Chapter 8.26 RCW

RELOCATION ASSISTANCE—REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICY

Sections
PurposesApplicability.
Definitions.
Payment for moving and related expenses.
Payment for replacement housing for homeowners.
Payment for replacement housing for tenants and others.
Relocation assistance advisory services.
Assurance of availability of housingExceptions.
Lead agency's rule-making authorityCompliance date.
Contracts for servicesUse of services of other agencies.
Use of funds.
Relocation assistance payments not income or resources.
Acquisition procedures.
Acquisition of buildings, structures, and improvements.
Expenses incidental to transfer of right, title, or interest to the acquiring agency.
Effect on certain property acquisitions.
Award of costs, attorney's fees, witness feesConditions.
SeverabilityConflict with federal requirements1988 c 90.
Effective date1971 ex.s. c 240.


8.26.010
Purposes—Applicability.

(1) The purposes of this chapter are:
(a) To establish a uniform policy for the fair and equitable treatment of persons displaced as a direct result of public works programs of the state and local governments in order that such persons shall not suffer disproportionate injuries as a result of programs designed for the benefit of the public as a whole and to minimize the hardship of displacement on such persons;
(b) To encourage and expedite the acquisition of real property for public works programs by agreements with owners, to reduce litigation and relieve congestion in the courts, to assure consistent treatment for owners affected by state and local programs, and to promote public confidence in state and local land acquisition practices;
(c) To require the state, local public agencies, and other persons who have the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under state law to comply with the provisions of chapter 213, Laws of 2017 in order to assure the fair and equitable treatment of all persons and property owners impacted by public projects.
(2) Any determination by the head of a state agency or local public agency administering a program or project as to payments under this chapter is subject to review pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW; otherwise, no provision of this chapter may be construed to give any person a cause of action in any court.
(3) Unless otherwise prohibited by law, any state or local public agency providing a grant, loan, or matching funds for any program or project that displaces persons who are eligible for relocation assistance under this chapter may not limit, restrict, or otherwise prohibit grant, loan, or matching fund money from being used for any required relocation assistance payments.
(4) The governing body of any local public agency may elect not to comply with the provisions of RCW 8.26.035 through 8.26.115 in connection with a program or project not receiving federal financial assistance initiated on or before December 31, 2017.
(5) Nothing in this chapter may be construed as creating in any condemnation proceedings brought under the power of eminent domain, any element of value or of damage not in existence immediately before March 16, 1988.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: "Section captions and part divisions in this act do not constitute any part of the law." [ 1988 c 90 § 19.]



