(a) Application. This section shall apply to those industrial plants where:
(i) The use of flammable or combustible liquids is incidental to the principal business, or
(ii) Where flammable or combustible liquids are handled or used only in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical reaction. This section shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.
(b) Exceptions. Where portions of such plants involve chemical reactions such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes, those portions of the plant shall be in accordance with WAC 296-24-33017
(2) Incidental storage or use of flammable and combustible liquids.
(a) Application. This shall be applicable to those portions of an industrial plant where the use and handling of flammable or combustible liquids is only incidental to the principal business, such as automobile assembly, construction of electronic equipment, furniture manufacturing, or other similar activities.
(b) Containers. Flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in tanks or closed containers.
(i) Except as provided in (b)(ii) and (iii) of this subsection all storage shall comply with WAC 296-24-33009
(3) or (4).
(A) When the only operation involved is the storage of flammables in containers or tanks that are closed and remain closed throughout the storage, WAC 296-24-33009
(5) and tables H-14 and H-15 will apply.
(B) When the procedure involved is mixing, transferring, or other exposure of liquids to vaporization through operational procedures in which containers or tanks do not remain closed in the storage area, WAC 296-24-33009
(4) and table H-13 shall be used to determine permissible quantities.
(ii) The quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed:
(A) Twenty-five gallons of Class IA liquids in containers.
(B) One hundred twenty gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in containers.
(C) Six hundred sixty gallons of Class IB, IC, II, or III liquids in a single portable tank.
(iii) Where large quantities of flammable or combustible liquids are necessary, storage may be in tanks which shall comply with the applicable requirements of WAC 296-24-33005
(c) Separation and protection. Areas in which flammable or combustible liquids are transferred from one tank or container to another container shall be separated from other operations in the building by adequate distance or by construction having adequate fire resistance. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided.
(d) Handling liquids at point of final use.
(i) Flammable liquids shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.
(ii) Where flammable or combustible liquids are used or handled, except in closed containers, means shall be provided to dispose promptly and safely of leakage or spills.
(iii) Class I liquids may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel.
(iv) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or portable tanks within a building only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container or portable tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.
(3) Unit physical operations.
(a) Application. This subsection (3) shall be applicable in those portions of industrial plants where flammable or combustible liquids are handled or used in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical change. Examples are plants compounding cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, cleaning fluids, insecticides, and similar types of activities.
(b) Location. Industrial plants shall be located so that each building or unit of equipment is accessible from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes. Buildings shall be located with respect to lines of adjoining property which may be built upon as set forth in WAC 296-24-33017
(2)(a) and (b) except that the blank wall referred to in WAC 296-24-33017
(2)(b) shall have a fire resistance rating of at least two hours.
(c) Chemical processes. Areas where unstable liquids are handled or small scale unit chemical processes are carried on shall be separated from the remainder of the plant by a fire wall of two-hour minimum fire resistance rating.
(i) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable or combustible liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire; see WAC 296-24-33005
(ii) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.
(iii) The industrial plant shall be designed and operated to prevent the normal discharge of flammable or combustible liquids into public waterways, public sewers, or adjoining property.
(i) Areas as defined in subsection (1)(a) of this section using Class I liquids shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than one cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provision shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.
(ii) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than five feet from equipment which exposes Class I liquids to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.
(f) Storage and handling. The storage, transfer, and handling of liquid shall comply with WAC 296-24-33017
(4) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading.
Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of twenty-five feet for Class I liquids and fifteen feet for Class II and Class III liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of WAC 296-24-33013
(5) Fire control.
(a) Portable and special equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.
(b) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam-producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation, dispensing and storage.
(c) Special extinguishers. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation dispensing and storage.
(d) Special hazards. Where the need is indicated by special hazards of operation, flammable or combustible liquid processing equipment, major piping, and supporting steel shall be protected by approved water spray systems, deluge systems, approved fire-resistant coatings, insulation, or any combination of these.
(e) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition, and they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.
(6) Sources of ignition.
(a) General. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.
(b) Grounding. Class I liquids shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of these standards shall be deemed to have been complied with.
(a) All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed according to chapter 296-24
WAC Part L.
(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24
WAC Part L. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with the requirements of subsection (3)(e)(ii) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend five feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.
(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of chapter 296-24
WAC Part L. These locations include an area within twenty feet horizontally, three feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to three feet above floor or grade level within twenty-five feet, if indoors, or ten feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Class I liquids. Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If Class II or Class III liquids only are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.
(d) Where the provisions of (a), (b), and (c) of this subsection require the installation of electrical equipment suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 locations, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.
(8) Repairs to equipment. Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge. The individual in responsible charge shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.
(a) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable or combustible liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.
(b) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of flammable or combustible liquid storage, use, or any unit physical operation.
(c) Waste and residue. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or unit operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.
(d) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and unit operating areas shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials.
[Statutory Authority: Chapter 49.17 RCW. 94-15-096 (Order 94-07), § 296-24-33011, filed 7/20/94, effective 9/20/94; 91-24-017 (Order 91-07), § 296-24-33011, filed 11/22/91, effective 12/24/91; 89-11-035 (Order 89-03), § 296-24-33011, filed 5/15/89, effective 6/30/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 49.17.040 and 49.17.050. 85-10-004 (Order 85-09), § 296-24-33011, filed 4/19/85; Order 76-6, § 296-24-33011, filed 3/1/76; Order 73-5, § 296-24-33011, filed 5/9/73 and Order 73-4, § 296-24-33011, filed 5/7/73.]