Definitions applicable to this chapter.
(1) "Belt shifter" means a device for mechanically shifting a belt from one pulley to another.
(2) "Belt shifter lock" means a device for positively locking the belt shifter in position while the machine is stopped and the belt is idling on the loose pulleys.
(3) "Calendar" means a machine consisting of a set of heavy rollers mounted on vertical side frames and arranged to pass cloth between them. Calendars may have two to ten rollers, or bowls, some of which can be heated.
(4) "Embossing calender" means a calender with two or more rolls, one of which is engraved for producing figured effects of various kinds on a fabric.
(5) "Cans (drying)" means hollow cylindrical drums mounted in a frame so they can rotate. They are heated with steam and are used to dry fabrics or yarn as it passes around the perimeter of the can.
(6) "Carbonizing" means the removing of vegetable matter such as burns, straws, etc., from wool by treatment with acid, followed by heat. The undesired matter is reduced to a carbon-like form which may be removed by dusting or shaking.
(7) "Card" machine means a machine consisting of cylinders of various sizes—and in certain cases flats—covered with card clothing and set in relation to each other so that fibers in staple form may be separated into individual relationship. The speed of the cylinders and their direction of rotation varies. The finished product is delivered as a sliver. Cards of different types are: The revolving flat card, the roller-and-clearer card, etc.
(8) "Card clothing" means the material with which many of the surfaces of a card are covered; e.g., the cylinder, doffer, etc. It consists of a thick foundation material, usually made of textile fabrics, through which are pressed many fine, closely spaced, specially bent wires.
(9) "Comber" means a machine for combing fibers of cotton, wool, etc. The essential parts are a device for feeding forward a fringe of fibers at regular intervals and an arrangement of combs or pins which, at the right time, pass through the fringe. All tangled fibers, short fibers, and neps are removed and the long fibers are laid parallel.
(10) "Combing machinery" means a general classification, including combers, sliver lap machines, ribbon lap machines, and gill boxes, but excluding cards.
(11) "Cutter (rotary staple)" means a machine consisting of one or more rotary blades used for the purpose of cutting textile fibers into staple lengths.
(12) "Exposed to contact" means that the location of an object, material, nip point, or point of operation is such that a person is liable to come in contact with it in his normal course of employment.
(13) "Garnett machine" means any of a number of types of machines for opening hard twisted waste of wool, cotton, silk, etc. Essentially, such machines consist of a lickerin; one or more cylinders, each having a complement worker and stripper rolls; and a fancy roll and doffer. The action of such machines is somewhat like that of a wool card, but it is much more severe in that the various rolls are covered with garnett wire instead of card clothing.
(14) "Gill box" means a machine used in the worsted system of manufacturing yarns. Its function is to arrange the fibers in parallel order. Essentially, it consists of a pair of feed rolls and a series of followers where the followers move at a faster surface speed and perform a combing action.
(15) "Interlock" means a device that operates to prevent the operation of machine while the cover or door of the machine is open or unlocked, and which will also hold the cover or door closed and locked while the machine is in motion.
(16) "Jig (dye)" means a machine for dyeing piece goods. The cloth, at full width, passes from a roller through the dye liquor in an open vat and is then wound on another roller. The operation is repeated until the desired shade is obtained.
(17) "Kier" means a large metal vat, usually a pressure type, in which fabrics may be boiled out, bleached, etc.
(18) "Lapper (ribbon)" means a machine used to prepare laps for feeding a cotton comb; its purpose is to provide a uniform lap in which the fibers have been straightened as much as possible.
(19) "Lapper (sliver)" means a machine in which a number of parallel card slivers are drafted slightly, laid side by side in a compact sheet, and wound into a cylindrical package.
(20) "Loom" means a machine for effecting the interlacing of two series of yarns crossing one another at right angles. The warp yarns are wound on a warp beam and pass through heddles and reed. The filling is shot across in a shuttle and settled in place by reed and lay, and the fabric is wound on a cloth beam.
(21) "Starch mangle" means a mangle that is used specifically for starching cotton goods. It commonly consists of two large rolls and a shallow open vat with several immersion rolls. The vat contains the starch solution.
(22) "Water mangle" means a calender having two or more rolls used for squeezing water from fabrics before drying. Water mangles also may be used in other ways during the finishing of various fabrics.