8.26.020
Definitions.

As used in this chapter:
(1) The term "state" means any department, commission, agency, or instrumentality of the state of Washington.
(2) The term "local public agency" applies to any county, city or town, or other municipal corporation or political subdivision of the state and any person who has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under state law, or any instrumentality of any of the foregoing.
(3) The term "person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, or association.
(4)(a) The term "displaced person" means, except as provided in (c) of this subsection, any person who moves from real property, or moves his or her personal property from real property:
(i) As a direct result of a written notice of intent to acquire, or the acquisition of, such real property in whole or in part for a program or project undertaken by a displacing agency; or
(ii) On which the person is a residential tenant or conducts a small business, a farm operation, or a business defined in this section, as a direct result of rehabilitation, demolition, or such other displacing activity as the lead agency may prescribe, under a program or project undertaken by a displacing agency in any case in which the displacing agency determines that the displacement is permanent.
(b) Solely for the purposes of RCW 8.26.035 (1) and (2) and 8.26.065, the term "displaced person" includes any person who moves from real property, or moves his or her personal property from real property:
(i) As a direct result of a written notice of intent to acquire, or the acquisition of, other real property in whole or in part on which the person conducts a business or farm operation, for a program or project undertaken by a displacing agency; or
(ii) As a direct result of rehabilitation, demolition, or such other displacing activity as the lead agency may prescribe, of other real property on which the person conducts a business or a farm operation, under a program or project undertaken by a displacing agency where the displacing agency determines that the displacement is permanent.
(c) The term "displaced person" does not include:
(i) A person who has been determined, according to criteria established by the lead agency, to be either unlawfully occupying the displacement dwelling or to have occupied the dwelling for the purpose of obtaining assistance under this chapter; or
(ii) In any case in which the displacing agency acquires property for a program or project, any person (other than a person who was an occupant of the property at the time it was acquired) who occupies the property on a rental basis for a short term or a period subject to termination when the property is needed for the program or project.
(5) The term "business" means any lawful activity, excepting a farm operation, conducted primarily:
(a) For the purchase, sale, lease, and rental of personal and real property, and for the manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, or other personal property;
(b) For the sale of services to the public;
(c) By a nonprofit organization; or
(d) Solely for the purposes of RCW 8.26.035, for assisting in the purchase, sale, resale, manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, personal property, or services by the erection and maintenance of an outdoor advertising display or displays, whether or not such display or displays are located on the premises on which any of the above activities are conducted.
(6) The term "farm operation" means any activity conducted solely or primarily for the production of one or more agricultural products or commodities, including timber, for sale or for home use, and customarily producing such products or commodities in sufficient quantity to be capable of contributing materially to the operator's support.
(7) The term "comparable replacement dwelling" means any dwelling that is (a) decent, safe, and sanitary; (b) adequate in size to accommodate the occupants; (c) within the financial means of the displaced person; (d) functionally equivalent; (e) in an area not subject to unreasonably adverse environmental conditions; and (f) in a location generally not less desirable than the location of the displaced person's dwelling with respect to public utilities, facilities, services, and the displaced person's place of employment.
(8) For purposes of RCW 8.26.180 through 8.26.200, the term "acquiring agency" means:
(a) A state agency or local public agency that has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under state law; or
(b) Any state agency, local public agency, or person that (i) does not have the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under state law and (ii) has been designated an "acquiring agency" under rules adopted by the lead agency. However, the lead agency may only designate a state agency, local public agency, or a person as an "acquiring agency" to the extent that it is necessary in order to qualify for federal financial assistance.
(9) The term "displacing agency" means the state agency, local public agency, or any person carrying out a program or project, with federal or state financial assistance, that causes a person to be a displaced person.
(10) The term "federal financial assistance" means a grant, loan, or contribution provided by the United States, except any federal guarantee or insurance and any interest reduction payment to an individual in connection with the purchase and occupancy of a residence by that individual.
(11) The term "mortgage" means such classes of liens as are commonly given to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real property, under the laws of this state, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby.
(12) The term "lead agency" means the Washington state department of transportation.
(13) The term "appraisal" means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion of defined value of an adequately described property as of a specific date, supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.
Application1972 ex.s. c 34: "Sec. 2. The amendatory language contained in section 1 of this 1972 amendatory act shall apply only to persons displaced after the effective date of this 1972 amendatory act [February 20, 1972]." [ 1972 ex.s. c 34 § 2.]



