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Chapter 46.61 RCW

RULES OF THE ROAD

RCW Sections

OBEDIENCE TO AND EFFECT OF TRAFFIC LAWS
46.61.005Chapter refers to vehicles upon highways -- Exceptions.
46.61.015Obedience to police officers, flaggers, or firefighters -- Penalty.
46.61.020Refusal to give information to or cooperate with officer -- Penalty.
46.61.021Duty to obey law enforcement officer -- Authority of officer.
46.61.022Failure to obey officer -- Penalty.
46.61.024Attempting to elude police vehicle -- Defense -- License revocation.
46.61.025Persons riding animals or driving animal-drawn vehicles.
46.61.030Persons working on highway right-of-way -- Exceptions.
46.61.035Authorized emergency vehicles.
TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND MARKINGS
46.61.050Obedience to and required traffic control devices.
46.61.055Traffic control signal legend.
46.61.060Pedestrian control signals.
46.61.065Flashing signals.
46.61.070Lane-direction-control signals.
46.61.072Special traffic control signals -- Legend.
46.61.075Display of unauthorized signs, signals, or markings.
46.61.080Interference with official traffic-control devices or railroad signs or signals.
46.61.085Traffic control signals or devices upon city streets forming part of state highways -- Approval by department of transportation.
DRIVING ON RIGHT SIDE OF ROADWAY --

OVERTAKING AND PASSING -- USE OF ROADWAY
46.61.100Keep right except when passing, etc.
46.61.105Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions.
46.61.110Overtaking on the left.
46.61.115When overtaking on the right is permitted.
46.61.120Limitations on overtaking on the left.
46.61.125Further limitations on driving to left of center of roadway.
46.61.126Pedestrians and bicyclists -- Legal duties.
46.61.130No-passing zones.
46.61.135One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands.
46.61.140Driving on roadways laned for traffic.
46.61.145Following too closely.
46.61.150Driving on divided highways.
46.61.155Restricted access.
46.61.160Restrictions on limited-access highway -- Use by bicyclists.
46.61.165High occupancy vehicle lanes -- Definition.
RIGHT-OF-WAY
46.61.180Vehicle approaching intersection.
46.61.183Nonfunctioning signal lights.
46.61.185Vehicle turning left.
46.61.190Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection.
46.61.195Arterial highways designated -- Stopping on entering.
46.61.200Stop intersections other than arterial may be designated.
46.61.202Stopping when traffic obstructed.
46.61.205Vehicle entering highway from private road or driveway.
46.61.210Operation of vehicles on approach of emergency vehicles.
46.61.212Approaching emergency zones -- Penalty -- Violation.
46.61.215Highway construction and maintenance.
46.61.220Transit vehicles.
PEDESTRIANS' RIGHTS AND DUTIES
46.61.230Pedestrians subject to traffic regulations.
46.61.235Crosswalks.
46.61.240Crossing at other than crosswalks.
46.61.245Drivers to exercise care.
46.61.250Pedestrians on roadways.
46.61.255Pedestrians soliciting rides or business.
46.61.260Driving through safety zone prohibited.
46.61.261Sidewalks, crosswalks -- Pedestrians, bicycles.
46.61.264Pedestrians yield to emergency vehicles.
46.61.266Pedestrians under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
46.61.269Passing beyond bridge or grade crossing barrier prohibited.
46.61.275Reporting of certain speed zone violations -- Subsequent law enforcement investigation.
TURNING AND STARTING AND SIGNALS

ON STOPPING AND TURNING
46.61.290Required position and method of turning at intersections.
46.61.295"U" turns.
46.61.300Starting parked vehicle.
46.61.305When signals required -- Improper use prohibited.
46.61.310Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps.
46.61.315Method of giving hand and arm signals.
SPECIAL STOPS REQUIRED
46.61.340Approaching train signal.
46.61.345All vehicles must stop at certain railroad grade crossings.
46.61.350Certain vehicles must stop at all railroad grade crossings -- Exceptions -- Definition.
46.61.355Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings -- Notice of intended crossing.
46.61.365Emerging from alley, driveway, or building.
46.61.370Overtaking or meeting school bus, exceptions -- Duties of bus driver -- Penalty -- Safety cameras.
46.61.371School bus stop sign violators -- Identification by vehicle owner.
46.61.372School bus stop sign violators -- Report by bus driver -- Law enforcement investigation.
46.61.375Overtaking or meeting private carrier bus -- Duties of bus driver.
46.61.380Rules for design, marking, and mode of operating school buses.
46.61.385School patrol -- Appointment -- Authority -- Finance -- Insurance.
SPEED RESTRICTIONS
46.61.400Basic rule and maximum limits.
46.61.405Decreases by secretary of transportation.
46.61.410Increases by secretary of transportation -- Maximum speed limit for trucks -- Auto stages -- Signs and notices.
46.61.415When local authorities may establish or alter maximum limits.
46.61.419Private roads -- Speed enforcement.
46.61.425Minimum speed regulation -- Passing slow moving vehicle.
46.61.427Slow-moving vehicle to pull off roadway.
46.61.428Slow-moving vehicle driving on shoulders, when.
46.61.430Authority of secretary of transportation to fix speed limits on limited access facilities exclusive -- Local regulations.
46.61.435Local authorities to provide "stop" or "yield" signs at intersections with increased speed highways -- Designated as arterials.
46.61.440Maximum speed limit when passing school or playground crosswalks -- Penalty, disposition of proceeds.
46.61.445Due care required.
46.61.450Maximum speed, weight, or size in traversing bridges, elevated structures, tunnels, underpasses -- Posting limits.
46.61.455Vehicles with solid or hollow cushion tires.
46.61.460Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycle.
46.61.465Exceeding speed limit evidence of reckless driving.
46.61.470Speed traps defined, certain types permitted -- Measured courses, speed measuring devices, timing from aircraft.
46.61.480Determination of maximum speed on nonlimited access state highways within tribal reservation boundaries.
RECKLESS DRIVING, DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE,

VEHICULAR HOMICIDE AND ASSAULT
46.61.500Reckless driving -- Penalty.
46.61.502Driving under the influence.
46.61.503Driver under twenty-one consuming alcohol or marijuana -- Penalties.
46.61.504Physical control of vehicle under the influence.
46.61.5054Alcohol violators -- Additional fee -- Distribution.
46.61.5055Alcohol and drug violators -- Penalty schedule.
46.61.5056Alcohol violators -- Information school -- Evaluation and treatment.
46.61.50571Alcohol or marijuana violators -- Mandatory appearances.
46.61.5058Alcohol violators -- Vehicle seizure and forfeiture.
46.61.506Persons under influence of intoxicating liquor or drug -- Evidence -- Tests -- Information concerning tests.
46.61.507Arrest upon driving under the influence or being in physical control of vehicle under the influence, notation required if child is present -- Arrest upon drug or alcohol-related driving offense, child protective services notified if child is present and operator is child's parent, guardian, or custodian.
46.61.508Liability of medical personnel withdrawing blood.
46.61.513Criminal history and driving record.
46.61.5151Sentences -- Intermittent fulfillment -- Restrictions.
46.61.5152Attendance at program focusing on victims.
46.61.516Qualified probation department defined.
46.61.517Refusal of test -- Admissibility as evidence.
46.61.519Alcoholic beverages -- Drinking or open container in vehicle on highway -- Exceptions.
46.61.5191Local ordinances not prohibited.
46.61.5195Disguising alcoholic beverage container.
46.61.520Vehicular homicide -- Penalty.
46.61.522Vehicular assault -- Penalty.
46.61.524Vehicular homicide, assault -- Revocation of driving privilege -- Eligibility for reinstatement.
46.61.5249Negligent driving -- First degree.
46.61.525Negligent driving -- Second degree.
46.61.526Negligent driving -- Second degree -- Vulnerable user victim -- Penalties -- Definitions.
46.61.527Roadway construction zones.
46.61.530Racing of vehicles on highways -- Reckless driving -- Exception.
46.61.535Advertising of unlawful speed -- Reckless driving.
46.61.540"Drugs," what included.
STOPPING, STANDING, AND PARKING
46.61.560Stopping, standing, or parking outside business or residence districts.
46.61.570Stopping, standing, or parking prohibited in specified places -- Reserving portion of highway prohibited.
46.61.575Additional parking regulations.
46.61.577Regulations governing parking facilities.
46.61.581Parking spaces for persons with disabilities -- Indication, access -- Failure, penalty.
46.61.582Free parking for persons with disabilities.
46.61.583Special plate or card issued by another jurisdiction.
46.61.585Winter recreational parking areas -- Special permit required.
46.61.587Winter recreational parking areas -- Penalty.
46.61.590Unattended motor vehicle -- Removal from highway.
MISCELLANEOUS RULES
46.61.600Unattended motor vehicle.
46.61.605Limitations on backing.
46.61.606Driving on sidewalk prohibited -- Exception.
46.61.608Operating motorcycles on roadways laned for traffic.
46.61.610Riding on motorcycles.
46.61.611Motorcycles -- Maximum height for handlebars.
46.61.612Riding on motorcycles -- Position of feet.
46.61.613Motorcycles -- Temporary suspension of restrictions for parades or public demonstrations.
46.61.614Riding on motorcycles -- Clinging to other vehicles.
46.61.615Obstructions to driver's view or driving mechanism.
46.61.620Opening and closing vehicle doors.
46.61.625Riding in trailers or towed vehicles.
46.61.630Coasting prohibited.
46.61.635Following fire apparatus prohibited.
46.61.640Crossing fire hose.
46.61.645Throwing materials on highway prohibited -- Removal.
46.61.655Dropping load, other materials -- Covering.
46.61.660Carrying persons or animals on outside part of vehicle.
46.61.665Embracing another while driving.
46.61.667Using a wireless communications device or hand-held mobile telephone while driving.
46.61.668Sending, reading, or writing a text message while driving.
46.61.670Driving with wheels off roadway.
46.61.675Causing or permitting vehicle to be unlawfully operated.
46.61.680Lowering passenger vehicle below legal clearance -- Penalty.
46.61.685Leaving children unattended in standing vehicle with motor running -- Penalty.
46.61.687Child passenger restraint required -- Conditions -- Exceptions -- Penalty for violation -- Dismissal -- Noncompliance not negligence -- Immunity.
46.61.6871Child passenger safety technician -- Immunity.
46.61.688Safety belts, use required -- Penalties -- Exemptions.
46.61.6885Child restraints, seatbelts -- Educational campaign.
46.61.690Violations relating to toll facilities--Exception.
46.61.700Parent or guardian shall not authorize or permit violation by a child or ward.
46.61.705Off-road motorcycles.
46.61.710Mopeds, EPAMDs, electric-assisted bicycles, motorized foot scooters -- General requirements and operation.
46.61.720Mopeds -- Safety standards.
46.61.723Medium-speed electric vehicles.
46.61.725Neighborhood electric vehicles.
46.61.730Wheelchair conveyances.
46.61.735Ferry queues -- Violations -- Exemptions.
46.61.740Theft of motor vehicle fuel.
OPERATION OF NONMOTORIZED VEHICLES
46.61.750Effect of regulations -- Penalty.
46.61.755Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles.
46.61.758Hand signals.
46.61.760Riding on bicycles.
46.61.765Clinging to vehicles.
46.61.770Riding on roadways and bicycle paths.
46.61.775Carrying articles.
46.61.780Lamps and other equipment on bicycles.
46.61.790Intoxicated bicyclists.
46.61.990Recodification of sections -- Organization of chapter -- Construction.
46.61.991Severability -- 1965 ex.s. c 155.

