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458-20-146  <<  458-20-14601 >>   458-20-148

WAC 458-20-14601

Agency filings affecting this section

Financial institutions—Income apportionment.

(1) Introduction.
(a) This section provides tax reporting instructions for financial institutions doing business both inside and outside the state of Washington, and applies to tax liability incurred through May 31, 2010. Chapter 23, Laws of 2010 sp. sess. (2ESSB 6143) changed the apportionment reporting requirements for financial institutions effective June 1, 2010. Refer to WAC 458-20-19404 (Financial institutions—Income apportionment) for tax liability incurred on and after June 1, 2010.
Financial businesses that do not meet the definition of "financial institution" in subsection (3)(j) of this section and other businesses taxable under RCW 82.04.290 should refer to WAC 458-20-194 (Doing business inside and outside the state) for tax liability incurred on or before May 31, 2010.
(b) Financial institutions engaged in making interstate sales of tangible personal property should also refer to WAC 458-20-193 (Inbound and outbound interstate sales of tangible personal property).
(2) Apportionment and allocation.
(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, a financial institution taxable under RCW 82.04.290 and taxable in another state shall allocate and apportion its apportionable income as provided in this section. All gross income that is not includable in apportionable income shall be allocated pursuant to the provisions of chapter 82.04 RCW. A financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a territory or possession of the United States, except such institutions that are exempt under RCW 82.04.315, whose effectively connected income (as defined under the Federal Internal Revenue Code) is taxable both in this state and another state, other than the state in which it is organized, shall allocate and apportion its gross income as provided in this section.
(b) The apportionment percentage is determined by adding the taxpayer's receipts factor (as described in subsection (4) of this section), property factor (as described in subsection (5) of this section), and payroll factor (as described in subsection (6) of this section) together and dividing the sum by three. If one of the factors is missing, the two remaining factors are added together and the sum is divided by two. If two of the factors are missing, the remaining factor is the apportionment percentage. A factor is missing if both its numerator and denominator are zero, but it is not missing merely because its numerator is zero.
(c) Each factor shall be computed according to the method of accounting (cash or accrual basis) used by the taxpayer for Washington state tax purposes for the taxable period. Persons should refer to WAC 458-20-197 (When tax liability arises) and WAC 458-20-199 (Accounting methods) for further guidance on the requirements of each accounting method. Generally, financial institutions are required to file returns on a monthly basis. To enable financial institutions to more easily comply with the provisions of this section, financial institutions will file returns using factors calculated based on the most recent calendar year for which information is available. A reconciliation shall be filed for each year within thirty days of the time that the taxpayer files its federal income tax returns for that year, but not later than October 30th of the following year. For example, for returns filed for taxable activities occurring during calendar [year] 1998, a taxpayer would use factors calculated based on its 1996 information. A reconciliation would be filed for 1998 using factors based on 1998 information as soon as the information was available to the taxpayer, but not later than thirty days after the time federal income tax returns were due for 1998, or October 30, 1999. In the case of consolidations, mergers, or divestitures, a taxpayer shall make the appropriate adjustments to the factors to reflect its changed operations.
(d) If the allocation and apportionment provisions of this section do not fairly represent the extent of its business activity in this state, the taxpayer may petition for, or the department may require, in respect to all or any part of the taxpayer's business activity:
(i) Separate accounting;
(ii) A calculation of tax liability utilizing the cost of doing business method outlined in RCW 82.04.460(1);
(iii) The exclusion of any one or more of the factors;
(iv) The inclusion of one or more additional factors which will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in this state; or
(v) The employment of any other method to effectuate an equitable allocation and apportionment of the taxpayer's receipts.
(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply throughout this section:
(a) "Apportionable income" means the gross income of the business taxable under RCW 82.04.290, including income received from activities outside this state if the income would be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if received from activities in this state, less the exemptions and deductions allowable under chapter 82.04 RCW.
(b) "Billing address" means the location indicated in the books and records of the taxpayer on the first day of the taxable period (or on such later date in the taxable period when the customer relationship began) as the address where any notice, statement and/or bill relating to a customer's account is mailed.