(23) "Mule" means a type of spinning frame having a head stock and a carriage as its two main sections. The head stock is stationary. The carriage is movable and it carries the spindles which draft and spin the roving into the yarn. The carriage extends over the whole width of the machine and moves slowly toward and away from the head stock during the spinning operation.
(24) "Nip" means the point of contact between two in-running rolls.
(25) "Openers and pickers" means a general classification which includes breaker pickers, intermediate pickers, finisher pickers, single process pickers, multiple process pickers, willow machines, card and picker waste cleaners, thread extractors, shredding machines, roving waste openers, shoddy pickers, bale breakers, feeders, vertical openers, lattice cleaners, horizontal cleaners, and any similar machinery equipped with either cylinders, screen section, calender section, rolls, or beaters used for the preparation of stock for further processing.
(26) "Paddler" means equipment consisting of a trough for a solution and two or more squeeze rolls between which cloth passes after being passed through a mordant or dye bath.
(27) "Point of operation" means that part of the machine where the work of cutting, shearing, squeezing, drawing, or manipulating the stock in any other way is done.
(28) "Roller printing machine" means a machine consisting of a large central cylinder, or pressure bowl, around the lower part of the perimeter of which is placed a series of engraved color rollers (each having a color trough), a furnisher roller, doctor blades, etc. The machine is used for printing fabrics.
(29) "Continuous bleaching ranges" means ranges of several types and may be made for cloth in rope or open-width form. The goods, after wetting out, pass through a squeeze roll into a saturator containing a solution of caustic soda and then to an enclosed J-box. A V-shaped arrangement is attached to the front part of the J-box for uniform and rapid saturation of the cloth with steam before it is packed down in the J-box. The cloth, in a single strand rope form, passes over a guide roll down the first arm of the "V" and up the second. Steam is injected into the "V" at the upper end of the second arm so that the cloth is rapidly saturated with steam at this point. The J-box capacity is such that cloth will remain hot for a sufficient time to complete the scouring action. It then passes a series of washers with a squeeze roll in between. The cloth then passes through a second set of saturator, J-box, and washer, where it is treated with the peroxide solution. By slight modification of the form of the unit, the same process can be applied to open-width cloth.
(30) "Mercerizing range" generally means a 3-bowl mangle, a tenter frame, and a number of boxes for washing and scouring. The whole setup is in a straight line and all parts operate continuously. The combination is used to saturate the cloth with sodium hydroxide, stretch it while saturated, and washing out most of the caustic before releasing tension.
(31) "Sanforizing machine" means a machine consisting of a large steam-heated cylinder, an endless, thick, woolen felt blanket which is in close contact with the cylinder for most of its perimeter, and an electrically heated shoe which presses the cloth against the blanket while the latter is in a stretched condition as it curves around feed-in roll.
(32) "Shearing machine" means a machine used in shearing cloth. Cutting action is provided by a number of steel blades spirally mounted on a roller. The roller rotates in close contact with a fixed ledger blade. There may be from one to six such rollers on a machine.
(33) "Singeing machine" means a machine used particularly with cotton, comprised of a heated roller, plate, or an open gas flame. The material is rapidly passed over the roller or the plate or through the open gas flame to remove fuzz or hairiness on yarn or cloth by burning.
(34) "Slasher" means a machine used for applying a size mixture to warp yarns. Essentially, it consists of a stand for holding section beams, a size box, one or more cylindrical dryers or an enclosed hot air dryer, and a beaming end for finding the yarn on the loom beams.
(35) "Industrial organic solvent" means any organic volatile liquid or compound, or any combination of these substances which are used to dissolve or suspend a nonvolatile or slightly volatile substance for industrial utilization. It shall also apply to such substances when used as detergents or cleansing agents. It shall not apply to petroleum products when such products are used as fuel.
(36) "Tenter frame" means a machine for drying cloth under tension. It essentially consists of a pair of endless traveling chains fitted with clips of fine pins and carried on tracks. The cloth is firmly held at the selvages by the two chains which diverge as they move forward so that the cloth is brought to the desired width.
(37) "Warper" means any machine for preparing and arranging the yarns intended for the warp of a fabric, specifically, a beam warper.
[Order 74-19, § 296-301-015, filed 5/6/74.]