Notes:

Additional statutory assessments: RCW 3.62.090.

Limited access highways, turning, parking violations: RCW 47.52.120.

Traffic signal preemption devices, use of: RCW 46.37.670 through 46.37.675.



46.61.005
Chapter refers to vehicles upon highways — Exceptions.

The provisions of this chapter relating to the operation of vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon highways except:

     (1) Where a different place is specifically referred to in a given section.

     (2) The provisions of RCW
46.52.010 through 46.52.090, 46.61.500 through 46.61.525, and 46.61.5249 shall apply upon highways and elsewhere throughout the state.

[1997 c 66 § 13; 1990 c 291 § 4; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 1.]




46.61.015
Obedience to police officers, flaggers, or firefighters — Penalty.

(1) No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any duly authorized flagger or any police officer or firefighter invested by law with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic.

     (2) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

[2003 c 53 § 244; 2000 c 239 § 4; 1995 c 50 § 1; 1975 c 62 § 17; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 3.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.

     Captions not law -- 2000 c 239: See note following RCW 49.17.350.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.020
Refusal to give information to or cooperate with officer — Penalty.

(1) It is unlawful for any person while operating or in charge of any vehicle to refuse when requested by a police officer to give his or her name and address and the name and address of the owner of such vehicle, or for such person to give a false name and address, and it is likewise unlawful for any such person to refuse or neglect to stop when signaled to stop by any police officer or to refuse upon demand of such police officer to produce his or her certificate of license registration of such vehicle, his or her insurance identification card, or his or her vehicle driver's license or to refuse to permit such officer to take any such license, card, or certificate for the purpose of examination thereof or to refuse to permit the examination of any equipment of such vehicle or the weighing of such vehicle or to refuse or neglect to produce the certificate of license registration of such vehicle, insurance card, or his or her vehicle driver's license when requested by any court. Any police officer shall on request produce evidence of his or her authorization as such.

     (2) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

[2003 c 53 § 245; 1995 c 50 § 2; 1989 c 353 § 6; 1967 c 32 § 65; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.190. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 126; RRS § 6360-126; 1927 c 309 § 38; RRS § 6362-38. Formerly RCW 46.56.190.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.

     Severability -- Effective date -- 1989 c 353: See RCW 46.30.900 and 46.30.901.




46.61.021
Duty to obey law enforcement officer — Authority of officer.

(1) Any person requested or signaled to stop by a law enforcement officer for a traffic infraction has a duty to stop.

     (2) Whenever any person is stopped for a traffic infraction, the officer may detain that person for a reasonable period of time necessary to identify the person, check for outstanding warrants, check the status of the person's license, insurance identification card, and the vehicle's registration, and complete and issue a notice of traffic infraction.

     (3) Any person requested to identify himself or herself to a law enforcement officer pursuant to an investigation of a traffic infraction has a duty to identify himself or herself and give his or her current address.

[2006 c 270 § 1; 1997 1st sp.s. c 1 § 1; 1989 c 353 § 7; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 4.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1997 1st sp.s. c 1: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [September 17, 1997]." [1997 1st sp.s. c 1 § 2.]

     Severability -- Effective date -- 1989 c 353: See RCW 46.30.900 and 46.30.901.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.61.022
Failure to obey officer — Penalty.

Any person who wilfully fails to stop when requested or signaled to do so by a person reasonably identifiable as a law enforcement officer or to comply with RCW 46.61.021(3), is guilty of a misdemeanor.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 5.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.61.024
Attempting to elude police vehicle — Defense — License revocation.

(1) Any driver of a motor vehicle who willfully fails or refuses to immediately bring his or her vehicle to a stop and who drives his or her vehicle in a reckless manner while attempting to elude a pursuing police vehicle, after being given a visual or audible signal to bring the vehicle to a stop, shall be guilty of a class C felony. The signal given by the police officer may be by hand, voice, emergency light, or siren. The officer giving such a signal shall be in uniform and the vehicle shall be equipped with lights and sirens.

     (2) It is an affirmative defense to this section which must be established by a preponderance of the evidence that: (a) A reasonable person would not believe that the signal to stop was given by a police officer; and (b) driving after the signal to stop was reasonable under the circumstances.

     (3) The license or permit to drive or any nonresident driving privilege of a person convicted of a violation of this section shall be revoked by the department of licensing.

[2010 c 8 § 9065; 2003 c 101 § 1; 1983 c 80 § 1; 1982 1st ex.s. c 47 § 25; 1979 ex.s. c 75 § 1.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1982 1st ex.s. c 47: See note following RCW 9.41.190.




46.61.025
Persons riding animals or driving animal-drawn vehicles.

Every person riding an animal or driving any animal-drawn vehicle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter except those provisions of this chapter which by their very nature can have no application.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 4.]




46.61.030
Persons working on highway right-of-way — Exceptions.

Unless specifically made applicable, the provisions of this chapter except those contained in RCW 46.61.500 through 46.61.520 shall not apply to persons, motor vehicles and other equipment while engaged in work within the right-of-way of any highway but shall apply to such persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such work.

[1969 c 76 § 1; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 5.]




46.61.035
Authorized emergency vehicles.

(1) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law or when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth in this section, but subject to the conditions herein stated.

     (2) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle may:

     (a) Park or stand, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter;

     (b) Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation;

     (c) Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he or she does not endanger life or property;

     (d) Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions.

     (3) The exemptions herein granted to an authorized emergency vehicle shall apply only when such vehicle is making use of visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW
46.37.190, except that: (a) An authorized emergency vehicle operated as a police vehicle need not be equipped with or display a red light visible from in front of the vehicle; (b) authorized emergency vehicles shall use audible signals when necessary to warn others of the emergency nature of the situation but in no case shall they be required to use audible signals while parked or standing.

     (4) The foregoing provisions shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions protect the driver from the consequences of his or her reckless disregard for the safety of others.

[2010 c 8 § 9066; 1969 c 23 § 1; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 6.]




46.61.050
Obedience to and required traffic control devices.

(1) The driver of any vehicle, every bicyclist, and every pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official traffic control device applicable thereto placed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, unless otherwise directed by a traffic or police officer, subject to the exception granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in this chapter.

     (2) No provision of this chapter for which official traffic control devices are required shall be enforced against an alleged violator if at the time and place of the alleged violation an official device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible or visible to be seen by an ordinarily observant person. Whenever a particular section does not state that official traffic control devices are required, such section shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place.

     (3) Whenever official traffic control devices are placed in position approximately conforming to the requirements of this chapter, such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed by the official act or direction of lawful authority, unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

     (4) Any official traffic control device placed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter and purporting to conform to the lawful requirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed to comply with the requirements of this chapter, unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

[1975 c 62 § 18; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 7.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Bicycle awareness program: RCW 43.43.390.




46.61.055
Traffic control signal legend.

Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word or legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:

     (1) Green indication

     (a) Vehicle operators facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn. Vehicle operators turning right or left shall stop to allow other vehicles lawfully within the intersection control area to complete their movements. Vehicle operators turning right or left shall also stop for pedestrians who are lawfully within the intersection control area as required by RCW
46.61.235(1).

     (b) Vehicle operators facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may enter the intersection control area only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Vehicle operators shall stop to allow other vehicles lawfully within the intersection control area to complete their movements. Vehicle operators shall also stop for pedestrians who are lawfully within the intersection control area as required by RCW 46.61.235(1).

     (c) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal, as provided in RCW 46.61.060 as now or hereafter amended, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.

     (2) Steady yellow indication

     (a) Vehicle operators facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal are thereby warned that the related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter when vehicular traffic shall not enter the intersection. Vehicle operators shall stop for pedestrians who are lawfully within the intersection control area as required by RCW 46.61.235(1).

     (b) Pedestrians facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in RCW 46.61.060 shall not enter the roadway.

     (3) Steady red indication

     (a) Vehicle operators facing a steady circular red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering the intersection control area and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown. However, the vehicle operators facing a steady circular red signal may, after stopping proceed to make a right turn from a one-way or two-way street into a two-way street or into a one-way street carrying traffic in the direction of the right turn; or a left turn from a one-way or two-way street into a one-way street carrying traffic in the direction of the left turn; unless a sign posted by competent authority prohibits such movement. Vehicle operators planning to make such turns shall remain stopped to allow other vehicles lawfully within or approaching the intersection control area to complete their movements. Vehicle operators planning to make such turns shall also remain stopped for pedestrians who are lawfully within the intersection control area as required by RCW 46.61.235(1).

     (b) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in RCW 46.61.060 as now or hereafter amended, pedestrians facing a steady circular red signal alone shall not enter the roadway.

     (c) Vehicle operators facing a steady red arrow indication may not enter the intersection control area to make the movement indicated by such arrow, and unless entering the intersection control area to make such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering a crosswalk on the near side of the intersection control area, or if none, then before entering the intersection control area and shall remain standing until an indication to make the movement indicated by such arrow is shown. However, the vehicle operators facing a steady red arrow indication may, after stopping proceed to make a right turn from a one-way or two-way street into a two-way street or into a one-way street carrying traffic in the direction of the right turn; or a left turn from a one-way street or two-way street into a one-way street carrying traffic in the direction of the left turn; unless a sign posted by competent authority prohibits such movement. Vehicle operators planning to make such turns shall remain stopped to allow other vehicles lawfully within or approaching the intersection control area to complete their movements. Vehicle operators planning to make such turns shall also remain stopped for pedestrians who are lawfully within the intersection control area as required by RCW 46.61.235(1).

     (d) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian signal, pedestrians facing a steady red arrow signal indication shall not enter the roadway.

     (4) If an official traffic control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at the signal.

[1993 c 153 § 2; 1990 c 241 § 2; 1975 c 62 § 19; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 8.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.060
Pedestrian control signals.

Whenever pedestrian control signals exhibiting the words "Walk" or the walking person symbol or "Don't Walk" or the hand symbol are operating, the signals shall indicate as follows:

     (1) WALK or walking person symbol—Pedestrians facing such signal may cross the roadway in the direction of the signal. Vehicle operators shall stop for pedestrians who are lawfully moving within the intersection control area on such signal as required by RCW
46.61.235(1).

