(1) Applicability. The regulations in this section apply to owners and operators of facilities that use surface impoundments to treat, store, or dispose of dangerous waste.
(2) Design and operating requirements.
(a)(i) Any surface impoundment that is not covered by (j) of this subsection must have a liner for all portions of the impoundment (except for an existing portion of a surface impoundment). The liner must be designed, constructed, and installed to prevent any migration of wastes out of the impoundment to the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface water at any time during the active life (including the closure period) of the impoundment. The liner may be constructed of materials that may allow wastes to migrate into the liner (but not into the adjacent subsurface soil or groundwater or surface water) during the active life of the facility, provided that the impoundment is closed in accordance with subsection (6)(a)(i) of this section. For impoundments that will be closed in accordance with subsection (6)(a)(ii) of this section, the liner must be constructed of materials that can prevent wastes from migrating into the liner during the active life of the facility. The liner must be:
(A) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;
(B) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift;
(C) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the waste or leachate; and
(D) For EHW management, the owner or operator must submit an engineering report with their permit application under WAC 173-303-806
(4) stating the basis for selecting the liner(s). The report must be certified by an independent, qualified registered professional engineer.
(ii) The owner or operator of a new surface impoundment installed after October 31, 1984, and in which liquid EHW is managed must:
(A) Install a double lined system which incorporates the specifications of subsection (3)(a), (b), and (c) of this section; and
(B) Must comply with either the groundwater monitoring requirements of WAC 173-303-645
, or the unsaturated zone monitoring requirements of WAC 173-303-655
(b) The owner or operator will be exempted from the requirements of (a) of this subsection, if the department finds, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator, that alternate design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any dangerous constituents listed in WAC 173-303-9905
, or which otherwise cause his wastes to be regulated under this chapter, into the groundwater or surface water at any future time. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the department will consider:
(i) The nature and quantity of the wastes;
(ii) The proposed alternate design and operation;
(iii) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the impoundment and groundwater or surface water; and
(iv) All other factors which would influence the quality and mobility of the leachate produced and the potential for it to migrate to groundwater or surface water.
(c) A surface impoundment must be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to prevent overtopping resulting from normal or abnormal operations; overfilling; wind and wave action; rainfall; run-on; malfunctions of level controllers, alarms, and other equipment; and human error.
(d) A surface impoundment must be designed so that any flow of waste into the impoundment can be immediately shut off in the event of overtopping or liner failure.
(e) A surface impoundment must be designed to repel birds.
(f) A surface impoundment must have dikes that are designed, constructed, and maintained with sufficient structural integrity to prevent their failure. In ensuring structural integrity, it must not be presumed that the liner system will function without leakage during the active life of the unit.
(g) Earthen dikes must be kept free of:
(i) Perennial woody plants with root systems which could weaken its structural integrity; and
(ii) Burrowing mammals which could weaken its structural integrity or create leaks through burrows.
(h) Earthen dikes must have a protective cover, such as grass, shale or rock to minimize wind and water erosion and to preserve their structural integrity.
(i) The department will specify in the permit all design and operating practices that are necessary to ensure that the requirements of this subsection are satisfied.
(j) The owner or operator of each new surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992, and each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992, must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system between such liners. "Construction commences" is as defined in WAC 173-303-040
under "existing TSD facility."
(i) The liner system must include:
(A) A top liner designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of dangerous constituents into such liner during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(B) A composite bottom liner, consisting of at least two components. The upper component must be designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of dangerous constituents into this component during the active life and post-closure care period. The lower component must be designed and constructed of materials to minimize the migration of dangerous constituents if a breach in the upper component were to occur. The lower component must be constructed of at least 3 feet (91 cm) of compacted soil material with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 x 10-7
(ii) The liners must comply with (a)(i)(A), (B), and (C) of this subsection.