8.26.035
Payment for moving and related expenses.

(1) Whenever a program or project to be undertaken by a displacing agency will result in the displacement of any person, the displacing agency shall provide for the payment to the displaced person of:
(a) Actual reasonable expenses in moving himself or herself, or his or her family, business, farm operation, or other personal property;
(b) Actual direct losses of tangible personal property as a result of moving or discontinuing a business or farm operation, but not to exceed an amount equal to the reasonable expenses that would have been required to relocate the property, in accordance with criteria established by the lead agency;
(c) Actual reasonable expenses in searching for a replacement business or farm; and
(d) Actual reasonable expenses necessary to reestablish a displaced farm, nonprofit organization, or small business at its new site, in accordance with criteria established by the lead agency, but not to exceed fifty thousand dollars or the dollar amount allowed under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 4622 as it existed on July 23, 2017, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the displacing agency by rule or regulation, consistent with the purposes of this section, whichever is greater.
(2) A displaced person eligible for payments under subsection (1) of this section who is displaced from a dwelling and who elects to accept the payments authorized by this subsection in lieu of the payments authorized by subsection (1) of this section may receive an expense and dislocation allowance determined according to a schedule established by the lead agency.
(3) A displaced person eligible for payments under subsection (1) of this section who is displaced from the person's place of business or farm operation and who is eligible under criteria established by the lead agency may elect to accept the payment authorized by this subsection in lieu of the payment authorized by subsection (1) of this section. The payment shall consist of a fixed payment in an amount to be determined according to criteria established by the lead agency, except that the payment shall be not less than the dollar amount allowed under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 4622 as it existed on July 23, 2017, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the displacing agency by rule or regulation, consistent with the purposes of this section. A person whose sole business at the displacement dwelling is the rental of that property to others does not qualify for a payment under this subsection.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.045
Payment for replacement housing for homeowners.

(1) In addition to payments otherwise authorized by this chapter, the displacing agency shall make an additional payment, not in excess of the dollar amount allowed under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 4623 as it existed on July 23, 2017, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the displacing agency by rule or regulation, consistent with the purposes of this section, to any displaced person who is displaced from a dwelling actually owned and occupied by the displaced person for not less than ninety days immediately before the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the property. The additional payment shall include the following elements:
(a) The amount, if any, that when added to the acquisition cost of the dwelling acquired by the displacing agency, equals the reasonable and necessary cost of a comparable replacement dwelling;
(b) The amount, if any, that will compensate the displaced person for any increased mortgage interest costs and other debt service costs that the person is required to pay for financing the acquisition of any such comparable replacement dwelling. This amount shall be paid only if the dwelling acquired by the displacing agency was encumbered by a bona fide mortgage that was a valid lien on the dwelling for not less than one hundred and eighty days immediately before the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the dwelling;
(c) Reasonable expenses incurred by the displaced person for evidence of title, recording fees, and other closing costs incident to the purchase of the replacement dwelling, but not including prepaid expenses.
(2) The additional payment authorized by this section shall be made only to a displaced person who purchases and occupies a decent, safe, and sanitary replacement dwelling within one year after the date on which the person receives final payment from the displacing agency for the acquired dwelling or the date on which the obligation of the displacing agency under RCW 8.26.075 is met, whichever date is later, except that the displacing agency may extend the period for good cause. If the period is extended, the payment under this section shall be based on the costs of relocating the person to a comparable replacement dwelling within one year of that date.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.055
Payment for replacement housing for tenants and others.

(1) In addition to amounts otherwise authorized by this chapter, a displacing agency shall make a payment to or for a displaced person displaced from a dwelling not eligible to receive a payment under RCW 8.26.045 if the dwelling was actually and lawfully occupied by the displaced person for not less than ninety days immediately before (a) the initiation of negotiations for acquisition of the dwelling, or (b) in any case in which displacement is not a direct result of acquisition, such other event as the lead agency prescribes. The payment shall consist of the amount necessary to enable the person to lease or rent for a period not to exceed forty-two months, a comparable replacement dwelling, but not to exceed the dollar amount allowed under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 4624 as it existed on July 23, 2017, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the displacing agency by rule or regulation, consistent with the purposes of this section. At the discretion of the displacing agency, a payment under this subsection may be made in periodic installments. Computation of a payment under this subsection to a low-income displaced person for a comparable replacement dwelling shall take into account the person's income.
(2) A person eligible for a payment under subsection (1) of this section may elect to apply the payment to a down payment on, and other incidental expenses pursuant to, the purchase of a decent, safe, and sanitary replacement dwelling. The person may, at the discretion of the displacing agency, be eligible under this subsection for the maximum payment allowed under subsection (1) of this section.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.065
Relocation assistance advisory services.