     (2) Steady or flashing DON'T WALK or hand symbol—Pedestrians facing such signal shall not enter the roadway. Vehicle operators shall stop for pedestrians who have begun to cross the roadway before the display of either signal as required by RCW 46.61.235(1).

     (3) Pedestrian control signals having the "Wait" legend in use on August 6, 1965, shall be deemed authorized signals and shall indicate the same as the "Don't Walk" legend. Whenever such pedestrian control signals are replaced the legend "Wait" shall be replaced by the legend "Don't Walk" or the hand symbol.

[1993 c 153 § 3; 1990 c 241 § 3; 1975 c 62 § 20; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 9.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.065
Flashing signals.

(1) Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow signal is used in a traffic sign or signal it shall require obedience by vehicular traffic as follows:

     (a) FLASHING RED (STOP SIGNAL). When a red lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering a marked crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection, and the right to proceed shall be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

     (b) FLASHING YELLOW (CAUTION SIGNAL). When a yellow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles may proceed through the intersection or past such signal only with caution.

     (2) This section shall not apply at railroad grade crossings. Conduct of drivers of vehicles approaching railroad grade crossings shall be governed by the rules as set forth in RCW
46.61.340.

[1975 c 62 § 21; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 10.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.070
Lane-direction-control signals.

When lane-direction-control signals are placed over the individual lanes of a street or highway, vehicular traffic may travel in any lane over which a green signal is shown, but shall not enter or travel in any lane over which a red signal is shown.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 11.]




46.61.072
Special traffic control signals — Legend.

Whenever special traffic control signals exhibit a downward green arrow, a yellow X, or a red X indication, such signal indication shall have the following meaning:

     (1) A steady downward green arrow means that a driver is permitted to drive in the lane over which the arrow signal is located.

     (2) A steady yellow X or flashing red X means that a driver should prepare to vacate, in a safe manner, the lane over which the signal is located because a lane control change is being made, and to avoid occupying that lane when a steady red X is displayed.

     (3) A flashing yellow X means that a driver is permitted to use a lane over which the signal is located for a left turn, using proper caution.

     (4) A steady red X means that a driver shall not drive in the lane over which the signal is located, and that this indication shall modify accordingly the meaning of all other traffic controls present. The driver shall obey all other traffic controls and follow normal safe driving practices.

[1975 c 62 § 49.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.075
Display of unauthorized signs, signals, or markings.

(1) No person shall place, maintain or display upon or in view of any highway any unauthorized sign, signal, marking or device which purports to be or is an imitation of or resembles an official traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, or which attempts to direct the movement of traffic, or which hides from view or interferes with the effectiveness of an official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal.

     (2) No person shall place or maintain nor shall any public authority permit upon any highway any traffic sign or signal bearing thereon any commercial advertising.

     (3) This section shall not be deemed to prohibit the erection upon private property adjacent to highways of signs giving useful directional information and of a type that cannot be mistaken for official signs.

     (4) Every such prohibited sign, signal or marking is hereby declared to be a public nuisance and the authority having jurisdiction over the highway is hereby empowered to remove the same or cause it to be removed without notice.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 12.]




46.61.080
Interference with official traffic-control devices or railroad signs or signals.

No person shall, without lawful authority, attempt to or in fact alter, deface, injure, knock down or remove any official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal or any inscription, shield or insignia thereon, or any other part thereof.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 13.]

Notes:

Interference with traffic-control signals or railroad signs or signals: RCW 47.36.130.



46.61.085
Traffic control signals or devices upon city streets forming part of state highways — Approval by department of transportation.

No traffic control signal or device may be erected or maintained upon any city street designated as forming a part of the route of a primary state highway or secondary state highway unless first approved by the state department of transportation.

[1984 c 7 § 62; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 14.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

Local authorities to provide stop signs at intersections with increased speed highways: RCW 46.61.435.




46.61.100
Keep right except when passing, etc.

(1) Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:

     (a) When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movement;

     (b) When an obstruction exists making it necessary to drive to the left of the center of the highway; provided, any person so doing shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the highway within such distance as to constitute an immediate hazard;

     (c) Upon a roadway divided into three marked lanes and providing for two-way movement traffic under the rules applicable thereon;

     (d) Upon a street or highway restricted to one-way traffic; or

     (e) Upon a highway having three lanes or less, when approaching a stationary authorized emergency vehicle, tow truck or other vehicle providing roadside assistance while operating warning lights with three hundred sixty degree visibility, or police vehicle as described under *RCW
46.61.212(2).

     (2) Upon all roadways having two or more lanes for traffic moving in the same direction, all vehicles shall be driven in the right-hand lane then available for traffic, except (a) when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction, (b) when traveling at a speed greater than the traffic flow, (c) when moving left to allow traffic to merge, or (d) when preparing for a left turn at an intersection, exit, or into a private road or driveway when such left turn is legally permitted. On any such roadway, a vehicle or combination over ten thousand pounds shall be driven only in the right-hand lane except under the conditions enumerated in (a) through (d) of this subsection.

     (3) No vehicle towing a trailer or no vehicle or combination over ten thousand pounds may be driven in the left-hand lane of a limited access roadway having three or more lanes for traffic moving in one direction except when preparing for a left turn at an intersection, exit, or into a private road or driveway when a left turn is legally permitted. This subsection does not apply to a vehicle using a high occupancy vehicle lane. A high occupancy vehicle lane is not considered the left-hand lane of a roadway. The department of transportation, in consultation with the Washington state patrol, shall adopt rules specifying (a) those circumstances where it is permissible for other vehicles to use the left lane in case of emergency or to facilitate the orderly flow of traffic, and (b) those segments of limited access roadway to be exempt from this subsection due to the operational characteristics of the roadway.

     (4) It is a traffic infraction to drive continuously in the left lane of a multilane roadway when it impedes the flow of other traffic.

     (5) Upon any roadway having four or more lanes for moving traffic and providing for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not be driven to the left of the center line of the roadway except when authorized by official traffic control devices designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as permitted under subsection (1)(b) of this section. However, this subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

[2007 c 83 § 2; 1997 c 253 § 1; 1986 c 93 § 2; 1972 ex.s. c 33 § 1; 1969 ex.s. c 281 § 46; 1967 ex.s. c 145 § 58; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 15.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     *Reviser's note: RCW 46.61.212 was amended by 2010 c 252 § 1, changing subsection (2) to subsection (1)(d)(ii), effective January 1, 2011.

     Legislative intent -- 1986 c 93: "It is the intent of the legislature, in this 1985 [1986] amendment of RCW 46.61.100, that the left-hand lane on any state highway with two or more lanes in the same direction be used primarily as a passing lane." [1986 c 93 § 1.]

Information on proper use of left-hand lane: RCW 28A.220.050, 46.20.095, 46.82.430, 47.36.260.




46.61.105
Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions.

Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall pass each other to the right, and upon roadways having width for not more than one line of traffic in each direction each driver shall give to the other at least one-half of the main-traveled portion of the roadway as nearly as possible.

[1975 c 62 § 22; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 16.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.110
Overtaking on the left.

The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those limitations, exceptions and special rules hereinafter stated:

     (1) The driver of a vehicle overtaking other traffic proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken traffic.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle approaching a pedestrian or bicycle that is on the roadway or on the right-hand shoulder or bicycle lane of the roadway shall pass to the left at a safe distance to clearly avoid coming into contact with the pedestrian or bicyclist, and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken pedestrian or bicyclist.

     (3) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, overtaken traffic shall give way to the right in favor of an overtaking vehicle on audible signal and shall not increase speed until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.

[2005 c 396 § 1; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 17.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.115
When overtaking on the right is permitted.

(1) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle only under the following conditions:

     (a) When the vehicle overtaken is making or about to make a left turn;

     (b) Upon a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for two or more lines of vehicles moving lawfully in the direction being traveled by the overtaking vehicle.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle upon the right only under conditions permitting such movement in safety. Such movement shall not be made by driving off the roadway.

[1975 c 62 § 23; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 18.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.120
Limitations on overtaking on the left.

No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of the roadway in overtaking and passing other traffic proceeding in the same direction unless authorized by the provisions of RCW 46.61.100 through 46.61.160 and 46.61.212 and unless such left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering with the operation of any traffic approaching from the opposite direction or any traffic overtaken. In every event the overtaking vehicle must return to an authorized lane of travel as soon as practicable and in the event the passing movement involves the use of a lane authorized for vehicles approaching from the opposite direction, before coming within two hundred feet of any approaching traffic.

[2007 c 83 § 3; 2005 c 396 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 19.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.125
Further limitations on driving to left of center of roadway.

(1) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the roadway under the following conditions:

     (a) When approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver's view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event other traffic might approach from the opposite direction;

     (b) When approaching within one hundred feet of or traversing any intersection or railroad grade crossing;

     (c) When the view is obstructed upon approaching within one hundred feet of any bridge, viaduct or tunnel;

     (d) When a bicycle or pedestrian is within view of the driver and is approaching from the opposite direction, or is present, in the roadway, shoulder, or bicycle lane within a distance unsafe to the bicyclist or pedestrian due to the width or condition of the roadway, shoulder, or bicycle lane.

     (2) The foregoing limitations shall not apply upon a one-way roadway, nor under the conditions described in RCW
46.61.100(1)(b), nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

[2005 c 396 § 3; 1972 ex.s. c 33 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 20.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.126
Pedestrians and bicyclists — Legal duties.

Nothing in RCW 46.61.110, 46.61.120, or 46.61.125 relieves pedestrians and bicyclists of their legal duties while traveling on public highways.

[2005 c 396 § 4.]




46.61.130
No-passing zones.

(1) The state department of transportation and the local authorities are authorized to determine those portions of any highway under their respective jurisdictions where overtaking and passing or driving to the left of the roadway would be especially hazardous and may by appropriate signs or markings on the roadway indicate the beginning and end of such zones. When such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to an ordinarily observant person every driver of a vehicle shall obey the directions thereof.

     (2) Where signs or markings are in place to define a no-passing zone as set forth in subsection (1) of this section, no driver may at any time drive on the left side of the roadway within the no-passing zone or on the left side of any pavement striping designed to mark the no-passing zone throughout its length.

     (3) This section does not apply under the conditions described in RCW
46.61.100(1)(b), nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road, or driveway.

[1984 c 7 § 63; 1972 ex.s. c 33 § 3; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 21.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.




46.61.135
One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands.

(1) The state department of transportation and the local authorities with respect to highways under their respective jurisdictions may designate any highway, roadway, part of a roadway, or specific lanes upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one direction at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic control devices.

     (2) Upon a roadway so designated for one-way traffic, a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic control devices.

     (3) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be driven only to the right of such island.

[1984 c 7 § 64; 1975 c 62 § 24; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 22.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.140
Driving on roadways laned for traffic.

