Cranes and derricks.
(a) This section through WAC 296-56-60103
applies to every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment performing the functions of a crane or derrick except as noted in (b) of this subsection.
(b) This section does not apply to small industrial truck-type cranes, container handling toploaders and sideloaders, chain hoists, and mobile straddle-type cranes incapable of straddling two or more intermodal containers (sixteen feet (4.88 m) in width).
(a) Except for bridge cranes covered by subsection (7) of this section, cranes and derricks having ratings that vary with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables shall have a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the complete range of the manufacturer's (or design) capacity ratings. The rating chart shall include all operating radii (outreach) for all permissible boom lengths and jib lengths as applicable, with and without outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer shall be included.
(b) The manufacturer's (or design) rated loads for the conditions of use shall not be exceeded.
(c) Designated working loads shall not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturer's approval. When the manufacturer's services are not available or where the equipment is of foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis shall be performed or approved by a person accredited for certifying the equipment under WAC 296-56-60093
. Cranes shall conform with the manufacturer's specifications or any current ANSI standards that apply. Engineering design analysis shall be performed by a registered professional engineer competent in the field of cranes and derricks. Any structural changes necessitated by the change in rating shall be carried out.
(3) Radius indicator. When the rated load varies with the boom radius, the crane or derrick shall be fitted with a boom angle or radius indicator visible to the operator.
(4) Prohibited usage.
(a) Equipment shall not be used in a manner that exerts sideloading stresses upon the crane or derrick boom.
(b) No crane or derrick having a visible or known defect that affects safe operation shall be used.
(5) Protective devices.
(a) When exposed moving parts such as gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees during crane and derrick operations, those parts shall be securely guarded.
(b) Crane hooks shall be latched or otherwise secured to prevent accidental load disengagement.
(c) When hoisting personnel in an approved man basket, the hook shall have a positive safety latch to prevent rollouts.
(a) Operating controls.
(i) Crane and derrick operating controls shall be clearly marked, or a chart indicating their function shall be posted at the operator's position.
(ii) All crane controls shall operate in a uniform manner within a given port.
(iii) Overhead bridge and container gantry crane operating control levers shall be self-centering so that they will automatically move to the "off" position when the operator releases the control.
(b) Booms. Cranes with elevatable booms and without operable automatic limiting devices shall be provided with boom stops if boom elevation can exceed maximum design angles from the horizontal.
(c) Foot pedals. Foot pedals shall have a nonskid surface.
(d) Access. Ladders, stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps or equivalent means shall be provided as necessary to ensure safe access to footwalks, cab platforms, the cab and any portion of the superstructure which employees must reach.
(i) Footwalks shall be of rigid construction, and shall be capable of supporting a load of one hundred pounds (4.79 kPa) per square foot.
(ii) If more than twenty feet (6.1 m) in height, vertical ladders shall comply with WAC 296-56-60209
(4), (5)(a), (5)(b)(iii) and (5)(b)(iv).
(iii) Stairways on cranes shall be equipped with rigid handrails meeting the requirements of WAC 296-56-60123
(iv) If the top of a ladder or stairway or any position thereof is located where a moving part of a crane, such as a revolving house, could strike an employee ascending or descending the ladder or stairway, a prominent warning sign shall be posted at the foot of the ladder or stairway. A system of communication (such as a buzzer or bell) shall be established and maintained between the foot of the ladder or stairway and the operator's cab.
(e) Operator's station. The cab, controls, and mechanism of the equipment shall be so arranged that the operator has a clear view of the load or signal person, when one is used. Cab glass, when used, shall be safety plate glass or equivalent and good visibility shall be maintained through the glass. Clothing, tools and equipment shall be stored so as not to interfere with access, operation, or the operator's view.
(f) A seat (lap) belt, meeting the requirements of 49 C.F.R. 571.208-210 for a Type 1 seat belt assembly, shall be installed on the operator's seat of high speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.
(g) Counterweights or ballast. Cranes shall be operated only with the specified type and amount of ballast or counterweights. Ballast or counterweight shall be located and secured only as provided in the manufacturer's or design specifications, which shall be available.