(c) "Borrower or credit card holder located in this state" means:
(i) A borrower, other than a credit card holder, that is engaged in a trade or business which maintains its commercial domicile in this state; or
(ii) A borrower that is not engaged in a trade or business or a credit card holder, whose billing address is in this state.
(d) "Commercial domicile" means:
(i) The headquarters of the trade or business, that is, the place from which the trade or business is principally managed and directed; or
(ii) If a taxpayer is organized under the laws of a foreign country, or of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States, such taxpayer's commercial domicile is deemed for the purposes of this section to be the state of the United States or the District of Columbia from which such taxpayer's trade or business in the United States is principally managed and directed. It is presumed, subject to rebuttal by a preponderance of the evidence, that the location from which the taxpayer's trade or business is principally managed and directed is the state of the United States or the District of Columbia to which the greatest number of employees are regularly connected or out of which they are working, irrespective of where the services of such employees are performed, as of the last day of the taxable period.
(e) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services that are included in such employee's gross income under the Federal Internal Revenue Code. In the case of employees not subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code, e.g., those employed in foreign countries, the determination of whether such payments would constitute gross income to such employees under the Federal Internal Revenue Code shall be made as though such employees were subject to the Federal Internal Revenue Code.
(f) "Credit card" means credit, travel or entertainment card.
(g) "Credit card issuer's reimbursement fee" means the fee a taxpayer receives from a merchant's bank because one of the persons to whom the taxpayer has issued a credit card has charged merchandise or services to the credit card.
(h) "Department" means the department of revenue.
(i) "Employee" means, with respect to a particular taxpayer, any individual who, under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee of that taxpayer.
(j) "Financial institution" means:
(i) Any corporation or other business entity chartered under Titles 30, 31, 32, 33 RCW, or registered under the Federal Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, or registered as a savings and loan holding company under the Federal National Housing Act, as amended;
(ii) A national bank organized and existing as a national bank association pursuant to the provisions of the National Bank Act, 12 U.S.C. §§21 et seq.;
(iii) A savings association or federal savings bank as defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. §1813 (b)(1);
(iv) Any bank or thrift institution incorporated or organized under the laws of any state;
(v) Any corporation organized under the provisions of 12 U.S.C. §§611 to 631;
(vi) Any agency or branch of a foreign depository as defined in 12 U.S.C. §3101 that is not exempt under RCW 82.04.315;
(vii) Any credit union, other than a state or federal credit union exempt under state or federal law;
(viii) A production credit association organized under the Federal Farm Credit Act of 1933, all of whose stock held by the Federal Production Credit Corporation has been retired;
(ix) Any corporation or other business entity who receives gross income taxable under RCW 82.04.290, and whose voting interests are more than fifty percent owned, directly or indirectly, by any person or business entity described in (j)(i) through (viii) of this subsection other than an insurance company liable for the insurance premiums tax under RCW 48.14.020 or any other company taxable under chapter 48.14 RCW;
(x) A corporation or other business entity that derives more than fifty percent of its total gross income for federal income tax purposes from finance leases. For purposes of this subsection, a "finance lease" means a lease which meets two requirements:
(A) It is the type of lease permitted to be made by national banks (see 12 U.S.C. 24(7), 12 U.S.C. 24(10), Comptroller of the Currency-Regulations, Part 23-Leasing (added by 56 Fed. Reg. 28314, June 20, 1991, effective July 22, 1991), and Regulation Y of the Federal Reserve System 12 C.F.R. 225.25, as amended); and
(B) It is the economic equivalent of an extension of credit, i.e., the lease is treated by the lessor as a loan for federal income tax purposes. In no event does a lease qualify as an extension of credit where the lessor takes depreciation on such property for federal income tax purposes.
For this classification to apply, the average of the gross income in the current tax year and immediately preceding two tax years must satisfy the more than fifty percent requirement;
(xi) Any other person or business entity, other than an insurance general agent taxable under RCW 82.04.280(5), an insurance business exempt from the business and occupation tax under RCW 82.04.320, a real estate broker taxable under RCW 82.04.255, a securities dealer or international investment management company taxable under RCW 82.04.290(2), that derives more than fifty percent of its gross receipts from activities that a person described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection is authorized to transact. For purposes of this subparagraph, the computation of apportionable income shall not include income from nonrecurring, extraordinary items;
(xii) The department is authorized to exclude any person from the application of (j)(xi) of this subsection upon such person proving, by clear and convincing evidence, that the activity producing the receipts of such person is not in substantial competition with those persons described in (j)(ii) through (viii) and (x) of this subsection.