(iii) The leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and immediately above the bottom composite liner in the case of multiple leachate collection and removal systems, is also a leak detection system. This leak detection system must be capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of dangerous constituents at the earliest practicable time through all areas of the top liner likely to be exposed to waste or leachate during the active life and post-closure care period. The requirements for a leak detection system in this paragraph are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:
(A) Constructed with a bottom slope of one percent or more;
(B) Constructed of granular drainage materials with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 x 10-1
cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more; or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 x 10-4
sec or more;
(C) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste managed in the surface impoundment and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes and any waste cover materials or equipment used at the surface impoundment;
(D) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period; and
(E) Constructed with sumps and liquid removal methods (e.g., pumps) of sufficient size to collect and remove liquids from the sump and prevent liquids from backing up into the drainage layer. Each unit must have its own sump(s). The design of each sump and removal system must provide a method for measuring and recording the volume of liquids present in the sump and of liquids removed.
(iv) The owner or operator will collect and remove pumpable liquids in the sumps to minimize the head on the bottom liner.
(v) The owner or operator of a leak detection system that is not located completely above the seasonal high water table must demonstrate that the operation of the leak detection system will not be adversely affected by the presence of groundwater.
(k) The department may approve alternative design or operating practices to those specified in (j) of this subsection if the owner or operator demonstrates to the department that such design and operating practices, together with location characteristics:
(i) Will prevent the migration of any dangerous constituent into the groundwater or surface water at least as effectively as the liners and leachate collection and removal system specified in (j) of this subsection; and
(ii) Will allow detection of leaks of dangerous constituents through the top liner at least as effectively.
(l) The double liner requirement set forth in (j) of this subsection may be waived by the department for any monofill, if:
(i) The monofill contains only dangerous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes dangerous for reasons other than the toxicity characteristic in WAC 173-303-090
(8) or the toxicity criteria at WAC 173-303-100
(ii)(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "liner" means a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent dangerous waste from passing into the liner at any time during the active life of the facility, or a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent dangerous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, groundwater, or surface water at any time during the active life of the facility. In the case of any surface impoundment which has been exempted from the requirements of (j) of this subsection on the basis of a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent dangerous waste from passing beyond the liner, at the closure of such impoundment, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, all contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not removed or decontaminated, the owner or operator of such impoundment will comply with appropriate post-closure requirements, including but not limited to groundwater monitoring and corrective action;
(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an underground source of drinking water (as that term is defined in WAC 173-303-040
(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable groundwater monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or
(iii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any dangerous constituent into groundwater or surface water at any future time.
(m) The owner or operator of any replacement surface impoundment unit is exempt from (j) of this subsection if:
(i) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of sections 3004 (o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and
(ii) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.
(4) Monitoring and inspection.
(a) During construction and installation, liners (except in the case of existing portions of surface impoundments exempt from subsection (2)(a)(i) of this section) and cover systems (e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings) must be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfections (e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials). Immediately after construction or installation:
(i) Synthetic liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and
(ii) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for imperfections including lenses, cracks, channels, root holes, or other structural nonuniformities that may cause an increase in the permeability of the liner or cover.
(b) While a surface impoundment is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:
(i) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of overtopping control systems;
(ii) Sudden drops in the level of the impoundment's contents; and
(iii) Severe erosion or other signs of deterioration in dikes or other containment devices.
(c) Prior to the issuance of a permit, and after any extended period of time (at least six months) during which the impoundment was not in service, the owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified engineer that the impoundment's dike, including that portion of any dike which provides freeboard, has structural integrity. The certification must establish, in particular, that the dike:
(i) Will withstand the stress of the pressure exerted by the types and amounts of wastes to be placed in the impoundment; and
(ii) Will not fail due to scouring or piping, without dependence on any liner system included in the surface impoundment construction.
(d)(i) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under subsection (2)(j) or (k) of this section must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.
(ii) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semiannual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.
(iii) "Pump operating level" is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the department based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump.
(5) Emergency repairs; contingency plans.
(a) A surface impoundment must be removed from service in accordance with (b) of this subsection when:
(i) Unexpected changes of liquid levels occur; or
(ii) The dike leaks.
