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Chapter 296-45 WAC

Last Update: 2/4/13

SAFETY STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL WORKERS

WAC Sections

Electrical workers safety rules—Foreword.
Scope and application.
Variances.
Definitions.
NESC applicable.
Employer's responsibility.
Training.
Employer's safety program.
Leadworker's responsibility.
Leadworker-employee responsibility.
Work required of leadworkers.
Employee's responsibility.
Medical services and first aid.
Job briefing.
Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures.
Lockout/tagout (hazardous control) program.
Retraining.
Protective materials and hardware.
Energy isolation.
Notification.
Lockout/tagout application.
Releasing stored energy.
Release from lockout/tagout.
Temporary removal of lockout/tagout.
Group lockout/tagout.
Shift changes.
Outside servicing personnel.
Central system operator.
Trenching and excavation.
Enclosed spaces.
Underground electrical installations.
Underground residential distribution (URD).
Protective equipment.
Personal protective equipment.
Fall protection.
Ladders, platforms, and manhole steps.
Hand, and portable powered tools.
Gasoline engine power chain saws.
Live-line tools.
Materials handling and storage.
Working on or near exposed energized parts.
Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection.
Grounding for the protection of employees.
Underground grounding.
Testing and test facilities.
Mechanical equipment, including aerial manlift equipment.
Overhead lines.
Line-clearance tree-trimming operations.
Brush chippers.
Sprayers and related equipment.
Stump cutters.
Backpack power units for use in pruning and clearing.
Rope.
Fall protection.
Communication facilities.
Substations.
Power generation.
Interlocks and other safety devices.
Changing brushes.
Access and working space.
Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment.
Guarding of energized parts.
Water or steam spaces.
Chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels.
Chlorine systems.
Boilers.
Turbine generators.
Coal and ash handling.
Hydroplants and equipment.
Special conditions.
Capacitors.
Current transformer secondaries.
Series streetlighting.
Illumination.
Protection against drowning.
Employee protection in public work areas.
Backfeed.
Lasers.
Hydraulic fluids.
Foreign attachments and placards.
Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing.
Rotorcraft/helicopter for power distribution and transmission line installation, construction and repair—Scope.
Definitions.
Briefing.
Signals.
Slings and tag lines.
Cargo hooks.
Personal protective equipment.
Wearing apparel.
Loose gear and objects.
Housekeeping.
Operator's responsibility.
Hooking and unhooking loads.
Static charge.
Load permitted.
Visibility.
Signal systems.
Approaching the helicopter.
In helicopter.
Sling and rigging.
Personnel.
Fires.
General.
Refueling operations.
Appendices.
Appendix A—Nonmandatory.
Appendix B—Protection from step and touch potentials—Nonmandatory.
Appendix C—Methods of inspecting and testing wood poles—Nonmandatory.
Reviser's note: Chapter 296-44 WAC Safety Standards—Electrical Construction code was absorbed into this chapter with the filing of WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.
DISPOSITION OF SECTIONS FORMERLY CODIFIED IN THIS CHAPTER
296-45-010
General. [§ 296-45-010, filed 1/3/68; § I, Rules 1.1 through 1.9, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-020
Causes of accident. [§ I, Rule 1.10, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-030
Safety. [§ I, Rule 1.11, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38,, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-040
Definitions. [§ I, Rules 1.12 through 1.29, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-050
Employer's responsibility. [§ II, Rules 2.1 through 2.11, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-060
Foreman's responsibility. [§ II, Rules 2.12 through 2.23, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-070
Employees' responsibility. [§ II, Rules 2.24 through 2.31, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-080
First aid. [§ III, Rules 3.1 through 3.4, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-090
Industrial hygiene. [§ III, Rules 3.5 through 3.7, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-110
Tools—General. [§ IV, Rules 4.1 through 4.7, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-120
Tools—Inspection of tools. [§ IV, Rules 4.8 and 4.9, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-130
Tools—Storage of tools and materials. [§ IV, Rule 4.10, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-140
Tools—Hand tools—Using metal objects. [§ IV, Rules 4.11 and 4.12, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-150
Tools—Ladders. [§ IV, Rules 4.13 through 4.27, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-160
Tools—Scaffolds. [§ IV, Rule 4.28, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-170
Tools—Guards and barriers. [§ IV, Rule 4.29, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-180
Tools—Grounding equipment. [§ IV, Rules 4.30 and 4.31, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-190
Tools—Hot line tools. [§ IV, Rules 4.32 and 4.33, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-200
Tools—Switch stick. [§ IV, Rules 4.34 and 4.35, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-210
Tools—Climbing equipment. [§ IV, Rules 4.36 through 4.39, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-220
Protective devices—Rubber protective equipment. [§ IV, Rules 4.40 through 4.51, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-230
Equipment—Soldering equipment. [§ IV, Rules 4.52 through 4.55, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-240
Equipment—Fire extinguishers. [§ IV, Rule 4.56, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-250
Wearing apparel. [§ 296-45-250, filed 1/3/68; § IV, Rules 4.57 through 4.61, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-260
Transportation—Motor vehicle and trailer operations law. [§ IV, Rule 4.62, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-270
Transportation—Safety practices. [§ 296-45-270, filed 1/3/68; § IV, Rules 4.63 through 4.69, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-280
Employee qualifications. [§ V, Rule 5.1, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-290
Work required of foreman. [§ V, Rule 5.2, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-300
Number of men required to do work safely. [§ V, Rules 5.3 through 5.5, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-310
Replacing or pulling fuses. [§ V, Rules 5.6 through 5.8, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-320
Electric utility employee operated motor cranes, "A" frames, aerial lift equipment, hole digger, winches, etc. [§ V, Rule 5.9, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-330
Working on or near energized lines or equipment. [§ V, Rules 5.10 through 5.15, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-340
Stringing or removing wires. [§ V, Rule 5.16, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-350
Temporary guard poles and structures. [§ V, Rule 5.17, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-360
Safe working practices. [§ V, Rules 5.18 through 5.46, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-370
Overhead lines—Working above energized circuits over 5 KV. [§ V, Rules 5.47 through 5.50, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-380
Overhead lines—Using hot line tools. [§ V, Rules 5.51 through 5.54, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-390
Overhead lines—Strength of spans and their supports. [§ V, Rules 5.55 and 5.56, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-400
Overhead lines—Foreign operations. [§ V, Rule 5.57, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-410
Overhead lines—Tree trimming. [§ V, Rule 5.58, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-420
Overhead lines—Foreign attachments and placards. [§ V, Rule 5.59, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-430
Substations and generating plants—General. [§ V, Rules 5.60 through 5.64, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-440
Maintenance of clearance. [§ V, Rule 5.65, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-450
Number of men required to work safely. [§ V, Rule 5.66, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-460
Safe working practices. [§ V, Rules 5.67 through 5.78, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-470
Clearances. [§ VI, Rules 6.1 through 6.13, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-480
Grounding. [§ VI, Rules 6.14 through 6.25, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-490
Underground maintenance—General. [§ VII, Rule 7.1, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-500
Underground maintenance—Working in manholes. [§ VII, Rules 7.2 through 7.7, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-510
Underground maintenance—Guarding manholes and street openings. [§ VII, Rules 7.8 through 7.12, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-520
Underground maintenance—Use of tools and equipment. [§ VII, Rules 7.13 through 7.17, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-530
Underground maintenance—Pulling U.G. cable. [§ VII, Rule 7.18, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-540
Underground maintenance—Testing. [§ VII, Rules 7.19 through 7.21, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-550
Underground maintenance—Fishing conduit or ducts. [§ VII, Rule 7.22, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-560
Underground maintenance—Working in elevated position. [§ VII, Rule 7.23, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-570
Underground maintenance—Grounding U.G. power conductors and equipment. [§ VII, Rules 7.24 through 7.27, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-580
Trolley maintenance. [§ VII, Rules 7.28 through 7.40, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-590
Aerial manlift equipment. [§ 296-45-590, filed 1/3/68; § VIII, Rules 8.1 through 8.10, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-600
Conclusion. [Matter following Rule 8.10, filed 3/23/60, effective 2/3/56.] Repealed by Order 76-38, filed 12/30/76.
296-45-60013
Hand and portable powered tools. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 96-22-013, § 296-45-60013, filed 10/28/96, effective 1/1/97.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-650
Electrical workers safety rules—Foreword. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-650, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-650, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65003
Scope and application. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65003, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65003, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65005
Definitions. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65005, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65005, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65009
Employer's responsibility. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65009, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-45-65009, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65009, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65011
Leadworker's responsibility. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65011, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65011, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65013
Leadworker-employee responsibility. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65013, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65013, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65015
Work required of leadworkers. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65015, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65015, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65017
Employee's responsibility. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65017, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65017, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65019
First aid. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65019, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65019, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65021
Tools and protective equipment. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65021, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65021, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65023
Clearances, operating power lines and equipment. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65023, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65023, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65025
Grounding. [Order 76-38, § 296-45-65025, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), filed 5/11/88. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW.
296-45-65026
Personal protective grounding. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65026, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; WSR 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-45-65026, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-45-65026, filed 5/11/88.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65027
General requirements. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65027, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65027, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65029
Overhead lines. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65029, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65029, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65031
Poles and pole settings. [Order 76-38, § 296-45-65031, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65033
Transmission line construction. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65033, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65033, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65035
Substations. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65035, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65035, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65037
Underground. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65037, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; WSR 88-11-021 (Order 88-04), § 296-45-65037, filed 5/11/88; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65037, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65038
Underground residential distribution (URD). [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65038, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 83-24-013 (Order 83-34), § 296-45-65038, filed 11/30/83; WSR 83-15-017 (Order 83-19), § 296-45-65038, filed 7/13/83, effective 9/12/83.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65039
Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65039, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65039, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65041
Aerial manlift equipment. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65041, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-45-65041, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65041, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65043
All motor vehicle and trailer operations. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 82-08-026 (Order 82-10), § 296-45-65043, filed 3/30/82; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65043, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65045
Material handling. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65045, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65045, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-65047
Specification for lineworker's belts and similar equipment. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 95-10-016, § 296-45-65047, filed 4/25/95, effective 10/1/95; WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-65047, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-65047, filed 12/30/76.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-660
Tree trimming. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-660, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66001
Electrical hazards. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-66001, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66001, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66003
Tools and protective equipment. [Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66003, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66005
Insulated tools used for tree trimming. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-66005, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66005, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66007
Aerial manlift equipment. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-66007, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. WSR 82-13-045 (Order 82-22), § 296-45-66007, filed 6/11/82. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66007, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66009
All motor vehicle and trailer operations. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-66009, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66009, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-66011
Working in proximity to electrical hazards. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-66011, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040, 49.17.050 and 49.17.240. WSR 81-13-053 (Order 81-9), § 296-45-66011, filed 6/17/81.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-680
Communication facilities. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-680, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-690
Power generation. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-690, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-695
Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-695, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.
296-45-700
Testing and test facilities. [Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-700, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94.] Repealed by WSR 98-07-009, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060.


296-45-005
Electrical workers safety rules—Foreword.

The purpose of this chapter is to make the workplace of electrical employees as free from recognized hazards as reasonably possible. Following these rules may sometimes require that employee safety receive a higher priority than speed and work performance. These rules exist to provide employee safety, so employees are expected, in good faith, to follow the provisions of this chapter. This chapter is not intended to be a complete job description nor is it expected that the chapter covers every hazard that an employee may encounter. When a hazard exists that is not covered by this chapter, the leadworker and employees are expected, in good faith, to mutually discuss the hazard and agree how to perform the work with the greatest degree of safety.
The department of labor and industries is the sole and paramount administrative agency responsible for the administration and interpretation of this chapter and the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act of 1973. If there exists a question as to the meaning of any provision of this chapter, such question must first be directed to the department of labor and industries and its authorized representatives.
Experience has proven that the majority of injuries and deaths are preventable. Most injuries and deaths are not due to defective equipment but are due to failure on the part of the employees and those in authority to observe safety rules and failure to use safety devices. In the last analysis, this chapter is a compilation of experience and common sense. Electrical safety requires that the work be properly planned, executed by the use of good judgment and under the direction of intelligent supervision.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-005, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-015
Scope and application.

(1) This chapter covers the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. These provisions apply to:
(a) Power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees;
Note:
The types of installations covered by this chapter include the generation, transmission, and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations of industrial establishments. Trolley maintenance, jumpering, and bypass is also covered by this chapter. Supplementary electric generating equipment that is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only is covered under Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC and WAC 296-800-280.
(b) Other installations at an electric power generating station, as follows:
(i) Fuel and ash handling and processing installations, such as coal conveyors;
(ii) Water and steam installations, such as penstocks, pipelines, and tanks, providing a source of energy for electric generators; and
(iii) Chlorine and hydrogen systems.
(c) Test sites where electrical testing involving temporary measurements associated with electric power generation, transmission, and distribution is performed in laboratories, in the field, in substations, and on lines, as opposed to metering, relaying, and routine line work;
(d) Work on or directly associated with the installations covered in subsections (1)(a) through (c) of this section; and
(e) Line-clearance tree-trimming operations, as follows:
(i) This chapter except WAC 296-45-455, applies to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by qualified employees (those who are knowledgeable in the construction and operation of electric power generation, transmission, or distribution equipment involved, along with the associated hazards).
(ii) WAC 296-45-065, 296-45-125, 296-45-135, 296-45-255, 296-45-315, 296-45-375, and 296-45-455 through 296-45-45530 apply to line-clearance tree-trimming operations performed by line-clearance tree trimmers who are not qualified employees.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of this section, this chapter does not apply to electrical installations, electrical safety-related work practices, or electrical maintenance considerations covered by Part L of chapter 296-24 WAC and WAC 296-800-280.
Note 1:
Work practices conforming to WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985 are considered as complying with the electrical safety-related work practice requirements of this chapter, provided the work is being performed on a generation or distribution installation meeting WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699. This chapter also applies to work by qualified persons directly on or associated with installations of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines or equipment, regardless of compliance with WAC 296-24-970 through 296-24-985.
Note 2:
Work practices performed by qualified persons and conforming to this chapter are considered as complying with WAC 296-24-95601 through 296-24-95699.
(3) This section applies in addition to all other applicable safety and health standards administered by the department. Specific references in this section to other standards are provided for emphasis only.
(4) Operation, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities not specifically covered by this chapter are subject to the rules and regulations of chapter 296-24 WAC, General safety and health standards; chapter 296-62 WAC, General occupational health standards; chapter 296-155 WAC, Safety standards for construction work; chapter 296-800 WAC, Safety and health core rules; and, insofar as applicable to employee safety and health, chapter 19.29 RCW. Additionally, operations, conditions, work methods and other work related situations or activities may be subject to additional rules and regulations depending upon the nature of the work being performed.
(5) These rules shall not apply to the use of existing electrical installations during their lifetime, provided they are maintained in good condition and in accordance with the applicable safety factor requirements and the rules in effect at the time they were installed, and provided that reconstruction shall conform to the rules as herein provided.
(6) Any rule, regulation or standard contained within this chapter, if subject to interpretation, shall be interpreted so as to achieve employee safety, which is the ultimate purpose of this chapter.
(7) Should a rule or standard contained within this chapter conflict, in any manner, with a standard or rule contained within any other chapter of Title 296 WAC the standard or rule contained herein shall apply so long as the work being done is power generation, transmission, and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication or metering, which are accessible only to qualified employees. If there are rules within this chapter that conflict, the rule that provides the greatest employee safety will apply.
(8) Neither the promulgation of these rules, nor anything contained in these rules shall be construed as affecting the relative status or civil rights or liabilities between employers and their employees and/or the employees of others and/or the public generally; nor shall the use herein of the words "duty" and "responsibility" or either, import or imply liability other than provided for in the industrial insurance and safety laws of the state of Washington, to any person for injuries due to negligence predicated upon failure to perform or discharge any such "duty" or "responsibility," but failure on the part of the employees, leadworker, or employer to comply with any compulsory rule may be cause for the department of labor and industries to take action in accordance with the industrial insurance and safety laws.
(9) "Shall" and "must" as used in this chapter make the provisions mandatory. "Should," "may," or "it is recommended" are used to indicate the provisions are not mandatory but are recommended.
(10) If any section, subsection, phrase, or provisions of this chapter or part thereof should be held invalid by any court for any reason, such invalidity shall not in any way affect the validity of the remainder of this chapter, unless such decision renders the remainder of the provision unintelligible, or changes the meaning of such other provision or provisions.
(11) When the language used in this chapter indicates that it is the responsibility, duty, or obligation of the leadworker or other employee, it shall also be the employer's responsibility, obligation, and duty.
Whenever this chapter refers to the provisions of another safety and health standard or statute affecting safety and health, such reference refers to the statute or code in effect at the time the work is being performed.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-015, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-015, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-015, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-025
Variances.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 07-03-163, § 296-45-025, filed 1/24/07, effective 4/1/07. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-025, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-035
Definitions.