(k) "Gross income of the business," "gross income," or "income" has the same meaning as in RCW 82.04.080 and means the value proceeding or accruing by reason of the transaction of the business engaged in and includes gross proceeds of sales, compensation for the rendition of services, gains realized from trading in stocks, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness, interest, discount, rents, royalties, fees, commissions, dividends, and other emoluments however designated, all without any deduction on account of the cost of tangible property sold, the cost of materials used, labor costs, interest, discount, delivery costs, taxes, or any other expense whatsoever paid or accrued and without any deduction on account of losses.
(l) "Gross rents" means the actual sum of money or other consideration payable for the use or possession of real property. "Gross rents" includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Any amount payable for the use or possession of real property whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of receipts, profits or otherwise;
(ii) Any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rent, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other amount required to be paid by the terms of a lease or other arrangement; and
(iii) A proportionate part of the cost of any improvement to real property made by or on behalf of the taxpayer which reverts to the owner or grantor upon termination of a lease or other arrangement. The amount to be included in gross rents is the amount of amortization or depreciation allowed in computing the taxable income base for the taxable period. However, where a building is erected on leased land by or on behalf of the taxpayer, the value of the land is determined by multiplying the gross rent by eight and the value of the building is determined in the same manner as if owned by the taxpayer.
(iv) The following are not included in the term "gross rents":
(A) Reasonable amounts payable as separate charges for water and electric service furnished by the lessor;
(B) Reasonable amounts payable as service charges for janitorial services furnished by the lessor;
(C) Reasonable amounts payable for storage, provided such amounts are payable for space not designated and not under the control of the taxpayer; and
(D) That portion of any rental payment which is applicable to the space subleased from the taxpayer and not used by it.
(m) "Loan" means any extension of credit resulting from direct negotiations between the taxpayer and its customer, and/or the purchase, in whole or in part, of such extension of credit from another. "Loan" includes participations, syndications, and leases treated as loans for federal income tax purposes. "Loan" does not include: Properties treated as loans under Section 595 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code; futures or forward contracts; options; notional principal contracts such as swaps; credit card receivables, including purchased credit card relationships; noninterest bearing balances due from depository institutions; cash items in the process of collection; federal funds sold; securities purchased under agreements to resell; assets held in a trading account; securities; interests in a REMIC, or other mortgage-backed or asset-backed security; and other similar items.
(n) "Loan secured by real property" means that fifty percent or more of the aggregate value of the collateral used to secure a loan or other obligation was real property, when valued at fair market value as of the time the original loan or obligation was incurred.
(o) "Merchant discount" means the fee (or negotiated discount) charged to a merchant by the taxpayer for the privilege of participating in a program whereby a credit card is accepted in payment for merchandise or services sold to the card holder.
(p) "Participation" means an extension of credit in which an undivided ownership interest is held on a pro rata basis in a single loan or pool of loans and related collateral. In a loan participation, the credit originator initially makes the loan and then subsequently resells all or a portion of it to other lenders. The participation may or may not be known to the borrower.
(q) "Person" has the meaning given in RCW 82.04.030.
(r) "Principal base of operations" with respect to transportation property means the place of more or less permanent nature from which said property is regularly directed or controlled. With respect to an employee, the "principal base of operations" means the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee regularly:
(i) Starts his or her work and to which he or she customarily returns in order to receive instructions from his or her employer; or
(ii) Communicates with his or her customers or other persons; or
(iii) Performs any other functions necessary to the exercise of his or her trade or profession at some other point or points.
(s) "Real property owned" and "tangible personal property owned" mean real and tangible personal property, respectively:
(i) On which the taxpayer may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes; or
(ii) Property to which the taxpayer holds legal title and on which no other person may claim depreciation for federal income tax purposes (or could claim depreciation if subject to federal income tax).