Whenever any roadway has been divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for traffic the following rules in addition to all others consistent herewith shall apply:

     (1) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from such lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement can be made with safety.

     (2) Upon a roadway which is divided into three lanes and provides for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing another vehicle traveling in the same direction when such center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance, or in preparation for making a left turn or where such center lane is at the time allocated exclusively to traffic moving in the same direction that the vehicle is proceeding and such allocation is designated by official traffic-control devices.

     (3) Official traffic-control devices may be erected directing slow moving or other specified traffic to use a designated lane or designating those lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction regardless of the center of the roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.

     (4) Official traffic-control devices may be installed prohibiting the changing of lanes on sections of roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 23.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.145
Following too closely.

(1) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and the condition of the highway.

     (2) The driver of any motor truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or residence district and which is following another motor truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle shall, whenever conditions permit, leave sufficient space so that an overtaking vehicle may enter and occupy such space without danger, except that this shall not prevent a motor truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle from overtaking and passing any like vehicle or other vehicle.

     (3) Motor vehicles being driven upon any roadway outside of a business or residence district in a caravan or motorcade whether or not towing other vehicles shall be so operated as to allow sufficient space between each such vehicle or combination of vehicles so as to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger. This provision shall not apply to funeral processions.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 24.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.150
Driving on divided highways.

Whenever any highway has been divided into two or more roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical barrier or clearly indicated dividing section or by a median island not less than eighteen inches wide formed either by solid yellow pavement markings or by a yellow crosshatching between two solid yellow lines so installed as to control vehicular traffic, every vehicle shall be driven only upon the right-hand roadway unless directed or permitted to use another roadway by official traffic-control devices or police officers. No vehicle shall be driven over, across or within any such dividing space, barrier or section, or median island, except through an opening in such physical barrier or dividing section or space or median island, or at a crossover or intersection established by public authority.

[1972 ex.s. c 33 § 4; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 25.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.155
Restricted access.

No person shall drive a vehicle onto or from any limited access roadway except at such entrances and exits as are established by public authority.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 26.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.160
Restrictions on limited-access highway — Use by bicyclists.

The department of transportation may by order, and local authorities may by ordinance or resolution, with respect to any limited access highway under their respective jurisdictions prohibit the use of any such highway by funeral processions, or by parades, pedestrians, bicycles or other nonmotorized traffic, or by any person operating a motor-driven cycle. Bicyclists may use the right shoulder of limited-access highways except where prohibited. The department of transportation may by order, and local authorities may by ordinance or resolution, with respect to any limited-access highway under their respective jurisdictions prohibit the use of the shoulders of any such highway by bicycles within urban areas or upon other sections of the highway where such use is deemed to be unsafe.

     The department of transportation or the local authority adopting any such prohibitory regulation shall erect and maintain official traffic control devices on the limited access roadway on which such regulations are applicable, and when so erected no person may disobey the restrictions stated on such devices.

[1982 c 55 § 5; 1975 c 62 § 25; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 27.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.165
High occupancy vehicle lanes — Definition.

(1) The state department of transportation and the local authorities are authorized to reserve all or any portion of any highway under their respective jurisdictions, including any designated lane or ramp, for the exclusive or preferential use of one or more of the following: (a) Public transportation vehicles; (b) motorcycles; (c) private motor vehicles carrying no fewer than a specified number of passengers; or (d) the following private transportation provider vehicles if the vehicle has the capacity to carry eight or more passengers, regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle, and if such use does not interfere with the efficiency, reliability, and safety of public transportation operations: (i) Auto transportation company vehicles regulated under chapter 81.68 RCW; (ii) passenger charter carrier vehicles regulated under chapter 81.70 RCW, except marked or unmarked stretch limousines and stretch sport utility vehicles as defined under department of licensing rules; (iii) private nonprofit transportation provider vehicles regulated under chapter 81.66 RCW; and (iv) private employer transportation service vehicles, when such limitation will increase the efficient utilization of the highway or will aid in the conservation of energy resources.

     (2) Any transit-only lanes that allow other vehicles to access abutting businesses that are authorized pursuant to subsection (1) of this section may not be authorized for the use of private transportation provider vehicles as described under subsection (1) of this section.

     (3) The state department of transportation and the local authorities authorized to reserve all or any portion of any highway under their respective jurisdictions, for exclusive or preferential use, may prohibit the use of a high occupancy vehicle lane by the following private transportation provider vehicles: (a) Auto transportation company vehicles regulated under chapter 81.68 RCW; (b) passenger charter carrier vehicles regulated under chapter 81.70 RCW, and marked or unmarked limousines and stretch sport utility vehicles as defined under department of licensing rules; (c) private nonprofit transportation provider vehicles regulated under chapter 81.66 RCW; and (d) private employer transportation service vehicles, when the average transit speed in the high occupancy vehicle lane fails to meet department of transportation standards and falls below forty-five miles per hour at least ninety percent of the time during the peak hours, as determined by the department of transportation or the local authority, whichever operates the facility.

     (4) Regulations authorizing such exclusive or preferential use of a highway facility may be declared to be effective at all times or at specified times of day or on specified days. Violation of a restriction of highway usage prescribed by the appropriate authority under this section is a traffic infraction.

     (5) Local authorities are encouraged to establish a process for private transportation providers, as described under subsections (1) and (3) of this section, to apply for the use of public transportation facilities reserved for the exclusive or preferential use of public transportation vehicles. The application and review processes should be uniform and should provide for an expeditious response by the local authority. Whenever practicable, local authorities should enter into agreements with such private transportation providers to allow for the reasonable use of these facilities.

     (6) For the purposes of this section, "private employer transportation service" means regularly scheduled, fixed-route transportation service that is similarly marked or identified to display the business name or logo on the driver and passenger sides of the vehicle, meets the annual certification requirements of the department of transportation, and is offered by an employer for the benefit of its employees.

[2013 c 26 § 2; 2011 c 379 § 1; 1999 c 206 § 1; 1998 c 245 § 90; 1991 sp.s. c 15 § 67; 1984 c 7 § 65; 1974 ex.s. c 133 § 2.]

Notes:

     Conflict with state and federal environmental mitigation requirements -- 2011 c 379: "If any part of this act is found to be in conflict with mitigation requirements under the state environmental policy act (chapter 43.21C RCW) or the national environmental policy act (42 U.S.C. Secs. 4321 through 4347) or in any other way conflicts with federal requirements that are a condition or part of the allocation of federal funds to the state or local facilities, the conflicting part of this act is inoperative solely to the extent of the conflict and with respect to the agencies directly affected, and this finding does not affect the operation of the remainder of this act in its application to the agencies concerned. Rules adopted under this act must meet federal requirements that are a necessary condition to the receipt of federal funds by the state or local authorities." [2011 c 379 § 5.]

     Construction -- Severability -- 1991 sp.s. c 15: See note following RCW 46.68.110.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

Limited access facilities: RCW 47.52.025.




46.61.180
Vehicle approaching intersection.

(1) When two vehicles approach or enter an intersection from different highways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.

     (2) The right-of-way rule declared in subsection (1) of this section is modified at arterial highways and otherwise as stated in this chapter.

[1975 c 62 § 26; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 28.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.183
Nonfunctioning signal lights.

Except when directed to proceed by a flagger, police officer, or firefighter, the driver of a vehicle approaching an intersection controlled by a traffic control signal that is temporarily without power on all approaches or is not displaying any green, red, or yellow indication to the approach the vehicle is on, shall consider the intersection to be an all-way stop. After stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way in accordance with RCW 46.61.180(1) and 46.61.185.

[1999 c 200 § 1.]




46.61.185
Vehicle turning left.

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into an alley, private road, or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 29.]




46.61.190
Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection.

(1) Preferential right-of-way may be indicated by stop signs or yield signs as authorized in RCW 47.36.110.

     (2) Except when directed to proceed by a duly authorized flagger, or a police officer, or a firefighter vested by law with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering a marked crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the roadway, and after having stopped shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways.

     (3) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering a marked crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the roadway, and then after slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways: PROVIDED, That if such a driver is involved in a collision with a vehicle in the intersection or junction of roadways, after driving past a yield sign without stopping, such collision shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the driver's failure to yield right-of-way.

[2000 c 239 § 5; 1975 c 62 § 27; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 30.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Captions not law -- 2000 c 239: See note following RCW 49.17.350.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Stop signs, "Yield" signs -- Duties of persons using highway: RCW 47.36.110.




46.61.195
Arterial highways designated — Stopping on entering.

All state highways are hereby declared to be arterial highways as respects all other public highways or private ways, except that the state department of transportation has the authority to designate any county road or city street as an arterial having preference over the traffic on the state highway if traffic conditions will be improved by such action.

     Those city streets designated by the state department of transportation as forming a part of the routes of state highways through incorporated cities and towns are declared to be arterial highways as respects all other city streets or private ways.

     The governing authorities of incorporated cities and towns may designate any street as an arterial having preference over the traffic on a state highway if the change is first approved in writing by the state department of transportation. The local authorities making such a change in arterial designation shall do so by proper ordinance or resolution and shall erect or cause to be erected and maintained standard stop signs, or "Yield" signs, to accomplish this change in arterial designation.

     The operator of any vehicle entering upon any arterial highway from any other public highway or private way shall come to a complete stop before entering the arterial highway when stop signs are erected as provided by law.

[1984 c 7 § 66; 1963 ex.s. c 3 § 48; 1961 c 12 § 46.60.330. Prior: 1955 c 146 § 5; 1947 c 200 § 14; 1937 c 189 § 105; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-105. Formerly RCW 46.60.330.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

City streets subject to increased speed, designation as arterials: RCW 46.61.435.

Stop signs, "Yield" signs -- Duties of persons using highway: RCW 47.36.110.




46.61.200
Stop intersections other than arterial may be designated.

In addition to the points of intersection of any public highway with any arterial public highway that is constituted by law or by any proper authorities of this state or any city or town of this state, the state department of transportation with respect to state highways, and the proper authorities with respect to any other public highways, have the power to determine and designate any particular intersection, or any particular highways, roads, or streets or portions thereof, at any intersection with which vehicles shall be required to stop before entering such intersection. Upon the determination and designation of such points at which vehicles will be required to come to a stop before entering the intersection, the proper authorities so determining and designating shall cause to be posted and maintained proper signs of the standard design adopted by the state department of transportation indicating that the intersection has been so determined and designated and that vehicles entering it are required to stop. It is unlawful for any person operating any vehicle when entering any intersection determined, designated, and bearing the required sign to fail and neglect to bring the vehicle to a complete stop before entering the intersection.

[1984 c 7 § 67; 1961 c 12 § 46.60.340. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 106; RRS § 6360-106; 1927 c 284 § 1; RRS § 6362-41a. Formerly RCW 46.60.340.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.




