe the individual systematic test procedures, the expected systems' response or acceptance criteria for each procedure, the actual response or findings, and any pertinent discussion. Optional examples of test methods and forms are provided in Reference Standard 34.


1416.3.4 Supporting Documentation. Supporting documentation shall include, as a minimum:


1416.3.4.1 Systems Documentation. Systems documentation shall be in accordance with industry accepted standards and shall include as a minimum:

1. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment.

2. Operation and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.

3. Names and addresses of at least one HVAC service agency.

4. HVAC controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, as-built drawings and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field determined set points shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices, or, for digital control systems, in programming comments.

5. Complete written narrative of how each system and piece of equipment is intended to operate including interface with existing equipment or systems (where applicable). Sequence of operation is not acceptable as a narrative for this requirement.


1416.3.4.2 Record Documents. Construction documents shall be updated to convey a record of the alterations to the original design. Such updates shall include updated mechanical, electrical and control drawings red-lined, or redrawn if specified, that show all changes to size, type and location of components, equipment and assemblies.


1416.3.4.3 Systems Operation Training. Training of the maintenance staff for each equipment type and or system shall include as a minimum:

1. Review of systems documentation.

2. Hands-on demonstration of all normal maintenance procedures, normal operating modes, and all emergency shutdown and start-up procedures.

3. Training completion report.


1416.3.5 Commissioning Report. The commissioning report shall be completed and provided to the owner. The commissioning report shall include:

1. Completed Functional Test forms including measurable criteria for test acceptance.

2. Issues log of corrected and uncorrected deficiencies with the anticipated date of correction.

3. Deferred tests, which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation, with anticipated date of completion.

4. Record of progress and completion of operator training.

5. Completed Commissioning Compliance form.


1416.4 Commissioning Compliance Form. A commissioning compliance checklist shall be submitted to the building official upon substantial completion of the building. The checklist shall be completed and signed by the building owner or owner's representative. The building official may require that the Commissioning Compliance form components be submitted to verify compliance with Sections 1416 and 1513.8 requirements. Completion of the Commissioning Compliance Checklist (Figure 14B) is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

FIGURE 14B
COMMISSIONING COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST

Project Name:
Project Project Address:
Information Commissioning Authority:
Commissioning Plan Commissioning Plan was used during construction and included items below
(Section 1416.3.1) A written schedule including Systems Testing and Balancing, Functional Testing, and Supporting Documentation.
Roles and Responsibilities of the commissioning team.
Functional Test procedures and forms.
Systems Balancing Systems Balancing has been completed
(Section 1416.3.2) Air and Hydronic systems are proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses.
Test ports are provided on each pump for measuring pressure across the pump.
Functional Testing HVAC Systems Functional Testing has been completed (Section 1416.3.3)
(Section 1416.3.3) HVAC systems have been tested to ensure that equipment, components, and subsystems are installed, calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.
HVAC Controls Functional Testing has been completed (Section 1416.3.3)
HVAC controls have been tested to ensure that control devices are calibrated, adjusted and operate properly. Sequences of operation have been functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.
Lighting Controls Functional Testing has been completed (Section ((1513.7)) 1513.8)
Lighting controls have been tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.
Supporting Documents Systems documentation, record documents and training have been completed or are scheduled.
(Section 1416.3.4) System documentation has been provided to the owner or scheduled date:
Record documents have been submitted to owner or scheduled date:
Training has been completed or scheduled date:
Commissioning Report Commissioning Report submitted to Owner and includes items below.
(Section 1416.3.5) Completed Functional Tests documentation.
Deficiencies found during testing required by this section which have not been corrected at the time of report preparation and the anticipated date of correction.
Deferred tests, which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions or other circumstances beyond control of Commissioning Authority.
Certification I hereby certify that all requirements for commissioning have been completed in accordance with the Washington State Energy Code, including all items above.
Building Owner or Owner's Representative
Date

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-1416, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1416, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1416, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01.]