"Aerial manlift equipment" - Equipment such as extended towers, boom-mounted cages or baskets, and truck-mounted ladders, that is primarily designed to place personnel and equipment aloft to work on elevated structures and equipment.
"Affected employee" - An employee whose job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
"Apprentice" - An employee who is being trained to be journey level.
"Approved" - Meets or exceeds the recognized standards of safety within the industry.
"Approved protectors" - Gloves worn over rubber insulating gloves which are of such material or substance and so constructed as to protect the rubber gloves from abrasions, lacerations, or other physical damage which might otherwise occur to rubber gloves. Approved protectors must conform to the standards which are recognized by the industry.
"Attendant" - An employee assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.
"Authorized employee" - An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under this section.
"Automatic circuit recloser" - A self-controlled device for interrupting and reclosing an alternating current circuit with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting, hold-closed, or lockout operation.
"Barricade" - A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area.
"Barrier" - A physical obstruction which is intended to prevent contact with energized lines or equipment or to prevent unauthorized access to a work area.
"Bond" - The electrical interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electrical potential.
"Bus" - A conductor or a group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.
"Bushing" - An insulating structure, including a through conductor or providing a passageway for such a conductor, with provision for mounting on a barrier, conducting or otherwise, for the purposes of insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier to the other.
"Cable" - A conductor with insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).
"Cable sheath" - A conductive protective covering applied to cables.
Note:
A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers of which one or more is conductive.
"Circuit" - A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.
"Clearance" (between objects) - The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.
"Clearance" (for work) - Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.
"Communication lines." (See "Lines, communication.")
"Conductor" - A material, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric current.
"Covered conductor" - A conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor is used.
"Current-carrying part" - A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of voltage. Noncurrent-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.
"Deenergized" - Free from any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric charge; not having a potential difference from that of the earth.
Note:
The term is used only with reference to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).
"Designated employee/person" - An employee/person who is designated by the employer to perform specific duties under the terms of this section and who is knowledgeable in the construction and operation of the equipment and the hazards involved.
"Electric line truck" - Any vehicle used to transport employees, tools, and material, which serves as a traveling workshop for electric power line construction and maintenance work. It may be equipped with a boom and auxiliary equipment for setting poles, digging holes, and elevating material and/or workers.
"Electric supply equipment" - Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of electric energy.
"Electric supply lines." (See "Lines, electric supply.")
"Electric utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric supply system.
"Emergency" - An unforeseen occurrence endangering life, limb, or property.
"Enclosed" - Surrounded by a case, cage, fence or otherwise which will protect the contained equipment and prevent accidental contact of a person with live parts.
"Enclosed space" - A working space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions, and that under normal conditions does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but that may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.
Note:
Spaces that are enclosed but not designed for employee entry under normal operating conditions are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Similarly, spaces that are enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere are not considered to be enclosed spaces for the purposes of this section. Such spaces meet the definition of permit spaces in WAC 296-62-145, and entry into them must be performed in accordance with that standard.
"Energized" (alive, live) - Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.
"Energy isolating device" - A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including, but not limited to, the following: A manually operated electric circuit breaker, a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type devices are not energy isolating devices.)
"Energy source" - Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source that could cause injury to personnel.
"Equipment" (electric) - A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus, and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.
"Exposed" - Not isolated or guarded.
"Fault current" - The current that flows in an electrical system because of a defect in the circuit induced accidentally or otherwise.
"Fixed ladder" - A ladder that is permanently secured to a structure.
"Ground" - A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electric circuit or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded" - Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
"Grounded system" - A system of conductors in which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire, or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded either solidly or through a current-limiting device (not a current-interrupting device).
"Groundperson" - A member of crew working on ground under direction of a leadworker.
"Guarded" - Covered, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to prevent the possibility, under normal conditions, of dangerous approach or accidental contact by persons or objects.
Note:
Wires which are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not considered as guarded.
"Hazardous atmosphere" - An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
• Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
• Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note:
This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less;
• Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
• Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part L, or in chapter 296-62 WAC, toxic and hazardous substances, and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note:
An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
• Any other atmospheric condition that is "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH).
"IDLH" - Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note:
Some materials (hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example) may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.
Note:
For air contaminants for which WISHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Chemical Hazard Communication Program, WAC 296-800-170, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
"High-power tests" - Tests in which fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and line-dropping currents are used to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower voltages.
"High-voltage tests" - Tests in which voltages of approximately 1000 volts are used as a practical minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.
"High wind" - A wind of such velocity that the following hazards would be present:
• An employee would be exposed to being blown from elevated locations; or
• An employee or material handling equipment could lose control of material being handled; or
• An employee would be exposed to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.
Note:
Winds exceeding 40 miles per hour (64.4 kilometers per hour), or 30 miles per hour (48.3 kilometers per hour) if material handling is involved, are normally considered as meeting this criteria unless precautions are taken to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.
"Insulated" - Separated from other conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance to the passage of current.
Note:
When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the conditions to which it is normally subjected. Otherwise, it is, within the purpose of this section, uninsulated.
"Insulation" (cable) - That which is relied upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from ground.
"Insulation shielding" - An envelope which encloses the insulation of a cable and provides an equipotential surface in contact with cable insulation.
"Isolated" - An object that is not readily accessible to persons unless special means of access are used.
"Leadworker" - The person directly in charge of workers doing the work, regardless of title.
"Line-clearance tree trimmer" - An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both, is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree trimming.
Note 1:
An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a line-clearance tree trimmer.
Note 2:
A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered to be a "qualified employee" under this section unless he or she has the training required for a qualified employee under WAC 296-45-065. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified employee." Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in WAC 296-24-970. (See also the note following WAC 296-24-970 for information regarding the training an employee must have to be considered a qualified employee.)
"Line-clearance tree trimming" - The pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees or the cutting of brush that is within 10 feet (305 cm) of electric supply lines and equipment.
"Lines" -
"Communication lines" - The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit, and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system. Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely to communication equipment.
Note:
Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm, cable television, and other systems conforming with this definition are included. Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered as electric supply lines of the same voltage.
"Electric supply lines" - Conductors used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures. Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section, and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated throughout.
"Live-line tools and ropes" - Tools and ropes specifically designed for work on energized high voltage lines and equipment.
"Load-break elbow" - A connector designed to close and interrupt current on energized circuits within the design current and voltage rating.
"Manhole" - A subsurface enclosure which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, and maintaining submersible equipment or cable.
"Manhole steps" - A series of steps individually attached to or set into the walls of a manhole structure.
"Minimum approach distance" - The closest distance an employee is permitted to approach an energized or a grounded object.
"Neutral" - A system in which one conductor is used as the neutral for one or more circuits; one conductor may be used as the neutral for both primary and secondary circuits of a distribution system.
"Pole" - Any device used to support a power distribution or transmission line. The pole may be made of any substance including wood, concrete, metal, is usually cylindrical in shape and comparatively slender. It is the upright standard to which is affixed part of the power distribution and transmission line system as defined in this chapter.
"Power dispatcher" (load dispatcher or system operator) - A person who has been designated by the employer as having authority over switching and clearances of high voltage lines and station equipment.
"Protective devices" - Devices such as rubber gloves, rubber blankets, line hose, rubber boots, or other insulating devices, which are specifically designed for the protection of employees.
"Public highway" - Every way, land, road, street, boulevard, and every other way or place in the state open as a matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limits of cities and towns, regardless of ownership.
"Qualified person or qualified employee" - A person who is familiar with the construction of, or operation of such lines and/or equipment that concerns his/her position and who is fully aware of the hazards connected therewith, or, one who has passed a journey status examination for the particular branch of the electrical trades with which he/she may be connected.
Note 1:
An employee must have the training required by WAC 296-45-065(1) in order to be considered a qualified employee.
Note 2:
(Apprentice) Except under WAC 296-45-25510(12), an employee who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person is considered to be a qualified person for the performance of those duties.
"Rubber" - Any goods, equipment, or tool made out of either natural or synthetic rubber.
"Secured ladder" - A ladder which is not capable of being dislodged from the top by lateral, or jerking motion(s).
"Sheath" - As applied to tools carried in a lineman's tool belt, a sheath that effectively covers the tool and prevents such tool from falling from the belt.
"Step bolt" - A bolt or rung attached at intervals along a structural member and used for foot placement during climbing or standing.
"Supporting structure" - The main supporting unit (usually a pole or tower).
"Switch" - A device for opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In these rules, a switch is understood to be manually operable, unless otherwise stated.
"System operator or power dispatcher" - A qualified person who has been designated by the employer and having authority over switching, clearances, and operation of the system and its parts.
"Tag" - A system or method of identifying circuits, systems, or equipment for the purpose of alerting employees and others that the circuit, system, or equipment is being worked on.
"Underground network" - An underground electrical installation fed from multiple primary sources directly associated with area-wide secondary network connected into a common grid.
"Underground residential distribution system" (URD) - An electrical installation normally fed from a single primary source which may feed one or more transformers with secondaries not connected to a common grid.
"Utility" - An organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply or communications systems.
"Vault" - An enclosure, above or below ground, which personnel may enter and which is used for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.
"Vented vault" - A vault that has provision for air changes using exhaust flue stacks and low level air intakes operating on differentials of pressure and temperature providing for airflow which precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.
"Voltage" - The effective (rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between a conductor and ground. Voltages are expressed in nominal values unless otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation. The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.
Note:
Low voltage includes voltages from 50 to 600 volts. High voltage shall mean those voltages of 601 volts to 230,000. Extra high voltage means any voltage over 230,000 volts. Where the words "high voltage" are used in this chapter it shall include extra high voltage, unless otherwise specified.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-035, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-035, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-045
NESC applicable.

(1) All electric utilities and entities operating transmission and distribution facilities within the state of Washington must design, construct, operate, and maintain their lines and equipment according to the requirements of the 2002 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), parts (1), (2), and (3).
Note:
The department has copies of the NESC available for review at each service location across the state. To purchase a copy, write to:
 
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE, Inc.)
445 Hoes Lane
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
(2) The employer must ensure that climbing space is provided on all poles and structures. The climbing space must meet the requirements of the 2002 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) (ANSI-C2), except that Rule 236H does not apply.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-17-071, § 296-45-045, filed 8/19/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-045, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-045, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-055
Employer's responsibility.

(1) The employer shall provide and maintain the necessary protective devices specified in these rules and require the employees to use them properly.
(2) The employer shall develop and maintain a chemical hazard communication program as required by WAC 296-800-170, which will provide information to all employees relative to hazardous chemicals or substances to which they are exposed, or may become exposed, in the course of their employment.
(3) There shall be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment employing eight or more persons a safety bulletin board of a size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident statistics and other safety educational material. It is recommended that safety bulletin boards be painted green and white.
(4) The employer shall require the leadworker to observe and enforce all safety rules and shall furnish a copy of the electrical workers' safety rules to each employee who is covered by these rules.
(5) The employer shall appoint only competent workers to supervise other employees and those appointed shall be responsible for the safety of the employees under their supervision.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-055, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-055, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-065
Training.

Employees shall be trained and proficient in the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and proficient with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top, aerial, manhole, and tree rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary for their safety.
(1) Qualified employees shall also be trained and competent in:
(a) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment;
(b) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts;
(c) The minimum approach distances specified in this section corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified employee will be exposed; and
(d) The proper use of the special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of electric equipment.
Note:
For the purposes of this section, a person must have this training in order to be considered a qualified person.
(2) The employer shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section.
(3) An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(a) If the supervision and annual inspections required by subsection (2) of this section indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section; or
(b) If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use; or
(c) If he or she must employ safety related work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties.
Note:
WISHA would consider tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
(4) The training required by WAC 296-45-065 shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type.
(5) The training shall establish employee proficiency in the work practices required by this section and shall introduce the procedures necessary for compliance with this section.
(6) The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by WAC 296-45-065. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment.
Note:
Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-065, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-075
Employer's safety program.

(1) The employer shall hold safety meetings at least once a month, which meetings shall be held at a reasonable time and place as selected by the employer. The employer shall require all employees subject to provisions of this chapter to attend said meetings: Provided, That employees whose presence is otherwise required by reason of an emergency or whose function is such that they cannot leave their station or cease their work without serious detriment to the service provided, such as dispatcher, may be excused from such meeting under those circumstances. Minutes shall be kept of each safety meeting and retained for a period of one year.
(2) The employer or a representative(s) designated shall investigate all accidents or injuries of a serious nature and, where possible, take the proper remedial steps to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.
(3) The employer shall furnish instructions stating the proper procedure in event of an emergency, which shall include the names of those individuals to be notified and methods of contacting them.
(4) The employer shall provide and make available to all employees accident report and safety suggestion forms or other approved methods. Safety suggestion forms should, where possible, be used for suggesting the elimination of hazardous conditions and such reported suggestions shall be retained (for one year) by the employer or an authorized representative.
(6) Nothing contained within this chapter shall prohibit an employer or an authorized representative from disciplining employees for failure to comply with the provisions of this or any other safety code.
(7) Existing conditions related to the safety of the work to be performed shall be determined before work on or near electric lines or equipment is started. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, the nominal voltages of lines and equipment, the maximum switching transient voltages, the presence of hazardous induced voltages, the presence and condition of protective grounds and equipment grounding conductors, the condition of poles, environmental conditions relative to safety, and the locations of circuits and equipment, including power and communication lines and fire protective signaling circuits.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-075, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-075, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-085
Leadworker's responsibility.

(1) Every leadworker shall understand these and any other applicable safety rules and comply therewith. Leadworkers shall require all employees under their direction or supervision to read this chapter and the provisions contained therein and require every employee subject to this chapter to be able to apply this chapter and any provision of this chapter on a day-to-day basis.
(2) Leadworkers shall inform employees under their supervision or direction of the type and voltage of circuits on or near which the employees are to work.
(3) Leadworkers shall require all employees under their supervision to properly use safety devices and equipment, including barricades, warning flags or signs, or any other device called for to protect employees.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-085, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-095
Leadworker-employee responsibility.

(1) An employee shall protect his/her climbing and working space at all times if the conductors are so spaced that in climbing or working he/she will be, or where it is possible to come within, the minimum required distances specified in these rules.
(2) Leadworkers or supervisors shall in good faith consider verbal or written reports of hazardous conditions and shall, as soon as practicable, investigate and remedy same if warranted.
(3) When hazards are reported by employees, leadworkers and others having authority shall accept the report in a cooperative manner, and in no case shall an employee be reprimanded or penalized for reporting hazards or potential hazards.
(4) Leadworkers shall require all employees under their supervision to keep their belts, spurs, and straps in good working condition. When straps and belts are in poor condition or defective, they shall not be used.
(5) Before leaving a job site, leadworkers shall correct or arrange to give warning of any condition which might result in injury to employees.
(6) No employee shall be permitted or allowed to remain on the job site when under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or controlled substance or substances: Provided, That if an employee is taking prescription medication under the direction of a practicing physician and such prescription does not interfere with the safe performance of the work assigned, such employee may be permitted to work.
(7) No intoxicating beverages or controlled substances shall be consumed on the job site other than prescription medication as set forth above.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-095, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-105
Work required of leadworkers.

(1) A leadworker cannot properly supervise the work and look out for the safety of employees under their direction if required to work as a leadworker and a lineworker at the same time.
(2) Leadworkers should be constantly alert and shall not be required to serve in such dual capacity, except in crews of not more than two lineworkers, in which case they may work as one of the lineworkers.
(3) In crews of two lineworkers or less, each lineworker may have a groundworker but, if additional lineworkers or groundworkers are added to the crew, the leadworker shall confine his/her activities to supervising the work, as exhibited below:
Type of Crew
Minimum Requirements
2 lineworkers
One lineworker as person-in-charge.
2 lineworkers plus
One lineworker as person-in-
1 groundworker
charge or climbing leadworker.
2 lineworkers plus
One lineworker as person-in-
2 groundworkers
charge or climbing leadworker.
2 lineworkers plus
One nonclimbing leadworker.
any combination of
 
3 lineworkers or
 
groundworkers
 
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-105, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-115
Employee's responsibility.

(1) Employees shall not engage in horseplay or scuffling while on the job or job site and the employer shall not permit horseplay or scuffling while on the job site or otherwise in the course of employment.
(2) During such time as any employee is working on or near any energized line or energized equipment in excess of 600 volts there shall be no talking or communication other than that which is absolutely necessary and essential for the safe and proper performance of the work. Should there be communication or talk from a person other than an employee, the work shall stop until such time as the distraction ceases.
(3) Employees shall report any hazardous or potentially hazardous condition, operation, means, or work in a constructive manner and shall not engage in personality conflicts.
(4) Neither the employer nor the employees shall throw or permit anything to be thrown from elevated position(s) or poles to the ground or lower level, nor shall anything be thrown from the ground or lower level to an elevated position, whether that elevated position is on a pole, aerial manlift or otherwise. Tools and loose materials shall not be left on poles, crossarms, ladders or other elevated structures or positions.
(5) Employees shall report all injuries, regardless of severity, to the employer or designated representative. Report forms furnished by the employer should be used.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-115, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-125
Medical services and first aid.

(1) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first-aid training. When employees are performing work on or associated with exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more, persons trained in first aid including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) shall be available as follows:
(a) For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons shall be available. However, only one trained person need be available if all new employees are trained in first aid, including CPR, within 3 months of their hiring dates.
(b) For fixed work locations such as generating stations, the number of trained persons available shall be sufficient to ensure that each employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes by a trained person. However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient to meet this requirement (at a remote substation, for example), all employees at the work location shall be trained.
(2) First-aid supplies. First-aid supplies required by WAC 296-800-150 shall be placed in weatherproof containers if the supplies could be exposed to the weather.
(3) First-aid kits. Each first-aid kit shall be maintained, shall be readily available for use, and shall be inspected frequently enough to ensure that expended items are replaced but at least once per year.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 04-07-160, § 296-45-125, filed 3/23/04, effective 5/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-125, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-125, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-135
Job briefing.

The employer shall ensure that the leadworker conducts a job briefing with the employees involved before they start each job. The briefing shall cover at least the following subjects: Hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, and personal protective equipment requirements.
(1) Number of briefings. If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift. Additional job briefings shall be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees, occur during the course of the work.
(2) Extent of briefing. A brief discussion is satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee, by virtue of training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted:
(a) If the work is complicated or particularly hazardous; or
(b) If the employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.
Note:
The briefing is always required to touch on all the subjects listed in the introductory text to this section.
(3) Working alone. An employee working alone need not conduct a job briefing. However, the employer shall ensure that the tasks to be performed are planned as if a briefing were required.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-135, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-175
Hazardous energy control (lockout/tagout) procedures.

Note 1:
Installations in electric power generation facilities that are not an integral part of, or inextricably commingled with, power generation processes or equipment are covered under chapter 296-24 WAC.
Note 2:
Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with chapter 296-803 WAC will also be deemed to comply with this section if the procedures address the hazards covered by this section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 04-15-105, § 296-45-175, filed 7/20/04, effective 11/1/04; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-175, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17505
Lockout/tagout (hazardous control) program.

(1) The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that, before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
(2) The employer's energy control program under this section shall meet the following requirements:
(a) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use a tagout system.
(b) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as follows:
(i) When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lockout program.
(ii) In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program equivalent to the level of safety obtained by the use of a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
(3) Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
(4) Procedures shall be developed, documented, and used for the control of potentially hazardous energy covered by this section.
(5) The procedure shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, responsibility, authorization, rules, and techniques to be applied to the control of hazardous energy, and the measures to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) A specific statement of the intended use of this procedure;
(b) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
(c) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and
(d) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
(6) The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the provisions of this section are being followed.
(a) The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee who is not using the energy control procedure being inspected.
(b) The periodic inspection shall be designed to identify and correct any deviations or inadequacies.
(c) If lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
(d) Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in this section.
(e) The employer shall certify that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished. The certification shall identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
Note:
If normal work schedule and operation records demonstrate adequate inspection activity and contain the required information, no additional certification is required.
(7) The employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following:
(a) Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace, and in the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(b) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(c) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be used shall be instructed about the procedures and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out.
(8) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(a) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(b) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
(c) Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
(d) Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
(e) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
(f) Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17505, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17510
Retraining.

(1) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or whenever there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(2) Retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
(3) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and shall introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
(4) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee's name and dates of training.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17510, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17515
Protective materials and hardware.

(1) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.
(2) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only devices used for controlling energy; may not be used for other purposes; and shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
(b) Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
(c) Tagout devices shall be so constructed as not to deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
(3) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: Color, shape, size. Additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
(4) Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or metal cutting tools.
(5) Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a nonreusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and nonreleasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than fifty pounds and shall have the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
(6) Each lockout device or tagout device shall include provisions for the identification of the employee applying the device.
(7) Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Operate.
Note:
For specific provisions covering accident prevention tags, see chapter 296-24 WAC.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17515, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17520
Energy isolation.