Real and tangible personal property do not include coin, currency, or property acquired in lieu of or pursuant to a foreclosure.
(t) "Regular place of business" means an office at which the taxpayer carries on its business in a regular and systematic manner and which is continuously maintained, occupied and used by employees of the taxpayer.
(u) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States or any foreign country.
(v) "Syndication" means an extension of credit in which two or more persons fund and each person is at risk only up to a specified percentage of the total extension of credit or up to a specified dollar amount.
(w) "Taxable in another state" means either:
(i) That a taxpayer is subject in another state to a gross receipts or franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, a franchise tax measured by net income, a corporate stock tax (including a bank shares tax), a single business tax, or an earned surplus tax, or any other tax which is imposed upon or measured by gross or net income; or
(ii) That another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to any of such taxes regardless of whether, in fact, the state does or does not.
(x) "Taxable period" means the calendar year during which tax liability is incurred.
(y) "Transportation property" means vehicles and vessels capable of moving under their own power, such as aircraft, trains, water vessels and motor vehicles, as well as any equipment or containers attached to such property, such as rolling stock, barges, trailers or the like.
(4) Receipts factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the receipts factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer in this state during the taxable period and the denominator of which is the gross income of the taxpayer inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The method of calculating receipts for purposes of the denominator is the same as the method used in determining receipts for purposes of the numerator.
(b) Receipts from the lease of real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of real property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state or income from the sublease of real property if the property is located within this state.
(c) Receipts from the lease of tangible personal property.
(i) Except as described in (c)(ii) of this subsection, the numerator of the receipts factor includes income from the lease or rental of tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer if the property is located within this state when it is first placed in service by the lessee.
(ii) Income from the lease or rental of transportation property owned by the taxpayer is included in the numerator of the receipts factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft is used in this state and the amount of income that is to be included in the numerator of this state's receipts factor is determined by multiplying all the income from the lease or rental of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle will be deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered.
(d) Interest from loans secured by real property.
(i) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property if the property is located within this state. If the property is located both within this state and one or more other states, the income described in this subparagraph is included in the numerator of the receipts factor if more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is located within this state. If more than fifty percent of the fair market value of the real property is not located within any one state, then the income described in this subparagraph shall be included in the numerator of the receipts factor if the borrower is located in this state.
(ii) The determination of whether the real property securing a loan is located within this state shall be made as of the time the original agreement was made and any and all subsequent substitutions of collateral shall be disregarded.
(e) Interest from loans not secured by real property. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property if the borrower is located in this state.
(f) Net gains from the sale of loans. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains from the sale of loans. Net gains from the sale of loans includes income recorded under the coupon stripping rules of Section 1286 of the Federal Internal Revenue Code.
(i) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to subsection (4)(d) and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.
(ii) The amount of net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of loans not secured by real property included in the numerator is determined by multiplying such net gains by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.
(g) Receipts from credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and income from fees charged to card holders, such as annual fees, if the billing address of the card holder is in this state.
(h) Net gains from the sale of credit card receivables. The numerator of the receipts factor includes net gains (but not less than zero) from the sale of credit card receivables multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.
(i) Credit card issuer's reimbursement fees. The numerator of the receipts factor includes all credit card issuer's reimbursement fees multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor pursuant to (g) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from credit card receivables and fees charged to card holders.
(j) Receipts from merchant discount. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from merchant discount if the commercial domicile of the merchant is in this state. Such receipts shall be computed net of any cardholder charge backs, but shall not be reduced by any interchange transaction fees or by any issuer's reimbursement fees paid to another for charges made by its card holders.
(k) Loan servicing fees.
(i)(A) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (d) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans secured by real property.
(B) The numerator of the receipts factor includes loan servicing fees derived from loans not secured by real property multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount included in the numerator of the receipts factor under (e) of this subsection and the denominator of which is the total amount of interest and fees or penalties in the nature of interest from loans not secured by real property.
(ii) If the taxpayer receives loan servicing fees for servicing either the secured or the unsecured loans of another, the numerator of the receipts factor includes such fees if the borrower is located in this state.