(1) Programs or projects undertaken by a displacing agency shall be planned in a manner that (a) recognizes, at an early stage in the planning of the programs or projects and before the commencement of any actions that will cause displacements, the problems associated with the displacement of individuals, families, businesses, and farm operations, and (b) provides for the resolution of the problems in order to minimize adverse impacts on displaced persons and to expedite program or project advancement and completion.
(2) Displacing agencies shall ensure that the relocation assistance advisory services described in subsection (3) of this section are made available to all persons displaced by the agency. If the agency determines that any person occupying property immediately adjacent to the property where the displacing activity occurs is caused substantial economic injury as a result thereof, the agency may make available to the person the advisory services.
(3) Each relocation assistance advisory program required by subsection (2) of this section shall include such measures, facilities, or services as may be necessary or appropriate in order to:
(a) Determine, and make timely recommendations on, the needs and preferences, if any, of displaced persons for relocation assistance;
(b) Provide current and continuing information on the availability, sales prices, and rental charges of comparable replacement dwellings for displaced homeowners and tenants and suitable locations for businesses and farm operations;
(c) Assist a person displaced from a business or farm operation in obtaining and becoming established in a suitable replacement location;
(d) Supply (i) information concerning federal, state, and local programs that may be of assistance to displaced persons, and (ii) technical assistance to the persons in applying for assistance under those programs;
(e) Provide other advisory services to displaced persons in order to minimize hardships to them in adjusting to relocation; and
(f) Coordinate relocation activities performed by the agency with other federal, state, or local governmental actions in the community that could affect the efficient and effective delivery of relocation assistance and related services.
(4) Notwithstanding *RCW 8.26.020(4)(b), in any case in which a displacing agency acquires property for a program or project, a person who occupies the property on a rental basis for a short term or a period subject to termination when the property is needed for the program or project is eligible for advisory services to the extent determined by the displacing agency.
NOTES:
*Reviser's note: RCW 8.26.020 was amended by 2003 c 254 § 1, changing subsection (4)(b) to subsection (4)(c).
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.075
Assurance of availability of housing—Exceptions.

(1) If a program or project undertaken by a displacing agency cannot proceed on a timely basis because comparable replacement dwellings are not available, and the head of the displacing agency determines that the dwellings cannot otherwise be made available, the head of the displacing agency may take such action as is necessary or appropriate to provide the dwellings by use of funds authorized for the project. The displacing agency may use this section to exceed the maximum amounts that may be paid under RCW 8.26.045 and 8.26.055 on a case-by-case basis for good cause as determined in accordance with rules adopted by the lead agency.
(2) No person may be required to move from a dwelling on account of any program or project undertaken by a displacing agency unless the displacing agency is satisfied that comparable replacement housing is available to the person.
(3) The displacing agency shall assure that a person shall not be required to move from a dwelling unless the person has had a reasonable opportunity to relocate to a comparable replacement dwelling, except in the case of the following:
(a) A major disaster as defined in section 102(2) of the Federal Disaster Relief Act of 1974;
(b) A national emergency declared by the president; or
(c) Any other emergency that requires the person to move immediately from the dwelling because continued occupancy of the dwelling by the person constitutes a substantial danger to the health or safety of the person.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.085
Lead agency's rule-making authority—Compliance date.

(1) The lead agency, after full consultation with the department of enterprise services, shall adopt rules and establish such procedures as the lead agency may determine to be necessary to assure:
(a) That the payments and assistance authorized by this chapter are administered in a manner that is fair and reasonable and as uniform as practicable;
(b) That a displaced person who makes proper application for a payment authorized for that person by this chapter is paid promptly after a move or, in hardship cases, is paid in advance; and
(c) That a displaced person who is aggrieved by a program or project that is under the authority of a state agency or local public agency may have his or her application reviewed by the state agency or local public agency.
(2) The lead agency, after full consultation with the department of enterprise services, may adopt such other rules and procedures, consistent with the provisions of this chapter, as the lead agency deems necessary or appropriate to carry out this chapter.
(3) State agencies and local public agencies shall comply with the rules adopted pursuant to this section by April 2, 1989.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.095
Contracts for services—Use of services of other agencies.