Lockout and tagout device application and removal may only be performed by the authorized employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17520, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17525
Notification.

Affected employees shall be notified by the employer or authorized employee of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.
Note:
This section requires that the second notification take place before the machine or equipment is reenergized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17525, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17530
Lockout/tagout application.

The established procedures for the application of energy control (the lockout or tagout procedures) shall include the following elements and actions, and these procedures shall be performed in the following sequence:
(1) Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee shall have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(2) The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown shall be used to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the equipment stoppage.
(3) All energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment shall be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from energy sources.
(4) Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.
(a) Lockout devices shall be attached in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position.
(b) Tagout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited.
(5) Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked out, the tag attachment shall be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
(6) Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17530, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17535
Releasing stored energy.

Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise rendered safe.
(1) If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
(2) Before starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized employee shall verify that isolation and deenergizing of the machine or equipment have been accomplished. If normally energized parts will be exposed to contact by an employee while the machine or equipment is deenergized, a test shall be performed to ensure that these parts are deenergized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17535, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17540
Release from lockout/tagout.

Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine or equipment, procedures shall be followed and actions taken by the authorized employees to ensure the following:
(1) The work area shall be inspected to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(2) The work area shall be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(3) After lockout or tagout devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected employees shall be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
(4) Each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized employee who applied the lockout or tagout device. However, if that employee is not available to remove it, the device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. The employer shall demonstrate that the specific procedure provides a degree of safety equivalent to that provided by the removal of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. The specific procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(a) Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(b) Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him or her that his or her lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(c) Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before he or she resumes work at that facility.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17540, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17545
Temporary removal of lockout/tagout.

If the lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from energy isolating devices and the machine or equipment must be energized to test or position the machine, equipment, or component thereof, the following sequence of actions shall be followed:
(1) Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials in accordance with this section;
(2) Remove employees from the machine or equipment area in accordance with this section;
(3) Remove the lockout or tagout devices as specified in this section;
(4) Energize and proceed with the testing or positioning; and
(5) Deenergize all systems and reapply energy control measures in accordance with this section to continue the servicing or maintenance.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17545, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17550
Group lockout/tagout.

When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they shall use a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group lockout or tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by the following specific requirements:
(1) Primary responsibility shall be vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
(2) Provision shall be made for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;
(3) When more than one crew, craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout or tagout control responsibility shall be given to an authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
(4) Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-17550, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17550, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17555
Shift changes.

Procedures shall be used during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of lockout or tagout protection, including provision for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection between off-going and on-coming employees, to minimize their exposure to hazards from the unexpected energizing or start up of the machine or equipment or from the release of stored energy.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17555, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17560
Outside servicing personnel.

Whenever outside servicing personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by this section, the on-site employer and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures, and each employer shall ensure that his or her personnel understand and comply with restrictions and prohibitions of the energy control procedures being used.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17560, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-17565
Central system operator.

If energy isolating devices are installed in a central location under the exclusive control of a system operator, the following requirements apply:
(1) The employer shall use a procedure that affords employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(2) The system operator shall place and remove lockout and tagout devices in place of the authorized employee.
(3) Provisions shall be made to identify the authorized employee who is responsible for (that is, being protected by) the lockout or tagout device, to transfer responsibility for lockout and tagout devices, and to ensure that an authorized employee requesting removal or transfer of a lockout or tagout device is the one responsible for it before the device is removed or transferred.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-17565, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-195
Trenching and excavation.

(1) During excavation or trenching, in order to prevent exposure of employees to the hazards created by damage to dangerous underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work conducted in a manner designed to avoid damage.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-195, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-205
Enclosed spaces.

This section covers enclosed spaces that may be entered by employees. It does not apply to vented vaults if a determination is made that the ventilation system is operating to protect employees before they enter the space. This paragraph applies to routine entry into enclosed spaces in lieu of the permit-space entry requirements contained in WAC 296-62-145. If, after the precautions given in WAC 296-45-205, 296-45-215, and 296-45-225 are taken, the hazards remaining in the enclosed space endanger the life of an entrant or could interfere with escape from the space, then entry into the enclosed space shall meet the permit-space entry requirements of WAC 296-62-145.
Note:
Entries into enclosed spaces conducted in accordance with the permit-space entry requirements of WAC 296-62-145 are considered as complying with this section.
(1) "Safe work practices." The employer shall ensure the use of safe work practices for entry into and work in enclosed spaces and for rescue of employees from such spaces.
(2) "Training." Employees who enter enclosed spaces or who serve as attendants shall be trained in the hazards of enclosed space entry, in enclosed space entry procedures, and in enclosed space rescue procedures.
(3) "Rescue equipment." Employers shall provide equipment to ensure the prompt and safe rescue of employees from the enclosed space.
(4) "Evaluation of potential hazards." Before any entrance cover to an enclosed space is removed, the employer shall determine whether it is safe to do so by checking for the presence of any atmospheric pressure or temperature differences and by evaluating whether there might be a hazardous atmosphere in the space. Any conditions making it unsafe to remove the cover shall be eliminated before the cover is removed.
Note:
The evaluation called for in this subsection may take the form of a check of the conditions expected to be in the enclosed space. For example, the cover could be checked to see if it is hot and, if it is fastened in place, could be loosened gradually to release any residual pressure. A determination must also be made of whether conditions at the site could cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as an oxygen deficient or flammable atmosphere, to develop within the space.
(5) "Removal of covers." When covers are removed from enclosed spaces, the opening shall be promptly guarded by a railing, temporary cover, or other barrier intended to prevent an accidental fall through the opening and to protect employees working in the space from objects entering the space.
(6) "Hazardous atmosphere." Employees may not enter any enclosed space while it contains a hazardous atmosphere, unless the entry conforms to the generic permit-required confined spaces standard in WAC 296-62-145 through 296-62-14543.
Note:
The term "entry" is defined in WAC 296-62-14501.
(7) "Attendants." While work is being performed in the enclosed space, a person with first-aid training meeting WAC 296-45-125 shall be immediately available outside the enclosed space to render emergency assistance if there is reason to believe that a hazard may exist in the space or if a hazard exists because of traffic patterns in the area of the opening used for entry. That person is not precluded from performing other duties outside the enclosed space if these duties do not distract the attendant from monitoring employees within the space.
Note:
See WAC 296-45-215(12) for additional requirements on attendants for work in manholes.
(8) "Calibration of test instruments." Test instruments used to monitor atmospheres in enclosed spaces shall be kept in calibration, with a minimum accuracy of + or - 10 percent.
(9) "Testing for oxygen deficiency." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for oxygen deficiency with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument, capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for offsite evaluation. If continuous forced air ventilation is provided, testing is not required provided that the procedures used ensure that employees are not exposed to the hazards posed by oxygen deficiency.
(10) "Testing for flammable gases and vapors." Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested for flammable gases and vapors with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for offsite evaluation. This test shall be performed after the oxygen testing and ventilation required by subsection (9) of this section demonstrate that there is sufficient oxygen to ensure the accuracy of the test for flammability.
(11) "Ventilation and monitoring." If flammable gases or vapors are detected or if an oxygen deficiency is found, forced air ventilation shall be used to maintain oxygen at a safe level and to prevent a hazardous concentration of flammable gases and vapors from accumulating. A continuous monitoring program to ensure that no increase in flammable gas or vapor concentration occurs may be followed in lieu of ventilation, if flammable gases or vapors are detected at safe levels.
Note:
See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether or not a given concentration of a substance is considered to be hazardous.
(12) "Specific ventilation requirements." If continuous forced air ventilation is used, it shall begin before entry is made and shall be maintained long enough to ensure that a safe atmosphere exists before employees are allowed to enter the work area. The forced air ventilation shall be so directed as to ventilate the immediate area where employees are present within the enclosed space and shall continue until all employees leave the enclosed space.
(13) "Air supply." The air supply for the continuous forced air ventilation shall be from a clean source and may not increase the hazards in the enclosed space.
(14) "Open flames." If open flames are used in enclosed spaces, a test for flammable gases and vapors shall be made immediately before the open flame device is used and at least once per hour while the device is used in the space. Testing shall be conducted more frequently if conditions present in the enclosed space indicate that once per hour is insufficient to detect hazardous accumulations of flammable gases or vapors.
Note:
See the definition of hazardous atmosphere for guidance in determining whether or not a given concentration of a substance is considered to be hazardous.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-205, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-215
Underground electrical installations.

This section provides additional requirements for work on underground electrical installations.
(1) Protective barriers, or approved guards and warning signs must be erected before removing manhole covers or making excavations in places accessible to vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
(2) Whenever an opening is made in the street, it shall be properly guarded or covered until same is closed and whenever an obstruction is left in the roadway after dark, it shall be marked with approved lights, flares or similar devices.
(3) Access. A ladder or other climbing device shall be used to enter and exit a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 4 feet (122 cm) in depth. No employee may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.
(4) When work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault:
(a) No entry shall be permitted unless the atmosphere is found to be safe by testing for the presence of explosive or potentially hazardous gases or fumes.
(b) No entry shall be permitted unless the atmosphere has been found safe by testing for oxygen deficiency or forced ventilation is provided.
(c) When unsafe conditions are detected, by testing or other means, the work area shall be ventilated and otherwise made safe before entry.
(e) When forced ventilation is not used a method of monitoring said manhole or vault so as to prevent the occurrence of oxygen deficiency due to work being performed in said manhole or vault, and to detect the presence of any explosive gases or fumes which may occur while the employees are working in said manhole or vault.
(5) When open flames are used or smoking is permitted in manholes, adequate mechanical forced air ventilation shall be used.
(6) Before using open flames in a manhole or excavation in an area where combustible gases or liquids may be present, such as near a gasoline service station, the atmosphere of the manhole or excavation shall be tested and found safe or cleared of the combustible gases or liquids prior to the entry.
(7) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
(8) Care shall be taken to prevent the possibility of vehicles or pedestrians coming in contact with the wires and equipment.
(9) Lowering equipment into manholes. Equipment used to lower materials and tools into manholes or vaults shall be capable of supporting the weight to be lowered and shall be checked for defects before use. Before tools or materials are lowered into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working in the manhole or vault shall be clear of the area directly under the opening.
(10) Materials shall not be thrown into or out of manholes but shall be placed in the proper receptacle and hoisted in and out by means of a rope.
(11) Tools and materials shall not be left on the ground around or near the manhole opening where they might be pushed or otherwise fall into the hole.
(12) Attendants for manholes.
(a) An attendant shall be kept at the surface when there is any hazard to the employees in the manhole and the attendant should not leave the manhole unwatched until such time as all employees are out and the cover has been replaced.
(b) While work is being performed in a manhole containing energized electric equipment, an employee with first aid and CPR training meeting WAC 296-45-125(1) shall be available on the surface in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance.
Note 1:
An attendant may also be required under WAC 296-45-205(7). One person may serve to fulfill both requirements. However, attendants required under WAC 296-45-205(7) are not permitted to enter the manhole.
Note 2:
Employees entering manholes containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more are required to be qualified under WAC 296-45-325 (1) through (4).
(c) No work shall be permitted to be done in any manhole or subway on any energized wire, cable or appliance carrying more than 300 volts of electricity by less than two qualified persons who shall at all times, while performing such work, be in the same manhole or subway in which work is being done. This rule shall not apply to work on telephone, telegraph or signal wires or cables.
(d) For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical hazards.
(e) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained among all employees involved in the job.
(13) Cable in manholes or underground vaults shall be accessible to employees and a clear working space shall be maintained at all times; and/or approved protective guards, barriers, etc., when installed shall be considered as providing adequate working clearance for cables over 5 k.v. If a manhole and/or underground vault is determined to have an electrical or structural hazard, no work shall be done in the manhole and/or vault until the unsafe condition is corrected or deenergized.
(14) No work shall be performed on cables or equipment unless they have been properly identified by an approved method.
(15) Duct rods. If duct rods are used, they shall be installed in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees. An employee shall be stationed at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the required minimum approach distances are maintained.
(16) Multiple cables. When multiple cables are present in a work area, the cable to be worked shall be identified by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification. Cables other than the one being worked shall be protected from damage.
(17) Before cutting into a high voltage cable or opening a high voltage splice, the cable shall be deenergized then clearance obtained, tested and then grounded in an approved manner. The cable to be worked on shall be identified by tags or equivalent means.
(18) Moving cables. Energized cables that are to be moved shall be inspected for defects.
(19) Insulated platforms or other protective devices shall be provided when work is to be done on energized wires or equipment in manholes.
(20) Furnaces shall always be placed in a secure, level position on the downhill side of the manhole to avoid spillage of hot metals or compounds into the manhole.
(21) Pulling underground cable. When pulling cable(s) all employees shall be made aware of the hazard of being caught in the sheaves, lashings or winch gears. All employees shall stand clear of the pulling line when the pull is begun or when the line is under tension. This rule applies to all work performed by means of a winch.
(22) Fishing conduit or ducts. When fishing conduit or ducts, it shall first be determined that the fish tape or wires will not contact any energized line or equipment.
(23) WAC 296-45-335 on clearances shall be complied with. Also WAC 296-45-345 and/or WAC 296-45-355 on grounding shall be complied with.
(24) Defective cables. Where a cable in a manhole has one or more abnormalities that could lead to or be an indication of an impending fault, the defective cable shall be deenergized before any employee may work in the manhole, except when service load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole provided they are protected from the possible effects of a failure by shields or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault in the joint.
Note:
Abnormalities such as oil or compound leaking from cables or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface temperatures of cables or joints, or joints that are swollen beyond normal tolerance are presumed to lead to or be an indication of an impending fault.
(25) Sheath continuity. When work is performed on buried cable or on cable in manholes, metallic sheath continuity shall be maintained by bonding across the opening (or by equivalent means), or the cable sheath shall be treated as energized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-215, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-215, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-225
Underground residential distribution (URD).

(1) General.
(a) Each employee shall be knowledgeable of the equipment provided for their use and shall at all times use this equipment only for the purpose intended.
(b) U.R.D. cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and table one need not apply.
(i) Workers will take adequate precautions to avoid physical contact with energized U.R.D. cable by using approved procedures and/or protective devices.
(ii) When handling energized U.R.D. primary cables, the work shall be done with approved tools and/or procedures by two qualified employees. Switching is exempt from this rule.
(iii) When energized terminators or load-break elbows are handled by a hot stick, there shall be two qualified employees at the scene.
(c) When energized pad-mounted transformers or similar equipment are to be left unlocked and open, they shall be attended by a qualified employee.
(d) Approved tools and procedures shall be used to remove any debris, vines, weeds, etc., from an underground system.
(e) A primary and secondary system neutral on any energized circuit shall not be opened under any circumstances except for testing.
(f) Primary and secondary neutrals shall be firmly connected and grounded before the circuit or equipment is energized.
(g) Where different phases are in the same vault, enclosures, or parked in some manner that they could be looped, these phases shall be marked or identified.
(h) Bayonet fuses:
(i) Bayonet fuses shall not be closed into suspected faults or overloads.
(ii) Submersible U.G. transformer installations will require other methods of energizing or deenergizing and bayonet fuses shall not be used for this purpose.
(iii) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated after pad-mount transformers have been properly vented.
(iv) Bayonet fuses shall only be operated in accordance with manufacturing design and rating capabilities.
(2) Working on cables.
(a) Before any work is to be performed on underground cables and apparatus carrying high voltage, they shall be deenergized with the following exceptions:
(i) Replacing fuses, operating switches, closing or opening load-break elbows, when approved protective devices are used.
(ii) Work in the high-voltage compartment of pad-mounted transformers and similar equipment installed above ground, provided the work is done by approved methods.
(b) Only one energized conductor shall be worked on at any one time, and protective means shall be used to insulate or isolate it from all others.
(c) When work is to be performed in manholes containing any wires or appliances carrying electrical current, they shall be in a sanitary condition.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-225, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-255
Protective equipment.

(1) Rubber protective equipment must be in accordance with and tested as follows:
Item
Standard
Rubber Insulating Gloves
(ASTM) D 120-2002
Rubber Matting for Use
(ASTM) D 178-2001
Around Electrical Apparatus
 
Rubber Insulating Blankets
(ASTM) D 1048-1999
Rubber Insulating Hoods
(ASTM) D 1049-2002
Rubber Insulating Line Hose
(ASTM) D 1050-1999
Rubber Insulating Sleeves
(ASTM) D 1051-2002
(2) No protective equipment or material other than rubber shall be used: Provided, That such other nonconductive equipment may be used if it provides equal or better (dielectric) electrical and mechanical protection than rubber protective equipment: Provided, That the employer obtain before placing in service, manufacturer's data or other data to demonstrate that such nonrubber protective equipment provided equal or better electrical and mechanical protection than approved rubber equipment.
(3) Protective equipment shall not be used at voltages in excess of that for which the manufacturer has supplied data to the employer demonstrating that it is fit for such voltages.
(4) No protective equipment shall be modified, altered, or used for purposes other than those for which it is designed unless and until the manufacturer has, in writing, agreed or suggested that there be such modification, alteration, or use.
(5) Each rubber glove before it is used shall be inspected for defects and an approved air test performed. If, upon inspection, rubber gloves are either defective or appear to be defective, they shall not be used.
(6) Before being placed in service, all rubber protective equipment shall be numbered and records kept for test purposes and assignment.
(7) Rubber protective equipment shall not be used unless it has been dielectrically tested within six months and bears marking or identification of the date of the test or the expiration date.
(8) Protector gloves must be worn over insulating gloves.
Exception:
Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use conditions, where small equipment and parts manipulation necessitate unusually high finger dexterity.
Note:
Extra care is needed in the visual examination of the glove and in the avoidance of handling sharp objects.
(9) Rubber gloves when not in use shall be carried in an approved bag provided and designed for that purpose. It shall be provided by the employer and made available to the employees.
(10) Approved rubber gloves and carrying bag shall be assigned to each employee who works with, or is exposed to energized parts.
(11) Rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(12) A compartment or box shall be provided on each electric line truck, which box or compartment shall be used for storing rubber protective equipment. No equipment shall be stored in said compartment or box which can or could cause damage to the rubber equipment or goods placed in the compartment or box. Additionally, a separate container or compartment shall be provided for rubber blankets.
(13) Line hose shall not be doubled on themselves at any time. All blankets before storage must be wiped clean and rolled, not folded, before being placed in the container or box.
(14) Protective line equipment of material other than rubber shall be kept clean and visually inspected before each use.
(15) If protective line equipment of material other than rubber is found to be substantially defective or unsuitable for the purpose for which it is designed and intended, said protective line equipment shall not be used for personal protection of employees as may be required in Table 1 of this chapter. Said protective line equipment shall be marked defective but may be otherwise used unless the defect or damage to said protective line equipment creates additional safety hazards.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-17-071, § 296-45-255, filed 8/19/03, effective 11/1/03; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-255, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-25505
Personal protective equipment.