(h) Outriggers. Outriggers shall be used according to the manufacturer's specifications or design data, which shall be available. Floats, when used, shall be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support shall be of sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that may affect safety and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane from shifting or toppling under load.
(i) Exhaust gases. Engine exhaust gases shall be discharged away from the normal position of crane operating personnel.
(j) Electrical equipment shall be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact. Designated persons may work on energized equipment only if necessary during inspection, maintenance, or repair.
(k) Fire extinguisher.
(i) At least one portable fire extinguisher of at least 5-BC rating or equivalent shall be accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.
(ii) No portable fire extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents shall be used.
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300
(l) Rope on drums. At least three full turns of rope shall remain on ungrooved drums, and two turns on grooved drums, under all operating conditions. Wire rope shall be secured to drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles, or equivalent means. Fiber rope fastenings are prohibited.
(m) Assembly or disassembly of boom sections. Mobile crane booms being assembled or disassembled on the ground with or without the support of the boom harness shall be blocked to prevent dropping of the boom or boom sections.
(i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or gear train.
(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction, shall, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with a controlled braking means to control lowering speeds.
(iii) Holding brakes for hoist units shall have not less than the following percentage of the rated load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied:
(A) One hundred twenty-five percent when used with a controlled braking means.
(B) One hundred percent when used with a mechanically controlled braking means.
(C) One hundred percent when two holding brakes are provided.
(iv) All power control braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
(o) Each crane or derrick shall be equipped with sufficient lights to maintain five foot candles in the working area around the load hook. All crane ladders and machinery houses shall be illuminated at a minimum of two candle power.
(p) Light fixtures connected to the boom, gantry legs, or machinery house shall be provided with safety devices which will prevent the light fixture from falling in case of bracket failure.
(q) Electronic devices may be installed to prevent collision subject to approval of the accredited certification agency.
(r) On all rail gantry cranes, truck guards shall extend on the ends of the trucks, close to the top of the rail to prevent worker's feet from being caught between the rail and wheel. This subsection does not apply if rail sweeps are present.
(s) All hydraulic cylinders used to control crane booms or to provide crane stability (outriggers) shall be equipped with a pilot operated check valve or a device which will prevent the boom or outrigger from retracting in case of failure of a component of the hydraulic system.
(t) Gantry cranes shall be provided with automatic rail clamps or other devices to prevent the crane from moving when not being used or when power is off.
(7) Rail-mounted cranes (excluding locomotive types).
(a) For the purposes of this section, rail-mounted cranes include bridge cranes and portal cranes.
(b) Rated load marking. The rated loads of bridge cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane and in the cab. If there is more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or on its load block. Marking shall be legible from the ground level.
(c) Wind-indicating devices.
(i) Each rail-mounted bridge and portal crane located outside of an enclosed structure shall be fitted with an operable wind-indicating device.
(ii) The wind indicating device shall provide a visible or audible warning to alert the operator of high wind conditions. That warning shall be transmitted whenever the following circumstances are present:
(A) When wind velocity reaches the warning speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations; and
(B) When wind velocity reaches the shutdown speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's recommendations, at which work is to be stopped and the crane secured.
(iii) Instructions. The employer shall post operating instructions for high wind conditions in the operator's cab of each crane. Operators shall be directed to comply with these instructions. The instructions shall include procedures for responding to high wind alerts and for any coordination necessary with other cranes.
(d) Securing of cranes in high winds.
(i) When the wind reaches the crane's warning speed:
(A) Gantry travel shall be stopped; and
(B) The crane shall be readied for shutdown.
(ii) When the wind reaches the crane's shutdown speed:
(A) Any portion of the crane spanning or partially spanning a vessel shall be moved clear of the vessel if safe to do so; and
(B) The crane shall be secured against travel, using all available means of securing.
(e) The employer shall monitor local weather conditions by subscribing to a weather service or using equally effective means.
(f) Stops and bumpers.