46.61.202
Stopping when traffic obstructed.

No driver shall enter an intersection or a marked crosswalk or drive onto any railroad grade crossing unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection, crosswalk, or railroad grade crossing to accommodate the vehicle he or she is operating without obstructing the passage of other vehicles, pedestrians, or railroad trains notwithstanding any traffic control signal indications to proceed.

[2010 c 8 § 9067; 1975 c 62 § 48.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.205
Vehicle entering highway from private road or driveway.

The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from a private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles lawfully approaching on said highway.

[1990 c 250 § 88; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 31.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1990 c 250: See note following RCW 46.18.215.




46.61.210
Operation of vehicles on approach of emergency vehicles.

(1) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of audible and visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.190, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal only the driver of every other vehicle shall yield the right-of-way and shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise directed by a police officer.

     (2) This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 32.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.212
Approaching emergency zones — Penalty — Violation.

(1) The driver of any motor vehicle, upon approaching an emergency zone, which is defined as the adjacent lanes of the roadway two hundred feet before and after (a) a stationary authorized emergency vehicle that is making use of audible and/or visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.190, (b) a tow truck that is making use of visual red lights meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.196, (c) other vehicles providing roadside assistance that are making use of warning lights with three hundred sixty degree visibility, or (d) a police vehicle properly and lawfully displaying a flashing, blinking, or alternating emergency light or lights, shall:

     (i) On a highway having four or more lanes, at least two of which are intended for traffic proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle, proceed with caution and, if reasonable, with due regard for safety and traffic conditions, yield the right-of-way by making a lane change or moving away from the lane or shoulder occupied by the stationary authorized emergency vehicle or police vehicle;

     (ii) On a highway having less than four lanes, proceed with caution, reduce the speed of the vehicle, and, if reasonable, with due regard for safety and traffic conditions, and under the rules of this chapter, yield the right-of-way by passing to the left at a safe distance and simultaneously yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the highway; or

     (iii) If changing lanes or moving away would be unreasonable or unsafe, proceed with due caution and reduce the speed of the vehicle.

     (2) A person may not drive a vehicle in an emergency zone at a speed greater than the posted speed limit.

     (3) A person found to be in violation of this section, or any infraction relating to speed restrictions in an emergency zone, must be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. This penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (4) A person who drives a vehicle in an emergency zone in such a manner as to endanger or be likely to endanger any emergency zone worker or property is guilty of reckless endangerment of emergency zone workers. A violation of this subsection is a gross misdemeanor punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

     (5) The department shall suspend for sixty days the driver's license, permit to drive, or nonresident driving privilege of a person convicted of reckless endangerment of emergency zone workers.

[2010 c 252 § 1; 2007 c 83 § 1; 2005 c 413 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2010 c 252: "This act takes effect January 1, 2011." [2010 c 252 § 6.]




46.61.215
Highway construction and maintenance.

(1) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle or pedestrian actually engaged in work upon a highway within any highway construction or maintenance area indicated by official traffic control devices.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle obviously and actually engaged in work upon a highway whenever such vehicle displays flashing lights meeting the requirements of RCW
46.37.300.

[1975 c 62 § 40.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.220
Transit vehicles.

(1) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to a transit vehicle traveling in the same direction that has signalled and is reentering the traffic flow.

     (2) Nothing in this section shall operate to relieve the driver of a transit vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the roadway.

[1993 c 401 § 1.]




46.61.230
Pedestrians subject to traffic regulations.

Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control signals at intersections as provided in RCW 46.61.060, and at all other places pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this chapter.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 33.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.235
Crosswalks.

(1) The operator of an approaching vehicle shall stop and remain stopped to allow a pedestrian or bicycle to cross the roadway within an unmarked or marked crosswalk when the pedestrian or bicycle is upon or within one lane of the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or onto which it is turning. For purposes of this section "half of the roadway" means all traffic lanes carrying traffic in one direction of travel, and includes the entire width of a one-way roadway.

     (2) No pedestrian or bicycle shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk, run, or otherwise move into the path of a vehicle which is so close that it is impossible for the driver to stop.

     (3) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply under the conditions stated in RCW
46.61.240(2).

     (4) Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian or bicycle to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.

     (5)(a) If a person is found to have committed an infraction under this section within a school, playground, or crosswalk speed zone created under RCW 46.61.440, the person must be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. The penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (b) Fifty percent of the moneys collected under this subsection must be deposited into the school zone safety account.

[2010 c 242 § 1; 2000 c 85 § 1; 1993 c 153 § 1; 1990 c 241 § 4; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 34.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Effective date -- 2010 c 242: See note following RCW 46.61.275.




46.61.240
Crossing at other than crosswalks.

(1) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

     (2) Where curb ramps exist at or adjacent to intersections or at marked crosswalks in other locations, disabled persons may enter the roadway from the curb ramps and cross the roadway within or as closely as practicable to the crosswalk. All other pedestrian rights and duties as defined elsewhere in this chapter remain applicable.

     (3) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

     (4) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.

     (5) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices; and, when authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining to such crossing movements.

     (6) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway at an unmarked crosswalk where an official sign prohibits such crossing.

[1990 c 241 § 5; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 35.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.245
Drivers to exercise care.

(1) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this chapter every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian upon any roadway and shall give warning by sounding the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any obviously confused or incapacitated person upon a roadway.

     (2)(a) If a person is found to have committed an infraction under this section within a school, playground, or crosswalk speed zone created under RCW
46.61.440, the person must be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. The penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (b) Fifty percent of the moneys collected under this subsection must be deposited into the school zone safety account.

[2010 c 242 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 36.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Effective date -- 2010 c 242: See note following RCW 46.61.275.

Blind pedestrians: Chapter 70.84 RCW.




46.61.250
Pedestrians on roadways.

(1) Where sidewalks are provided it is unlawful for any pedestrian to walk or otherwise move along and upon an adjacent roadway. Where sidewalks are provided but wheelchair access is not available, disabled persons who require such access may walk or otherwise move along and upon an adjacent roadway until they reach an access point in the sidewalk.

     (2) Where sidewalks are not provided any pedestrian walking or otherwise moving along and upon a highway shall, when practicable, walk or move only on the left side of the roadway or its shoulder facing traffic which may approach from the opposite direction and upon meeting an oncoming vehicle shall move clear of the roadway.

[1990 c 241 § 6; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 37.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.255
Pedestrians soliciting rides or business.

(1) No person shall stand in or on a public roadway or alongside thereof at any place where a motor vehicle cannot safely stop off the main traveled portion thereof for the purpose of soliciting a ride for himself or herself or for another from the occupant of any vehicle.

     (2) It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit a ride for himself or herself or another from within the right-of-way of any limited access facility except in such areas where permission to do so is given and posted by the highway authority of the state, county, city, or town having jurisdiction over the highway.

     (3) The provisions of subsections (1) and (2) above shall not be construed to prevent a person upon a public highway from soliciting, or a driver of a vehicle from giving a ride where an emergency actually exists, nor to prevent a person from signaling or requesting transportation from a passenger carrier for the purpose of becoming a passenger thereon for hire.

     (4) No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of soliciting employment or business from the occupant of any vehicle.

     (5) No person shall stand on or in proximity to a street or highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a street or highway.

     (6)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, the state preempts the field of the regulation of hitchhiking in any form, and no county, city, or town shall take any action in conflict with the provisions of this section.

     (b) A county, city, or town may regulate or prohibit hitchhiking in an area in which it has determined that prostitution is occurring and that regulating or prohibiting hitchhiking will help to reduce prostitution in the area.

[2010 c 8 § 9068; 1989 c 288 § 1; 1972 ex.s. c 38 § 1; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 38.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.260
Driving through safety zone prohibited.

No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a safety zone.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 39.]




46.61.261
Sidewalks, crosswalks — Pedestrians, bicycles.

(1) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian or bicycle on a sidewalk. The rider of a bicycle shall yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian on a sidewalk or crosswalk.

     (2)(a) If a person is found to have committed an infraction under this section within a school, playground, or crosswalk speed zone created under RCW
46.61.440, the person must be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. The penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (b) Fifty percent of the moneys collected under this subsection must be deposited into the school zone safety account.

[2010 c 242 § 3; 2000 c 85 § 2; 1975 c 62 § 41.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Effective date -- 2010 c 242: See note following RCW 46.61.275.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.264
Pedestrians yield to emergency vehicles.

(1) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.380 subsection (4) and visual signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.190, or of a police vehicle meeting the requirements of RCW 46.61.035 subsection (3), every pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to the authorized emergency vehicle.

     (2) This section shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway nor from the duty to exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian.

[1975 c 62 § 42.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.266
Pedestrians under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

A law enforcement officer may offer to transport a pedestrian who appears to be under the influence of alcohol or any drug and who is walking or moving along or within the right-of-way of a public roadway, unless the pedestrian is to be taken into protective custody under RCW 70.96A.120.

     The law enforcement officer offering to transport an intoxicated pedestrian under this section shall:

     (1) Transport the intoxicated pedestrian to a safe place; or

     (2) Release the intoxicated pedestrian to a competent person.

     The law enforcement officer shall take no action if the pedestrian refuses this assistance. No suit or action may be commenced or prosecuted against the law enforcement officer, law enforcement agency, the state of Washington, or any political subdivision of the state for any act resulting from the refusal of the pedestrian to accept this assistance.

[1990 c 241 § 7; 1987 c 11 § 1; 1975 c 62 § 43.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.269
Passing beyond bridge or grade crossing barrier prohibited.

(1) No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or approach thereto beyond a bridge signal gate, or barrier indicating a bridge is closed to through traffic, after a bridge operation signal indication has been given.

     (2) No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over, or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or bridge while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

[1975 c 62 § 44.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.275
Reporting of certain speed zone violations — Subsequent law enforcement investigation.

(1) A crossing guard who is eighteen years of age or older and observes a violation of RCW 46.61.235(5), 46.61.245(2), or 46.61.261(2) may prepare a written report on a form provided by the state patrol or another law enforcement agency indicating that a violation has occurred. A crossing guard or school official may deliver the report to a law enforcement officer of the state, county, or municipality in which the violation occurred, but not more than seventy-two hours after the violation occurred. The crossing guard must include in the report the time and location at which the violation occurred, the vehicle license plate number, and a description of the vehicle involved in the violation.    

     (2) The law enforcement officer may initiate an investigation of the reported violation after receiving the report described in subsection (1) of this section by contacting the owner of the motor vehicle involved in the reported violation and requesting the owner to supply information identifying the driver. If, after an investigation, the law enforcement officer is able to identify the driver and has reasonable cause to believe a violation of RCW 46.61.235(5), 46.61.245(2), or46.61.261 (2) has occurred, the law enforcement officer shall prepare a notice of traffic infraction and have it served upon the driver of the vehicle.

[2010 c 242 § 5.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2010 c 242: "This act takes effect July 1, 2010." [2010 c 242 § 6.]