(1) General. Personal protective equipment (PPE) shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L and the PPE requirements in chapter 296-800 WAC. PPE required by these chapters or a hazard assessment will be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee.
(2) All protective hats shall be in accordance with the specifications of ANSI Z89.2-1971 Edition Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B, and shall be worn at the job site by employees who are exposed to overhead or electrical hazards.
(3) Wearing apparel. Goggles, hearing protection, respirators, rubber gloves, and other such personal protective devices shall not be interchanged among employees unless they have been sanitized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 09-05-071, § 296-45-25505, filed 2/17/09, effective 4/1/09. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-25505, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-25505, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-25510
Fall protection.

(1) Personal fall arrest equipment shall meet the requirements of chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall protection requirements for construction.
(2) Specific requirements for lineman's belts, safety straps and lanyards.
(a) All fabric used for safety straps must withstand an A.C. dielectric test of not less than 25,000 volts per foot "dry" for 3 minutes, without visible deterioration.
(b) All fabric and leather used must be tested for leakage current and must not exceed 1 milliampere when a potention of 3,000 volts is applied to the electrodes positioned 12 inches apart.
(c) Direct current tests may be permitted in lieu of alternating current tests.
(d) The cushion part of the body belt must:
(i) Contain no exposed rivets on the inside;
(ii) Be at least three (3) inches in width;
(iii) Be at least five thirty-seconds (5/32) inch thick, if made of leather; and
(iv) Have pocket tabs that extended at least 1 1/2 inches down and three (3) inches back of the inside of circle of each D ring for riveting on plier or tool pockets. On shifting D belts, this measurement for pocket tabs must be taken when the D ring section is centered.
(e) A maximum of four (4) tool loops must be so situated on the body belt that four (4) inches of the body belt in the center of the back, measuring from D ring to D ring, must be free of tool loops, and any other attachments.
(f) Suitable copper, steel, or equivalent liners must be used around bar of D rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
(g) All stitching must be of a minimum 42-pound weight nylon or equivalent thread and must be lock stitched. Stitching parallel to an edge must not be less than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch from edge of narrowest member caught by the thread. The use of cross stitching on leather is prohibited.
(h) The keeper of snaphooks must have a spring tension that will not allow the keeper to begin to open with a weight of 2 1/2 pounds or less, but the keeper of snaphooks must begin to open with a weight of four (4) pounds, when the weight is supported on the keeper against the end of the nose.
(i) Testing of lineman's safety straps, body belts and lanyards must be in accordance with the following procedure:
(i) Attach one end of the safety strap or lanyard to a rigid support, the other end must be attached to a 250-pound canvas bag of sand;
(ii) Allow the 250-pound canvas bag of sand to free fall 4 feet for (safety strap test) and 6 feet for (lanyard test); in each case stopping the fall of the 250-pound bag;
(iii) Failure of the strap or lanyard must be indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the strap or lanyard. The entire "body belt assembly" must be tested using one D ring. A safety strap or lanyard must be used that is capable of passing the "impact loading test" and attached as required in (i)(i) of this subsection. The body belt must be secured to the 250-pound bag of sand at a point to simulate the waist of a man and allowed to drop as stated in (i)(ii) of this subsection. Failure of the body belt must be indicated by any breakage, or slippage sufficient to permit the bag to fall free of the body belt.
(3) Body belts, safety straps, lanyards, lifelines, and body harnesses shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. Defective equipment may not be used.
(4) Employees shall not wear climbers while doing work where they are not required. Employees shall not continue to wear their climbers while working on the ground; except for momentary or short periods of time on the ground.
(5) Employees, when working from a hook ladder, must either belt themselves securely to the ladder, attach themselves to the structures by means of a safety line, or belt themselves to ladder safety equipment, which shall consist of a safety rope or belting threaded through the rungs or secured to the ladder at intervals of not more than three feet.
(6) Before an employee throws his/her weight on a belt, the employee shall determine that the snap or fasteners are properly engaged.
(7) Safety straps shall not be placed around poles above the cross-arm except where it is not possible for the strap to slide or be slipped over the top of the pole by inadvertence of the employee. Neither end of the strap shall be allowed to hang loose or dangle while the employee is ascending or descending poles or other structures.
(8) Body belts and safety straps shall not be stored with sharp-edged tools or near sharp objects. When a body belt, safety strap and climbers are kept in the same container, they shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid cutting or puncturing the material of the body belt or safety strap with the gaffs or climbers.
(9) Employees shall not attach metal hooks or other metal devices to body belts. Leather straps or rawhide thongs shall have hardwood or fibre crossbars. Leather straps and rawhide thongs shall not have metal or other conductive crossbars on them.
(10) Climbing gaffs shall be kept properly sharpened and shall be at least 1-1/8 inches in length.
(11) Lifelines shall be protected against being cut or abraded.
(12) Fall arrest equipment, work positioning equipment, or travel restricting equipment shall be used by employees working at elevated locations more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures if other fall protection has not been provided. Fall protection equipment is not required to be used by a qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures, unless conditions, such as, but not limited to, ice, high winds, the design of the structure (for example, no provision for holding on with hands), or the presence of contaminants on the structure, could cause the employee to lose his or her grip or footing.
Note 1:
This subsection applies to structures that support overhead electric power generation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. It does not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, to electric equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, nor to aerial lifts. Requirements for fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces are contained in chapter 296-155 WAC, Part C-1, Fall protection requirements for construction requirements for fall protection associated with aerial lifts are contained in chapter 296-869 WAC, Elevating work platforms.
Note 2:
Employees undergoing training are not considered "qualified employees" for the purposes of this provision. Unqualified employees (including trainees) are required to use fall protection any time they are more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the ground.
(13) The following requirements apply to personal fall arrest systems:
(a) When stopping or arresting a fall, personal fall arrest systems shall limit the maximum arresting force on an employee to 1800 pounds (8 kN) if used with a body harness.
(b) Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor contact any lower level.
(14) If vertical lifelines or droplines are used, not more than one employee may be attached to any one lifeline.
(15) Snaphooks may not be connected to loops made in webbing-type lanyards.
(16) Snaphooks may not be connected to each other.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060 and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart M, Fall Protection. WSR 13-04-073, § 296-45-25510, filed 2/4/13, effective 4/1/13. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.440, 49.17.060, and 29 C.F.R. 1926, Subpart CC. WSR 12-01-086, § 296-45-25510, filed 12/20/11, effective 2/1/12. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-17-038, § 296-45-25510, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-25510, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-275
Ladders, platforms, and manhole steps.

(1) General. Requirements for ladders contained in chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1, and WAC 296-800-290 apply, except as specifically noted in subsection (2) of this section.
(2) Special ladders and platforms. Portable ladders and platforms used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work need not meet chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1, chapter 296-155 WAC, Part J or WAC 296-800-290. However, these ladders and platforms shall meet the following requirements:
(a) Ladders and platforms shall be secured to prevent their becoming accidentally dislodged.
(b) Ladders and platforms may not be loaded in excess of the working loads for which they are designed.
(c) Ladders and platforms may be used only in applications for which they were designed.
(d) In the configurations in which they are used, ladders and platforms shall be capable of supporting without failure at least 2.5 times the maximum intended load.
(e) All ladders shall be handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent damage to the ladder.
(f) When ascending or descending a ladder, the employee shall face the ladder and have free use of both hands.
(g) All defective ladders shall be taken out of service and labeled as defective.
(h) When a ladder is being used which is not fixed or otherwise secured, there shall be an attendant to hold the ladder and watch traffic when the work is being done on streets, alleys, sidewalks, or in industrial plants or other places where there exists the possibility of accidental contact with the ladder by third persons or vehicles.
(i) When working on the ladder, employees shall, where possible, tie the top of the ladder to a substantial object to prevent falling unless the ladder is equipped with approved hooks which may be used for the same purpose.
(j) Portable ladders shall not be moved with employees on the ladder.
(k) No employee shall ascend or descend a rolling ladder while it is moving.
(l) No employee shall stand on the top two steps of a step ladder.
(m) No employee shall use a step ladder as a straight ladder.
(n) Ladders shall always be placed on a secure footing with both legs resting firmly on the lower surface.
(o) Ladders made by fastening cleats or similar devices across a single rail shall not be used.
(3) Conductive ladders. Portable metal ladders and other portable conductive ladders may not be used near exposed energized lines or equipment. However, in specialized high-voltage work, conductive ladders shall be used where the employer can demonstrate that nonconductive ladders would present a greater hazard than conductive ladders.
Note:
A greater electrical hazard would be static electricity such as might be found in extra high voltage substations.
(4) All conductive or metal ladders shall be prominently marked and identified as being conductive and shall be grounded when used near energized lines or equipment.
Note:
See chapter 296-24 WAC for additional ladder requirements.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-275, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-275, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-285
Hand, and portable powered tools.

(1) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall assure that each hand and portable powered tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition.
(b) The employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
(i) Handles and guards, to assure that they are sound, tight-fitting, properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place;
(ii) Controls, to assure proper function;
(iii) Heads of shock, impact-driven and driving tools, to assure that there is no mushrooming;
(iv) Cutting edges, to assure that they are sharp and properly shaped; and
(v) All other safety devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly.
(c) The employer shall assure that each tool is used only for purposes for which it has been designed.
(d) When the head of any shock, impact-driven or driving tool begins to chip, it shall be repaired or removed from service.
(e) The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in accordance with manufacturer's specifications whenever it becomes dull during the workshift.
(f) Each tool shall be stored in the provided location when not being used at a work site.
(g) Racks, boxes, holsters or other means shall be provided, arranged and used for the transportation of tools so that a hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.
(2) Electric equipment connected by cord and plug must meet the following requirements:
(b) Any cord- and plug-connected equipment supplied by other than premises wiring shall comply with one of the following instead of chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L and WAC 296-800-280:
(i) It shall be equipped with a cord containing an equipment grounding conductor connected to the tool frame and to a means for grounding the other end (however, this option may not be used where the introduction of the ground into the work environment increases the hazard to an employee); or
(ii) It shall be of the double-insulated type conforming to chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L and WAC 296-800-280; or
(iii) It shall be connected to the power supply through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary.
(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted generators. Portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and plug-connected equipment shall meet the following requirements:
(a) The generator may only supply equipment located on the generator or the vehicle and cord- and plug-connected equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator or the vehicle.
(b) The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the receptacles shall be bonded to the generator frame.
(c) In the case of vehicle-mounted generators, the frame of the generator shall be bonded to the vehicle frame.
(d) Any neutral conductor shall be bonded to the generator frame.
(4) Hydraulic and pneumatic tools must meet the following requirements:
(a) Safe operating pressures for hydraulic and pneumatic tools, hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and fittings may not be exceeded.
Note:
If any hazardous defects are present, no operating pressure would be safe, and the hydraulic or pneumatic equipment involved may not be used. In the absence of defects, the maximum rated operating pressure is the maximum safe pressure.
(b) A hydraulic or pneumatic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts shall (use nonconductive hoses and) be designed and maintained for such use.
(c) The hydraulic system supplying a hydraulic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts shall provide protection against loss of insulating value for the voltage involved due to the formation of a partial vacuum in the hydraulic line.
Note:
Hydraulic lines without check valves having a separation of more than 35 feet (10.7 m) between the oil reservoir and the upper end of the hydraulic system promote the formation of a partial vacuum.
(d) A pneumatic tool used on energized electric lines or equipment or used where it may contact exposed live parts shall provide protection against the accumulation of moisture in the air supply.
(e) Pressure shall be released before connections are broken, unless quick acting, self-closing connectors are used. Hoses may not be kinked.
(f) Employees may not use any part of their bodies to locate or attempt to stop a hydraulic leak.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-285, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-285, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-295
Gasoline engine power chain saws.

(1) Each chain saw placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a chain brake and shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI B175.1-1991 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws." Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback, i.e., reduced kickback bar, chains, bar tip guard or chain brake. No chain-saw kickback device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.
(3) The chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
(4) The employer must ensure that each chain saw, including any chain saw provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
(a) Chain-saw chains, to assure proper adjustment;
(b) Chain-saw mufflers, to assure that they are operational and in place;
(c) Chain brakes and nose shielding devices, to assure that they are in place and function properly;
(5) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition.
(6) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.
(7) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop-starting a chain saw is prohibited.
(8) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged.
(9) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.
(10) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.
(11) Prior to felling any tree, the chain saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
(12) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
(13) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
(14) The chain saw shall be shut off or at idle before the feller starts their retreat.
(15) The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2 m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.
(16) Each power saw weighing more than 15 pounds (6.8 kilograms, service weight) that is used in trees shall be supported by a separate line, except when work is performed from an aerial lift and except during topping or removing operations where no supporting limb will be available, and the following:
(a) Each power saw shall be equipped with a control that will return the saw to idling speed when released;
(b) Each power saw shall be equipped with a clutch and shall be so adjusted that the clutch will not engage the chain drive at idling speed;
(c) Drop starting of saws over 15 pounds (6.8 kg) is permitted outside of the bucket of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear of personnel;
(d) A power saw engine may be started and operated only when all employees other than the operator are clear of the saw;
(e) A power saw may not be running when the saw is being carried up into a tree by an employee; and
(f) Power saw engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-295, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-305
Live-line tools.

(1) Design of tools. Live-line tool rods, tubes, and poles shall be designed and constructed to withstand the following minimum tests:
(a) 100,000 volts per foot (3281 volts per centimeter) of length for 5 minutes if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP); or
(b) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for 3 minutes if the tool is made of wood; or
(c) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note:
Live-line tools using rod and tube that meet ASTM F711-89, Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live-Line Tools, conform to subsection (1)(a) of this section.
(2) Condition of tools.
(a) Each live-line tool shall be wiped clean and visually inspected for defects before use each day.
(b) If any defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is present after wiping, the tool shall be removed from service and examined and tested according to this section before being returned to service.
(c) Live-line tools used for primary employee protection shall be removed from service every two years and whenever required under this subsection for examination, cleaning, repair, and testing as follows:
(i) Each tool shall be thoroughly examined for defects.
(ii) If a defect or contamination that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of the live-line tool is found, the tool shall be repaired and refinished or shall be permanently removed from service. If no such defect or contamination is found, the tool shall be cleaned and waxed.
(iii) The tool shall be tested in accordance with this section under the following conditions:
(A) After the tool has been repaired or refinished; and
(B) After the examination if repair or refinishing is not performed, unless the tool is made of FRP rod or foam-filled FRP tube and the employer can demonstrate that the tool has no defects that could cause it to fail in use.
(iv) The test method used shall be designed to verify the tool's integrity along its entire working length and, if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, its integrity under wet conditions.
(v) The voltage applied during the tests shall be as follows:
(A) 75,000 volts per foot (2461 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of fiberglass; or
(B) 50,000 volts per foot (1640 volts per centimeter) of length for one minute if the tool is made of wood; or
(C) Other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
Note:
Guidelines for the examination, cleaning, repairing, and in-service testing of live-line tools are contained in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Guide for In-Service Maintenance and Electrical Testing of Live-Line Tools, IEEE Std. 978-1984.
(d) Live-line tools and rope shall be stored and maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent damage. Live-line tools and ropes shall not be used for purposes other than line work.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-305, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-315
Materials handling and storage.

(2) Materials storage near energized lines or equipment. In areas not restricted to qualified persons only, materials or equipment may not be stored closer to energized lines or exposed energized parts of equipment than the following distances plus an amount providing for the maximum sag and side swing of all conductors and providing for the height and movement of material handling equipment:
(a) For lines and equipment energized at 50 kV or less, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm).
(b) For lines and equipment energized at more than 50 kV, the distance is 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10 cm) for every 10 kV over 50 kV.
(c) In areas restricted to qualified employees, material may not be stored within the working space about energized lines or equipment.
Note:
Requirements for the size of the working space are contained in WAC 296-45-475(1) and 296-45-48515.
(3) Prior to unloading steel, poles, crossarms and similar materials, the load shall be thoroughly examined to determine if the load has shifted, binders or stakes have broken or the load is otherwise hazardous to employees. The hoist rope shall not be wrapped around the load. This provision shall not apply to electric construction crews when setting or removing poles.
(4) Pole handling.
(a) During pole hauling operations, all loads shall be secured to prevent displacement, and a red flag shall be displayed at the trailing end of the longest pole.
(b) While loading and unloading materials, roadways shall not be blocked unless approved traffic control is used.
(c) When hauling poles during darkness, illuminated warning devices shall be attached to the trailing end of the longest pole in accordance with the state of Washington motor vehicle code.
(d) Framing. During framing operations, employees must not work under a pole or a structure suspended by a crane, A-frame or similar equipment unless the pole or structure is adequately supported.
(5) Tag lines. When necessary to control loads, tag lines or other approved devices shall be used.
(6) Oil filled equipment. During construction or repair of oil filled equipment, the oil may be stored in temporary containers other than those required by WAC 296-155-270, such as pillow tanks.
(7) Storage of tools and materials. All tools and materials shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner in yards for equipment and other areas.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-17-038, § 296-45-315, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-315, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-325
Working on or near exposed energized parts.

