246-290-250  <<  246-290-300 >>   246-290-310

Monitoring requirements.

(1) General.
(a) The monitoring requirements specified in this section are minimums. The department may require additional monitoring when:
(i) Contamination is present or suspected in the water system;
(ii) A groundwater source is determined to be a potential GWI;
(iii) The degree of source protection is not satisfactory;
(iv) Additional monitoring is needed to verify source vulnerability for a requested monitoring waiver;
(v) Under other circumstances as identified in a department order; or
(vi) Additional monitoring is needed to evaluate continuing effectiveness of a treatment process where problems with the treatment process may exist.
(b) Special purpose samples collected by the purveyor shall not count toward fulfillment of the monitoring requirements of this chapter unless the quality of data and method of sampling and analysis are acceptable to the department.
(c) The purveyor shall ensure samples required by this chapter are collected, transported, and submitted for analysis according to EPA-approved methods. The analyses shall be performed by a laboratory accredited by the state. Qualified water utility, accredited laboratory, health department personnel, and other parties approved by the department may conduct measurements for pH, temperature, residual disinfectant concentration, alkalinity, bromide, chlorite, TOC, SUVA, turbidity, calcium, conductivity, orthophosphate, and silica as required by this chapter, provided, these measurements are made according to EPA approved methods.
(d) Compliance samples required by this chapter shall be taken at locations listed in Table 4 of this section.
(e) Purveyors failing to comply with a monitoring requirement shall notify:
(i) The department under WAC 246-290-480; and
(ii) The owner or operator of any consecutive system served and the appropriate water system users under 40 C.F.R. 141.201 and Part 7, Subpart A of this chapter.
(2) Selling and receiving water.
(a) Source monitoring. Purveyors, with the exception of those that "wheel" water to their consumers (i.e., sell water that has passed through another purchasing purveyor's distribution system), shall conduct source monitoring under this chapter for the sources under their control. The level of monitoring shall satisfy the monitoring requirements associated with the total population served by the source.
(b) Distribution system monitoring. The purveyor of a system that receives and distributes water shall perform distribution-related monitoring requirements. Monitoring shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(i) Collect coliform samples under subsection (3) of this section;
(ii) Collect disinfection byproduct samples as required by subsection (6) of this section;
(iii) Perform the distribution system residual disinfectant concentration monitoring under subsection (6) of this section, and as required under WAC 246-290-451, 246-290-664, or 246-290-694. Systems with fewer than one hundred connections shall measure residual disinfectant concentration at the same time and location that a routine or repeat coliform sample is collected, unless the department determines that more frequent monitoring is necessary to protect public health;
(iv) Perform lead and copper monitoring required under 40 C.F.R. 141.86, 141.87, and 141.88;
(v) Perform the distribution system monitoring under 40 C.F.R. 141.23(b) for asbestos if applicable;
(vi) Other monitoring as required by the department.
(c) Reduced monitoring for regional programs. The receiving purveyor may receive reductions in the coliform, lead and copper, disinfection byproduct (including THMs and HAA5) and distribution system disinfectant residual concentration monitoring requirements, provided the receiving system:
(i) Purchases water from a purveyor that has a department-approved regional monitoring program;
(ii) Has a written agreement with the supplying system or regional water supplier that is acceptable to the department, and which identifies the responsibilities of both the supplying and receiving system(s) with regards to monitoring, reporting and maintenance of the distribution system; and
(iii) Has at least one compliance monitoring location for disinfection byproducts, if applicable.
(d) Periodic review of regional programs. The department may periodically review the sampling records of public water systems participating in a department-approved monitoring program to determine if continued reduced monitoring is appropriate. If the department determines a change in the monitoring requirements of the receiving system is appropriate:
(i) The department shall notify the purveyor of the change in monitoring requirements; and
(ii) The purveyor shall conduct monitoring as directed by the department.
(3) Bacteriological.