46.61.290
Required position and method of turning at intersections.

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn shall do so as follows:

     (1) Right turns. Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.

     (2) Left turns. The driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach the turn in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of the vehicle. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be made to the left of the center of the intersection and so as to leave the intersection or other location in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the same direction as the vehicle on the roadway being entered.

     (3) Two-way left turn lanes.

     (a) The department of transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may designate a two-way left turn lane on a roadway. A two-way left turn lane is near the center of the roadway set aside for use by vehicles making left turns in either direction from or into the roadway.

     (b) Two-way left turn lanes shall be designated by distinctive uniform roadway markings. The department of transportation shall determine and prescribe standards and specifications governing type, length, width, and positioning of the distinctive permanent markings. The standards and specifications developed shall be filed with the code reviser in accordance with the procedures set forth in the administrative procedure act, chapter
34.05 RCW. On and after July 1, 1971, permanent markings designating a two-way left turn lane shall conform to such standards and specifications.

     (c) Upon a roadway where a center lane has been provided by distinctive pavement markings for the use of vehicles turning left from either direction, no vehicles may turn left from any other lane. A vehicle shall not be driven in this center lane for the purpose of overtaking or passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction. No vehicle may travel further than three hundred feet within the lane. A signal, either electric or manual, for indicating a left turn movement, shall be made at least one hundred feet before the actual left turn movement is made.

     (4) The department of transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause official traffic-control devices to be placed and thereby require and direct that a different course from that specified in this section be traveled by turning vehicles, and when the devices are so placed no driver of a vehicle may turn a vehicle other than as directed and required by the devices.

[1997 c 202 § 1. Prior: 1984 c 12 § 1; 1984 c 7 § 68; 1975 c 62 § 28; 1969 ex.s. c 281 § 61; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 40.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.295
"U" turns.

(1) The driver of any vehicle shall not turn such vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction unless such movement can be made in safety and without interfering with other traffic.

     (2) No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within five hundred feet.

[1975 c 62 § 29; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 41.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Limited access highways: RCW 47.52.120.




46.61.300
Starting parked vehicle.

No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing or parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 42.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.305
When signals required — Improper use prohibited.

(1) No person shall turn a vehicle or move right or left upon a roadway unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety nor without giving an appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter provided.

     (2) A signal of intention to turn or move right or left when required shall be given continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet traveled by the vehicle before turning.

     (3) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided herein to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is opportunity to give such signal.

     (4) The signals provided for in RCW
46.61.310 subsection (2), shall not be flashed on one side only on a disabled vehicle, flashed as a courtesy or "do pass" signal to operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear, nor be flashed on one side only of a parked vehicle except as may be necessary for compliance with this section.

[1975 c 62 § 30; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 43.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.310
Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps.

(1) Any stop or turn signal when required herein shall be given either by means of the hand and arm or by signal lamps, except as otherwise provided in subsection (2) hereof.

     (2) Any motor vehicle in use on a highway shall be equipped with, and required signal shall be given by, signal lamps when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to the left outside limit of the body, cab or load of such motor vehicle exceeds twenty-four inches, or when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to the rear limit of the body or load thereof exceeds fourteen feet. The latter measurements shall apply to any single vehicle, also to any combination of vehicles.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 44.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.315
Method of giving hand and arm signals.

All signals herein required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner and such signals shall indicate as follows:

     (1) Left turn. Hand and arm extended horizontally.

     (2) Right turn. Hand and arm extended upward.

     (3) Stop or decrease speed. Hand and arm extended downward.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 45.]




46.61.340
Approaching train signal.

(1) Whenever any person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade crossing under any of the circumstances stated in this section, the driver of such vehicle shall stop within fifty feet but not less than fifteen feet from the nearest rail of such railroad, and shall not proceed until the crossing can be made safely. The foregoing requirements shall apply when:

     (a) A clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device gives warning of the immediate approach of a railroad train;

     (b) A crossing gate is lowered or when a human flagger gives or continues to give a signal of the approach or passage of a railroad train;

     (c) An approaching railroad train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity to such crossing.

     (2) No person shall drive any vehicle through, around or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad crossing while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

[2000 c 239 § 6; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 46.]

Notes:

     Captions not law -- 2000 c 239: See note following RCW 49.17.350.




46.61.345
All vehicles must stop at certain railroad grade crossings.

The state department of transportation and local authorities within their respective jurisdictions are authorized to designate particularly dangerous highway grade crossings of railroads and to erect stop signs at those crossings. When such stop signs are erected the driver of any vehicle shall stop within fifty feet but not less than fifteen feet from the nearest rail of the railroad and shall proceed only upon exercising due care.

[1984 c 7 § 69; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 47.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.




46.61.350
Certain vehicles must stop at all railroad grade crossings — Exceptions — Definition.


     *** CHANGE IN 2014 *** (SEE
2137.SL) ***

(1)(a) The driver of any of the following vehicles must stop before the stop line, if present, and otherwise within fifty feet but not less than fifteen feet from the nearest rail at a railroad grade crossing unless exempt under subsection (3) of this section:

     (i) A school bus or private carrier bus carrying any school child or other passenger;

     (ii) A commercial motor vehicle transporting passengers;

     (iii) A cargo tank, whether loaded or empty, used for transporting any hazardous material as defined in the hazardous materials regulations of the United States department of transportation in 49 C.F.R. Parts 107 through 180 as it existed on June 10, 2010, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the state patrol by rule, consistent with the purposes of this section. For the purposes of this section, a cargo tank is any commercial motor vehicle designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or the chassis;

     (iv) A cargo tank, whether loaded or empty, transporting a commodity under exemption in accordance with 49 C.F.R. Part 107, Subpart B as it existed on June 10, 2010, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the state patrol by rule, consistent with the purposes of this section;

     (v) A cargo tank transporting a commodity that at the time of loading has a temperature above its flashpoint as determined by the United States department of transportation in 49 C.F.R. Sec. 173.120 as it existed on June 10, 2010, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the state patrol by rule, consistent with the purposes of this section; or

     (vi) A commercial motor vehicle that is required to be marked or placarded with any one of the following classifications by the United States department of transportation in 49 C.F.R. Part 172 as it existed on June 10, 2010, or such subsequent date as may be provided by the state patrol by rule, consistent with the purposes of this section:

     (A) Division 1.1, Division 1.2, Division 1.3, or Division 1.4;

     (B) Division 2.1, Division 2.2, Division 2.2 oxygen, Division 2.3 poison gas, or Division 2.3 chlorine;

     (C) Division 4.1 or Division 4.3;

     (D) Division 5.1 or Division 5.2;

     (E) Division 6.1 poison;

     (F) Class 3 combustible liquid or Class 3 flammable;

     (G) Class 7;

     (H) Class 8.

     (b) While stopped, the driver must listen and look in both directions along the track for any approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train. The driver may not proceed until he or she can do so safely.

     (2) After stopping at a railroad grade crossing and upon proceeding when it is safe to do so, the driver must cross only in a gear that permits the vehicle to traverse the crossing without changing gears. The driver may not shift gears while crossing the track or tracks.

     (3) This section does not apply at any railroad grade crossing where:

     (a) Traffic is controlled by a police officer or flagger.

     (b) A functioning traffic control signal is transmitting a green light.

     (c) The tracks are used exclusively for a streetcar or industrial switching purposes.

     (d) The utilities and transportation commission has approved the installation of an "exempt" sign in accordance with the procedures and standards under RCW 81.53.060.

     (e) The crossing is abandoned and is marked with a sign indicating it is out-of-service.

     (f) The state patrol has, by rule, identified a crossing where stopping is not required.

     (g) The superintendent of public instruction has, by rule, identified a circumstance under which a school bus or private carrier bus carrying any school child or other passenger is not required to stop.

     (4) For the purpose of this section, "commercial motor vehicle" means: Any vehicle with a manufacturer's seating capacity for eight or more passengers, including the driver, that transports passengers for hire; any private carrier bus; any vehicle used to transport property that has a gross vehicle weight rating, gross combination weight rating, gross vehicle weight, or gross combination weight of 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds) or more; and any vehicle used in the transportation of hazardous materials as defined in RCW 46.25.010.

[2011 c 151 § 6. Prior: 2010 c 15 § 1; 2010 c 8 § 9069; 1977 c 78 § 1; 1975 c 62 § 31; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 7; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 48.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.355
Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings — Notice of intended crossing.

(1) No person shall operate or move any crawler-type tractor, steam shovel, derrick, roller, or any equipment or structure having a normal operating speed of ten or less miles per hour or a vertical body or load clearance of less than one-half inch per foot of the distance between any two adjacent axles or in any event of less than nine inches, measured above the level surface of a roadway, upon or across any tracks at a railroad grade crossing without first complying with this section.

     (2) Notice of any such intended crossing shall be given to the station agent of such railroad located nearest the intended crossing sufficiently in advance to allow such railroad a reasonable time to prescribe proper protection for such crossing.

     (3) Before making any such crossing the person operating or moving any such vehicle or equipment shall first stop the same not less than fifteen feet nor more than fifty feet from the nearest rail of such railroad and while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions along such track for any approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not proceed until the crossing can be made safely.

     (4) No such crossing shall be made when warning is given by automatic signal or crossing gates or a flagger or otherwise of the immediate approach of a railroad train or car. If a flagger is provided by the railroad, movement over the crossing shall be under the flagger's direction.

[2000 c 239 § 7; 1975 c 62 § 32; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 49.]

Notes:

     Captions not law -- 2000 c 239: See note following RCW 49.17.350.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.365
Emerging from alley, driveway, or building.

The driver of a vehicle within a business or residence district emerging from an alley, driveway or building shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across any alleyway or driveway, and shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian as may be necessary to avoid collision, and upon entering the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on said roadway.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 51.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.370
Overtaking or meeting school bus, exceptions — Duties of bus driver — Penalty — Safety cameras.

(1) The driver of a vehicle upon overtaking or meeting from either direction any school bus which has stopped on the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging any school children shall stop the vehicle before reaching such school bus when there is in operation on said school bus a visual signal as specified in RCW 46.37.190 and said driver shall not proceed until such school bus resumes motion or the visual signals are no longer activated.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway divided into separate roadways as provided in RCW 46.61.150 need not stop upon meeting a school bus which is proceeding in the opposite direction and is stopped for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children.

     (3) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway with three or more marked traffic lanes need not stop upon meeting a school bus which is proceeding in the opposite direction and is stopped for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children.

     (4) The driver of a school bus shall actuate the visual signals required by RCW 46.37.190 only when such bus is stopped on the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children.

     (5) The driver of a school bus may stop completely off the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children only when the school children do not have to cross the roadway. The school bus driver shall actuate the hazard warning lamps as defined in RCW 46.37.215 before loading or unloading school children at such stops.