This section applies to work on exposed live parts, or near enough to them, to expose the employee to any hazard they present.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, at least two qualified employees shall be present while the following types of work are being performed:
(a) Installation, removal, or repair of lines that are energized at more than 600 volts;
(b) Installation, removal, or repair of deenergized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(c) Installation, removal, or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts;
(d) Work involving the use of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized at more than 600 volts; and
(e) Other work that exposes an employee to electrical hazards greater than or equal to those posed by operations that are specifically listed in subsection (2)(a) through (d) of this section.
Note 1:
One employee will serve principally as a standby person who must be so located that they may physically reach the other employee in the event of an accident either with their hand or with a hot stick twelve feet or less in length. The standby will be so positioned as to be able to observe the other employee, their bodily movements, and verbally warn of any impending dangers. In no case when working in pairs will employees work simultaneously on energized wires or parts of different phases or polarity;
Note 2:
When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection on a multiphase system, it is permissible for the second employee to stand by at the lower controls of the aerial lift provided the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up load. The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so it cannot make contact with any other energized parts. The work must not be performed above lines or apparatus energized at more than 600 V.
Note 3:
In cases of necessity the standby person may temporarily assist the other employee provided that they both work on wires or parts of the same phase or polarity. Both employees shall so position themselves so that the presence of the second person does not increase the hazard.
(3) The provisions of WAC 296-45-325(2) do not apply to (a) through (e) of this subsection. In addition to the requirements of subsection (4) of this section, a qualified employee working under this subsection (3), must position themselves so that he/she is neither within reach of nor otherwise exposed to contact with energized parts.
(a) When re-fusing circuits or equipment with a hot stick.
(b) When operating switches by means of operating handle or switch sticks.
(c) When installing or removing a hot line clamp connection with an approved hot stick on a single-phase line or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection does not interrupt or pick up a load.
Note 1:
The hot line clamp and connecting jumper must be constructed so that it cannot make contact with any other energized parts.
Note 2:
On a multiphase feed this applies only when one single-phase line or apparatus is present on the load side.
(d) When installing or removing by hot stick simple load metering devices provided the connection does not interrupt or pickup load.
(e) Emergency repairs to the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
(4) "Minimum approach distances." The employer shall ensure that no employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Table 1 through Table 4, unless:
The employee is insulated from the energized part (insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves worn in accordance with subsection (6) of this section are considered insulation of the employee only with regard to the energized part upon which work is being performed); or
The energized part is insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different potential.
Note 1:
WAC 296-45-475 (5)(a) and 296-45-48525(1) contain requirements for the guarding and isolation of live parts. Parts of electric circuits that meet these two provisions are not considered as "exposed" unless a guard is removed or an employee enters the space intended to provide isolation from the live parts.
Note 2:
When an employee is required to work on or within reach of any unprotected conductors that are or may become energized at more than 50 volts and less than 600 volts between phases, they shall take the following precautions:
1:
They shall wear approved insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves during the time they are working on such conductor, or
2:
They shall cover, with approved devices, any adjacent unprotected conductor that could be touched by any part of their body, and use insulated tools.
3:
Cables which are properly insulated for the voltages to which they are energized, shall be considered as an effective barrier to protect the employees and Table 1 need not apply.
(5) Initial determination.
(a) Before any work is performed, the location of energized lines and their condition, the location and condition of energized equipment, the condition of the poles, the location of circuits and equipment including power communication lines, CATV and fire alarm circuits, shall be determined as shall any other particular hazard of a particular work site.
(b) No work shall be performed on energized lines or parts until the voltage of such equipment and lines is determined.
(6) Type of insulation. If the employee is to be insulated from energized parts by the use of insulating gloves (under subsection (4) of this section), insulating sleeves shall also be used. However, insulating sleeves need not be used under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed energized parts on which work is not being performed are insulated from the employee; and
(b) If such insulation is placed from a position not exposing the employee's upper arm to contact with other energized parts.
(7) Working position. The employer shall ensure that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different from the employee.
(8) Making connections. The employer shall ensure that connections are made as follows:
(a) In connecting deenergized equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall first attach the wire to the deenergized part;
(b) When disconnecting equipment or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee shall remove the source end first; and
(c) When lines or equipment are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, loose conductors shall be kept away from exposed energized parts.
(9) Rubber gloves can only be used on 5,000 volts or less between phases.
(10) It shall not be permissible to consider one part of a high voltage switch or disconnect as deenergized for the purpose of doing work on it if the remainder of the switch or disconnect remains energized unless approved barriers are erected which will prevent employees who are doing the work on such equipment from coming in direct contact with the energized parts.
(11) Conductor support tools such as link sticks, strain carriers, and insulator cradles may be used: Provided, That the clear insulation is at least as long as the insulator string or the minimum distance specified in Table 1 for the operating voltage.
(12) Apparel.
(a) When work is performed within reaching distance of exposed energized parts of equipment, the employer shall ensure that each employee removes or renders nonconductive all exposed conductive articles, such as key or watch chains, rings, or wrist watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with contact with the energized parts.
(b) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs in the hazards involved.
(c) The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of injury that would be sustained by the employee.
Note:
Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibited by this subsection, unless the employer can demonstrate that the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered or that the clothing is worn in such a manner as to eliminate the hazard involved: Acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon.
(d) Workers shall wear clothing appropriate to the season and the kind of work being performed. Shirts or jumpers must have full length sleeves that are rolled down. Protective hard hats and eye protection shall be worn when working on or near live parts or while climbing poles.
(13) Fuse handling. When fuses must be installed or removed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer shall ensure that tools or gloves rated for the voltage are used. When expulsion-type fuses are installed with one or both terminals energized at more than 300 volts, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears eye protection meeting the requirements of WAC 296-45-25505(1), uses a tool rated for the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
(14) Covered (noninsulated) conductors. The requirements of this section which pertain to the hazards of exposed live parts also apply when work is performed in the proximity of covered (noninsulated) wires.
(15) Noncurrent-carrying metal parts. Noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer cases and circuit breaker housings, shall be treated as energized at the highest voltage to which they are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation and determines that these parts are grounded before work is performed.
(16) Opening circuits under load. Devices used to open circuits under load conditions shall be designed to interrupt the current involved.
Table 1: AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
 
Distance to employee
Voltage in kilovolts phase to phase*
Phase to ground
Phase to Phase
 
(m)
(ft-in)
(m)
(ft-in)
 
0 to 0.050
not specified
not specified
 
0.051 to 0.300
avoid contact
avoid contact
 
0.301 to 0.750
0.31
1-0
0.31
1-0
 
0.751 to 15
0.65
2-2
0.67
2-3
 
15.1 to 36.0
0.77
2-7
0.86
2-10
 
36.1 to 46.0
0.84
2-9
0.96
3-2
 
46.1 to 72.5
1.00**
3-3**
1.20
3-11
 
72.6 to 121
0.95**
3-2**
1.29
4-3
 
138 to 145
1.09
3-7
1.50
4-11
 
161 to 169
1.22
4-0
1.71
5-8
 
230 to 242
1.59
5-3
2.27
7-6
 
345 to 362
2.59
8-6
3.80
12-6
 
500 to 550
3.42
11-3
5.50
18-1
 
765 to 800
4.53
14-11
7.91
26-0
 
*For single-phase systems, use the highest voltage available.
 
For single-phase lines off three phase systems, use the phase-to-phase voltage of the system.
 
**The 46.1 to 72.5 kV phase-to-ground 3-3 distance contains a 1-3 electrical component and a 2-0 inadvertent movement component while the 72.6 to 121 kV phase-to-ground 3-2 distance contains a 2-2 electrical component and a 1-0 inadvertent movement component.
Note 1:
These distances take into consideration the highest switching surge an employee will be exposed to on any system with air as the insulating medium and the maximum voltages shown.
Note 2:
The clear live-line tool distance shall equal or exceed the values for the indicated voltage ranges.
Note 3:
See Appendix B to this section for information on how the minimum approach distances listed in the tables were derived.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-17-038, § 296-45-325, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05; WSR 03-17-071, § 296-45-325, filed 8/19/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-325, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-325, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-335
Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection.

(1) Application. This section applies to the deenergizing of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Control of hazardous energy sources used in the generation of electric energy is covered in WAC 296-45-175. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized under procedures other than those required by WAC 296-45-175 or 296-45-335, as applicable, shall be treated as energized.
(2) "General."
(a) If a system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, all of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section shall be observed, in the order given.
(b) If no system operator is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, one employee in the crew shall be designated as being in charge of the clearance. All of the requirements of subsection (3) of this section apply, in the order given, except as provided in subsection (2)(c) of this section. The employee in charge of the clearance shall take the place of the system operator, as necessary.
(c) If only one crew will be working on the lines or equipment and if the means of disconnection is accessible and visible to and under the sole control of the employee in charge of the clearance, subsection (3)(a), (c), and (d) of this section do not apply. Additionally, tags required by the remaining provisions of subsection (3) of this section need not be used.
(d) Any disconnecting means that are accessible to persons outside the employer's control (for example, the general public) shall be rendered inoperable while they are open for the purpose of protecting employees.
(3) Deenergizing lines and equipment.
(a) In all cases, switching orders must be given directly to the employees in charge of operating the switches by the system operator who has jurisdiction and such communications must be repeated back word for word to the speaker. When requesting clearance on lines under the control of the system operator, a person requesting the clearance shall obtain the name of the system operator to whom the request was made and the system operator shall obtain the name of the person requesting the clearance; and assure that the person is qualified to receive such a clearance. A designated employee shall make a request of the system operator to have the particular section of line or equipment deenergized. The designated employee becomes the employee in charge (as this term is used in subsection (2)(b) of this section) and is responsible for the clearance. In giving a clearance, the system operator shall make certain that the person to whom the clearance is given is fully aware of the extent or the limits of the clearance.
(b) All switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, and other means through which known sources of electric energy may be supplied to the particular lines and equipment to be deenergized shall be opened. Such means shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit, and tagged to indicate that employees are at work.
(c) Automatically and remotely controlled switches that could cause the opened disconnecting means to close shall also be tagged at the point of control. The automatic or remote control feature shall be rendered inoperable, unless its design does not so permit.
(d) Tags shall prohibit operation of the disconnecting means and shall indicate that employees are at work.
(e) After the applicable requirements in subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed and the employee in charge of the work has been given a clearance by the system operator, the lines and equipment to be worked shall be tested to ensure that they are deenergized.
(4) The system operator shall order clearance tags printed on red cardboard, or equivalent, not less than 2-1/4 inches by 4-1/2 inches, attached to all switches opened or checked open to provide clearance on any line or equipment for employees to work thereon.
(5) Clearance tags attached to substation control devices and to line switches beyond the switchyard of any substation; indicating the limits of the clearance involved; shall state the designation of the switch opened or checked open and tagged; the name of the person to whom the clearance is to be issued; the date and time the switch was opened or checked open; the name of the dispatcher ordering the switching and tagging; and the name of the person doing the switching and tagging.
(6) Protective grounds shall be installed as required by WAC 296-45-345.
(7) After the applicable requirements of subsection (3)(a) through (d) of this section have been followed, the lines and equipment involved may be worked as deenergized.
(8) If two or more independent crews will be working on the same lines or equipment, each crew shall independently comply with the requirements in subsection (3) of this section.
(9) To transfer the clearance, the employee in charge (or, if the employee in charge is forced to leave the worksite due to illness or other emergency, the employee's supervisor) shall inform the system operator; employees in the crew shall be informed of the transfer; and the new employee in charge shall be responsible for the clearance.
(10) To release a clearance, the employee in charge shall:
(a) Notify employees under his or her direction that the clearance is to be released;
(b) Determine that all employees in the crew are clear of the lines and equipment;
(c) Determine that all protective grounds installed by the crew have been removed; and
(d) Report this information to the system operator and release the clearance.
(11) The person releasing a clearance shall be the same person that requested the clearance, unless responsibility has been transferred under subsection (9) of this section.
(12) Tags may not be removed unless the associated clearance has been released under subsection (10) of this section.
(13) Only after all protective grounds have been removed, after all crews working on the lines or equipment have released their clearances, after all employees are clear of the lines and equipment, and after all protective tags have been removed from a given point of disconnection, may action be initiated to reenergize the lines or equipment at that point of disconnection.
(14) To meet unforeseen conditions, it will be permissible to tag isolated switches for the system operator and issue clearances against this tag. In tagging out inter-utility tie lines, the open switches on the foreign end of the line shall be tagged for the foreign system operator requesting the outage who will issue clearances to individuals of the organization against this tag.
(15) Metal-clad, draw-out switchgear of over 600 volts in which the physical separation of the disconnecting parts is not visible may be used to clear a line or equipment, provided the switchgear is equipped with:
(a) A positive positioning means to insure that the disconnecting contacts are separated;
(b) An isolating shutter which moves into place between the separated contact for circuit isolation; and
(c) A mechanically-connected indicating means to show that the shutter is in place.
(16) In all other cases, only a visible break of all phases shall be regarded as clearing a line or equipment.
(17) No person shall make contact with a circuit or equipment that has not been taken out of service to be worked on until he/she has the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves or is working directly under the supervision of one who has the circuit or equipment cleared and tagged for themselves.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-335, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-345
Grounding for the protection of employees.

(1) Application. This section applies to the grounding of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose of protecting employees. Subsection (4) of this section also applies to the protective grounding of other equipment as required elsewhere in this section.
(2) General. For the employee to work lines or equipment as deenergized, the lines or equipment shall be deenergized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335 and shall be grounded as specified in subsections (3) through (9) of this section. However, if the employer can demonstrate that installation of a ground is impracticable or that the conditions resulting from the installation of a ground would present greater hazards than working without grounds, the lines and equipment may be treated as deenergized provided all of the following conditions are met:
(a) The lines and equipment have been deenergized under the provisions of WAC 296-45-335.
(b) There is no possibility of contact with another energized source.
(c) The hazard of induced voltage is not present.
(3) Equipotential zone. Temporary protective grounds shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner as to prevent each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electrical potential.
(4) Protective grounding equipment.
(a) Protective grounding equipment shall be capable of conducting the maximum fault current that could flow at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the fault. This equipment shall have an ampacity greater than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG copper.
(b) Grounding jumpers shall have approved ferrules and grounding clamps that provide mechanical support for jumper cables independent of the electrical connection.
Note:
Guidelines for protective grounding equipment are contained in American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Temporary Grounding Systems to be Used on Deenergized Electric Power Lines and Equipment, ASTM F855-1990.
(c) Protective grounds shall have an impedance low enough to cause immediate operation of protective devices in case of accidental energizing of the lines or equipment.
(5) Testing. Before any ground is installed, lines and equipment shall be tested and found absent of nominal voltage, unless a previously installed ground is present.
(a) Inspection before use: Grounding equipment shall be given a visual inspection and all mechanical connections shall be checked for tightness before each use.
(b) Ground surface cleaning: The surface to which the ground is to be attached shall be clean before the grounding clamp is installed; otherwise, a self-cleaning clamp shall be used.
(6) Order of connection. When a ground is to be attached to a line or to equipment, the ground-end connection shall be attached first, and then the other end shall be attached by means of a live-line tool.
(7) "Order of removal." When a ground is to be removed, the grounding device shall be removed from the line or equipment using a live-line tool before the ground-end connection is removed.
(8) "Additional precautions." When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
(9) Removal of grounds for test. Grounds may be removed temporarily during tests. During the test procedure, the employer shall ensure that each employee uses insulating equipment and is isolated from any hazards involved, and the employer shall institute any additional measures as may be necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously grounded lines and equipment become energized.
(10) Conductor separation: In cases where the conductor separation at any pole or structure is so great as to make it impractical to apply shorts on all conductors, and where only one conductor is to be worked on, only that conductor which is to be worked on needs to be grounded.
(11) Ground personnel: In cases where ground rods or pole grounds are utilized for personal protective grounding, personnel working on the ground should maintain sufficient distance from such equipment or utilize other approved procedures designed to prevent "touch-and step potential" hazards.
Note:
See the Appendix for tables.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-345, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-355
Underground grounding.

(1) Grounding. A capacitance charge can remain in the high voltage cables after it has been disconnected from the circuit and a static-type arc can occur when grounds are applied to such cables.
(2) When work is to be done on cables or equipment of a high-voltage underground system, precautions to prevent back-feed shall be taken. This shall include either isolating or grounding of the secondary conductors.
(3) After grounding the cable, if the worker is to work on cable between terminations, he/she must first spike the cable or use other approved methods of testing. If the cable is to be cut, it shall be cut only with approved hot cutters.
(4) Additional precautions. When work is performed on a cable at a location remote from the cable terminal, the cable may not be grounded at the cable terminal if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-355, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-365
Testing and test facilities.

(1) Application. This section provides for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories, shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements utilizing high voltage, high power, or combinations of both, and not to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and normal line work.
Note:
Routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified employees are considered to be routine line work and are not included in the scope of this section, as long as the hazards related to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high-power sources require only the normal precautions associated with routine operation and maintenance work required in the other subsections of this section. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.
(2) General requirements.
(a) The employer shall establish and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such work practices shall include, as a minimum, test area guarding, grounding, and the safe use of measuring and control circuits. A means providing for periodic safety checks of field test areas shall also be included.
(b) Employees shall be trained in safe work practices upon their initial assignment to the test area, with periodic reviews and updates provided as required by subsections of this section.
(3) Guarding of test areas.
(a) Permanent test areas shall be guarded by walls, fences, or barriers designed to keep employees out of the test areas.
(b) In field testing, or at a temporary test site where permanent fences and gates are not provided, one of the following means shall be used to prevent unauthorized employees from entering:
(i) The test area shall be guarded by the use of distinctively colored safety tape that is supported approximately waist high and to which safety signs are attached;
(ii) The test area shall be guarded by a barrier or barricade that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually, to the barricade specified in this section; or
(iii) The test area shall be guarded by one or more test observers stationed so that the entire area can be monitored.
(c) The barriers required by this section shall be removed when the protection they provide is no longer needed.
(d) Guarding shall be provided within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus under test that may become energized as part of the testing by either direct or inductive coupling, in order to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
(4) Grounding practices.
(a) The employer shall establish and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
(i) All conductive parts accessible to the test operator during the time the equipment is operating at high voltage shall be maintained at ground potential except for portions of the equipment that are isolated from the test operator by guarding.
(ii) Wherever ungrounded terminals of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they shall be treated as energized until determined by tests to be deenergized.
(b) Visible grounds shall be applied, either automatically or manually with properly insulated tools, to the high-voltage circuits after they are deenergized and before work is performed on the circuit or item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections shall be solidly connected to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
(c) In high-power testing, an isolated ground-return conductor system shall be provided so that no intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, can occur in the ground grid or in the earth. However, an isolated ground-return conductor need not be provided if the employer can demonstrate that both the following conditions are met:
(i) An isolated ground-return conductor cannot be provided due to the distance of the test site from the electric energy source; and
(ii) Employees are protected from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the test.
Note:
See Appendix B for information on measures that can be taken to protect employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
(d) In tests in which grounding of test equipment by means of the equipment grounding conductor located in the equipment power cord cannot be used due to increased hazards to test personnel or the prevention of satisfactory measurements, a ground that the employer can demonstrate affords equivalent safety shall be provided, and the safety ground shall be clearly indicated in the test set up.
(e) When the test area is entered after equipment is deenergized, a ground shall be placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
(i) High capacitance equipment or apparatus shall be discharged through a resistor rated for the available energy.
(ii) A direct ground shall be applied to the exposed terminals when the stored energy drops to a level at which it is safe to do so.
(f) If a test trailer or test vehicle is used in field testing, its chassis shall be grounded. Protection against hazardous touch potentials with respect to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees shall be provided by bonding, insulation, or isolation.
(5) Control and measuring circuits.
(a) Control wiring, meter connections, test leads and cables may not be run from a test area unless they are contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure or unless other precautions are taken that the employer can demonstrate as ensuring equivalent safety.
(b) Meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts shall be isolated from test personnel to protect against hazards arising from such terminals and parts becoming energized during testing. If this isolation is provided by locating test equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, interlocks shall be provided to interrupt the power supply if the compartment cover is opened.
(c) The routing and connections of temporary wiring shall be made secure against damage, accidental interruptions and other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, signal, control, ground, and power cables shall be kept separate.
(d) If employees will be present in the test area during testing, a test observer shall be present. The test observer shall be capable of implementing the immediate deenergizing of test circuits for safety purposes.
(6) Safety check.
(a) Safety practices governing employee work at temporary or field test areas shall provide for a routine check of such test areas for safety at the beginning of each series of tests.
(b) The test operator in charge shall conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and shall verify at least the following conditions:
(i) That barriers and guards are in workable condition and are properly placed to isolate hazardous areas;
(ii) That system test status signals, if used, are in operable condition;
(iii) That test power disconnects are clearly marked and readily available in an emergency;
(iv) That ground connections are clearly identifiable;
(v) That personal protective equipment is provided and used;
(vi) That signal, ground, and power cables are properly separated.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-365, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-375
Mechanical equipment, including aerial manlift equipment.