(a) The purveyor shall be responsible for collection and submittal of coliform samples from representative points throughout the distribution system. Samples shall be collected after the first service and at regular time intervals each month the system provides water to consumers. Samples shall be collected that represent normal system operating conditions.
(i) Systems providing disinfection treatment shall measure the residual disinfectant concentration within the distribution system at the same time and location of routine and repeat samples.
(ii) Systems providing disinfection treatment shall assure that disinfectant residual concentrations are measured and recorded on all coliform sample report forms submitted for compliance purposes.
(b) Coliform monitoring plan.
(i) Systems shall develop a written coliform monitoring plan that identifies sampling sites and a sample collection schedule that are representative of water throughout the distribution system. The plan is subject to department review and approval. Systems shall collect total coliform samples according to the plan. Monitoring may take place at a customer's premises, dedicated sampling station, or other designated compliance sampling location. Routine and repeat sample sites and any sampling points necessary to meet the requirements of Part 6 of this chapter and WAC 246-290-300 (3)(h) must be identified in the plan.
(ii) Systems shall collect samples at regular time intervals throughout the month, except for systems that use groundwater and serve four thousand nine hundred or fewer people may collect all required samples on a single day if the samples are taken from different sites.
(iii) Systems shall take at least the minimum number of required samples even if the system has had an E. coli MCL violation or has exceeded the coliform treatment technique triggers in WAC 246-290-320(2).
(iv) Systems may conduct more compliance monitoring than is required under subsection (3)(b) of this section to investigate potential problems in the distribution system and use monitoring as a tool to assist in identifying problems. Systems may take more than the minimum number of required routine samples and must include the results in calculating whether or not the coliform treatment technique triggers in WAC 246-290-320(2) have been exceeded only if the samples are taken in accordance with the plan and are representative of water throughout the distribution system.
(v) Systems shall identify repeat monitoring locations in the plan. Unless the provisions of subsection (3)(b)(i) through (iv) of this section are met, the system shall collect at least one repeat sample from the sample tap where the original total coliform-positive sample was taken, and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections upstream and at least one repeat sample at a tap within five service connections downstream of the original sample site. If a total coliform-positive sample is at the end of the distribution system, or one service connection away from the end of the distribution system, the system shall still take all required repeat samples. The department may allow an alternative sampling location in lieu of the requirement to collect at least one repeat sample upstream or downstream of the original sampling site. Systems may propose repeat monitoring locations to the department that the system believes to be representative of a pathway for contamination of the distribution system. A system may elect to specify either alternative fixed locations or criteria for selecting repeat sampling sites on a situational basis in a standard operating procedure (SOP) in its plan. The system shall design its SOP to focus the repeat samples at locations that best verify and determine the extent of potential contamination of the distribution system area based on specific situations. The department may modify the SOP or require alternative monitoring locations as needed.
(vi) The purveyor shall:
(A) Keep the coliform monitoring plan on file with the system and make it available to the department for inspection upon request;
(B) Revise or expand the plan at any time the plan no longer ensures representative monitoring of the system, or as directed by the department; and
(C) Submit the plan to the department for review and approval when requested and as part of the water system plan required under WAC 246-290-100.
(c) Special purpose coliform samples. Special purpose coliform samples, such as those taken to determine whether disinfection practices are sufficient following pipe placement, replacement, or repair, must not be used to determine whether or not the coliform treatment technique trigger has been exceeded. Repeat samples taken in accordance with subsection (3) of this section are not considered special purpose coliform samples, and must be used to determine whether or not the coliform treatment technique trigger has been exceeded.
(d) Invalidation of total coliform samples. A total coliform-positive sample invalidated under subsection (3) of this section does not count toward meeting the minimum monitoring requirements of this section.