     (6) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, a person found to have committed an infraction of subsection (1) of this section shall be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the total penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. This penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended. Fifty percent of the money so collected shall be deposited into the school zone safety account in the custody of the state treasurer and disbursed in accordance with RCW 46.61.440(5).

     (7) An infraction of subsection (1) of this section detected through the use of an automated school bus safety camera under RCW 46.63.180 is not a part of the registered owner's driving record under RCW 46.52.101 and 46.52.120, and must be processed in the same manner as parking infractions, including for the purposes of RCW 3.50.100, 35.20.220, 46.16A.120, and 46.20.270(3). However, the amount of the fine issued for a violation of this section detected through the use of an automated school bus safety camera shall not exceed twice the monetary penalty for a violation of this section as provided under RCW 46.63.110.

[2011 c 375 § 3; 1997 c 80 § 1; 1990 c 241 § 8; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 52.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Intent -- 2011 c 375: See note following RCW 46.63.180.

Bus routes: RCW 28A.160.115.




46.61.371
School bus stop sign violators — Identification by vehicle owner.

If a law enforcement officer investigating a violation of RCW 46.61.370 has reasonable cause to believe that a violation has occurred, the officer may request the owner of the motor vehicle to supply information identifying the driver of the vehicle at the time the violation occurred. When requested, the owner of the motor vehicle shall identify the driver to the best of the owner's ability. The owner of the vehicle is not required to supply identification information to the law enforcement officer if the owner believes the information is self-incriminating.

[1992 c 39 § 1.]




46.61.372
School bus stop sign violators — Report by bus driver — Law enforcement investigation.

(1) The driver of a school bus who observes a violation of RCW 46.61.370 may prepare a written report on a form provided by the state patrol or another law enforcement agency indicating that a violation has occurred. The driver of the school bus or a school official may deliver the report to a law enforcement officer of the state, county, or municipality in which the violation occurred but not more than seventy-two hours after the violation occurred. The driver shall include in the report the time and location at which the violation occurred, the vehicle license plate number, and a description of the vehicle involved in the violation.

     (2) The law enforcement officer shall initiate an investigation of the reported violation within ten working days after receiving the report described in subsection (1) of this section by contacting the owner of the motor vehicle involved in the reported violation and requesting the owner to supply information identifying the driver. Failure to investigate within the ten working day period does not prohibit further investigation or prosecution. If, after an investigation, the law enforcement officer is able to identify the driver and has reasonable cause to believe a violation of RCW 46.61.370 has occurred, the law enforcement officer shall prepare a notice of traffic infraction and have it served upon the driver of the vehicle.

[1992 c 39 § 2.]




46.61.375
Overtaking or meeting private carrier bus — Duties of bus driver.

(1) The driver of a vehicle upon overtaking or meeting from either direction any private carrier bus which has stopped on the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging any passenger shall stop the vehicle before reaching such private carrier bus when there is in operation on said bus a visual signal as specified in RCW 46.37.190 and said driver shall not proceed until such bus resumes motion or the visual signals are no longer activated.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway divided into separate roadways as provided in RCW 46.61.150 need not stop upon meeting a private carrier bus which is proceeding in the opposite direction and is stopped for the purpose of receiving or discharging passengers.

     (3) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway with three or more lanes need not stop upon meeting a private carrier bus which is proceeding in the opposite direction and is stopped for the purpose of receiving or discharging passengers.

     (4) The driver of a private carrier bus shall actuate the visual signals required by RCW 46.37.190 only when such bus is stopped on the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging passengers.

     (5) The driver of a private carrier bus may stop a private carrier bus completely off the roadway for the purpose of receiving or discharging passengers only when the passengers do not have to cross the roadway. The private carrier bus driver shall actuate the hazard warning lamps as defined in RCW 46.37.215 before loading or unloading passengers at such stops.

[1990 c 241 § 9; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 8.]




46.61.380
Rules for design, marking, and mode of operating school buses.

(1) The state superintendent of public instruction shall adopt and enforce rules not inconsistent with the law of this state to govern the design, marking, and mode of operation of all school buses owned and operated by any school district or privately owned and operated under contract or otherwise with any school district in this state for the transportation of school children.

     (2) School districts shall not be prohibited from placing or displaying a flag of the United States on a school bus when it does not interfere with the vehicle's safe operation. The state superintendent of public instruction shall adopt and enforce rules not inconsistent with the law of this state to govern the size, placement, and display of the flag of the United States on all school buses referenced in subsection (1) of this section.

     (3) Rules shall by reference be made a part of any such contract or other agreement with the school district. Every school district, its officers and employees, and every person employed under contract or otherwise by a school district is subject to such rules. It is unlawful for any officer or employee of any school district or for any person operating any school bus under contract with any school district to violate any of the provisions of such rules.

[2002 c 29 § 1; 1995 c 269 § 2501; 1984 c 7 § 70; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.150. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 131; RRS § 6360-131. Formerly RCW 46.48.150.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Part headings not law -- Severability -- 1995 c 269: See notes following RCW 18.16.050.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

School buses
   generally: Chapter 28A.160 RCW.
   signs: RCW 46.37.193.
   stop signal and lamps: RCW 46.37.190.




46.61.385
School patrol — Appointment — Authority — Finance — Insurance.

The superintendent of public instruction, through the superintendent of schools of any school district, or other officer or board performing like functions with respect to the schools of any other educational administrative district, may cause to be appointed voluntary adult recruits as supervisors and, from the student body of any public or private school or institution of learning, students, who shall be known as members of the "school patrol" and who shall serve without compensation and at the pleasure of the authority making the appointment.

     The members of such school patrol shall wear an appropriate designation or insignia identifying them as members of the school patrol when in performance of their duties, and they may display "stop" or other proper traffic directional signs or signals at school crossings or other points where school children are crossing or about to cross a public highway, but members of the school patrol and their supervisors shall be subordinate to and obey the orders of any peace officer present and having jurisdiction.

     School districts, at their discretion, may hire sufficient numbers of adults to serve as supervisors. Such adults shall be subordinate to and obey the orders of any peace officer present and having jurisdiction.

     Any school district having a school patrol may purchase uniforms and other appropriate insignia, traffic signs and other appropriate materials, all to be used by members of such school patrol while in performance of their duties, and may pay for the same out of the general fund of the district.

     It shall be unlawful for the operator of any vehicle to fail to stop his or her vehicle when directed to do so by a school patrol sign or signal displayed by a member of the school patrol engaged in the performance of his or her duty and wearing or displaying appropriate insignia, and it shall further be unlawful for the operator of a vehicle to disregard any other reasonable directions of a member of the school patrol when acting in performance of his or her duties as such.

     School districts may expend funds from the general fund of the district to pay premiums for life and accident policies covering the members of the school patrol in their district while engaged in the performance of their school patrol duties.

     Members of the school patrol shall be considered as employees for the purposes of RCW
28A.400.370.

[2010 c 8 § 9070; 1990 c 33 § 585; 1974 ex.s. c 47 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.160. Prior: 1953 c 278 § 1; 1937 c 189 § 130; RRS § 6360-130; 1927 c 309 § 42; RRS § 6362-42. Formerly RCW 46.48.160.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Purpose -- Statutory references -- Severability -- 1990 c 33: See RCW 28A.900.100 through 28A.900.102.




46.61.400
Basic rule and maximum limits.

(1) No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. In every event speed shall be so controlled as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person, vehicle or other conveyance on or entering the highway in compliance with legal requirements and the duty of all persons to use due care.

     (2) Except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed for compliance with subsection (1) of this section, the limits specified in this section or established as hereinafter authorized shall be maximum lawful speeds, and no person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed in excess of such maximum limits.

     (a) Twenty-five miles per hour on city and town streets;

     (b) Fifty miles per hour on county roads;

     (c) Sixty miles per hour on state highways.

     The maximum speed limits set forth in this section may be altered as authorized in RCW
46.61.405, 46.61.410, and 46.61.415.

     (3) The driver of every vehicle shall, consistent with the requirements of subsection (1) of this section, drive at an appropriate reduced speed when approaching and crossing an intersection or railway grade crossing, when approaching and going around a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when traveling upon any narrow or winding roadway, and when special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or highway conditions.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 54; 1963 c 16 § 1. Formerly RCW 46.48.011.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Saving of existing orders, etc., establishing speed limits -- 1963 c 16: "This act shall not repeal or invalidate existing orders and resolutions of the state highway commission or existing resolutions and ordinances of local authorities establishing speed limits within their respective jurisdictions." [1963 c 16 § 7. Formerly RCW 46.48.016.]




46.61.405
Decreases by secretary of transportation.

Whenever the secretary of transportation shall determine upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that any maximum speed hereinbefore set forth is greater than is reasonable or safe with respect to a state highway under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or upon any other part of the state highway system or at state ferry terminals, or that a general reduction of any maximum speed set forth in RCW 46.61.400 is necessary in order to comply with a national maximum speed limit, the secretary may determine and declare a reasonable and safe lower maximum limit or a lower maximum limit which will comply with a national maximum speed limit, for any state highway, the entire state highway system, or any portion thereof, which shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected. The secretary may also fix and regulate the speed of vehicles on any state highway within the maximum speed limit allowed by this chapter for special occasions including, but not limited to, local parades and other special events. Any such maximum speed limit may be declared to be effective at all times or at such times as are indicated upon the said signs; and differing limits may be established for different times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather conditions, and other factors bearing on safe speeds, which shall be effective (a) [(1)] when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs or (b) [(2)] if a maximum limit is established for auto stages which is lower than the limit for automobiles, the auto stage speed limit shall become effective thirty days after written notice thereof is mailed in the manner provided in subsection (4) of RCW 46.61.410, as now or hereafter amended.

[1987 c 397 § 3; 1977 ex.s. c 151 § 34; 1974 ex.s. c 103 § 1; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 2; 1967 c 25 § 1; 1963 c 16 § 2. Formerly RCW 46.48.012.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 1987 c 397: See note following RCW 46.61.410.

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.410
Increases by secretary of transportation — Maximum speed limit for trucks — Auto stages — Signs and notices.

(1)(a) Subject to subsection (2) of this section the secretary may increase the maximum speed limit on any highway or portion thereof to not more than seventy miles per hour in accordance with the design speed thereof (taking into account all safety elements included therein), or whenever the secretary determines upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that such greater speed is reasonable and safe under the circumstances existing on such part of the highway.

     (b) The greater maximum limit established under (a) of this subsection shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected, or if a maximum limit is established for auto stages which is lower than the limit for automobiles, the auto stage speed limit shall become effective thirty days after written notice thereof is mailed in the manner provided in subsection (4) of this section.