AMENDATORY SECTION(Amending WSR 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10)

WAC 51-11-1438   System criteria.   For fans and pumps 7.5 horsepower and greater including custom and packaged air handlers serving variable air volume fan systems, constant volume fans, heating and cooling hydronic pumping systems, pool and service water pumping systems, domestic water pressure boosting systems, cooling tower fan, and other pumps or fans where variable flows are required, there shall be:

a. Variable speed drives, or

b. Other controls and devices that will result in fan and pump motor demand of no more than 30% of design wattage at 50% of design air volume for fans when static pressure set point equals 1/3 the total design static pressure, and 50% of design water flow for pumps, based on manufacturer's certified test data. Variable inlet vanes, throttling valves (dampers), scroll dampers or bypass circuits shall not be allowed.


EXCEPTION: Variable speed devices are not required for motors that serve:
1. Fans or pumps in packaged equipment where variable speed drives are not available as a factory option from the equipment manufacturer.
2. Fans or pumps that are required to operate only for emergency fire-life-safety events (e.g., stairwell pressurization fans, elevator pressurization fans, fire pumps, etc.).

1438.1 Heat rejection equipment: The requirements of this section apply to heat rejection equipment used in comfort cooling systems such as air-cooled condensers, open cooling towers, closed-circuit cooling towers, and evaporative condensers.


EXCEPTION: Heat rejection devices included as an integral part of equipment listed in Tables 14-1A through 14-1D.
((Heat rejection equipment shall have a minimum efficiency performance not less than values specified in Table 14-1G. These requirements apply to all propeller, axial fan and centrifugal fan cooling towers. Table 14-1G specifies requirements for air-cooled condensers that are within rating conditions specified within the table.))

Heat rejection equipment shall have a minimum efficiency performance not less than values specified in Table 14-1G. These requirements apply to all propeller, axial fan and centrifugal fan cooling towers. Table 14-1G specifies requirements for air-cooled condensers that are within rating conditions specified within the table.

1438.1.1 Variable flow controls: Cooling tower fans 7.5 hp and greater shall have control devices that vary flow by controlling leaving fluid temperature or condenser temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.


1438.1.2 Limitation on centrifugal fan cooling towers: Open cooling towers with a combined rated capacity of 1,100 gpm and greater at 95F condenser water return, 85F condenser water supply and 75F outdoor wet-bulb temperature shall meet the energy efficiency requirement for axial fan open circuit cooling towers.


EXCEPTION: Open circuit cooling towers that are ducted (inlet or discharge) or have external sound attenuation that requires external static pressure capability.

1438.2 Hot gas bypass limitation: Cooling equipment with direct expansion coils rated at greater than 95,000 Btu/h total cooling capacity shall have a minimum of 2 stages of cooling capacity or capacity modulation other than hot gas bypass that is capable of reducing input and output by at least 50%.


1438.3 Large volume fan systems: Single or multiple fan systems serving a zone or adjacent zones without separating walls with total air flow over 10,000 cfm (3,540 L/s) are required to reduce airflow based on space thermostat heating and cooling demand. A variable speed drive shall reduce airflow to a maximum 75% of peak airflow or minimum ventilation air requirement as required by Section 403 of the IMC, whichever is greater.


EXCEPTIONS: 1. Systems where the function of the supply air is for purposes other than temperature control, such as maintaining specific humidity levels or supplying an exhaust system.
2. Dedicated outdoor air supply unit(s) with heat recovery where airflow is equal to the minimum ventilation requirements and other fans cycle off unless heating or cooling is required.
3. An area served by multiple units where designated ventilation units have 50% or less of total area airflow and nonventilation unit fans cycle off when heating or cooling is not required.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 10-03-115 and 10-13-113, 51-11-1438, filed 1/20/10 and 6/21/10, effective 10/29/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.022, 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045, and chapters 19.27 and 34.05 RCW. 07-01-089, 51-11-1438, filed 12/19/06, effective 7/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025, 19.27A.045. 01-03-010, 51-11-1438, filed 1/5/01, effective 7/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 19.27A.025. 93-21-052, 51-11-1438, filed 10/18/93, effective 4/1/94.]

Washington State Code Reviser's Office