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246-221-285  <<  246-221-290 >>   246-221-300

WAC 246-221-290

Agency filings affecting this section

Appendix A—Annual limits on intake (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) of radionuclides for occupational exposure; effluent concentrations; concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage.

For each radionuclide, Table I indicates the chemical form which is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 µm (micron) and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times for D if less than ten days, for W from ten to one hundred days, and for Y greater than one hundred days. Table II provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.
Note:
The values in Tables I, II, and III are presented in the computer "E" notation. In this notation a value of 6E-02 represents a value of 6 x 10-2 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6 x 102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6 x 100 or 6.
Table I "Occupational Values"
Note that the columns in Table I of this appendix captioned "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI," and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.
The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of given radionuclide by "Reference Man" which would result in either: A committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem), stochastic ALI; or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to an organ or tissue, nonstochastic ALI. The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 0.05 Sv (5 rem). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT. This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of wT are listed under the definition of weighting factor in WAC 246-221-005. The nonstochastic ALIs were derived to avoid nonstochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.
A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following portions of the GI tract — stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine — are to be treated as four separate organs.
Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, elbows, arms below the elbows, feet and lower legs, knees, and legs below the knees, skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent, but are subject to limits that must be met separately.
When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given. When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. Abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:
LLI wall
=
lower large intestine wall;
St. wall
=
stomach wall;
Blad wall
=
bladder wall; and
Bone surf
=
bone surface.
The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and nonstochastic ALIs, will ensure that nonstochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the nonstochastic ALI is limiting, use of that nonstochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 0.5 Sv (50 rem) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ, not the effective dose. For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed unity, that is, ∑ (intake (in µCi) of each radionuclide/ALIns) ≤ 1.0. If there is an external deep dose equivalent contribution of Hd, then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd/50), instead of ≤ 1.0.
The derived air concentration (DAC) values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:
DAC = ALI (in µCi)/(2000 hours per working year x 60 minutes/hour x 2 x 104 ml per minute) = [ALI/2.4 x 109] µCi/ml,
where 2 x 104 ml per minute is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by Reference Man under working conditions of light work.
The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: Either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. DACs based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.
The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides should be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.
The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation. See WAC 246-221-015. When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide, such as, Class D, Class W, or Class Y, the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.
It should be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.
Table II "Effluent Concentrations"
The columns in Table II of this appendix captioned "Effluents," "Air" and "Water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of WAC 246-221-070. The concentration values given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.50 mSv (0.05 rem).
Consideration of nonstochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because nonstochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the nonstochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in Table II. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional as was the case in the previous Appendix A of this chapter.
The air concentration values listed in Table II, Column 1 were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 x 109, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC, as explained above, and then divided by a factor of three hundred. The factor of three hundred includes the following components: A factor of fifty to relate the 0.05 Sv (5 rem) annual occupational dose limit to the 1 mSv (0.1 rem) limit for members of the public, a factor of three to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of two to adjust the occupational values, derived for adults, so that they are applicable to other age groups.
For those radionuclides for which submersion, that is external dose, is limiting, the occupational DAC in Table I, Column 3 was divided by two hundred nineteen. The factor of two hundred nineteen is composed of a factor of fifty, as described above, and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for two thousand hours per year to full-time exposure (eight thousand seven hundred sixty hours per year). Note that an additional factor of two for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.
The water concentrations were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 107. The factor of 7.3 x 107 (ml) includes the following components: The factors of fifty and two described above and a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml) which is the annual water intake of Reference Man.
Note 2 of this appendix provides groupings of radionuclides which are applicable to unknown mixtures of radionuclides. These groupings, including occupational inhalation ALIs and DACs, air and water effluent concentrations and releases to sewer, require demonstrating that the most limiting radionuclides in successive classes are absent. The limit for the unknown mixture is defined when the presence of one of the listed radionuclides cannot be definitely excluded as being present either from knowledge of the radionuclide composition of the source or from actual measurements.
Table III "Releases to Sewers"
The monthly average concentrations for release to sanitary sewerage are applicable to the provisions in WAC 246-221-190. The concentration values were derived by taking the most restrictive occupational stochastic oral ingestion ALI and dividing by 7.3 x 106 (ml). The factor of 7.3 x 106 (ml) is composed of a factor of 7.3 x 105 (ml), the annual water intake by Reference Man, and a factor of ten, such that the concentrations, if the sewage released by the licensee were the only source of water ingested by a Reference Man during a year, would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv (0.5 rem).
 