(i) The department may invalidate a total coliform-positive sample if one or more of the following conditions are met:
(A) The laboratory establishes that improper sample analysis caused the total coliform-positive result;
(B) The department, on the basis of the results of repeat samples collected as required under subsection (3) of this section, determines that the total coliform-positive samples resulted from a domestic or other nondistribution system plumbing problem. The department may not invalidate a sample on the basis of repeat sample results unless all repeat samples collected at the same tap as the original total coliform-positive sample are also total coliform-positive, and all repeat samples collected at a location other than the original tap are total coliform-negative. For example, the department may not invalidate a total coliform-positive sample on the basis of repeat samples if all the repeat samples are total coliform-negative, or if the system has only one service connection; or
(C) The department has substantial grounds to believe that a total coliform-positive result is due to a circumstance or condition that does not reflect water quality in the distribution system. In this case, the system shall still collect all repeat samples required under subsection (3) of this section, and use the samples to determine whether a coliform treatment technique trigger under WAC 246-290-320(2) has been exceeded.
(ii) Unless total coliforms are detected, a laboratory shall invalidate a total coliform sample if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an analytical method where gas formation is examined such as the multiple-tube fermentation technique, produces a turbid culture in the absence of an acid reaction in the presence-absence coliform test, or exhibits confluent growth or produces colonies TNTC with an analytical method using a membrane filter such as a membrane filter technique. If a laboratory invalidates a sample because of such interference, the system shall collect another sample from the same location as the original sample within twenty-four hours of notification of the interference problem, and have it analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. The system shall continue to resample within twenty-four hours and have the samples analyzed until it obtains a valid result. The department may waive the twenty-four hour time limit on a case-by-case basis.
(e) Monitoring frequency. The number of required routine coliform samples is based on total population served.
(i) Purveyors of community systems shall collect and submit for analysis no less than the number of routine samples listed in Table 2 during each calendar month of operation;
(ii) Unless directed otherwise by the department, purveyors of noncommunity systems shall collect and submit for analysis no less than the number of samples required in Table 2. Each month's population shall be based on the average daily population and shall include all residents and nonresidents served during that month. During months when the average daily population served is less than twenty-five, routine sample collection is not required when:
(A) Using only protected groundwater sources;
(B) The system has a clean compliance history for a minimum of twelve months;
(C) The system has no sanitary defects or significant deficiencies;
(D) The system has detected no total coliform-positive routine or repeat samples in the previous month; and
(E) The system has collected and submitted for analysis one routine sample during one of the previous two months.
(iii) Purveyors of NTNC and TNC systems are not required to collect routine samples in months when the population served is zero.
(iv) Purveyors of systems serving both a resident and a nonresident population shall base their minimum sampling requirement on the total of monthly populations served, both resident and nonresident as determined by the department, but no less than the minimum required in Table 2.
(v) Seasonal systems.
(A) In accordance with WAC 246-290-480 (2)(f)(ii), seasonal systems shall certify that a department-approved start-up procedure, which may include a requirement for start-up sampling, was completed prior to serving water to the public.
(B) Seasonal systems shall monitor every month that it is in operation unless it meets the criteria in subsection (3)(e)(ii) of this section.
(C) The department may exempt a seasonal system from some or all of the requirements in subsection (3)(e)(v)(A) of this section if the entire distribution system remains pressurized during the entire period that the system is not operating, except that systems that monitor less frequently than monthly shall still monitor during the vulnerable period designated by the department.
Table 2
Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency
Population served
Minimum number of samples per month
1 to 1,000*
 