In order to prevent unnecessary expenses and duplication of functions, and to promote uniform and effective administration of relocation assistance programs for displaced persons, a state agency or local public agency may enter into contracts with any individual, firm, association, or corporation for services in connection with this chapter or may carry out its functions under this chapter through any federal or state agency or local public agency having an established organization for conducting relocation assistance programs. The state agency or local public agency shall, in carrying out relocation activities described in RCW 8.26.075, whenever practicable, use the services of state or local housing agencies, or other agencies having experience in the administration or conduct of similar housing assistance activities.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.105
Use of funds.

(1) Funds appropriated or otherwise available to a state agency or local public agency for the acquisition of real property or an interest therein for a particular program or project shall also be available to carry out the provisions of this chapter as applied to that program or project.
(2) No payment or assistance under this chapter may be required to be made to any person or included as a program or project cost under this section, if the person receives a payment required by federal, state, or local law that is determined by the head of the displacing agency to have substantially the same purpose and effect as that payment under this chapter.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.115
Relocation assistance payments not income or resources.

No payment received by a displaced person under RCW 8.26.035 through 8.26.105 may be considered as income for the purpose of determining the eligibility or extent of eligibility of any person for assistance under any state law or for the purposes of any income tax or any tax imposed under Title 82 RCW, and the payments shall not be deducted from any amount to which any recipient would otherwise be entitled under Title 74 RCW.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.180
Acquisition procedures.

Every acquiring agency shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be guided by the following policies:
(1) Every reasonable effort shall be made to acquire expeditiously real property by negotiation.
(2) Real property shall be appraised before the initiation of negotiations, and the owner or his or her designated representative shall be given an opportunity to accompany at least one appraiser of the acquiring agency during his or her inspection of the property, except that the lead agency may prescribe a procedure to waive the appraisal in cases involving the acquisition of property with a low fair market value.
(3) Before the initiation of negotiations for real property, the acquiring agency shall establish an amount which it believes to be just compensation therefor, and shall make a prompt offer to acquire the property for the full amount so established. In no event shall such amount be less than the agency's approved appraisal of the fair market value of such property. Any decrease or increase in the fair market value of the real property to be acquired prior to the date of valuation caused by the public improvement for which such property is acquired, or by the likelihood that the property would be acquired for such improvement, other than that due to physical deterioration within the reasonable control of the owner, will be disregarded in determining the compensation for the property. The acquiring agency shall provide the owner of real property to be acquired with a written statement of, and summary of the basis for, the amount it established as just compensation. Where appropriate the just compensation for the real property acquired, for damages to remaining real property, and for benefits to remaining real property shall be separately stated.
(4) No owner shall be required to surrender possession of real property before the agreed purchase price is paid or deposited with a court having jurisdiction of condemnation of such property, in accordance with applicable law, for the benefit of the owner an amount not less than the acquiring agency's approved appraisal of the fair market value of such property, or the amount of the award of compensation in the condemnation proceeding of such property.
(5) The construction or development of a public improvement shall be so scheduled that, to the greatest extent practicable, no person lawfully occupying real property shall be required to move from a dwelling or to move his or her business or farm operation without at least ninety days written notice of the date by which such move is required.
(6) If an owner or tenant is permitted to occupy the real property acquired on a rental basis for a short term or for a period subject to termination on short notice, the amount of rent required shall not exceed the fair rental value of the property to a short-term occupier.
(7) In no event shall the time of condemnation be advanced, *on negotiations or condemnation and the deposit of funds in court for the use of the owner be deferred, or any other coercive action be taken to compel an agreement on the price to be paid for the property.
(8) If an interest in real property is to be acquired by exercise of the power of eminent domain, formal condemnation proceedings shall be instituted. The acquiring agency shall not intentionally make it necessary for an owner to institute legal proceedings to prove the fact of the taking of his or her real property.
(9) If the acquisition of only a portion of a property would leave the owner with an uneconomic remnant, the head of the agency concerned shall offer to acquire that remnant. For the purposes of this chapter, an uneconomic remnant is a parcel of real property in which the owner is left with an interest after the partial acquisition of the owner's property and that the head of the agency concerned has determined has little or no value or utility.
(10) A person whose real property is being acquired in accordance with this chapter may, after the person has been fully informed of his or her right to receive just compensation for the property, donate the property, any part thereof, any interest therein, or any compensation paid for it to any agency as the person may determine.
NOTES:
*Reviser's note: The word "or" may have been intended. The language of subsection (7) of this section is similar to language found in 49 C.F.R. 24.102(h).
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.190
Acquisition of buildings, structures, and improvements.