 
LIST OF ELEMENTS
 
 
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Actinium
Ac
89
Molybdenum
Mo
42
Aluminum
Al
13
Neodymium
Nd
60
Americium
Am
95
Neptunium
Np
93
Antimony
Sb
51
Nickel
Ni
28
Argon
Ar
18
Nitrogen
N
7
Arsenic
As
33
Niobium
Nb
41
Astatine
At
85
Osmium
Os
76
Barium
Ba
56
Oxygen
O
8
Berkelium
Bk
97
Palladium
Pd
46
Beryllium
Be
4
Phosphorus
P
15
Bismuth
Bi
83
Platinum
Pt
78
Bromine
Br
35
Plutonium
Pu
94
Cadmium
Cd
48
Polonium
Po
84
Calcium
Ca
20
Potassium
K
19
Californium
Cf
98
Praseodymium
Pr
59
Carbon
C
6
Promethium
Pm
61
Cerium
Ce
58
Protactinium
Pa
91
Cesium
Cs
55
Radium
Ra
88
Chlorine
Cl
17
Radon
Rn
86
Chromium
Cr
24
Rhenium
Re
75
Cobalt
Co
27
Rhodium
Rh
45
Copper
Cu
29
Rubidium
Rb
37
Curium
Cm
96
Ruthenium
Ru
44
Dysprosium
Dy
66
Samarium
Sm
62
Einsteinium
Es
99
Scandium
Sc
21
Erbium
Er
68
Selenium
Se
34
Europium
Eu
63
Silicon
Si
14
Fermium
Fm
100
Silver
Ag
47
Fluorine
F
9
Sodium
Na
11
Francium
Fr
87
Strontium
Sr
38
Gadolinium
Gd
64
Sulfur
S
16
Gallium
Ga
31
Tantalum
Ta
73
Germanium
Ge
32
Technetium
Tc
43
Gold
Au
79
Tellurium
Te
52
Hafnium
Hf
72
Terbium
Tb
65
Holmium
Ho
67
Thallium
Tl
81
Hydrogen
H
1
Thorium
Th
90
Indium
In
49
Thulium
Tm
69
Iodine
I
53
Tin
Sn
50
Iridium
Ir
77
Titanium
Ti
22
Iron
Fe
26
Tungsten
W
74
Krypton
Kr
36
Uranium
U
92
Lanthanum
La
57
Vanadium
V
23
Lead
Pb
82
Xenon
Xe
54
Lutetium
Lu
71
Ytterbium
Yb
70
Magnesium
Mg
12
Yttrium
Y
39
Manganese
Mn
25
Zinc
Zn
30
Mendelevium
Md
101
Zirconium
Zr
40
Mercury
Hg
80
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table 1
Occupational Values
Table II
Effluent
Concentration
Table III
Releases to
Sewers
 
 
 
Col. 1
Col. 2
Col. 3
Col. 1
Col. 2
Monthly
Average
Concen-
tration
 
 
 
Oral
Ingestion
Inhalation
 
 
Atomic No.
Radionuclide
Class
ALI
µCi
ALI
µCi
DAC
µCi/ml
Air
µCi/ml
Water
µCi/ml
 
µCi/ml
1
Hydrogen-3
Water, DAC includes
skin absorption
 
8E+4
 
8E+4
 
2E-5
 
1E-7
 
1E-3
 
1E-2
 
Gas (HT or T2) Submersion1: Use above values as HT and T2 oxidize in air and in the body to HTO.
 
 
4
Beryllium-7
W, all compounds except those given for Y
4E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
Y, oxides, halides, and nitrates
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
4
Beryllium-10
W, see 7Be
1E+3
2E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 7Be
-
1E+1
6E-9
2E-11
-
-
6
Carbon-112
Monoxide
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Dioxide
-
6E+5
3E-4
9E-7
-
-
 
 
Compounds
4E+5
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
6E-3
6E-2
6
Carbon-14
Monoxide
-
2E+6
7E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Dioxide
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Compounds
2E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
3E-5
3E-4
7
Nitrogen-132
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
8
Oxygen-152
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
9
Fluorine-182
D, fluorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
5E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
W, fluorides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re
Y, lanthanum fluoride
-
-
9E+4
8E+4
4E-5
3E-5
1E-7
1E-7
-
-
 