1
 
1,001 to 2,500
 
2
 
2,501 to 3,300
 
3
 
3,301 to 4,100
 
4
 
4,101 to 4,900
 
5
 
4,901 to 5,800
 
6
 
5,801 to 6,700
 
7
 
6,701 to 7,600
 
8
 
7,601 to 8,500
 
9
 
8,501 to 12,900
 
10
 
12,901 to 17,200
 
15
 
17,201 to 21,500
 
20
 
21,501 to 25,000
 
25
 
25,001 to 33,000
 
30
 
33,001 to 41,000
 
40
 
41,001 to 50,000
 
50
 
50,001 to 59,000
 
60
 
59,001 to 70,000
 
70
 
70,001 to 83,000
 
80
 
83,001 to 96,000
 
90
 
96,001 to 130,000
 
100
 
130,001 to 220,000
 
120
 
220,001 to 320,000
 
150
 
320,001 to 450,000
 
180
 
450,001 to 600,000
 
210
 
600,001 to 780,000
 
240
 
780,001 to 970,000
 
270
 
970,001 to 1,230,000
 
300
 
1,230,001 to 1,520,000
 
330
 
1,520,001 to 1,850,000
 
360
 
1,850,001 to 2,270,000
 
390
 
2,270,001 to 3,020,000
 
420
 
3,020,001 to 3,960,000
 
450
 
3,960,001 or more
 
480
 
*Noncommunity systems using only protected groundwater sources and serving less than twenty-five individuals, may collect and submit for analysis, one sample every three months per WAC 246-290-300 (3)(e)(ii).
(f) Repeat monitoring.
(i) If a routine sample taken under subsection (3) of this section is total coliform-positive, the system shall collect a set of repeat samples within twenty-four hours of being notified of the positive result. Additional treatment, such as batch or shock chlorination must not be started prior to the collection of repeat samples unless the department gives prior authorization. The purveyor shall contact the department to determine the best interim approach in this situation. The system shall collect no fewer than three repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found. The department may extend the twenty-four hour limit on a case-by-case basis if the system has a logistical problem in collecting the repeat samples within twenty-four hours that is beyond its control. Following the collection of repeat samples, and before the analytical results are known, the system may provide interim precautionary treatment or other means to protect public health.
(ii) The system shall collect all repeat samples on the same day, except the department may allow a system with a single connection to collect the required set of repeat samples over a three-day period or to collect a larger volume of repeat samples in one or more sample containers of any size, as long as the total volume collected is at least 300 ml.
(iii) The system shall collect an additional set of repeat samples in the manner specified in subsection (3)(f)(i) through (iii) of this section if one or more repeat samples in the current set of repeat samples is total coliform-positive. The system shall collect the additional set of repeat samples within twenty-four hours of being notified of the positive result, unless the department extends the time limit as provided in subsection (3)(f)(i) of this section. The system shall continue to collect additional sets of repeat samples until either total coliforms are not detected in one complete set of repeat samples or the system determines that a coliform treatment technique trigger specified in WAC 246-290-320 (2)(a) has been exceeded as a result of a repeat sample being total coliform-positive and notifies the department. If a treatment technique trigger identified in WAC 246-290-320 (2)(a) is exceeded as a result of a routine sample being total coliform-positive, the system is required to conduct only one round of repeat monitoring for each total coliform-positive routine sample.
(iv) After a system collects a routine sample and before it gets the results of the analysis of that sample, if it collects subsequent routine samples from within five adjacent service connections of the initial sample, and the initial sample, after analysis, is found to contain total coliforms, then the system may count the subsequent samples as a repeat sample instead of as a routine sample.
(v) Results of all routine and repeat samples taken under subsection (3)(e) and (f) of this section not invalidated by the department under subsection (3)(d) of this section must be used to determine whether a coliform treatment technique trigger specified in WAC 246-290-320 (2)(a) has been exceeded.
(g) E. coli testing.
(i) If any routine or repeat sample is total coliform-positive, the system shall analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if E. coli are present. If E. coli are present, the system shall notify the department by the end of the day when the system is notified of the test result.
(ii) The department may allow a system, on a case-by-case basis, to forgo E. coli testing on a total coliform-positive sample if the system assumes that the total coliform-positive sample is E. coli-positive. Accordingly, the system shall notify the department as specified in WAC 246-290-320 (1)(a).
(h) Triggered source water monitoring.
(i) All groundwater systems with their own groundwater sources must conduct triggered source water monitoring unless the following conditions exist:
(A) The system has submitted a project report and received department approval that it provides at least 4-log treatment of viruses using inactivation, removal, or a department-approved combination of 4-log virus inactivation and removal before or at the first customer for each groundwater source; and
(B) The system is conducting compliance monitoring under WAC 246-290-453(2).
(ii) Any groundwater source sample required under this subsection (3) must be collected at the source prior to any treatment unless otherwise approved by the department.
(iii) Any groundwater source sample collected under this subsection (3) must be at least 100 mL in size and must be analyzed for E. coli using one of the analytical methods under 40 C.F.R. 141.402(c).
(iv) Groundwater systems shall collect at least one sample from each groundwater source in use at the time a routine sample collected under subsection (3) of this section is total coliform-positive and not invalidated under subsection (3)(d) of this section. These source samples must be collected within twenty-four hours of notification of the total coliform-positive sample. The following exceptions apply:
(A) The twenty-four hour time limit may be extended if granted by the department and will be determined on a case-by-case basis. If an extension is granted, the system shall sample by the deadline set by the department.
(B) Systems with more than one groundwater source may meet the requirements of subsection (3)(h)(iv) of this section by sampling a representative groundwater source or sources. The system shall have a department-approved triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies one or more groundwater sources that are representative of each monitoring site in the system's coliform monitoring plan under subsection (3)(b) of this section. The plan must be approved by the department before representative sampling will be allowed.
(v) Groundwater systems with an E. coli positive source water sample that is not invalidated under subsection (3)(h)(vii) of this section, shall:
(A) Notify the department by the end of the day when the system is notified of the test result.
(B) Provide Tier 1 public notice as required under Part 7, Subpart A of this chapter and special notification under WAC 246-290-71005 (4) and (5);
(C) If directed by the department, take corrective action as required under WAC 246-290-453(1); and
(D) Systems that are not directed by the department to take corrective action shall collect five additional samples from the same source within twenty-four hours of being notified of the E. coli positive source water sample. If any of the five additional samples are E. coli positive, the system shall take corrective action under WAC 246-290-453(1).
(vi) Any consecutive groundwater system that has a total coliform-positive routine sample collected under this subsection and not invalidated under subsection (3)(d) of this section shall notify each wholesale system it receives water from within twenty-four hours of being notified of the total coliform-positive sample and comply with subsection (3)(h) of this section.
(A) A wholesale groundwater system that receives notice from a consecutive system under subsection (3)(h)(vi) of this section shall conduct triggered source water monitoring under subsection (3)(h) of this section unless the department determines and documents in writing that the total coliform-positive sample collected was caused by a distribution system deficiency in the consecutive system.
(B) If the wholesale groundwater system source sample is E. coli positive, the wholesale system shall notify all consecutive systems served by that groundwater source within twenty-four hours of being notified of the results and shall meet the requirements of subsection (3)(h)(v) of this section.
(C) Any consecutive groundwater system receiving water from a source with an E. coli positive sample shall notify water system users as required under subsection (3)(h)(v)(B) of this section.
(vii) An E. coli positive groundwater source sample may be invalidated only if one of the following conditions apply:
(A) The system provides the department with written notice from the laboratory that improper sample analysis occurred; or
(B) The department determines and documents in writing that there is substantial evidence that the E. coli positive groundwater sample is not related to source water quality.
(viii) If the department invalidates an E. coli positive groundwater source sample, the system shall collect another source water sample within twenty-four hours of being notified by the department of its invalidation decision and have the sample analyzed using the same analytical method. The department may extend the twenty-four hour time limit as allowed under subsection (3)(h)(iv)(A) of this section.
(ix) Groundwater systems that fail to meet any of the monitoring requirements of subsection (3)(h) of this section shall conduct Tier 2 public notification under Part 7, Subpart A of this chapter.
(i) Assessment source water monitoring. If directed by the department, a groundwater system shall conduct assessment source water monitoring which may include, but is not limited to, the collection of at least one representative groundwater source sample each month the source provides groundwater to the public, for a minimum of twelve months.
(i) Sampling must be conducted as follows:
(A) Source samples must be collected at a location prior to any treatment. If the water system's configuration does not allow sampling at the source itself, the department may approve an alternative source sampling location representative of the source water quality.
(B) Source samples must be at least 100 mL in size and must be analyzed for E. coli using one of the analytical methods under 40 C.F.R. 141.402(c).
(ii) A groundwater system may use a triggered source water sample collected under subsection (3)(h) of this section to meet the requirements for assessment source water monitoring.
(iii) A groundwater system with an E. coli positive assessment source water sample that is not invalidated under subsection (3)(h)(vii) of this section, and consecutive systems receiving water from this source shall:
(A) Provide Tier 1 public notice under Part 7, Subpart A of this chapter and special notification under WAC 246-290-71005 (4) and (5); and
(B) Take corrective action as required under WAC 246-290-453(1).
(iv) A groundwater system that fails to conduct assessment source water monitoring as directed by the department shall provide Tier 2 public notice under Part 7, Subpart A of this chapter.
(4) Inorganic chemical and physical.
(a) A complete inorganic chemical and physical analysis shall consist of the primary and secondary chemical and physical substances.
(i) Primary chemical and physical substances are antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, nitrate (as N), nitrite (as N), selenium, sodium, thallium, and for unfiltered surface water, turbidity. (Except that the MCL for arsenic under WAC 246-290-310 does not apply to TNC systems.)
(ii) Secondary chemical and physical substances are chloride, color, hardness, iron, manganese, specific conductivity, silver, sulfate, total dissolved solids*, and zinc.
*
Required only when specific conductivity exceeds seven hundred micromhos/centimeter.