(b) When a surface impoundment must be removed from service as required by (a) of this subsection, the owner or operator must:
(i) Immediately shut off the flow or stop the addition of wastes into the impoundment;
(ii) Immediately contain any surface leakage which has occurred or is occurring;
(iii) Immediately stop the leak;
(iv) Take any other necessary steps to stop or prevent catastrophic failure;
(v) Empty the impoundment, if a leak cannot be stopped by any other means; and
(vi) Notify the department of the problem in writing within seven days after detecting the problem.
(c) As part of the contingency plan required in WAC 173-303-340
, the owner or operator must specify:
(i) A procedure for complying with the requirements of (b) of this subsection; and
(ii) A containment system evaluation and repair plan describing: Testing and monitoring techniques; procedures to be followed to evaluate the integrity of the containment system in the event of a possible failure; description of a schedule of actions to be taken in the event of a possible failure; and the repair techniques and materials (and their availability) to be used in the event of leakage due to containment system failure or deterioration which does not require the impoundment to be removed from service.
(d) No surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of this section may be restored to service unless the portion of the impoundment which was failing is repaired and the following steps are taken:
(i) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of actual or imminent dike failure, the dike's structural integrity must be recertified in accordance with subsection (4)(c) of this section;
(ii) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of a sudden drop in the liquid level, then:
(A) For any existing portion of the impoundment, a liner must be installed in compliance with subsection (2)(a)(i) or (3) of this section; and
(B) For any other portion of the impoundment, the repaired liner system must be certified by a qualified engineer as meeting the design specifications approved in the permit.
(e) A surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of this section and that is not being repaired must be closed in accordance with the provisions of subsection (6) of this section.
(6) Closure and post-closure care.
(a) At closure, the owner or operator must:
(i) Remove or decontaminate all dangerous waste and dangerous waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with dangerous waste and leachate, and manage them as dangerous waste; or
(ii) If the surface impoundment will be closed as a landfill, except that this option is prohibited if EHW would remain in the closed unit(s):
(A) Eliminate free liquids by removing liquid wastes or solidifying the remaining wastes and waste residues;
(B) Stabilize remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support a final cover; and
(C) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:
(I) Provide long-term minimization of the migration of liquids through the closed impoundment with a material that has a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or natural subsoils present;
(II) Function with minimum maintenance;
(III) Promote drainage and minimize erosion or abrasion of the final cover; and
(IV) Accommodate settling and subsidence so that the cover's integrity is maintained.
(b) If some waste residues or contaminated materials are left in place at final closure (except that no EHW may ever be left in place), the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained in WAC 173-303-610
(7), (8), (9), and (10), including maintenance and monitoring throughout the post-closure care period (specified in the permit). The owner or operator must:
(i) Maintain the integrity and effectiveness of the final cover, including making repairs to the cap as necessary to correct the effects of settling, subsidence, erosion, or other events;
(ii) Maintain and monitor the leak detection system in accordance with subsections (2)(j)(ii)(D) and (E), and (4)(d) of this section, and comply with all other applicable leak detection system requirements of this chapter;
(iii) Maintain and monitor the groundwater monitoring system and comply with all applicable requirements of WAC 173-303-645
(iv) Prevent run-on and runoff from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover.
(c)(i) If an owner or operator plans to close a surface impoundment in accordance with (a)(i) of this subsection, and the impoundment does not comply with the liner requirements of subsection (2)(a)(i) of this section, and is not exempt from them in accordance with subsection (2)(b) of this section, then:
(A) The closure plan for the impoundment under WAC 173-303-610
(3) must include both a plan for complying with (a)(i) of this subsection, and a contingent plan for complying with (a)(ii) of this subsection in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure; and
(B) The owner or operator must prepare a contingent post-closure plan under WAC 173-303-610
(8) for complying with (b) of this subsection in case not all contaminated subsoils can be practicably removed at closure.
(ii) The cost estimates calculated under WAC 173-303-620
(3) and (5) for closure and post-closure care of an impoundment subject to (c) of this subsection must include the cost of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, but are not required to include the cost of expected closure under (a)(i) of this subsection.