 
-
-
11
Sodium-22
D, all compounds
4E+2
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
6E-6
6E-5
11
Sodium-24
D, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
5E-5
5E-4
12
Magnesium-28
D, all compounds except those given for W
7E+2
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
13
Aluminum-26
D, all compounds except those given for W
4E+2
6E+1
3E-8
9E-11
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
14
Silicon-31
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
9E+3
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and nitrates
Y, aluminosilicate glass
-
-
3E+4
3E+4
1E-5
1E-5
5E-8
4E-8
-
-
-
-
14
Silicon-32
D, see 31Si
2E+3
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (3E+3)
-
-
-
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 31Si
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 31Si
-
5E+0
2E-9
7E-12
-
-
15
Phosphorus-32
D, all compounds except phosphates given for W
6E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, phosphates of Zn2+, S3+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Bi3+, and lanthanides
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
15
Phosphorus-33
D, see 32P
6E+3
8E+3
4E-6
1E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 32P
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
16
Sulfur-35
Vapor
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
D, sulfides and sulfates except those given for W
1E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (8E+3)
-
-
-
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, elemental sulfur, sulfides of Sr, Ba, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, W, and Mo. Sulfates of Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, As, Sb, and Bi
6E+3
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
2E+3
 
 
 
 
 
9E-7
 
 
 
 
 
3E-9
 
 
 
 
 
-
 
 
 
 
 
-
17
Chlorine-36
D, chlorides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
2E+3
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, chlorides of lantha-nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, and Re
-
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
17
Chlorine-382
D, see 36Cl
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 36Cl
-
5E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
17
Chlorine-392
D, see 36Cl
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 36Cl
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
18
Argon-37
Submersion1
-
-
1E+0
6E-3
-
-
18
Argon-39
Submersion1
-
-
2E-4
8E-7
-
-
18
Argon-41
Submersion1
-
-
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
19
Potassium-40
D, all compounds
3E+2
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
4E-6
4E-5
19
Potassium-42
D, all compounds
5E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
6E-5
6E-4
19
Potassium-43
D, all compounds
6E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
9E-5
9E-4
19
Potassium-442
D, all compounds
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
19
Potassium-452
D, all compounds
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
20
Calcium-41
W, all compounds
3E+3
4E+3
2E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (4E+3)
Bone surf (4E+3)
-
5E-9
6E-5
6E-4
20
Calcium-45
W, all compounds
2E+3
8E+2
4E-7
1E-9
2E-5
2E-4
20
Calcium-47
W, all compounds
8E+2
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-43
Y, all compounds
7E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
21
Scandium-44m
Y, all compounds
5E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
21
Scandium-44
Y, all compounds
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
5E-5
5E-4
21
Scandium-46
Y, all compounds
9E+2
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-47
Y, all compounds
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (3E+3)
-
-
-
4E-5
4E-4
21
Scandium-48
Y, all compounds
8E+2
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
21
Scandium-492
Y, all compounds
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
3E-4
3E-3
22
Titanium-44
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
3E+2
1E+1
5E-9
2E-11
4E-6
4E-5
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+1
1E-8
4E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, SrTi0
-
6E+0
2E-9
8E-12
-
-
22
Titanium-45
D, see 44Ti
9E+3
3E+4
1E-5
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 44Ti
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 44Ti
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
23
Vanadium-472
D, all compounds except those given for W
3E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and halides
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
23
Vanadium-48
D, see 47V
6E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 47V
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
23
Vanadium-49
D, see 47V
7E+4
3E+4
1E-5
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (9E+4)
Bone surf (3E+4)
-
5E-8
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 47V
-
2E+4
8E-6
2E-8
-
-
24
Chromium-48
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
6E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, halides and nitrates
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
24
Chromium-492
D, see 48Cr
3E+4
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 48Cr
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 48Cr
-
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
24
Chromium-51
D, see 48Cr
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
6E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 48Cr
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 48Cr
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-512
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
6E+4
3E-5
8E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-52m2
D, see 51Mn
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
25
Manganese-52
D, see 51Mn
7E+2
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
25
Manganese-53
D, see 51Mn
5E+4
1E+4
5E-6
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (2E+4)
-
3E-8
-
-
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
25
Manganese-54
D, see 51Mn
2E+3
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
25
Manganese-56
D, see 51Mn
5E+3
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 51Mn
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
26
Iron-52
D, all compounds except those given for W
9E+2
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, and halides
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
26
Iron-55
D, see 52Fe
9E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
26
Iron-59
D, see 52Fe
8E+2
3E+2
1E-7
5E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
26
Iron-60
D, see 52Fe
3E+1
6E+0
3E-9
9E-12
4E-7
4E-6
 