(b) Purveyors shall monitor for all primary and secondary chemical and physical substances identified in Table 5 and Table 6. Samples shall be collected in accordance with the monitoring requirements referenced in 40 C.F.R. 141.23 introductory text, 141.23(a) through 141.23(j), and 40 C.F.R. 143.4, except for composite samples for systems serving less than three thousand three hundred one persons. For these systems, compositing among different systems may be allowed if the systems are owned or operated by a department-approved satellite management agency.
(c) Samples required by this subsection shall be taken at designated locations under 40 C.F.R. 141.23(a) through 141.23(j), and 40 C.F.R. 143.4, and Table 4 herein.
(i) Wellfield samples shall be allowed from department designated wellfields; and
(ii) Under 40 C.F.R. 141.23 (a)(3), alternate sampling locations may be used if approved by the department. The process for determining these alternate sites is described in department guidance. Purveyors of community and NTNC systems may ask the department to approve an alternate sampling location for multiple sources within a single system that are blended prior to entry to the distribution system. Alternate sampling plans shall address the following:
(A) Source vulnerability;
(B) Individual source characteristics;
(C) Previous water quality information;
(D) Status of monitoring waiver applications; and
(E) Other information deemed necessary by the department.
(d) Composite samples:
(i) Under 40 C.F.R. 141.23 (a)(4), purveyors may ask the certified lab to composite samples representing as many as five individual samples from within one system. Sampling procedures and protocols are outlined in department guidance; and
(ii) For systems serving a population of less than three thousand three hundred one, the department may approve composite sampling between systems when those systems are part of an approved satellite management agency.
(e) When the purveyor provides treatment for one or more inorganic chemical or physical contaminants, the department may require the purveyor to sample before and after treatment. The department shall notify the purveyor if and when this additional source sampling is required.
(f) Inorganic monitoring plans.
(i) Purveyors of community and NTNC systems shall prepare an inorganic chemical monitoring plan and base routine monitoring on the plan.
(ii) The purveyor shall:
(A) Keep the monitoring plan on file with the system and make it available to the department for inspection upon request;
(B) Revise or expand the plan at any time the plan no longer reflects the monitoring requirements, procedures or sampling locations, or as directed by the department; and
(C) Submit the plan to the department for review and approval when requested and as part of the water system plan required under WAC 246-290-100.
(g) Monitoring waivers.
(i) Purveyors may request in writing, a monitoring waiver from the department for any nonnitrate/nitrite inorganic chemical and physical monitoring requirements identified in this chapter.
(ii) Purveyors requesting a monitoring waiver shall comply with applicable subsections of 40 C.F.R. 141.23 (b)(3), and 141.23 (c)(3).
(iii) Purveyors shall update and resubmit requests for waiver renewals as applicable during each compliance cycle or period or more frequently as directed by the department.
(iv) Failure to provide complete and accurate information in the waiver application shall be grounds for denial of the monitoring waiver.
(h) The department may require the purveyor to repeat sample for confirmation of results.
(i) Purveyors with emergency and seasonal sources shall monitor those sources when they are in use.
(5) Lead and copper. Monitoring for lead and copper shall be conducted in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.86 (a) - (f), 141.87, and 141.88. All systems that have fewer than five drinking water taps used for human consumption shall collect at least one sample from each tap and then collect additional samples from those taps on different days during the monitoring period to meet the required number of samples as described in 40 C.F.R. 141.86(c).
(6) Disinfection byproducts (DBP), disinfectant residuals, and disinfection byproduct precursors (DBPP). Purveyors of community and NTNC systems providing water treated with chemical disinfectants and TNC systems using chlorine dioxide shall monitor as follows:
(a) General requirements.
(i) Systems shall collect samples during normal operating conditions.
(ii) All monitoring shall be conducted in accordance with the analytical requirements in 40 C.F.R. 141.131.
(iii) Systems may consider multiple wells drawing from a single aquifer as one treatment plant for determining the minimum number of TTHM and HAA5 samples required, with department approval in accordance with department guidance.
(iv) Systems required to monitor under this subsection shall prepare and implement a monitoring plan in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132(f) or 40 C.F.R. 141.622, as applicable.
(A) Community and NTNC surface water and GWI systems that deliver water that has been treated with a disinfectant other than ultraviolet light and serve more than three thousand three hundred people shall submit a monitoring plan to the department.
(B) The department may require submittal of a monitoring plan from systems not specified in subsection (6)(a)(iv)(A) of this section, and may require revision of any monitoring plan.
(C) Failure to monitor for TTHM, HAA5, or bromate will be treated as a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages.
(D) Failure to monitor for chlorine and chloramine residuals will be treated as a violation for the entire period covered by the annual average where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the systems' failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with the MRDLs.
(b) Disinfection byproducts - Community and NTNC systems only.
(i) TTHMs and HAA5.
(A) Systems shall monitor for TTHM and HAA5 in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(1)(i) until the dates set in Table 3. On and after the dates set in Table 3, the systems shall monitor in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.620, 141.621, and 141.622.
Table 3
Population Served
Routine Monitoring Start Date1
100,000 or more
 