(l) Receipts from services. The numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this subsection if the service is performed in this state. If the service is performed both inside and outside this state, the numerator of the receipts factor includes receipts from services not otherwise apportioned under this section, if a greater proportion of the activity producing the receipts is performed in this state based on cost of performance.
(m) Receipts from investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities.
(i) Interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities are included in the receipts factor. Investment assets and activities and trading assets and activities include but are not limited to: Investment securities; trading account assets; federal funds; securities purchased and sold under agreements to resell or repurchase; options; futures contracts; forward contracts; notional principal contracts such as swaps; equities; and foreign currency transactions. With respect to the investment and trading assets and activities described in (m)(i)(A) and (B) of this subsection, the receipts factor includes the following:
(A) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest from federal funds sold and securities purchased under resale agreements exceeds interest expense on federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements.
(B) The receipts factor includes the amount by which interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book, and foreign currency transactions, exceed amounts paid in lieu of interest, amounts paid in lieu of dividends, and losses from such assets and activities.
(ii) The numerator of the receipts factor includes interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other receipts from investment assets and activities and from trading assets and activities described in (m)(i) of this subsection that are attributable to this state.
(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.
(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such funds and such securities.
(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other income from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(A) or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of such trading assets which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the average value of all such assets.
(D) For purposes of this paragraph, average value shall be determined using the rules for determining the average value of tangible personal property set forth in subsection (5) of this section.
(iii) In lieu of using the method set forth in (m)(ii) of this subsection, the taxpayer may elect, or the department may require in order to fairly represent the business activity of the taxpayer in this state, the use of the method set forth in this paragraph.
(A) The amount of interest, dividends, net gains (but not less than zero) and other income from investment assets and activities in the investment account to be attributed to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying all such income from such assets and activities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross receipts from such assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.
(B) The amount of interest from federal funds sold and purchased and from securities purchased under resale agreements and securities sold under repurchase agreements attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(A) of this subsection from such funds and such securities by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such funds and such securities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such funds and such securities.
(C) The amount of interest, dividends, gains and other receipts from trading assets and activities, including but not limited to assets and activities in the matched book, in the arbitrage book and foreign currency transactions, (but excluding amounts described in (m)(ii)(a)[A] or (B) of this subsection), attributable to this state and included in the numerator is determined by multiplying the amount described in (m)(i)(B) of this subsection by a fraction, the numerator of which is the gross income from such trading assets and activities which are properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state and the denominator of which is the gross income from all such assets and activities.
(iv) If the taxpayer elects or is required by the department to use the method set forth in (m)(iii) of this subsection, it shall use this method on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department to use, or the department requires a different method.
(v) The taxpayer has the burden of proving that an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity was properly assigned to a regular place of business outside of this state by demonstrating that the day-to-day decisions regarding the asset or activity occurred at a regular place of business outside this state. If the day-to-day decisions regarding an investment asset or activity or trading asset or activity occur at more than one regular place of business and one such regular place of business is in this state and one such regular place of business is outside this state, such asset or activity is considered to be located at the regular place of business of the taxpayer where the investment or trading policies or guidelines with respect to the asset or activity are established. Such policies and guidelines are presumed, subject to rebuttal by preponderance of the evidence, to be established at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.
(n) Attribution of certain receipts to commercial domicile. All receipts which would be assigned under this section to a state in which the taxpayer is not taxable are included in the numerator of the receipts factor, if the taxpayer's commercial domicile is in this state.
(5) Property factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, the average value of the real and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer that is located or used within this state during the taxable period, and the average value of the taxpayer's loans and credit card receivables that are located within this state during the taxable period, and the denominator of which is the average value of all such property located or used inside and outside this state during the taxable period.
(b) Value of property owned by the taxpayer.
(i) The value of real property and tangible personal property owned by the taxpayer is the original cost or other basis of such property for federal income tax purposes without regard to depletion, depreciation or amortization.
(ii) Loans are valued at their outstanding principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a loan is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the loan charged off is not outstanding. A specifically allocated reserve established under regulatory or financial accounting guidelines which is treated as charged-off for federal income tax purposes shall be treated as charged-off for purposes of this section.