 
W, see 52Fe
-
2E+1
8E-9
3E-11
-
-
27
Cobalt-55
W, all compounds except those given for Y
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
27
Cobalt-56
W, see 55Co
5E+2
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
Y, see 55Co
4E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
-
-
27
Cobalt-57
W, see 55Co
8E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, see 55Co
4E+3
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
27
Cobalt-58m
W, see 55Co
6E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
8E-4
8E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
27
Cobalt-58
W, see 55Co
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 55Co
1E+3
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
27
Cobalt-60m2
W, see 55Co
1E+6
4E+6
2E-3
6E-6
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(1E+6)
-
-
-
2E-2
2E-1
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
3E+6
1E-3
4E-6
-
-
27
Cobalt-60
W, see 55Co
5E+2
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
Y, see 55Co
2E+2
3E+1
1E-8
5E-11
-
-
27
Cobalt-612
W, see 55Co
2E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
27
Cobalt-62m2
W, see 55Co
4E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 55Co
-
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
28
Nickel-56
D, all compounds except those given for W
1E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, and carbides
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-57
D, see 56Ni
2E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-59
D, see 56Ni
2E+4
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-63
D, see 56Ni
9E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
28
Nickel-65
D, see 56Ni
8E+3
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
28
Nickel-66
D, see 56Ni
4E+2
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+2)
-
-
-
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 56Ni
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
 
 
Vapor
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
29
Copper-602
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, sulfides, halides, and nitrates
 