April 1, 2012
 
50,000 - 99,999
 
October 1, 2012
 
10,000 - 49,999
 
October 1, 2013
 
Less than 10,000
 
October 1, 20132
 
 
 
October 1, 20143
 
1
Systems that have nonemergency interties with other systems must comply with the dates associated with the largest system in their combined distribution system.
2
Surface water and GWI systems that did not have to do Cryptosporidium monitoring under 40 C.F.R. 141.701 (a)(4).
3
Surface water and GWI systems that also did Cryptosporidium monitoring under 40 C.F.R. 141.701 (a)(4).
(B) With department approval, systems may reduce monitoring in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(1)(ii) and (iii), or 40 C.F.R. 141.623, as applicable.
(C) Systems on department-approved reduced monitoring schedules may be required to return to routine monitoring, or initiate increased monitoring in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(1)(iv), 40 C.F.R. 141.625, or 40 C.F.R. 141.627, as applicable.
(D) The department may return systems on increased monitoring to routine monitoring if, after one year, annual average results for TTHMs and HAA5 are less than or equal to 0.060 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L, respectively, or monitoring results are consistently below the MCLs indicating that increased monitoring is no longer necessary. After the dates set in Table 3, systems must meet requirements of 40 C.F.R. 141.628 and 40 C.F.R. 141.625(c) to return to routine monitoring.
(E) After the dates set in Table 3, systems must calculate operational evaluation levels each calendar quarter and take action, as needed, in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.626.
(F) NTNC systems serving ten thousand or more people and community systems must comply with the provisions of 40 C.F.R. Subpart U - Initial Distribution System Evaluation under:
40 C.F.R. 141.600
General requirements.
40 C.F.R. 141.601
Standard monitoring.
40 C.F.R. 141.602
System specific studies.
40 C.F.R. 141.603
40/30 certification.
40 C.F.R. 141.604
Very small system waivers.
40 C.F.R. 141.605
Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations.
(ii) Chlorite - Only systems that use chlorine dioxide.
(A) Systems using chlorine dioxide shall conduct daily and monthly monitoring in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(2)(i) and additional chlorite monitoring in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(2)(ii).
(B) With department approval, monthly monitoring may be reduced in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(2)(iii)(B). Daily monitoring at entry to distribution required by 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(2)(i)(A) may not be reduced.
(iii) Bromate - Only systems that use ozone.
(A) Systems using ozone for disinfection or oxidation must conduct bromate monitoring in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(3)(i).
(B) With department approval, monthly bromate monitoring may be reduced to once per quarter in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(3)(ii)(B).
(c) Disinfectant residuals.
(i) Chlorine and chloramines. Systems that deliver water continuously treated with chlorine or chloramines, including consecutive systems, shall monitor and record the residual disinfectant level in the distribution system under WAC 246-290-300 (2)(b), 246-290-451, 246-290-664(6), or 246-290-694(8).
(ii) Chlorine dioxide. Community, NTNC, or TNC systems that use chlorine dioxide shall monitor in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (c)(2) and record results.
(d) Disinfection byproducts precursors.
Community and NTNC surface water or GWI systems that use conventional filtration with sedimentation as defined in WAC 246-290-660(3) shall monitor under 40 C.F.R. 141.132(d), and meet the requirements of 40 C.F.R. 141.135.
(7) Organic chemicals.
(a) Purveyors of community and NTNC water systems shall comply with monitoring requirements under 40 C.F.R. 141.24 (a) - (d), 141.24 (f)(1) - (f)(15), 141.24 (f)(18) - (19), 141.24 (f)(21), 141.24 (g)(1) - (9), 141.24 (g)(12) - (14), 141.24 (h)(1) - (11), and 141.24 (h)(14) - (17).
(b) Sampling locations shall be as defined in 40 C.F.R. 141.24(f), 141.24(g), and 141.24(h).
(i) Wellfield samples shall be allowed from department designated wellfields; and
(ii) Under 40 C.F.R. 141.24 (f)(3) and 141.24 (h)(3), alternate sampling locations may be allowed if approved by the department. These alternate locations are described in department guidance. Purveyors may ask the department to approve an alternate sampling location for multiple sources within a single system that are blended prior to entry to the distribution system. The alternate sampling location shall consider the following:
(A) Source vulnerability;
(B) An updated organic monitoring plan showing location of all sources with current and proposed sampling locations;
(C) Individual source characteristics;
(D) Previous water quality information;
(E) Status of monitoring waiver applications; and
(F) Other information deemed necessary by the department.
(c) Composite samples:
(i) Purveyors may ask the certified lab to composite samples representing as many as five individual samples from within one system. Sampling procedures and protocols are outlined in department guidance;
(ii) For systems serving a population of less than three thousand three hundred one, the department may approve composite sampling between systems when those systems are part of an approved satellite management agency.
(d) The department may require the purveyor to sample both before and after treatment for one or more organic contaminants. The department shall notify the purveyor if and when this additional source sampling is required.
(e) Organic chemical monitoring plans.