(1) General requirements.
(a) The critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment shall receive a thorough visual inspection and operational test before use on each shift.
Note:
Critical safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components whose failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom.
(b) No vehicular equipment having an obstructed view to the rear may be operated on off-highway jobsites where any employee is exposed to the hazards created by the moving vehicle, unless:
(i) The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level; or
(ii) The vehicle is backed up only when a designated employee signals that it is safe to do so.
(c) The operator of an electric line truck may not leave his or her position at the controls while a load is suspended, unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) might be endangered.
(2) Outriggers.
(a) Vehicular equipment, if provided with outriggers, shall be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly set as necessary for the stability of the specific configuration of the equipment. Outriggers may not be extended or retracted outside of clear view of the operator unless all employees are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
(b) If the work area or the terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within its maximum load ratings for the particular configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
(3) Applied loads. Mechanical equipment used to lift or move lines or other material shall be used within its maximum load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the work is being performed.
(4) Hydraulic fluids. All hydraulic fluids used for the insulated section of derrick trucks, aerial lifts, and hydraulic tools which are used on or around energized lines or equipment shall be of the insulating type.
(5) Mechanical adjustment or repairs shall not be attempted or performed in the field except by a person qualified to perform such work.
(6) Malfunction or needed repairs of manlift equipment shall be reported to the employee responsible for such repairs as soon as is reasonably possible. Use of equipment which is known to be in need of repairs or is malfunctioning is prohibited when such deficiency creates an unsafe operating condition.
(7) When any aerial manlift equipment is parked for operation at the job site, the brakes shall be set. Wheel chocks shall be used to prevent accidental movement while parked on an incline.
(8) Employees shall not sit or stand on the basket edge, stand on materials placed in or across the basket, or work from a ladder set inside the basket.
(9) The basket shall not be rested on a fixed object(s) so that the weight of the boom is either totally or partially supported by the basket.
(10) Operations near energized lines or equipment.
(a) Mechanical equipment shall be operated so that the minimum approach distances of Table 1 through Table 4 are maintained from exposed energized lines and equipment. However, the insulated upper portion excluding the basket/bucket of an aerial lift operated by a qualified employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement.
(b) A designated employee other than the equipment operator shall observe the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and give timely warnings before the minimum approach distance required by subsection (10)(a) of this section is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate that the operator can accurately determine that the minimum approach distance is being maintained.
(c) If, during operation of the mechanical equipment, the equipment could become energized, the operation shall also comply with at least one of the following:
(i) The energized lines exposed to contact shall be covered with insulating protective material that will withstand the type of contact that might be made during the operation.
(ii) The equipment shall be insulated for the voltage involved. The equipment shall be positioned so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the lines or equipment any closer than the minimum approach distances specified in Table 1 through 4.
(iii) Each employee shall be protected from hazards that might arise from equipment contact with the energized lines. The measures used shall ensure that employees will not be exposed to hazardous differences in potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that might arise if the equipment contacts the energized line, the measures used shall include all of the following techniques:
(A) Using the best available ground to minimize the time the lines remain energized;
(B) Bonding equipment together to minimize potential differences;
(C) Providing ground mats to extend areas of equipotential; and
(D) Employing insulating protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous potential differences.
Note:
Appendix B contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.
(11) While working in aerial equipment, employees shall wear a full body harness and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket, in a secure manner.
(12) No component of aerial devices shall be operated from the ground without permission from the employee in the basket except in case of emergency.
(13) Operating levers or controls shall be kept clear of tools, materials or obstructions.
(14) Employees shall not climb into or out of the basket or platform while it is elevated or change from one basket to another on dual basket equipment, except in case of emergency or when the employees involved agree that this is the safest way to perform the work. This exception shall not be used to circumvent safety rules.
(15) Existing safety rules governing the use of hot line tools, rubber and other protective equipment and safe work practices while performing work from poles or structures shall also apply to work done from aerial manlift equipment.
(16) The basket shall be kept clean and all tools not in use shall be secured or removed.
(17) Approved warning light shall be operating when the boom leaves the cradle. This light shall be visible to approaching traffic when the boom is in position over any traveled area.
(18) All aerial manlift equipment shall have both upper and lower controls (except ladder trucks need not have upper controls). The upper controls shall not be capable of rendering the lower controls inoperative. The lower controls should be located at or near the base of the aerial structure. If the lower controls are used, the operator shall have a view of the elevated employee(s) or there shall be communication between the operator and the employee in the elevated aerial structure: Provided, That no employee shall be raised, lowered, or moved into or from the elevated position in any aerial manlift equipment unless there is another employee, not in the elevated aerial structure, available at the site to operate the lower controls, except as follows:
(a) Where there is a fixed method permanently attached to or part of the equipment which will permit an employee to descend from the elevated position without lowering the elevated structure; or
(b) Where there is a system which will provide operation from the elevated position in the event of failure or malfunction of the primary system.
Note:
This section shall not be interpreted as an exception to any other rule in this chapter.
(19) Controls in aerial manlift equipment shall be protected from accidental operation. Controls of the outriggers shall also be protected from accidental operation. Such protection may be by guarding or equivalent means.
(20) The manufacturer's recommended maximum load limit shall be posted at a conspicuous place near each set of controls and shall be kept in a legible condition.
(21) The manufacturer's operator's instructional manual shall be kept on the vehicle.
(22) Operating instructions, proper sequence and maintenance procedures prescribed by the manufacturer for operation of the equipment shall be followed.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-375, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-385
Overhead lines.

This section provides additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment.
(1) General.
(a) Before elevated structures and adjacent structures, such as poles or towers of the adjacent supporting poles, structures, and conductor supporting hardware, are subjected to such stresses as climbing or the installation or removal of equipment may impose, the employer shall ascertain that the structures are capable of sustaining the additional or unbalanced stresses. If the pole or other structure cannot withstand the loads which will be imposed, it shall be braced or otherwise supported so as to prevent failure.
Note:
Appendix C contains test methods that can be used in ascertaining whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces that would be imposed by an employee climbing the pole. This paragraph also requires the employer to ascertain that the pole can sustain all other forces that will be imposed by the work to be performed.
(b) When poles are set, moved, or removed near exposed energized overhead conductors, the pole may not contact the conductors.
(c) When a pole is set, moved, or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer shall ensure that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts of his or her body.
(d) To protect employees from falling into holes into which poles are to be placed, the holes shall be attended by employees or physically guarded whenever anyone is working nearby.
(2) Installing and removing overhead lines. The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of overhead conductors or cable.
(a) The employer shall use the tension stringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the possibility that conductors and cables being installed or removed will contact energized power lines or equipment.
(b) When conductors are being strung in or removed, they shall be kept under positive control to prevent accidental contact with energized circuit.
(c) The protective measures required by WAC 296-45-375 (10)(c) for mechanical equipment shall also be provided for conductors, cables, and pulling and tensioning equipment when the conductor or cable is being installed or removed close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the wire or cable being installed or removed:
(i) Failure of the pulling or tensioning equipment;
(ii) Failure of the wire or cable being pulled; or
(iii) Failure of the previously installed lines or equipment.
(d) When conductors being installed or removed cross over energized conductors in excess of 600 volts, rope nets or guard structures must be installed unless provision is made to isolate or insulate the worker or the energized conductor. Where the design of the circuit-interrupting devices protecting the lines so permits, the automatic-reclosing feature of these devices must be made inoperative. In addition, the line being strung must be grounded on either side of the crossover or considered and worked as energized.
(e) Before lines are installed parallel to existing energized lines, the employer shall make a determination of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work shall proceed on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous. Unless the employer can demonstrate that the lines being installed are not subject to the induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, the following requirements also apply:
(i) Each bare conductor shall be grounded in increments so that no point along the conductor is more than 2 miles (3.22 km) from a ground.
(ii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be left in place until the conductor installation is completed between dead ends.
(iii) The grounds required in subsection (2)(e)(i) of this section shall be removed as the last phase of aerial cleanup.
(iv) If employees are working on bare conductors, grounds shall also be installed at each location where these employees are working, and grounds shall be installed at all open dead-end or catch-off points or the next adjacent structure.
(v) If two bare conductors are to be spliced, the conductors shall be bonded and grounded before being spliced.
(f) Reel handling equipment, including pulling and tensioning devices, shall be in safe operating condition and shall be leveled and aligned.
(g) Load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists may not be exceeded.
(h) Each pull must be snubbed or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls.
(3) Pulling lines and accessories shall be inspected prior to each use and replaced or repaired when damaged or when there is a reasonable basis to doubt the dependability of such lines or accessories.
(4) Conductor grips may not be used on wire rope, unless the grip is specifically designed for this application.
(5) Reliable communications, through two-way radios or other equivalent means, shall be maintained between the reel tender and the pulling rig operator.
(6) The pulling rig may only be operated when it is safe to do so.
Note:
Examples of unsafe conditions include employees in locations prohibited by subsection (7) of this section, conductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slipping of the conductor grip.
(7) While the conductor or pulling line is being pulled (in motion) with a power-driven device, employees are not permitted directly under overhead operations or on the cross arm, except as necessary to guide the stringing sock or board over or through the stringing sheave.
(8) Live-line bare-hand work is prohibited.
(9) When winches, trucks, or tractors are being used to raise poles, materials, to pull in wires, to pull slack or in any other operation, there shall be an operator at the controls unless the machinery or process is stopped.
(10) Leadworkers shall designate an employee to give signals when required.
(11) Raising poles, towers or fixtures in the close proximity of high voltage conductors shall be done under the supervision of a qualified employee.
(12) Employees shall not crawl over insulator strings but shall use a platform or other approved device to work from when making dead ends or doing other work beyond strings of insulators, at such distance that they cannot reach the work from the pole or fixture. While working on the platform or other device, they shall be secured with safety straps or a rope to prevent falling. The provision of this subsection does not apply to extra high voltage bundle conductors when the use of such equipment may produce additional hazard. Climbing over dead end assemblies is permissible only after they have been completed and pinned in the final position.
(13) Towers and structures. The following requirements apply to work performed on towers or other structures which support overhead lines.
(a) The employer shall ensure that no employee is under a tower or structure while work is in progress, except where the employer can demonstrate that such a working position is necessary to assist employees working above.
(b) Tag lines or other similar devices shall be used to maintain control of tower sections being raised or positioned, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of such devices would create a greater hazard.
(c) The loadline may not be detached from a member or section until the load is safely secured.
(d) No one must be permitted to remain in the footing while equipment is being spotted for placement.
(e) A designated employee must be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines.
(14) All conductors, subconductors, and overhead ground conductors must be bonded to the tower at any isolated tower where it may be necessary to complete work on the transmission line.
(15) A transmission clipping crew shall have a minimum of two structures clipped in between the crew and the conductor being sagged.
(16) While on patrol at night and operating a motor vehicle on public highways, there shall be two employees, at least one of whom shall be a journey level lineworker or otherwise qualified employee. If repair to line or equipment is found to be of such nature as to require two lineworkers, work shall not proceed until additional help has been obtained provided that in cases of emergency where delay would increase the danger to life, limb, or substantial property, one employee may clear the hazard without assistance.
(17) Except during emergency restoration procedures, work shall be discontinued when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section.
Note:
`Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make this work too hazardous to perform, except under emergency conditions.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, 49.17.060. WSR 05-17-038, § 296-45-385, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-385, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-455
Line-clearance tree-trimming operations.

This section provides additional requirements for line-clearance tree-trimming operations and for equipment used in these operations.
This section does not apply to qualified employees.
(1) Before an employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, a determination shall be made of the nominal voltage of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees. However, a determination of the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead, if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.
(2) There shall be a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal (that is, unassisted) voice communication under any of the following conditions:
(a) If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely than 10 feet (305 cm) any conductor or electrical apparatus energized at more than 600 volts; or
(b) If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 600 volts than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5; or
(c) If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs from such conductors or apparatus.
(3) Line-clearance tree trimmers shall maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.
(4) Branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or equipment or that are within the distances specified in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5 may be removed only through the use of insulating equipment.
Note:
A tool constructed of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting WAC 296-45-305(1) are considered as insulated under this section if the tool is clean and dry.
(5) Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table 1, Table 4, and Table 5.
(6) Line-clearance tree-trimming work may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in spite of the work practices required by this section. Each employee performing line-clearance tree-trimming work in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions shall be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.
Note:
Thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree-trimming work too hazardous to perform safely.
(7) A tree trimmer may climb out of a basket into a tree or from a tree back into the basket so long as he is properly tied into the tree during the entire maneuver and the employer can demonstrate that this is the safest way to perform the work.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-455, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-455, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45505
Brush chippers.

(1) Brush chippers shall be equipped with a locking device in the ignition system.
(2) Access panels for maintenance and adjustment of the chipper blades and associated drive train shall be in place and secure during operation of the equipment.
(3) Brush chippers not equipped with a mechanical infeed system shall be equipped with an infeed hopper of length sufficient to prevent employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine during operation.
(4) Trailer chippers detached from trucks shall be chocked or otherwise secured.
(5) Each employee in the immediate area of an operating chipper feed table shall wear personal protective equipment as required by Subpart I of this Part.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45505, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45510
Sprayers and related equipment.

(2) Equipment on which employees stand to spray while the vehicle is in motion shall be equipped with guardrails around the working area. The guardrail shall be constructed in accordance with chapter 296-24 WAC, Part J-1 and WAC 296-800-260.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-45510, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45510, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45515
Stump cutters.

(1) Stump cutters shall be equipped with enclosures or guards to protect employees.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45515, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45520
Backpack power units for use in pruning and clearing.

(1) While a backpack power unit is running, no one other than the operator may be within 10 feet (305 cm) of the cutting head of a brush saw.
(2) A backpack power unit shall be equipped with a quick shutoff switch readily accessible to the operator.
(3) Backpack power unit engines shall be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45520, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45525
Rope.

(1) Climbing ropes shall be used by employees working aloft in trees. These ropes shall have a minimum diameter of 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) with a minimum breaking strength of 2300 pounds (10.2 kN). Synthetic rope shall have elasticity of not more than 7 percent.
(2) Rope shall be inspected before each use and, if unsafe (for example, because of damage or defect), may not be used.
(3) Rope shall be stored away from cutting edges and sharp tools. Rope contact with corrosive chemicals, gas, and oil shall be avoided.
(4) When stored, rope shall be coiled and piled, or shall be suspended, so that air can circulate through the coils.
(5) Rope ends shall be secured to prevent their unraveling.
(6) Climbing rope may not be spliced to effect repair.
(7) A rope that is wet, that is contaminated to the extent that its insulating capacity is impaired, or that is otherwise not considered to be insulated for the voltage involved may not be used near exposed energized lines.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45525, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-45530
Fall protection.

Each employee shall be tied in with a climbing rope and safety saddle when the employee is working above the ground in a tree, unless he or she is ascending into the tree.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-45530, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-465
Communication facilities.

(1) Microwave transmission. The employer shall ensure that no employee looks into an open waveguide or antenna that is connected to an energized microwave source.
(2) If the electromagnetic radiation level within an accessible area associated with microwave communications systems exceeds the radiation protection guide given in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part J-1. The area shall be posted with the warning symbol described in chapter 296-62 WAC, Part J-1. The lower half of the warning symbol shall include the following statements or ones that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent:
Radiation in this area may exceed hazard limitations and special precautions are required. Obtain specific instruction before entering.
(3) When an employee works in an area where the electromagnetic radiation could exceed the radiation protection guide, the employer shall institute measures that ensure that the employee's exposure is not greater than that permitted by that guide. Such measures may include administrative and engineering controls and personal protective equipment.
(4) Power line carrier. Power line carrier work, including work on equipment used for coupling carrier current to power line conductors, shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this section pertaining to work on energized lines.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-465, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-475
Substations.

This section provides additional requirements for substations and for work performed in them.
(1) Access and working space. Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with WAC 296-45-475(1). An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with WAC 296-45-475(1) if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(d) Precaution must be taken to prevent accidental operation of relays or other protective devices due to jarring, vibration, or improper wiring.
(2) Draw-out-type circuit breakers. When draw-out-type circuit breakers are removed or inserted, the breaker shall be in the open position. The control circuit shall also be rendered inoperative, if the design of the equipment permits.
(3) Substation fences. Conductive fences around substations must be grounded. When a substation fence must be expanded or removed fence continuity must be maintained and bonding must be used to prevent electrical discontinuity. A temporary fence affording similar protection when the site is unattended, must be provided. Adequate interconnection with ground must be maintained between temporary fence and permanent fence.
(4) Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment.
(a) Rooms and spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of subsection (4)(b) through (e) of this section under the following conditions:
(i) If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space;
(ii) If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts and located within 8 feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space are guarded only by location, as permitted under subsection (5)(a) of this section; or
(iii) If live parts operating at more than 600 volts are located within the room or space, unless:
(A) The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts; or
(B) The live parts are installed at a height above ground and any other working surface that provides protection at the voltage to which they are energized corresponding to the protection provided by an 8-foot height at 50 volts.
(b) The rooms and spaces shall be so enclosed within fences, screens, partitions, or walls as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
(c) Signs warning unqualified persons to keep out shall be displayed at entrances to the rooms and spaces.
(d) Entrances to rooms and spaces that are not under the observation of an attendant shall be kept locked.
(e) Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
(5) Guarding of energized parts.
(a) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations are contained in American National Standard-National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with subsection (5)(a) of this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with subsection (5)(a) of this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(i) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(ii) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(iii) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(b) Except for fuse replacement and other necessary access by qualified persons, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(c) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
(6) Substation entry.
(a) Upon entering an attended substation, each employee other than those regularly working in the station shall report his or her presence to the employee in charge in order to receive information on special system conditions affecting employee safety.
(b) The job briefing required by WAC 296-45-135 shall cover such additional subjects as the location of energized equipment in or adjacent to the work area and the limits of any deenergized work area.
(c) Nonqualified persons may only approach exposed energized electrical equipment located in substations or switch yards up to the distances set forth in Tables 1 through 4 when under the direct supervision of a qualified person acting as a safety watch. The safety watch will make sure that the nonqualified person does not encroach or take conductive objects closer to exposed energized parts than set forth in Tables 1 through 4.
(i) Nonqualified persons must have hazard recognition training and attend a documented tailgate meeting prior to entering the substation.
(ii) The safety watch must be a qualified employee as defined by WAC 296-45-035.
(iii) The safety watch will have the responsibility and authority to monitor work on a continuous basis and/or stop work until the hazard is eliminated or protected.
(iv) The safety watch will maintain a direct line of sight and voice communications with all nonqualified persons under their direct supervision. If the safety watch cannot meet these requirements, additional safety watches must be assigned or work must be stopped. Each safety watch will monitor no more than four persons.
(v) The safety watch will perform no other duties while acting as a safety watch.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 09-10-077, § 296-45-475, filed 5/5/09, effective 7/1/09; WSR 05-17-038, § 296-45-475, filed 8/9/05, effective 10/1/05; WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-475, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-485
Power generation.