-
 
1E+5
 
5E-5
 
2E-7
 
-
 
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
29
Copper-61
D, see 60Cu
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
29
Copper-64
D, see 60Cu
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
29
Copper-67
D, see 60Cu
5E+3
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 60Cu
-
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 60Cu
-
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
30
Zinc-62
Y, all compounds
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
30
Zinc-632
Y, all compounds
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
30
Zinc-65
Y, all compounds
4E+2
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
5E-6
5E-5
30
Zinc-69m
Y, all compounds
4E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
6E-5
6E-4
30
Zinc-692
Y, all compounds
6E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
8E-4
8E-3
30
Zinc-71m
Y, all compounds
6E+3
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
30
Zinc-72
Y, all compounds
1E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
31
Gallium-652
D, all compounds excep [except] those given for W
5E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides, and nitrates
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
31
Gallium-66
D, see 65Ga
1E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
31
Gallium-67
D, see 65Ga
7E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
1E+4
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
31
Gallium-682
D, see 65Ga
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
31
Gallium-702
D, see 65Ga
5E+4
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
31
Gallium-72
D, see 65Ga
1E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
31
Gallium-73
D, see 65Ga
5E+3
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 65Ga
-
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-66
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, oxides, sulfides, and halides
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-672
D, see 66Ge
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
32
Germanium-68
D, see 66Ge
5E+3
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
1E+2
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
32
Germanium-69
D, see 66Ge
1E+4
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-71
D, see 66Ge
5E+5
4E+5
2E-4
6E-7
7E-3
7E-2
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
32
Germanium-752
D, see 66Ge
4E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
32
Germanium-77
D, see 66Ge
9E+3
1E+4
4E-6
1E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
32
Germanium-782
D, see 66Ge
2E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(2E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 66Ge
-
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
-
-
33
Arsenic-692
W, all compounds
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
6E-4
6E-3
33
Arsenic-702
W, all compounds
1E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
2E-4
2E-3
33
Arsenic-71
W, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
5E-5
5E-4
33
Arsenic-72
W, all compounds
9E+2
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
33
Arsenic-73
W, all compounds
8E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-4
1E-3
33
Arsenic-74
W, all compounds
1E+3
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
2E-5
2E-4
33
Arsenic-76
W, all compounds
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
33
Arsenic-77
W, all compounds
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+3)
-
-
-
6E-5
6E-4
33
Arsenic-782
W, all compounds
8E+3
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
34
Selenium-702
D, all compounds except those given for W
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, carbides, and elemental Se
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
34
Selenium-73m2
D, see 70Se
6E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
3E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-73
D, see 70Se
3E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
-
-
34
Selenium-75
D, see 70Se
5E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
6E+2
3E-7
8E-10
-
-
34
Selenium-79
D, see 70Se
6E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
6E+2
2E-7
8E-10
-
-
34
Selenium-81m2
D, see 70Se
4E+4
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-812
D, see 70Se
6E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(8E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 70Se
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
34
Selenium-832
D, see 70Se
4E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 70Se
3E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-74m2
D, bromides of H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(2E+4)
-
-
-
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, bromides of lantha-nides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mn, Tc, and Re
-
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-742
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-45E-3
-
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
8E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-752
D, see 74mBr
3E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(4E+4)
-
-
-
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-76
D, see 74mBr
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
35
Bromine-77
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-80m
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-802
D, see 74mBr
5E+4
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(9E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
35
Bromine-82
D, see 74mBr
3E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
-
-
35
Bromine-83
D, see 74mBr
5E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
35
Bromine-842
D, see 74mBr
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 74mBr
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-742
Submersion1
-
-
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-76
Submersion1
-
-
9E-6
4E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-772
Submersion1
-
-
4E-6
2E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-79
Submersion1
-
-
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-81
Submersion1
-
-
7E-4
3E-6
-
-
36
Krypton-83m2
Submersion1
-
-
1E-2
5E-5
-
-
36
Krypton-85m
Submersion1
-
-
2E-5
1E-7
-
-
36
Krypton-85
Submersion1
-
-
1E-4
7E-7
-
-
36
Krypton-872
Submersion1
-
-
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
36
Krypton-88
Submersion1
-
-
2E-6
9E-9
-
-
37
Rubidium-792
D, all compounds
4E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
8E-4
8E-3
37
Rubidium-81m2
D, all compounds
2E+5
3E+5
1E-4
5E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+5)
-
-
-
4E-3
4E-2
37
Rubidium-81
D, all compounds
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
5E-4
5E-3
37
Rubidium-82m
D, all compounds
1E+4
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
2E-4
2E-3
37
Rubidium-83
D, all compounds
6E+2
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
9E-6
9E-5
37
Rubidium-84
D, all compounds
5E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
37
Rubidium-86
D, all compounds
5E+2
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
7E-6
7E-5
37
Rubidium-87
D, all compounds
1E+3
2E+3
6E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
37
Rubidium-882
D, all compounds
2E+4
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
37
Rubidium-892
D, all compounds
4E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
38
Strontium-802
D, all soluble compound except SrTiO
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, all insoluble compounds and SrTi0
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
38
Strontium-812
D, see 80Sr
3E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
38
Strontium-82
D, see 80Sr
3E+2
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+2)
-
-
-
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
38
Strontium-83
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
2E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-85m2
D, see 80Sr
2E+5
6E+5
3E-4
9E-7
3E-3
3E-2
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
8E+5
4E-4
1E-6
-
-
38
Strontium-85
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
2E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-87m
D, see 80Sr
5E+4
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
6E-4
6E-3
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
4E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
38
Strontium-89
D, see 80Sr
6E+2
8E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+2)
-
-
-
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
5E+2
1E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
38
Strontium-90
D, see 80Sr
3E+1
2E+1
8E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (4E+1)
Bone surf (2E+1)
-
3E-11
5E-7
5E-6
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
4E+0
2E-9
6E-12
-
-
38
Strontium-91
D, see 80Sr
2E+3
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
38
Strontium-92
D, see 80Sr
3E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 80Sr
-
7E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-86m2
W, all compounds except those given for Y
2E+4
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-86
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-87
W, see 86mY
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-88
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+2
1E-7
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+2
1E-7
3E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-90m
W, see 86mY
8E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-90
W, see 86mY
4E+2
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (5E+2)
-
-
-
7E-6
7E-5
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-91m2
W, see 86mY
1E+5
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+5
7E-5
2E-7
-
-
39
Yttrium-91
W, see 86mY
5E+2
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (6E+2)
-
-
-
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
39
Yttrium-92
W, see 86mY
3E+3
9E+3
4E-6
1E-8
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
39
Yttrium-93
W, see 86mY
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
39
Yttrium-942
W, see 86mY
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
39
Yttrium-952
W, see 86mY
4E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 86mY
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
40
Zirconium-86
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
1E+3
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, carbide
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
40
Zirconium-88
D, see 86Zr
4E+3
2E+2
9E-8
3E-10
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
40
Zirconium-89
D, see 86Zr
2E+3
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
40
Zirconium-93
D, see 86Zr
1E+3
6E+0
3E-9
-
-
-
 