(7) Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste. Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in a surface impoundment, unless the waste and impoundment satisfy all applicable requirements of WAC 173-303-140
(a) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the impoundment so that:
(i) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolution of material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under WAC 173-303-090
(ii) WAC 173-303-395
(1)(b) is complied with; or
(b) The waste is managed in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions which may cause it to ignite or react; or
(c) The surface impoundment is used solely for emergencies.
(8) Special requirements for incompatible wastes. Incompatible wastes and materials must not be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless WAC 173-303-395
(1)(b) is complied with.
(9) Special requirements for dangerous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, and F027.
(a) The wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or F027 must not be placed in a surface impoundment unless the owner or operator operates the surface impoundment in accordance with a management plan for these wastes that is approved by the department pursuant to the standards set out in this subsection, and in accord with all other applicable requirements of this section. The factors to be considered are:
(i) The volume, physical, and chemical characteristics of the wastes, including their potential to migrate through soil or to volatilize or escape into the atmosphere;
(ii) The attenuative properties of underlying and surrounding soils or other materials;
(iii) The mobilizing properties of other materials co-disposed with these wastes; and
(iv) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques.
(b) The department may determine that additional design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary in order to reduce the possibility of migration of these wastes to groundwater, surface water, or air so as to protect human health and the environment.
(10) Action leakage rate.
(a) The department must approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to WAC 173-303-650
(2)(j) or (k). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).
(b) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under WAC 173-303-650
(4)(d) to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the department approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and if the unit is closed in accordance with WAC 173-303-650
(6)(b), monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under WAC 173-303-650
(11) Response actions.
(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to subsection (2)(j) or (k) of this section must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in (b) of this subsection.
(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:
(i) Notify the department in writing of the exceedance within seven days of the determination;
(ii) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the department within fourteen days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;
(iii) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;
(iv) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;
(v) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and
(vi) Within thirty days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the department the results of the analyses specified in (b) (iii), (iv), and (v) of this subsection, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the department a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.
(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in (b)(iii), (iv), and (v) of this subsection, the owner or operator must:
(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source;
(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, dangerous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and
(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or
(iv) Document why such assessments are not needed.
(12) Air emission standards. The owner or operator must manage all hazardous waste placed in a surface impoundment in accordance with the applicable requirements of 40 C.F.R. Subparts AA, BB, and CC, which are incorporated by reference at WAC 173-303-690
(13) Existing and newly regulated surface impoundments. The requirements of 3005 (j)(1) and (6) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, as amended, are incorporated by reference. Surface impoundments regulated for the first time by a listing or characteristic adopted after November 8, 1984, must comply with new unit requirements or stop dangerous waste activity by four years after the date of adoption of the new listing or characteristic.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW. 09-14-105 (Order 07-12), § 173-303-650, filed 6/30/09, effective 7/31/09. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105, 70.105D, 15.54 RCW and RCW 70.105.007. 00-11-040 (Order 99-01), § 173-303-650, filed 5/10/00, effective 6/10/00. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW. 95-22-008 (Order 94-30), § 173-303-650, filed 10/19/95, effective 11/19/95; 94-01-060 (Order 92-33), § 173-303-650, filed 12/8/93, effective 1/8/94. Statutory Authority: Chapters 70.105 and 70.105D RCW, 40 C.F.R. Part 271.3 and RCRA § 3006 (42 U.S.C. 3251). 91-07-005 (Order 90-42), § 173-303-650, filed 3/7/91, effective 4/7/91. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW. 88-18-083 (Order 88-29), § 173-303-650, filed 9/6/88; 88-07-039 (Order 87-37), § 173-303-650, filed 3/11/88; 86-12-057 (Order DE-85-10), § 173-303-650, filed 6/3/86; 84-09-088 (Order DE 83-36), § 173-303-650, filed 4/18/84. Statutory Authority: Chapter 70.105 RCW and RCW 70.95.260. 82-05-023 (Order DE 81-33), § 173-303-650, filed 2/10/82.]