(i) The ends of all tracks shall be equipped with stops or bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of the wheel, it shall be of a height not less than the radius of the wheel.
(ii) When more than one crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same bridge, each crane or trolley shall be equipped with bumpers or equivalent devices at adjacent ends subject to impact.
(g) Employee exposure to crane movement. When employees may be in the vicinity of the tracks, crane trucks shall be equipped with personnel-deflecting guards.
(h) Pedestrian clearance. If the track area is used for employee passage or for work, a minimum clearance of three feet (0.91 m) shall be provided between trucks or the structures of rail-mounted cranes and any other structure or obstruction. When the required clearance is not available on at least one side of the crane's trucks, the area shall not be used and shall be marked and identified.
(i) Warning devices. Rail-mounted cranes shall be equipped with an effective audible and visible travel warning device which shall be used to warn employees who may be in the path of the moving crane.
(i) Means of communication shall be provided between the operator's cab and the base of the gantry of all rail-mounted cranes. This requirement may be met by telephone, radio, sound-signaling system or other effective methods, but not solely by hand-signaling.
(ii) All rail-mounted cranes thirty ton and above capacity shall be equipped with a voice hailing device (PA system) from the operator to the ground, audible within one hundred feet.
(k) Limit switch bypass systems shall be secured during all cargo operations. Such bypass systems shall not be used except in an emergency or during noncargo handling operations such as stowing cranes or derricks or performing repairs. When a situation requiring the use of a bypass system or the readjustment of a limit switch arises, it shall be done only under the direction of a crane mechanic.
(l) Cranes and crane operations—Scope and application. The sections of this chapter, WAC 296-56-60083 through 296-56-60099
, apply to cranes, derricks, and crane operations.
(m) Signal persons. A signal person shall be required when a crane operator's visibility is obstructed. When a signal person is required to transmit hand signals, they shall be in such a position that the operator can plainly see the signals.
(n) Signals. All operators and signal persons shall use standard signals as illustrated for longshore crane operations. (See Appendices C and D, at the end of this chapter.)
(o) Signal person for power units. Where power units, such as cranes and winches are utilized and signaling is required, the operator shall be instructed as to who is authorized to give signals. The operator shall take signals only from such authorized person. In case of emergency, any worker shall be authorized to give a stop signal.
(i) No draft shall be hoisted unless the winch or crane operator can clearly see the draft itself or see the signals of any signal person associated with the operation.
(ii) Loads requiring continuous manual guidance while in motion shall be provided with tag lines.
(p) Landing loads. Persons assisting in landing a load shall face the load and use caution to prevent themselves from getting in a position where they may be caught between the load and a fixed object.
(8) Stabilizing of locomotive cranes. Loads may be hoisted by locomotive cranes only if outriggers are in place, unless means are taken to prevent the load being carried by the truck springs of the crane.
(a) Use of cranes together. When two or more cranes hoist a load in unison, a designated person shall direct the operation and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the load and movements to be made.
(b) Guarding of swing radius. Accessible areas within the swing radius of the body of a revolving crane shall be physically guarded during operations to prevent an employee from being caught between the body of the crane and any fixed structure or between parts of the crane.
(c) Securing mobile crane components in transit. The crane's superstructure and boom shall be secured against rotation and carried in line with the direction of travel except when negotiating turns with an operator in the cab or when the boom is supported on a dolly. The empty hook or other attachment shall be secured.
(d) Unattended cranes. The following steps shall be taken before leaving a crane unattended between work periods:
(i) Suspended loads, such as those hoisted by lifting magnets or clamshell buckets, shall be landed unless the storage position or maximum hoisting of the suspended device will provide equivalent safety;
(ii) Clutches shall be disengaged;
(iii) The power supply shall be shut off;
(iv) The crane shall be secured against accidental travel; and
(v) The boom shall be lowered or secured against movement.
(e) Operating near electric power lines.