(iii) Credit card receivables are valued at their out-standing principal balance, without regard to any reserve for bad debts. If a credit card receivable is charged-off in whole or in part for federal income tax purposes, the portion of the receivable charged-off is not outstanding.
(c) Average value of property owned by the taxpayer. The average value of property owned by the taxpayer is computed on an annual basis by adding the value of the property on the first day of the taxable period and the value on the last day of the taxable period and dividing the sum by two. If averaging on this basis does not properly reflect average value, the department may require averaging on a more frequent basis. The taxpayer may elect to average on a more frequent basis. When averaging on a more frequent basis is required by the department or is elected by the taxpayer, the same method of valuation must be used consistently by the taxpayer with respect to property inside and outside this state and on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior permission from the department or the department requires a different method of determining average value.
(d) Average value of real property and tangible personal property rented to the taxpayer.
(i) The average value of real property and tangible personal property that the taxpayer has rented from another and which is not treated as property owned by the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes, shall be determined annually by multiplying the gross rents payable during the taxable year by eight.
(ii) Where the use of the general method described in this subsection results in inaccurate valuations of rented property, any other method which properly reflects the value may be adopted by the department or by the taxpayer when approved in writing by the department. Once approved, such other method of valuation must be used on all subsequent returns unless the taxpayer receives prior approval from the department or the department requires a different method of valuation.
(e) Location of real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer.
(i) Except as described in (e)(ii) of this subsection, real property and tangible personal property owned by or rented to the taxpayer is considered to be located within this state if it is physically located, situated or used within this state.
(ii) Transportation property is included in the numerator of the property factor to the extent that the property is used in this state. The extent an aircraft will be deemed to be used in this state and the amount of value that is to be included in the numerator of this state's property factor is determined by multiplying the average value of the aircraft by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of landings of the aircraft in this state and the denominator of which is the total number of landings of the aircraft everywhere during the tax reporting period. If the extent of the use of any transportation property within this state cannot be determined, then the property is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which the property has its principal base of operations. A motor vehicle is deemed to be used wholly in the state in which it is registered. Thus, a motor vehicle will not be considered as used in Washington if there is no requirement for the vehicle to be licensed or registered in Washington.
(f) Location of loans.
(i)(A) A loan is located within this state if it is properly assigned to a regular place of business of the taxpayer within this state.
(B) A loan is properly assigned to the regular place of business with which it has a majority of substantive contacts. A loan assigned by the taxpayer to a regular place of business outside the state shall be presumed to have been properly assigned if:
(I) The taxpayer has assigned, in the regular course of its business, such loan on its records to a regular place of business consistent with federal or state regulatory requirements;
(II) Such assignment on its records is based upon substantive contacts of the loan to such regular place of business; and
(III) The taxpayer uses said records reflecting assignment of loans for the filing of all state and local tax returns for which an assignment of loans to a regular place of business is required.
(ii) The presumption of proper assignment of a loan provided in (f)(i)(A) of this subsection may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence, showing that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur at the regular place of business to which it was assigned on the taxpayer's records. When such presumption has been rebutted, the loan is located within this state if: The taxpayer had a regular place of business within this state at the time the loan was made; and the taxpayer fails to show, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding such loan did not occur within this state.
(A) If a loan is assigned by the taxpayer to a place outside this state which is not a regular place of business, it is presumed, subject to rebuttal on a preponderance of evidence, that the majority of substantive contacts regarding the loan occurred within this state if, at the time the loan was made the taxpayer's commercial domicile, as defined in subsection (3)(d) of this section, was within this state.
(B) To determine the state in which the majority of substantive contacts relating to a loan have occurred, the facts and circumstances regarding the loan at issue shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis and consideration shall be given to such activities as the solicitation, investigation, negotiation, approval and administration of the loan. The terms "solicitation," "investigation," "negotiation," "approval" and "administration" are defined as follows:
(I) Solicitation. Solicitation is either active or passive. Active solicitation occurs when an employee of the taxpayer initiates the contact with the customer. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employee is regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employee were actually performed. Passive solicitation occurs when the customer initiates the contact with the taxpayer. If the customer's initial contact was not at a regular place of business of the taxpayer, the regular place of business, if any, where the passive solicitation occurred is determined by the facts in each case.