This section provides additional requirements and related work practices for power generating plants.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-485, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48505
Interlocks and other safety devices.

(1) Interlocks and other safety devices shall be maintained in a safe, operable condition.
(2) No interlock or other safety device may be modified to defeat its function, except for test, repair, or adjustment of the device.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48505, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48510
Changing brushes.

Before exciter or generator brushes are changed while the generator is in service, the exciter or generator field shall be checked to determine whether a ground condition exists. The brushes may not be changed while the generator is energized if a ground condition exists.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48510, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48515
Access and working space.

Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of access and workspace about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard−National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides ready and safe access based on the following evidence:
(1) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(2) That the configuration of the installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances required by this section while they work on exposed, energized parts; and
(3) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by access and working space meeting ANSI C2-1997.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48515, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48520
Guarding of rooms containing electric supply equipment.

(1) Rooms and spaces in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed shall meet the requirements of this section under the following conditions:
(a) If exposed live parts operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are located within eight feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space;
(b) If live parts operating at 151 to 600 volts and located within eight feet of the ground or other working surface inside the room or space are guarded only by location, as permitted under this section; or
(c) If live parts operating at more than 600 volts are located within the room or space; unless:
(i) The live parts are enclosed within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts; or
(ii) The live parts are installed at a height above ground and any other working surface that provides protection at the voltage to which they are energized corresponding to the protection provided by an eight-foot height at 50 volts.
(2) The rooms and spaces shall be so enclosed within fences, screens, partitions, or walls as to minimize the possibility that unqualified persons will enter.
(3) Signs warning unqualified persons to keep out shall be displayed at entrances to the rooms and spaces.
(4) Entrances to rooms and spaces that are not under the observation of an attendant shall be kept locked.
(5) Unqualified persons may not enter the rooms or spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment are energized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48520, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48525
Guarding of energized parts.

(1) Guards shall be provided around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without an insulating covering, unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient horizontal or vertical or a combination of these clearances to minimize the possibility of accidental employee contact.
Note:
Guidelines for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in generating stations are contained in American National Standard−National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI C2-1997. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with this section. An installation that does not conform to this ANSI standard will, nonetheless, be considered as complying with this section if the employer can demonstrate that the installation provides sufficient clearance based on the following evidence:
(a) That the installation conforms to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect at the time the installation was made;
(b) That each employee is isolated from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
(c) That the precautions taken when work is performed on the installation provide protection equivalent to the protection that would be provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI C2-1997.
(2) Except for fuse replacement or other necessary access by qualified persons, the guarding of energized parts within a compartment shall be maintained during operation and maintenance functions to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent tools or other equipment from being dropped on energized parts.
(3) When guards are removed from energized equipment, barriers shall be installed around the work area to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area, from contacting the exposed live parts.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48525, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48530
Water or steam spaces.

The following requirements apply to work in water and steam spaces associated with boilers:
(1) A designated employee shall inspect conditions before work is permitted and after its completion. Eye protection, or full face protection if necessary, shall be worn at all times when condenser, heater, or boiler tubes are being cleaned.
(2) Where it is necessary for employees to work near tube ends during cleaning, shielding shall be installed at the tube ends.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48530, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48535
Chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels.

The following requirements apply to chemical cleaning of boilers and pressure vessels:
(1) Areas where chemical cleaning is in progress shall be cordoned off to restrict access during cleaning. If flammable liquids, gases, or vapors or combustible materials will be used or might be produced during the cleaning process, the following requirements also apply:
(a) The area shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazards of fire and explosion; and
(b) Smoking, welding, and other possible ignition sources are prohibited in these restricted areas.
(2) The number of personnel in the restricted area shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
(3) There shall be ready access to water or showers for emergency use.
Note:
See WAC 296-800-230, of the safety and health core rules, for requirements that apply to the water supply and to washing facilities.
(4) Employees in restricted areas shall wear protective equipment meeting the requirements of this chapter and including, but not limited to, protective clothing, boots, goggles, and gloves.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, 49.17.040, 49.17.050, and 49.17.060. WSR 03-18-090, § 296-45-48535, filed 9/2/03, effective 11/1/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-11-038, § 296-45-48535, filed 5/9/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48535, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48540
Chlorine systems.

(1) Chlorine system enclosures shall be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazard to health and the hazards of fire and explosion.
Note:
See chapter 296-62 WAC for requirements necessary to protect the health of employees from the effects of chlorine.
(2) Only designated employees may enter the restricted area. Additionally, the number of personnel shall be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task safely.
(3) Emergency repair kits shall be available near the shelter or enclosure to allow for the prompt repair of leaks in chlorine lines, equipment, or containers.
(4) Before repair procedures are started, chlorine tanks, pipes, and equipment shall be purged with dry air and isolated from other sources of chlorine.
(5) The employer shall ensure that chlorine is not mixed with materials that would react with the chlorine in a dangerously exothermic or other hazardous manner.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48540, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48545
Boilers.

(1) Before internal furnace or ash hopper repair work is started, overhead areas shall be inspected for possible falling objects. If the hazard of falling objects exists, overhead protection such as planking or nets shall be provided.
(2) When opening an operating boiler door, employees shall stand clear of the opening of the door to avoid the heat blast and gases which may escape from the boiler.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48545, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48550
Turbine generators.

(1) Smoking and other ignition sources are prohibited near hydrogen or hydrogen sealing systems, and signs warning of the danger of explosion and fire shall be posted.
(2) Excessive hydrogen makeup or abnormal loss of pressure shall be considered as an emergency and shall be corrected immediately.
(3) A sufficient quantity of inert gas shall be available to purge the hydrogen from the largest generator.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48550, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48555
Coal and ash handling.

(1) Only designated persons may operate railroad equipment.
(2) Before a locomotive or locomotive crane is moved, a warning shall be given to employees in the area.
(3) Employees engaged in switching or dumping cars may not use their feet to line up drawheads.
(4) Drawheads and knuckles may not be shifted while locomotives or cars are in motion.
(5) When a railroad car is stopped for unloading, the car shall be secured from displacement that could endanger employees.
(6) An emergency means of stopping dump operations shall be provided at railcar dumps.
(7) The employer shall ensure that employees who work in coal- or ash-handling conveyor areas are trained and knowledgeable in conveyor operation and in the requirements of this section.
(9) A conveyor that could cause injury when started may not be started until personnel in the area are alerted by a signal or by a designated person that the conveyor is about to start.
(10) If a conveyor that could cause injury when started is automatically controlled or is controlled from a remote location, an audible device shall be provided that sounds an alarm that will be recognized by each employee as a warning that the conveyor will start and that can be clearly heard at all points along the conveyor where personnel may be present. The warning device shall be actuated by the device starting the conveyor and shall continue for a period of time before the conveyor starts that is long enough to allow employees to move clear of the conveyor system. A visual warning may be used in place of the audible device if the employer can demonstrate that it will provide an equally effective warning in the particular circumstances involved.
Exception:
If the employer can demonstrate that the system's function would be seriously hindered by the required time delay, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device. If the system was installed before November 20, 1995, warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device until such time as the conveyor or its control system is rebuilt or rewired. These warning signs shall be clear, concise, and legible and shall indicate that conveyors and allied equipment may be started at any time, that danger exists, and that personnel must keep clear. These warning signs shall be provided along the conveyor at areas not guarded by position or location.
(11) Remotely and automatically controlled conveyors, and conveyors that have operating stations which are not manned or which are beyond voice and visual contact from drive areas, loading areas, transfer points, and other locations on the conveyor path not guarded by location, position, or guards shall be furnished with emergency stop buttons, pull cords, limit switches, or similar emergency stop devices. However, if the employer can demonstrate that the design, function, and operation of the conveyor do not expose an employee to hazards, an emergency stop device is not required.
(a) Emergency stop devices shall be easily identifiable in the immediate vicinity of such locations.
(b) An emergency stop device shall act directly on the control of the conveyor involved and may not depend on the stopping of any other equipment.
(c) Emergency stop devices shall be installed so that they cannot be overridden from other locations.
(12) Where coal-handling operations may produce a combustible atmosphere from fuel sources or from flammable gases or dust, sources of ignition shall be eliminated or safely controlled to prevent ignition of the combustible atmosphere.
Note:
Locations that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust are classified as Class II hazardous locations. See chapter 296-24 WAC, Part L.
(13) An employee may not work on or beneath overhanging coal in coal bunkers, coal silos, or coal storage areas, unless the employee is protected from all hazards posed by shifting coal.
(14) An employee entering a bunker or silo to dislodge the contents shall wear a body harness with lifeline attached. The lifeline shall be secured to a fixed support outside the bunker and shall be attended at all times by an employee located outside the bunker or facility.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48555, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-48560
Hydroplants and equipment.

Employees working on or close to water gates, valves, intakes, forebays, flumes, or other locations where increased or decreased water flow or levels may pose a significant hazard shall be warned and shall vacate such dangerous areas before water flow changes are made.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-48560, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-525
Special conditions.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-525, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52505
Capacitors.

The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors.
Note:
See WAC 296-45-335 through 296-45-345 for requirements pertaining to the deenergizing and grounding of capacitor installations.
(1) Before employees work on capacitors, the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and, after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection, short-circuited.
(2) Before the units are handled, each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks, the racks shall be bonded to ground.
(3) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized.
(4) After removal from service, short circuits shall remain on capacitors in storage until returned to service.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52505, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52510
Current transformer secondaries.

The secondary of a current transformer may not be opened while the transformer is energized. If the primary of the current transformer cannot be deenergized before work is performed on an instrument, a relay, or other section of a current transformer secondary circuit, the circuit shall be bridged so that the current transformer secondary will not be opened.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52510, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52515
Series streetlighting.

(2) A series loop may only be opened after the streetlighting transformer has been deenergized and isolated from the source of supply or after the loop is bridged to avoid an open-circuit condition.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52515, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52520
Illumination.

Sufficient illumination shall be provided to enable the employee to perform the work safely.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52520, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52525
Protection against drowning.

(1) Whenever an employee may be pulled or pushed or may fall into water where the danger of drowning exists, the employee shall be provided with and shall use U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices.
(2) Each personal flotation device shall be maintained in safe condition and shall be inspected frequently enough to ensure that it does not have rot, mildew, water saturation, or any other condition that could render the device unsuitable for use.
(3) An employee may cross streams or other bodies of water only if a safe means of passage, such as a bridge, is provided.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52525, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52530
Employee protection in public work areas.

(b) When flaggers are used, employers, responsible contractors and/or project owners must comply with the requirements of WAC 296-155-305.
(2) During hours of darkness, warning lights must be prominently displayed.
(3) Excavated areas must be protected with barricades.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050, 2000 c 239, and chapter 34.05 RCW. WSR 01-07-075, § 296-45-52530, filed 3/20/01, effective 4/20/01. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52530, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52535
Backfeed.

If there is a possibility of voltage backfeed from sources of cogeneration or from the secondary system (for example, backfeed from more than one energized phase feeding a common load), the requirements of WAC 296-45-325 apply if the lines or equipment are to be worked as energized, and the requirements of WAC 296-45-335 and 296-45-345 apply if the lines or equipment are to be worked as deenergized.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52535, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52540
Lasers.

[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52540, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52545
Hydraulic fluids.

Hydraulic fluids used for the insulated sections of equipment shall provide insulation for the voltage involved.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52545, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-52550
Foreign attachments and placards.

Nails and unauthorized attachments should be removed before climbing above such attachments. When through bolts present a hazard to climbing, they shall be trimmed to a safe length.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-52550, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-545
Trolley maintenance, jumpering or bypassing.

(1) Energized trolley wire shall be jumpered when it is to be opened or cut.
(2) Reaching over trolley wire(s) or system(s). Lineworkers shall not reach over trolley wire(s) unless properly protected by line hose or rubber blanket.
(3) Reaching across sectional insulators. Lineworkers shall not reach across section insulator(s), insulated spacer(s) or insulated approach.
(4) Polarity on either side of sectionalizing breakers. Since the polarity on both sides of a sectionalizing insulator may be different, it is required that prior to performance of work, tests be performed with approved testing equipment to determine whether or not the polarity is the same or different on one side of the sectional insulator as compared with the other.
(5) Working on hangers. More than one truck crew shall not work on hangers attached to the same span at the same time, without rubber protection.
(6) Workers on hangers of opposite polarity. Trolley hangers and ears of opposite polarity shall not be worked on at the same time when trolley wire is energized.
(7) Checking electric switches. When electric switches are checked for operation, making it necessary to short circuit the contactor to each trolley wire, tools with insulated handles shall be used.
(8) Short circuit due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools. When a hazard of short circuit exists, due to use of noninsulated or conductive long handled tools, approved protective rubber equipment shall be used as provided in this chapter.
(9) Trolley feeders. When work is to be performed on street railway trolley feeders where it is necessary for workers to work from metal or other grounded poles or fixtures or on poles or fixtures on which grounds are maintained, the feeders shall be deenergized unless the poles or fixtures are insulated before the work is started with approved protective devices in such manner that employees cannot become grounded while working on the feeders, and employees shall wear approved rubber gloves.
(10) Truck driver shall remain at tower controls while workers are working on towers except when the aerial manlift equipment has been properly chocked to prevent uncontrolled movement. Tower trucks shall be equipped with a reliable signaling device between the employees working on the tower and the truck driver.
(11) Working on truck towers. Employees shall not stand on tower gates or railings. Work shall not be done from plank(s) placed on tower railings.
(12) Tower truck railings. Towers shall have standard railings and toeboards around the tower and all railings shall be constructed of wood, fiberglass or other nonmetallic material. All railings shall be a vertical height of not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches from the floor of the platform to the upper surface of the top rail. Intermediate railings shall be midway between the floor and the underside of the top rail. Tower gates shall be so constructed as to prevent accidental opening.
(13) Tower truck decks shall be kept clear of tools, wire and other materials and tools shall be kept in proper storage area when not in use.
(14) Lineworkers shall not wear climbers or spurs while working on a tower truck.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-545, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-675
Rotorcraft/helicopter for power distribution and transmission line installation, construction and repair—Scope.

(1) These standards which include WAC 296-45-675 shall apply to work being done on or near any rotorcraft, helicopter crane, or similar device when such device is for power distribution and transmission line construction, alteration, repair or similar work. These standards include work practices when such equipment is being or is about to be used and shall apply to the exclusion of any other standard should such other standard be in conflict with the standards contained herein.
(2) These rules shall be interpreted where necessary to achieve the protection of employees affected by the hazards particular to the helicopter operation and shall be so interpreted as not to conflict with any federal law or regulation governing the operation or maintenance of such craft.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-675, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67503
Definitions.

(1) "Cargo hooks." A device attached or suspended from an aircraft which is used to connect an external load to the aircraft through direct couplings or by lead lines. This unit has both mechanical and electrical locking/unlocking means.
(2) "Designated employees." Those employees selected or designated by the employer to work under or near helicopters who have first been instructed in hooking, unhooking, guiding and securing the load, including the signalperson, all of whom have been instructed in the hazards of helicopter work and who know the provisions of this section.
(3) "Downwash." A down and outward air column from the main rotor system.
(4) "Ground personnel or crew." Those employees who are physically and mentally capable, who are familiar with the hazards of helicopter use in power distribution and transmission line work, and who know these rules and the methods of operation.
(5) "Helicopter," "helicopter crane," and "rotorcraft." Those aircraft whose support in the air is derived solely from the reaction of a stream of air driven downward by propellers revolving around a vertical axis, which are designed for and capable of carrying external loads. The use of the word helicopter in these rules shall also mean helicopter crane, rotorcraft, or similar device.
(6) "Hooking and unhooking." That process by which an external load is either attached to or released from the cargo hook.
(7) "Positive guide system." A system or method of installing a load into position so that the load is capable of being released from the helicopter without being otherwise secured so that the load will remain in position permanently or until otherwise secured by physical means.
(8) "Rotors." That system of blades which rotates or revolves to supply lift or direction to the rotorcraft.
(9) "Approved rubber gloves." Rubber insulating gloves used for protection of electrical workers from electric shock while working on energized conductors and equipment.
(10) "Signalperson." That member of the ground crew that is designated by an employer to direct, signal and otherwise communicate with the operator of the helicopter.
(11) "Sling line." A strap, chain, rope or the like used to securely hold something being lifted, lowered, carried or otherwise suspended.
(12) "Sock line." A rope(s), cable(s) or similar line(s) which is used to pull a conductor line from a reel or to remove existing strung conductors from poles or towers.
(13) "Static charge." A stationary charge of electricity.
(14) "Tag line." A rope or similar device used to guide or control the direction or movement of a load.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67503, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67503, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67505
Briefing.

(1) Before work or a job involving helicopters begins, there shall be a discussion between all affected employees which shall include the ground crew, signalperson and pilot or operator of the helicopter. The discussion shall cover the particular hazards of the job, the methods of performing the work and the signals to be used. All employees shall, before the beginning of such work or job, understand in detail the hazards, the methods and the signals to be used and these regulations.
(2) Every employee before being allowed to work on or near helicopter(s) operating with or without load shall be advised and understand the hazards involved, the methods of performing the work, the signals being used and these regulations.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67505, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67505, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67507
Signals.

(1) The signals between the signalperson and the operator of the helicopter shall be those submitted to the Federal Aviation Agency for the particular procedure or job. In the event no signals have been submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration, a system of signaling shall be used which has been reduced to writing and which is capable of being clearly understood by all employees and others involved in the job.
(2) Should there occur a change in the hazards, method of performing the job, signals to be used, or other operating conditions during the course of any particular job, a conference shall immediately be held at which time all affected employees and others, including signalpersons, groundworkers, pilot(s), will be advised of such hazards or change of operation. No employee shall be permitted to work unless such employee and others fully understand the change(s) which have taken place.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67507, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67507, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67509
Slings and tag lines.