(1) Where any interest in real property is acquired, the acquiring agency shall acquire an equal interest in all buildings, structures, or other improvements located upon the real property so acquired and which is required to be removed from such real property or which is determined to be adversely affected by the use to which such real property will be put.
(2) For the purpose of determining the just compensation to be paid for any building, structure, or other improvement required to be acquired under subsection (1) of this section, such building, structure, or other improvement shall be deemed to be a part of the real property to be acquired notwithstanding the right or obligation of a tenant of the lands, as against the owner of any other interest in the real property, to remove such building, structure, or improvement at the expiration of his or her term, and the fair market value which such building, structure, or improvement contributes to the fair market value of the real property to be acquired, or the fair market value of such building, structure, or improvement for removal from the real property, whichever is the greater, shall be paid to the owner of such building, structure, or improvement.
(3) Payment for such building, structure, or improvement under subsection (1) of this section shall not result in duplication of any payments otherwise authorized by state law. No such payment shall be made unless the owner of the land involved disclaims all interest in the improvements of the tenant. In consideration for any such payment, the tenant shall assign, transfer, and release all his or her right, title, and interest in and to such improvements. Nothing with regard to the above mentioned acquisition of buildings, structures, or other improvements shall be construed to deprive the tenant of any rights to reject payment and to obtain payment for such property interests in accordance with other laws of this state.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.200
Expenses incidental to transfer of right, title, or interest to the acquiring agency.

As soon as practicable after the date of payment of the purchase price or the date of deposit in court of funds to satisfy the award of compensation in a condemnation proceeding to acquire real property, whichever is the earlier, the acquiring agency shall reimburse the owner, to the extent the acquiring agency deems fair and reasonable, for expenses the owner necessarily incurred for:
(1) Recording fees, transfer taxes, and similar expenses incidental to conveying such real property to the acquiring agency;
(2) Penalty costs for full or partial prepayment of any preexisting recorded mortgage entered into in good faith encumbering such real property; and
(3) The pro rata portion of real property taxes paid which are allocable to a period subsequent to the date of vesting title in the acquiring agency, or the effective date of possession of such real property by the acquiring agency, whichever is the earlier.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.205
Effect on certain property acquisitions.

The provisions of RCW 8.26.180, 8.26.190, and 8.26.200 create no rights or liabilities and do not affect the validity of any property acquisitions by purchase or condemnation.
NOTES:
Section captions1988 c 90: See note following RCW 8.26.010.



8.26.210
Award of costs, attorney's fees, witness fees—Conditions.

See RCW 8.25.070, 8.25.075.



8.26.901
Severability—Conflict with federal requirements—1988 c 90.

(1) If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected.
(2) If any part of this chapter is found to be in conflict with federal requirements that are a prescribed condition to the allocation of federal funds to the state, the conflicting part of this chapter is declared to be inoperative solely to the extent of the conflict and with respect to the agencies directly affected, and that finding or determination shall not affect the operation of the remainder of this chapter in its application to the agencies concerned. The rules under this chapter shall meet federal requirements that are a necessary condition to the receipt of federal funds by the state.



8.26.910
Effective date—1971 ex.s. c 240.

This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety, the support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1971.
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