 
 
Bone surf (3E+3)
Bone surf (2E+1)
-
2E-11
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
2E+1
1E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (6E+1)
-
9E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
6E+1
2E-8
-
-
-
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (7E+1)
-
9E-11
-
-
40
Zirconium-95
D, see 86Zr
1E+3
1E+2
5E-8
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
 
-
Bone surf (3E+2)
-
4E-10
-
-
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
40
Zirconium-97
D, see 86Zr
6E+2
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 86Zr
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 86Zr
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-882
W, all compounds except those given for Y
5E+4
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(7E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
41
Niobium-892
(66 min)
W, see 88Nb
1E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
41
Niobium-89
(122 min)
W, see 88Nb
5E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
41
Niobium-90
W, see 88Nb
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-93m
W, see 88Nb
9E+3
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+4)
-
-
-
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
41
Niobium-94
W, see 88Nb
9E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+1
6E-9
2E-11
-
-
41
Niobium-95m
W, see 88Nb
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+3)
-
-
-
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-95
W, see 88Nb
2E+3
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-96
W, see 88Nb
1E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
2E+3
1E-6
3E-9
-
-
41
Niobium-972
W, see 88Nb
2E+4
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
41
Niobium-982
W, see 88Nb
1E+4
5E+4
2E-5
8E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
Y, see 88Nb
-
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
-
-
42
Molybdenum-90
D, all compounds except those given for Y
4E+3
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
Y, oxides, hydroxides, and MoS
 
2E+3
 
5E+3
 
2E-6
 
6E-9
 
-
 
-
42
Molybdenum-93m
D, see 90Mo
9E+3
2E+4
7E-6
2E-8
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
4E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
42
Molybdenum-93
D, see 90Mo
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
2E+4
2E+2
8E-8
2E-10
-
-
42
Molybdenum-99
D, see 90Mo
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
42
Molybdenum-1012
D, see 90Mo
4E+4
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(5E+4)
-
-
-
7E-4
7E-3
 
 
Y, see 90Mo
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-93m2
D, all compounds except those given for W
7E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, oxides, hydroxides, halides, and nitrates
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-93
D, see 93mTc
3E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-94m2
D, see 93mTc
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-94
D, see 93mTc
9E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+4
1E-5
3E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-95m
D, see 93mTc
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-95
D, see 93mTc
1E+4
2E+4
9E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
-
-
43
Technetium-96m2
D, see 93mTc
2E+5
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-96
D, see 93mTc
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
5E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-97m
D, see 93mTc
5E+3
7E+3
3E-6
-
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
 
-
St wall
(7E+3)
-
1E-8
-
-
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-97
D, see 93mTc
4E+4
5E+4
2E-5
7E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
43
Technetium-98
D, see 93mTc
1E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
43
Technetium-99m
D, see 93mTc
8E+4
2E+5
6E-5
2E-7
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-99
D, see 93mTc
4E+3
5E+3
2E-6
-
6E-5
6E-4
 
 
 
-
St wall
(6E+3)
-
8E-9
-
-
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
7E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
43
Technetium-1012
D, see 93mTc
9E+4
3E+5
1E-4
5E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(1E+5)
-
-
-
2E-3
2E-2
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
4E+5
2E-4
5E-7
-
-
43
Technetium-1042
D, see 93mTc
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(3E+4)
-
-
-
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 93mTc
-
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
-
-
44
Ruthenium-942
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
2E+4
4E+4
2E-5
6E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, halides
-
6E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
6E+4
2E-5
8E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-97
D, see 94Ru
8E+3
2E+4
8E-6
3E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-103
D, see 94Ru
2E+3
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
6E+2
3E-7
9E-10
-
-
44
Ruthenium-105
D, see 94Ru
5E+3
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
7E-5
7E-4
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
6E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
44
Ruthenium-106
D, see 94Ru
2E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (2E+2)
-
-
-
3E-6
3E-5
 
 
W, see 94Ru
-
5E+1
2E-8
8E-11
-
-
 
 
Y, see 94Ru
-
1E+1
5E-9
2E-11
-
-
45
Rhodium-99m
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
 