(i) Purveyors of community and NTNC systems shall prepare an organic chemical monitoring plan and base routine monitoring on the plan.
(ii) The purveyor shall:
(A) Keep the monitoring plan on file with the system and make it available to the department for inspection upon request;
(B) Revise or expand the plan at any time the plan no longer reflects the monitoring requirements, procedures or sampling locations, or as directed by the department; and
(C) Submit the plan to the department for review and approval when requested and as part of the water system plan required under WAC 246-290-100.
(f) Monitoring waivers.
(i) Purveyors may request in writing, a monitoring waiver from the department for any organic monitoring requirement except those relating to unregulated VOCs;
(ii) Purveyors requesting a monitoring waiver shall comply with 40 C.F.R. 141.24 (f)(7), 141.24 (f)(10), 141.24 (h)(6), and 141.24 (h)(7);
(iii) Purveyors shall update and resubmit requests for waiver renewals as directed by the department; and
(iv) Failure to provide complete and accurate information in the waiver application shall be grounds for denial of the monitoring waiver.
(g) Purveyors with emergency and seasonal sources shall monitor those sources under the applicable requirements of this section when they are actively providing water to consumers.
(8) Radionuclides. Monitoring for radionuclides shall be conducted under 40 C.F.R. 141.26.
(9) Cryptosporidium and E. coli source monitoring. Purveyors with surface water or GWI sources shall monitor the sources in accordance with 40 C.F.R. 141.701 and 702.
(10) Other substances.
On the basis of public health concerns, the department may require the purveyor to monitor for additional substances.
TABLE 4
MONITORING LOCATION
Sample Type
Sample Location
Asbestos
One sample from distribution system or if required by department, from the source.
Bacteriological
From representative points throughout distribution system.
Cryptosporidium and E.
coli (Source Water) - WAC 246-290-630(16)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.703.
Complete Inorganic
Chemical & Physical
From a point representative of the source, after treatment, and prior to entry to the distribution system.
Lead/Copper
From the distribution system at targeted sample tap locations.
Nitrate/Nitrite
From a point representative of the source, after treatment, and prior to entry to the distribution system.
Disinfection Byproducts - TTHMs and HAA5 - WAC 246-290-300(6)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(1) (Subpart L of the C.F.R.).
Disinfection Byproducts - TTHMs and HAA5 - WAC 246-290-300(6)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.600 - 629 (IDSE and LRAA in Subparts U and V of the C.F.R.).
Disinfection Byproducts - Chlorite (Systems adding chlorine dioxide)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(2).
Disinfection Byproducts - Bromate (Systems adding ozone)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (b)(3).
Disinfectant Residuals -Chlorine and Chloramines
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (c)(1).
Disinfectant Residuals -Chlorine dioxide
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132 (c)(2).
Disinfection Precursors - Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
Under 40 C.F.R. 141.132(d).
Disinfection Precursors - Bromide (Systems using ozone)
From the source before treatment.
Radionuclides
From a point representative of the source, after treatment and prior to entry to distribution system.
Organic Chemicals
(VOCs & SOCs)
From a point representative of the source, after treatment and prior to entry to distribution system.
Other Substances (unregulated chemicals)
From a point representative of the source, after treatment, and prior to entry to the distribution system, or as directed by the department.
[Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 and 70.119A.080. WSR 17-01-062, § 246-290-300, filed 12/14/16, effective 1/14/17. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050(2) and 70.119A.080. WSR 11-17-062, § 246-290-300, filed 8/15/11, effective 10/1/11. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 and 70.119A.080. WSR 10-20-068, § 246-290-300, filed 9/29/10, effective 11/1/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 09-21-045, § 246-290-300, filed 10/13/09, effective 1/4/10. Statutory Authority: RCW 70.119A.180 and 43.20.050. WSR 08-03-061, § 246-290-300, filed 1/14/08, effective 2/14/08. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 and 70.119A.080. WSR 04-04-056, § 246-290-300, filed 1/30/04, effective 3/1/04. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050 (2) and (3) and 70.119A.080. WSR 03-08-037, § 246-290-300, filed 3/27/03, effective 4/27/03. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.02.050 [43.20.050]. WSR 99-07-021, § 246-290-300, filed 3/9/99, effective 4/9/99. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 94-14-001, § 246-290-300, filed 6/22/94, effective 7/23/94; WSR 93-08-011 (Order 352B), § 246-290-300, filed 3/25/93, effective 4/25/93; WSR 92-04-070 (Order 241B), § 246-290-300, filed 2/4/92, effective 3/6/92. Statutory Authority: Chapter 43.20 RCW. WSR 91-07-031 (Order 150B), § 246-290-300, filed 3/15/91, effective 4/15/91. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 91-02-051 (Order 124B), recodified as § 246-290-300, filed 12/27/90, effective 1/31/91. Statutory Authority: P.L. 99-339. WSR 89-21-020 (Order 336), § 248-54-165, filed 10/10/89, effective 11/10/89. Statutory Authority: RCW 34.04.045. WSR 88-05-057 (Order 307), § 248-54-165, filed 2/17/88. Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. WSR 83-19-002 (Order 266), § 248-54-165, filed 9/8/83.]
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