(i) Clearance. Unless electrical distribution and transmission lines are deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or unless insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the crane have been erected to prevent physical contact with lines, cranes may be operated near power lines only in accordance with following:
(A) For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be ten feet (3.05 m);
(B) For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the crane or load shall be either 10 feet (3.05 m) plus 0.4 inch (10.16 mm) for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than ten feet; and
(C) In transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance shall be a minimum of four feet (1.22 m).
(ii) Boom guards. Cage-type boom guards, insulating links or proximity warning devices may be used on cranes, but they shall not be used in place of the clearances required by subsection (9)(e)(i) of this section.
(iii) Determination of energized lines. Any overhead line shall be presumed to be energized until the owner of the line indicates that it is not energized.
(10) Protection for employees being hoisted.
(a) No employee shall be hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick except:
(i) On intermodal container spreaders, equipped in accordance with this subsection; or
(ii) In a boatswain's chair or other device rigged to prevent it from accidental disengagement from the hook or supporting member; or
(iii) On a platform meeting the following requirements:
(A) Enclosed by a railing or other means providing protection equivalent to that described in WAC 296-56-60123
(3). If equipped with open railings, the platform shall be fitted with toe boards;
(B) Having a safety factor of four based on ultimate strength;
(C) Bearing a plate or permanent marking indicating maximum load rating, which shall not be exceeded, and the weight of the platform itself;
(D) Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from opening accidentally;
(E) Equipped with overhead protection for employees on the platform if they are exposed to falling objects or overhead hazards;
(F) Secured to the load line by means other than wedge and socket attachments, unless the free (bitter) end of the line is secured back to itself by a clamp placed as close above the wedge as possible.
(b) Except in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all overhead and container gantry cranes used to hoist personnel shall operate in power up and power down, with automatic brake application when not hoisting or lowering.
(c) Variable radius booms of a crane or derrick used to hoist personnel shall be so constructed or secured as to prevent accidental boom movement.
(d) Platforms or devices used to hoist employees shall be inspected for defects before each day's use and shall be removed from service if defective.
(e) Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and communication with the operator or signal person.
(f) Operators shall remain at the controls when employees are hoisted.
(g) Cranes shall not travel while employees are hoisted, except in emergency or in normal tier to tier transfer of employees during container operations.
(h) When intermodal container spreaders are used to transfer employees to or from the tops of containers, the spreaders shall be equipped with a personnel platform equipped with fixed railings, provided that the railings have one or more openings for access. The openings shall be fitted with a means of closure, such as chains with hooks. Existing railings shall be at least thirty-six inches (0.91 m) in height. New railings installed after October 3, 1983 shall be forty-two inches (1.07 m), plus or minus three inches (7.62 cm), in height. The provisions of (a)(iii)(C), (D), and (F) of this subsection also apply to personnel platforms when container spreaders are used.
(i) Positive safety latch-type hooks or moused hooks shall be used.
(j) Employees shall not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a load is engaged.
(11) Routine inspection.
(a) Designated persons shall visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in functional operating components and shall report any defect found to the employer. The employer shall inform the operator of the findings.
(b) A designated person shall thoroughly inspect all functional components and accessible structural features of each crane or device at monthly intervals.
(c) Any defects found during such inspections which may create a safety hazard shall be corrected before further use. Repairs shall be performed only by designated persons.
(d) A record of monthly inspections shall be maintained for six months in or on the crane or derrick or at the terminal.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010
, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-56-60083, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01; WSR 00-21-103, § 296-56-60083, filed 10/18/00, effective 2/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040
. WSR 99-02-024, § 296-56-60083, filed 12/30/98, effective 3/30/99. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17
RCW. WSR 95-04-007, § 296-56-60083, filed 1/18/95, effective 3/1/95. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17
RCW and RCW 49.17.040
, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 92-22-067 (Order 92-06), § 296-56-60083, filed 10/30/92, effective 12/8/92. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040
and 49.17.050. WSR 86-03-064 (Order 86-02), § 296-56-60083, filed 1/17/86; WSR 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-56-60083, filed 4/19/85; WSR 85-01-022 (Order 84-24), § 296-56-60083, filed 12/11/84.]