(1) Loads shall be properly slung so that there will be no slippage or shifting of the load and so that the load will not accidentally be dislodged from the helicopter.
(2) Tag lines shall be of such length as not to be capable of being accidentally drawn into or otherwise entering into the rotors.
(3) Pressed sleeves, wedged eyes, or equivalent means shall be used for all suspended loads.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67509, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67511
Cargo hooks.

(1) All electrically operated cargo hooks shall have the electrical activating device which is so designed and installed as to prevent inadvertent or accidental operation. Such cargo hooks shall be equipped with an emergency mechanical or manual control for releasing the load. The electrical control shall be a double button single hand control.
(2) No electrical cargo hook shall be used unless, prior to that day's operation, the releases are tested and functioning properly, both electrically and mechanically (manually).
(3) No employee shall be permitted to work under a hovering helicopter(s) unless the cargo hooks used comply with Federal Aviation Administration regulations governing such hooks.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67511, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67513
Personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment when working on, under or in the near vicinity of helicopters:
(1) All employees shall wear eye protection of such design as to prevent the likelihood of dust or other substances from contacting the eye(s) of employees.
(2) All employees shall wear hard hats which shall be secured on the employee's head by a chinstrap.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67513, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67515
Wearing apparel.

No employee shall wear clothing or apparel which is either designed to or in fact can reasonably be expected to flap or otherwise react in a similar fashion in the downwash or air disturbance of a helicopter(s). No employee shall work on, under or in the near vicinity of a helicopter while wearing such apparel or clothing which flaps or moves to the extent that it presents a hazard in that it could be caught in the moving equipment, the hoist line, or otherwise interfere with the safe performance of the work.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67515, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67517
Loose gear and objects.

All loose gear, including lunch boxes, rope, cardboard, wire covers and similar items shall be removed or secured or otherwise made fast before the helicopter is started or allowed to approach such area. In the event the gear is not secured or fastened, it shall be removed and located outside the downwash at least 100 feet from the helicopter.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67517, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67519
Housekeeping.

All helicopter landing, loading and unloading areas shall be maintained in a neat and orderly fashion so as to reduce the likelihood of flying materials, tripping, or other hazards attendant to the work being performed.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67519, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67521
Operator's responsibility.

(1) The helicopter operator shall be responsible for the size, weight and manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter.
(2) No load shall be made if the helicopter operator believes the lift cannot safely be performed. The employer shall make certain that the operator of the helicopter is able to freely exercise their prerogative and judgment as to safe operation of the helicopter itself concerning size, weight and manner by which loads are connected.
(3) No employee shall work on, under, near or in conjunction with a helicopter whose operation does not correspond with the foregoing provisions.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67521, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67521, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67523
Hooking and unhooking loads.

No employee shall perform work under hovering helicopters: Provided, That qualified and capable employees may function under such craft for that limited period of time necessary to guide, secure, hook or unhook the loads. When guiding, securing, hooking or unhooking the load at elevated positions, employees shall be assisted by and use a positive positioning guide system. When under hovering helicopters at any other location, the employee shall have a safe means of ingress and egress, including readily available escape route or routes in the event of an emergency. No other work or work-related activity other than the aforementioned shall be permitted under hovering helicopters. Bolting of or otherwise permanently securing the structures is prohibited under hovering helicopters except that in the event of an unforeseen contingency of an emergency nature which represents a substantial hazard to life or property, an employee may do such work as is necessary to preserve life or protect substantial property.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67523, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67525
Static charge.

All loads shall be grounded with a grounding device capable of discharging either the actual or potential static charge before ground personnel either touch or come close enough to touch the suspended load, or protective rubber gloves shall be worn by all ground personnel either touching the suspended load or who are likely to touch the load.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67525, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67527
Load permitted.

(1) Weight of the external load shall not exceed the manufacturer's load limit.
(2) A helicopter shall not pull any cable, rope or similar line which is at any point attached to a fixed object other than the helicopter itself. Helicopters may pull a free-wheeling sock line so long as the end of the sock line is not tied to a reel, truck, or other fixed object. Such line cannot be tied to or otherwise secured to the roll-off reel other than by having been wrapped around such reel.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67527, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67527, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67529
Visibility.

Employees shall keep clear of and outside the downwash of the helicopters except as necessary to perform a permitted activity. Where reasonably practicable, reduced vision of the operator and ground crew shall be eliminated.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67529, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67531
Signal systems.

(1) Communication shall be maintained between the air crew and ground personnel at all times. Such signal systems shall be understood by the air crew and the ground crew, including signalpersons, prior to the hoisting of any load. There shall be constant radio and hand signals used. The signalperson shall have the sole and exclusive function during periods of loading and unloading of signaling and maintaining communications with the pilot. The signalperson shall be so dressed as to make their appearance distinguishable from other members of the ground crew by the operator of the craft. This may be by way of orange-colored gloves, vest, or other wearing apparel. In addition, the leadworker and one top person shall also have an operating transmitter and receiver.
(2) Designated employees may come within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning, but no closer, other than to enter the craft or to hook or unhook the load or do other essential functions. Other employee(s) shall not come closer than 100 feet of the craft when it is operating.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67531, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67531, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67533
Approaching the helicopter.

Whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees shall remain in full view of pilot or operator and remain in a crouched position if within 50 feet of the helicopter. No employee shall approach the rear of the helicopter unless directly authorized and directed by the operator of such craft to be there at that time. All employees when operating or working within 50 feet of the helicopter with blades turning are subject to the direction of the helicopter operator. No employee shall enter or leave the helicopter unless and until the place at which they enter or leave such craft is large enough for the helicopter itself to land.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67533, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67535
In helicopter.

(1) While in the helicopter, safety belts will remain fastened at all times except when pilot or operator instructs otherwise or while entering or leaving the helicopter.
(2) No smoking in the helicopter unless otherwise permitted by the pilot.
(3) All rack cargo will be secured prior to and during takeoff and flight.
(4) All internal cargo will be secured or otherwise held.
(5) No gear shall be thrown toward or placed in front of the cockpit on or near plexiglass enclosure.
(6) No employee shall lean against or rub the plexiglass.
(7) No employee shall ride in or work under or near a helicopter with less than 15 minutes reserve fuel.
(8) No employee shall have sharp objects in their pocket while sitting in or on the helicopter.
(9) No employee shall touch any switch, knob, instrument, or other control or device in the cockpit unless specifically directed by the operator.
(10) No cargo shall be thrown into pans or cargo rack.
(11) No employee shall obscure or otherwise obstruct the pilot's ability to visually see the instruments or flight path during flight or operation.
(12) No employee shall attempt to slow or stop the rotorcraft blades by hand unless directed or instructed to do so and aided by the pilot.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67535, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67535, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67537
Sling and rigging.

(1) The sling used for the external load shall be inspected each day before use. An employee designated as rigger, who shall be capable of properly inspecting the rigging, shall inspect the sling.
(2) No sling shall be used unless it has a minimum tensile strength of four times the load which will be carried or is being carried.
(3) No sling shall be used unless upon inspection it is determined to be in good condition and capable of the work which is to be performed.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67537, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67539
Personnel.

All ground personnel shall be physically and mentally able to perform the work to which they are assigned, including being knowledgeable in these rules. There shall be a sufficient number of ground personnel so as to be able to safely guide, secure, hook and unhook the load.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67539, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67541
Fires.

Open fires shall not be permitted in any area in which said fires will be affected by the downwash of the rotors, nor shall any employee smoke in an area subject to the downdraft of the rotor.
[Order 76-38, § 296-45-67541, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67543
General.

No employee shall work under or in the near vicinity of helicopters unless the operator has a valid license for operating the craft, knows the signals to be used, has been present at the last briefing held and knows these rules. No employee shall work under or near such craft if the operator is under the influence of intoxicating beverages or prescription medications which affect his/her ability, nor shall any employee work under or near such craft if the operator is careless or engages in any negligent or reckless operation of the helicopter.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 94-20-057 (Order 94-16), § 296-45-67543, filed 9/30/94, effective 11/20/94; Order 76-38, § 296-45-67543, filed 12/30/76.]



296-45-67545
Refueling operations.

(1) Under no circumstances shall the refueling of any type helicopter with either aviation gasoline or Jet B (Turbine) type fuel be permitted while the engines are running.
(2) Helicopters using Jet A (Turbine-Kerosene) type fuel may be refueled with engines running provided the following criteria is met:
(a) No unauthorized persons shall be allowed within fifty feet of the refueling operation or fueling equipment.
(b) A minimum of one thirty-pound fire extinguisher, or a combination of same, good for class A, B and C fires, shall be provided within one hundred feet on the upwind side of the refueling operation.
Note:
For additional requirements relating to portable fire extinguishers see WAC 296-800-300.
(c) All fueling personnel shall be thoroughly trained in the refueling operation and in the use of the available fire extinguishing equipment they may be expected to utilize.
(d) There shall be no smoking, open flames, exposed flame heaters, flare pots, or open flame lights within fifty feet of the refueling area or fueling equipment. All entrances to the refueling area shall be posted with "NO SMOKING" signs.
(e) Due to the numerous causes of static electricity, it shall be considered present at all times. Prior to starting refueling operations, the fueling equipment and the helicopter shall be grounded and the fueling nozzle shall be electrically bonded to the helicopter. The use of conductive hose shall not be accepted to accomplish this bonding. All grounding and bonding connections shall be electrically and mechanically firm, to clean unpainted metal parts.
(f) To control spills, fuel shall be pumped either by hand or power. Pouring or gravity flow shall not be permitted. Self-closing nozzles or deadman controls shall be used and shall not be blocked open. Nozzles shall not be dragged along the ground.
(g) In case of a spill, the fueling operation shall be immediately stopped until such time as the person-in-charge determines that it is safe to resume the refueling operation.
(h) When ambient temperatures have been in the one hundred degrees Fahrenheit range for an extended period of time, all refueling of helicopters with the engines running shall be suspended until such time as conditions become suitable to resume refueling with the engines running.
(3) Helicopters with their engines stopped being refueled with aviation gasoline or Jet B (Turbine) type fuel, shall also comply with subsection (2)(a) through (g) of this section.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, and [49.17].050. WSR 01-17-033, § 296-45-67545, filed 8/8/01, effective 9/1/01. Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. WSR 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-45-67545, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89.]



296-45-900
Appendices.

Nonmandatory.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-900, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-901
Appendix A—Nonmandatory.

Appendix A—Tables
TABLE 2
AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
With Transient Overvoltage Factor
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
Distance to employee in feet-inches, phase to ground
Air and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
 
121
145
169
242
362
550
800
1.5
 
 
 
 
 
6-0
9-8
1.6
 
 
 
 
 
6-6
10-8
1.7
 
 
 
 
 
7-0
11-8
1.8
 
 
 
 
 
7-7
12-8
1.9
 
 
 
 
 
8-1
13-9
2.0
2-5
2-9
3-0
3-10
5-3
8-9
14-11
2.1
2-6
2-10
3-2
4-0
5-5
9-4
 
2.2
2-7
2-11
3-3
4-1
5-9
9-11
 
2.3
2-8
3-0
3-4
4-3
6-1
10-6
 
2.4
2-9
3-1
3-5
4-5
6-4
11-3
 
2.5
2-9
3-2
3-6
4-6
6-8
 
 
2.6
2-10
3-3
3-8
4-8
7-1
 
 
2.7
2-11
3-4
3-9
4-10
7-5
 
 
2.8
3-0
3-5
3-10
4-11
7-9
 
 
2.9
3-1
3-6
3-11
5-1
8-2
 
 
3.0
3-2
3-7
4-0
5-3
8-6
 
 
Note 1:
The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table 1 applies otherwise.
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 3
AC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
With Transient Overvoltage Factor
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
Distance to employee in feet-inches, phase to ground
Air and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
 
121
145
169
242
362
550
800
1.5
 
 
 
 
 
7-4
12-1
1.6
 
 
 
 
 
8-9
14-6
1.7
 
 
 
 
 
10-2
17-2
1.8
 
 
 
 
 
11-7
19-11
1.9
 
 
 
 
 
13-2
22-11
2.0
3-7
4-1
4-8
6-1
8-7
14-10
26-0
2.1
3-7
4-2
4-9
6-3
8-10
15-7
 
2.2
3-8
4-3
4-10
6-4
9-2
16-4
 
2.3
3-9
4-4
4-11
6-6
9-6
17-2
 
2.4
3-10
4-5
5-0
6-7
9-11
18-1
 
2.5
3-11
4-6
5-2
6-9
10-4
 
 
2.6
4-0
4-7
5-3
6-11
10-9
 
 
2.7
4-1
4-8
5-4
7-0
11-2
 
 
2.8
4-1
4-9
5-5
7-2
11-7
 
 
2.9
4-2
4-10
5-6
7-4
12-1
 
 
3.0
4-3
4-11
5-8
7-6
12-6
 
 
Note 1:
The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. Table 1 applies otherwise.
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 4
DC Live Work Minimum Approach Distance
With Transient Overvoltage Factor
Maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage
Distance to employee in feet-inches, conductor to ground
Air and clear live-line tool
Maximum phase-to-phase voltage in kilovolts
 
250
400
500
600
750
1.5 or lower
3-8
5-3
6-9
8-7
11-10
1.6
3-10
5-7
7-4
9-5
13-1
1.7
4-1
6-0
7-11
10-3
14-4
1.8
4-3
6-5
8-7
11-2
15-9
Note 1:
The distances specified in this table may be applied only where the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage has been determined by engineering analysis and has been supplied by the employer. However, if the transient overvoltage factor is not known, a factor of 1.8 shall be assumed.
Note 2:
The distances specified in this table are the air, and live-line tool distances.
TABLE 5
Altitude Correction Factor
Altitude
Correction factor
(m)
(ft)
900
3000
1.00
1200
4000
1.02
1500
5000
1.05
1800
6000
1.08
2100
7000
1.11
2400
8000
1.14
2700
9000
1.17
3000
10,000
1.20
3600
12,000
1.25
4200
14,000
1.30
4800
16,000
1.35
5400
18,000
1.39
6000
20,000
1.44
Note:
If the work is performed at elevations greater than 3000 ft (900 m) above mean sea level, the minimum approach distance shall be determined by multiplying the distances in Table 1 through Table 4 by the correction factor corresponding to the altitude at which work is performed.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040. WSR 99-09-080, § 296-45-901, filed 4/20/99, effective 8/1/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-901, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-903
Appendix B—Protection from step and touch potentials—Nonmandatory.

I. "Introduction"
When a ground fault occurs on a power line, voltage is impressed on the "grounded" object faulting the line. The voltage to which this object rises depends largely on the voltage on the line, on the impedance of the faulted conductor, and on the impedance to "true," or "absolute," ground represented by the object. If the object causing the fault represents a relatively large impedance, the voltage impressed on it is essentially the phase-to-ground system voltage. However, even faults to well grounded transmission towers or substation structures can result in hazardous voltages.(1) The degree of the hazard depends upon the magnitude of the fault current and the time of exposure.
Footnote(1)
This appendix provides information primarily with respect to employee protection from contact between equipment being used and an energized power line. The information presented is also relevant to ground faults to transmission towers and substation structures; however, grounding systems for these structures should be designed to minimize the step and touch potentials involved.
II. "Voltage-gradient distribution"
A. Voltage-gradient distribution curve
The dissipation of voltage from a grounding electrode (or from the grounded end of an energized grounded object) is called the ground potential gradient. Voltage drops associated with this dissipation of voltage are called ground potentials. Figure A is a typical voltage-gradient distribution curve (assuming a uniform soil texture). This graph shows that voltage decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the grounding electrode.
 
Figure A - Typical Voltage-Gradient Distribution Curve
 
Figure B - Step and Touch Potentials
 
Figure C - Protection from Ground-Potential Gradients
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-903, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]



296-45-905
Appendix C—Methods of inspecting and testing wood poles—Nonmandatory.

I. "Introduction"
When work is to be performed on a wood pole, it is important to determine the condition of the pole before it is climbed. The weight of the employee, the weight of equipment being installed, and other working stresses (such as the removal or retensioning of conductors) can lead to the failure of a defective pole or one that is not designed to handle the additional stresses.(1) For these reasons, it is essential that an inspection and test of the condition of a wood pole be performed before it is climbed.
Footnote(1)
A properly guyed pole in good condition should, at a minimum, be able to handle the weight of an employee climbing it. If the pole is found to be unsafe to climb or to work from, it must be secured so that it does not fail while an employee is on it.
 
The pole can be secured by a line truck boom, by ropes or guys, or by lashing a new pole alongside it. If a new one is lashed alongside the defective pole, work should be performed from the new one.
II. "Inspection of wood poles"
Wood poles should be inspected by a qualified employee for the following conditions:(2)
Footnote(2)
The presence of any of these conditions is an indication that the pole may not be safe to climb or to work from. The employee performing the inspection must be qualified to make a determination as to whether or not it is safe to perform the work without taking additional precautions.
A. General condition
The pole should be inspected for buckling at the ground line and for an unusual angle with respect to the ground. Buckling and odd angles may indicate that the pole has rotted or is broken.
B. Cracks
The pole should be inspected for cracks. Horizontal cracks perpendicular to the grain of the wood may weaken the pole. Vertical ones, although not considered to be a sign of a defective pole, can pose a hazard to the climber, and the employee should keep his or her gaffs away from them while climbing.
C. Holes
Hollow spots and woodpecker holes can reduce the strength of a wood pole.
D. Shell rot and decay
Rotting and decay are cutout hazards and are possible indications of the age and internal condition of the pole.
E. Knots
One large knot or several smaller ones at the same height on the pole may be evidence of a weak point on the pole.
F. Depth of setting
Evidence of the existence of a former ground line substantially above the existing ground level may be an indication that the pole is no longer buried to a sufficient extent.
G. Soil conditions
Soft, wet, or loose soil may not support any changes of stress on the pole.
H. Burn marks
Burning from transformer failures or conductor faults could damage the pole so that it cannot withstand mechanical stress changes.
III. "Testing of wood poles"
The following tests are recognized as acceptable methods of testing wood poles:
A. Hammer test
Rap the pole sharply with a hammer weighing about 3 pounds, starting near the ground line and continuing upwards circumferentially around the pole to a height of approximately 6 feet. The hammer will produce a clear sound and rebound sharply when striking sound wood. Decay pockets will be indicated by a dull sound or a less pronounced hammer rebound. Also, prod the pole as near the ground line as possible using a pole prod or a screwdriver with a blade at least 5 inches long. If substantial decay is encountered, the pole is considered unsafe.
B. Rocking test
Apply a horizontal force to the pole and attempt to rock it back and forth in a direction perpendicular to the line. Caution must be exercised to avoid causing power lines to swing together. The force may be applied either by pushing with a pike pole or pulling with a rope. If the pole cracks during the test, it shall be considered unsafe.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.010, [49.17].040, [49.17].050 and [49.17].060. WSR 98-07-009, § 296-45-905, filed 3/6/98, effective 5/6/98.]