(II) Investigation. Investigation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer determine the credit worthiness of the customer as well as the degree of risk involved in making a particular agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.
(III) Negotiation. Negotiation is the procedure whereby employees of the taxpayer and its customer determine the terms of the agreement (e.g., the amount, duration, interest rate, frequency of repayment, currency denomination and security required). Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed.
(IV) Approval. Approval is the procedure whereby employees or the board of directors of the taxpayer make the final determination whether to enter into the agreement. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which the taxpayer's employees are regularly connected with or working out of, regardless of where the services of such employees were actually performed. If the board of directors makes the final determination, such activity is located at the commercial domicile of the taxpayer.
(V) Administration. Administration is the process of managing the account. This process includes bookkeeping, collecting the payments, corresponding with the customer, reporting to management regarding the status of the agreement and proceeding against the borrower or the security interest if the borrower is in default. Such activity is located at the regular place of business which oversees this activity.
(g) Location of credit card receivables. For purposes of determining the location of credit card receivables, credit card receivables are treated as loans and are subject to the provisions of (f) of this subsection.
(h) Period for which properly assigned loan remains assigned. A loan that has been properly assigned to a state shall remain assigned to that state for the length of the original term of the loan, absent any change in material fact. If the original term of the loan is modified (extended or reduced), the loan may be properly assigned to another state if the loan has a majority of substantive contact to a regular place of business there.
(6) Payroll factor.
(a) General. Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, the payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid in this state during the taxable period by the taxpayer for compensation of employees and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid both inside and outside this state during the taxable period. The payroll factor shall include all compensation paid to employees.
(b) Compensation relating to independent contractors. Payments made to any independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee is excluded from both the numerator and denominator of the factor.
(c) When compensation paid in this state. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests, applied consecutively, is met:
(i) The employee's services are performed entirely within this state.
(ii) The employee's services are performed both inside and outside the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The term "incidental" means any service which is temporary or transitory in nature, or which is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.
(iii) If the employee's services are performed both inside and outside this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:
(A) If the employee's principal base of operations is inside this state; or
(B) If there is no principal base of operations in any state in which some part of the services are performed, but the place from which the services are directed or controlled is in this state; or
(C) If the principal base of operations and the place from which the services are directed or controlled are not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.
(7) Alternative factor calculation.
(a) General. A taxpayer may elect to use the alternative factors calculation as provided in this subsection. The alternative factors calculation requires the use of all three factors provided below. A taxpayer making such an election must keep books and records sufficient to explain the calculations. Such an election, once made, must continue for a full calendar year.
(b) Receipts factor. The alternative receipts factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the receipts factor as calculated in subsection (4) of this section gross income attributable to items that would not be subject to tax under the provisions of RCW 82.04.290, whether from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property in Washington from the numerator and all receipts from the rental of tangible personal property, wherever located, in the denominator.
(c) Property factor. The alternative property factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the property factor as calculated in subsection (5) of this section property, the income from which would be considered wholesale or retail sales under chapter 82.04 RCW, whether from activities inside or outside the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all tangible personal property rented to customers in Washington from the numerator and all tangible personal property rented to customers, wherever located, in the denominator.
(d) Payroll factor. The alternative payroll factor may be calculated by excluding from both the numerator and the denominator of the payroll factor as calculated in subsection (6) of this section that amount paid to employees in connection with earning gross income which would not be subject to tax under RCW 82.04.290, whether earned from activities inside or outside of the state. For example, a taxpayer making the election to use the alternative factors calculation must exclude all compensation paid to employees in connection with activities that are not taxable under RCW 82.04.290 from the numerator and all compensation paid to employees wherever located that would not be taxable under RCW 82.04.290 if it had been earned in Washington.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 82.32.300 and 82.01.060(2). WSR 10-22-089, § 458-20-14601, filed 11/1/10, effective 12/2/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 82.04.460(2) and 82.32.300. WSR 97-11-033, § 458-20-14601, filed 5/15/97, effective 7/1/97.]