2E+4
 
6E+4
 
2E-5
 
8E-8
 
2E-4
 
2E-3
 
 
W, halides
-
8E+4
3E-5
1E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
7E+4
3E-5
9E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-99
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
3E+3
1E-6
4E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
2E+3
9E-7
3E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
2E+3
8E-7
3E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-100
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
5E+3
2E-6
7E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
4E+3
2E-6
5E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-101m
D, see 99mRh
6E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
8E-5
8E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
8E+3
4E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
8E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-101
D, see 99mRh
2E+3
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
8E+2
3E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
2E+2
6E-8
2E-10
-
-
45
Rhodium-102m
D, see 99mRh
1E+3
5E+2
2E-7
7E-10
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (1E+3)
-
-
-
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+2
2E-7
5E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
-
-
45
Rhodium-102
D, see 99mRh
6E+2
9E+1
4E-8
1E-10
8E-6
8E-5
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
2E+2
7E-8
2E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
6E+1
2E-8
8E-11
-
-
45
Rhodium-103m2
D, see 99mRh
4E+5
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
6E-3
6E-2
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
1E+6
5E-4
2E-6
-
-
45
Rhodium-105
D, see 99mRh
4E+3
1E+4
5E-6
2E-8
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+3)
-
-
-
5E-5
5E-4
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
6E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
45
Rhodium-106m
D, see 99mRh
8E+3
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
4E+4
2E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
4E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
45
Rhodium-1072
D, see 99mRh
7E+4
2E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(9E+4)
-
-
-
1E-3
1E-2
 
 
W, see 99mRh
-
3E+5
1E-4
4E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 99mRh
-
3E+5
1E-4
3E-7
-
-
46
Palladium-100
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
1E+3
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
2E-5
2E-4
 
 
W, nitrates
-
1E+3
5E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
1E+3
6E-7
2E-9
-
-
46
Palladium-101
D, see 100Pd
1E+4
3E+4
1E-5
5E-8
2E-4
2E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
3E+4
1E-5
5E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
3E+4
1E-5
4E-8
-
-
46
Palladium-103
D, see 100Pd
6E+3
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (7E+3)
-
-
-
1E-4
1E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
4E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
4E+3
1E-6
5E-9
-
-
46
Palladium-107
D, see 100Pd
3E+4
2E+4
9E-6
-
-
-
 
 
 
LLI wall (4E+4)
Kidneys (2E+4)
-
3E-8
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
7E+3
3E-6
1E-8
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
4E+2
2E-7
6E-10
-
-
46
Palladium-109
D, see 100Pd
2E+3
6E+3
3E-6
9E-9
3E-5
3E-4
 
 
W, see 100Pd
-
5E+3
2E-6
8E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 100Pd
-
5E+3
2E-6
6E-9
-
-
47
Silver-1022
D, all compounds except those given for W and Y
5E+4
2E+5
8E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, nitrates and sulfides
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, oxides and hydroxides
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
47
Silver-1032
D, see 102Ag
4E+4
1E+5
4E-5
1E-7
5E-4
5E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-104m2
D, see 102Ag
3E+4
9E+4
4E-5
1E-7
4E-4
4E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
5E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-1042
D, see 102Ag
2E+4
7E+4
3E-5
1E-7
3E-4
3E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
1E+5
6E-5
2E-7
-
-
47
Silver-105
D, see 102Ag
3E+3
1E+3
4E-7
1E-9
4E-5
4E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+3
7E-7
2E-9
-
-
47
Silver-106m
D, see 102Ag
8E+2
7E+2
3E-7
1E-9
1E-5
1E-4
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
9E+2
4E-7
1E-9
-
-
47
Silver-1062
D, see 102Ag
6E+4
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
 
St. wall
(6E+4)
-
-
-
9E-4
9E-3
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+5
9E-5
3E-7
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+5
8E-5
3E-7
-
-
47
Silver-108m
D, see 102Ag
6E+2
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
9E-6
9E-5
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
3E+2
1E-7
4E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag
-
2E+1
1E-8
3E-11
-
-
47
Silver-110m
D, see 102Ag
5E+2
1E+2
5E-8
2E-10
6E-6
6E-5
 
 
W, see 102Ag
-
2E+2
8E-8
3E-10
-
-
 
 
Y, see 102Ag