     (c) Such maximum speed limit may be declared to be effective at all times or at such times as are indicated upon said signs or in the case of auto stages, as indicated in said written notice; and differing limits may be established for different times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather conditions, and other factors bearing on safe speeds, which shall be effective when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs or if a maximum limit is established for auto stages which is lower than the limit for automobiles, the auto stage speed limit shall become effective thirty days after written notice thereof is mailed in the manner provided in subsection (4) of this section.

     (2) The maximum speed limit for vehicles over ten thousand pounds gross weight and vehicles in combination except auto stages shall not exceed sixty miles per hour and may be established at a lower limit by the secretary as provided in RCW
46.61.405.

     (3) The word "trucks" used by the department on signs giving notice of maximum speed limits means vehicles over ten thousand pounds gross weight and all vehicles in combination except auto stages.

     (4) Whenever the secretary establishes maximum speed limits for auto stages lower than the maximum limits for automobiles, the secretary shall cause to be mailed notice thereof to each auto transportation company holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity issued by the Washington utilities and transportation commission. The notice shall be mailed to the chief place of business within the state of Washington of each auto transportation company or if none then its chief place of business without the state of Washington.

[1996 c 52 § 1; 1987 c 397 § 4; 1977 ex.s. c 151 § 35; 1974 ex.s. c 103 § 2; 1970 ex.s. c 100 § 1; 1969 ex.s. c 12 § 1; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 55; 1963 c 16 § 3. Formerly RCW 46.48.013.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 1987 c 397: "It is the intent of the legislature to increase the speed limit to sixty-five miles per hour on those portions of the rural interstate highway system where the increase would be safe and reasonable and is allowed by federal law. It is also the intent of the legislature that the sixty-five miles per hour speed limit be strictly enforced." [1987 c 397 § 1.]

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.415
When local authorities may establish or alter maximum limits.

(1) Whenever local authorities in their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that the maximum speed permitted under RCW 46.61.400 or 46.61.440 is greater or less than is reasonable and safe under the conditions found to exist upon a highway or part of a highway, the local authority may determine and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which

     (a) Decreases the limit at intersections; or

     (b) Increases the limit but not to more than sixty miles per hour; or

     (c) Decreases the limit but not to less than twenty miles per hour.

     (2) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall determine by an engineering and traffic investigation the proper maximum speed for all arterial streets and shall declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which may be greater or less than the maximum speed permitted under RCW 46.61.400(2) but shall not exceed sixty miles per hour.

     (3)(a) Cities and towns in their respective jurisdictions may establish a maximum speed limit of twenty miles per hour on a nonarterial highway, or part of a nonarterial highway, that is within a residence district or business district.

     (b) A speed limit established under this subsection by a city or town does not need to be determined on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation if the city or town has developed procedures regarding establishing a maximum speed limit under this subsection. Any speed limit established under this subsection may be canceled within one year of its establishment, and the previous speed limit reestablished, without an engineering and traffic investigation. This subsection does not otherwise affect the requirement that cities and towns conduct an engineering and traffic investigation to determine whether to increase speed limits.

     (c) When establishing speed limits under this subsection, cities and towns shall consult the manual on uniform traffic control devices as adopted by the Washington state department of transportation.

     (4) The secretary of transportation is authorized to establish speed limits on county roads and city and town streets as shall be necessary to conform with any federal requirements which are a prescribed condition for the allocation of federal funds to the state.

     (5) Any altered limit established as hereinbefore authorized shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected. Such maximum speed limit may be declared to be effective at all times or at such times as are indicated upon such signs; and differing limits may be established for different times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather conditions, and other factors bearing on safe speeds, which shall be effective when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs.

     (6) Any alteration of maximum limits on state highways within incorporated cities or towns by local authorities shall not be effective until such alteration has been approved by the secretary of transportation.

[2013 c 264 § 1; 1977 ex.s. c 151 § 36; 1974 ex.s. c 103 § 3; 1963 c 16 § 4. Formerly RCW 46.48.014.]

Notes:

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.419
Private roads — Speed enforcement.

State, local, or county law enforcement personnel may enforce speeding violations under RCW 46.61.400 on private roads within a community organized under chapter 64.34, 64.32, or 64.38 RCW if:

     (1) A majority of the homeowner's association's, association of apartment owners', or condominium association's board of directors votes to authorize the issuance of speeding infractions on its private roads, and declares a speed limit not lower than twenty miles per hour;

     (2) A written agreement regarding the speeding enforcement is signed by the homeowner's association, association of apartment owners, or condominium association president and the chief law enforcement official of the city or county within whose jurisdiction the private road is located;

     (3) The homeowner's association, association of apartment owners, or condominium association has provided written notice to all of the homeowners, apartment owners, or unit owners describing the new authority to issue speeding infractions; and

     (4) Signs have been posted declaring the speed limit at all vehicle entrances to the community.

[2013 c 269 § 1; 2003 c 193 § 1.]




46.61.425
Minimum speed regulation — Passing slow moving vehicle.

(1) No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law: PROVIDED, That a person following a vehicle driving at less than the legal maximum speed and desiring to pass such vehicle may exceed the speed limit, subject to the provisions of RCW 46.61.120 on highways having only one lane of traffic in each direction, at only such a speed and for only such a distance as is necessary to complete the pass with a reasonable margin of safety.

     (2) Whenever the secretary of transportation or local authorities within their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that slow speeds on any part of a highway unreasonably impede the normal movement of traffic, the secretary or such local authority may determine and declare a minimum speed limit thereat which shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected. No person shall drive a vehicle slower than such minimum speed limit except when necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law.

[1977 ex.s. c 151 § 37; 1969 c 135 § 1; 1967 c 25 § 2; 1963 c 16 § 6. Formerly RCW 46.48.015.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.427
Slow-moving vehicle to pull off roadway.

On a two-lane highway where passing is unsafe because of traffic in the opposite direction or other conditions, a slow moving vehicle, behind which five or more vehicles are formed in a line, shall turn off the roadway wherever sufficient area for a safe turn-out exists, in order to permit the vehicles following to proceed. As used in this section a slow moving vehicle is one which is proceeding at a rate of speed less than the normal flow of traffic at the particular time and place.

[1973 c 88 § 1.]




46.61.428
Slow-moving vehicle driving on shoulders, when.

(1) The state department of transportation and local authorities are authorized to determine those portions of any two-lane highways under their respective jurisdictions on which drivers of slow-moving vehicles may safely drive onto improved shoulders for the purpose of allowing overtaking vehicles to pass and may by appropriate signs indicate the beginning and end of such zones.

     (2) Where signs are in place to define a driving-on-shoulder zone as set forth in subsection (1) of this section, the driver of a slow-moving vehicle may drive onto and along the shoulder within the zone but only for the purpose of allowing overtaking vehicles to pass and then shall return to the roadway.

     (3) Signs erected to define a driving-on-shoulder zone take precedence over pavement markings for the purpose of allowing the movements described in subsection (2) of this section.

[1984 c 7 § 71; 1977 ex.s. c 39 § 1.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.




46.61.430
Authority of secretary of transportation to fix speed limits on limited access facilities exclusive — Local regulations.

Notwithstanding any law to the contrary or inconsistent herewith, the secretary of transportation shall have the power and the duty to fix and regulate the speed of vehicles within the maximum speed limit allowed by law for state highways, designated as limited access facilities, regardless of whether a portion of said highway is within the corporate limits of a city or town. No governing body or authority of such city or town or other political subdivision may have the power to pass or enforce any ordinance, rule, or regulation requiring a different rate of speed, and all such ordinances, rules, and regulations contrary to or inconsistent therewith now in force are void and of no effect.

[1977 ex.s. c 151 § 38; 1974 ex.s. c 103 § 4; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.041. Prior: 1955 c 177 § 5. Formerly RCW 46.48.041.]

Notes:

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.435
Local authorities to provide "stop" or "yield" signs at intersections with increased speed highways — Designated as arterials.

The governing body or authority of any such city or town or political subdivision shall place and maintain upon each and every highway intersecting a highway where an increased speed is permitted, as provided in this chapter, appropriate stop or yield signs, sufficient to be read at any time by any person upon approaching and entering the highway upon which such increased speed is permitted and such city street or such portion thereof as is subject to the increased speed shall be an arterial highway.

[1975 c 62 § 33; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.046. Prior: 1951 c 28 § 4; prior: 1937 c 189 § 66, part; RRS § 6360-66, part; 1927 c 309 § 5, part; 1921 c 96 § 41, part; 1919 c 59 § 13, part; 1917 c 155 § 20, part; 1915 c 142 § 34, part; RRS § 6362-5, part. Formerly RCW 46.48.046.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Designation of city streets as arterials, stopping on entering: RCW 46.61.195.

Traffic control signals or devices upon city streets forming part of state highways: RCW 46.61.085.




46.61.440
Maximum speed limit when passing school or playground crosswalks — Penalty, disposition of proceeds.

(1) Subject to RCW 46.61.400(1), and except in those instances where a lower maximum lawful speed is provided by this chapter or otherwise, it shall be unlawful for the operator of any vehicle to operate the same at a speed in excess of twenty miles per hour when operating any vehicle upon a highway either inside or outside an incorporated city or town when passing any marked school or playground crosswalk when such marked crosswalk is fully posted with standard school speed limit signs or standard playground speed limit signs. The speed zone at the crosswalk shall extend three hundred feet in either direction from the marked crosswalk.

     (2) A county or incorporated city or town may create a school or playground speed zone on a highway bordering a marked school or playground, in which zone it is unlawful for a person to operate a vehicle at a speed in excess of twenty miles per hour. The school or playground speed zone may extend three hundred feet from the border of the school or playground property; however, the speed zone may only include area consistent with active school or playground use.

     (3) A person found to have committed any infraction relating to speed restrictions within a school or playground speed zone shall be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW 46.63.110. This penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (4) School districts may erect signs that comply with the uniform state standards adopted and designated by the department of transportation under RCW 47.36.030, informing motorists of the increased monetary penalties assessed for violations of RCW 46.61.235, 46.61.245, or 46.61.261 within a school, playground, or crosswalk speed zone created under subsection (1) or (2) of this section.

     (5) The school zone safety account is created in the custody of the state treasurer. Fifty percent of the moneys collected under subsection (3) of this section and the moneys collected under RCW 46.61.235(5), 46.61.245(2), or 46.61.261(2) shall be deposited into the account. Expenditures from the account may be used only by the Washington traffic safety commission solely to fund projects in local communities to improve school zone safety, pupil transportation safety, and student safety in school bus loading and unloading areas. Only the director of the traffic safety commission or the director's designee may authorize expenditures from the account. The account is subject to allotment procedures under chapter 43.88 RCW, but no appropriation is required for expenditures until July 1, 1999, after which date moneys in the account may be spent only after appropriation.

[2010 c 242 § 4; 2003 c 192 § 1; 1997 c 80 § 2; 1996 c 114 § 1; 1975 c 62 § 34; 1963 c 16 § 5; 1961 c 12 §46.48.023 . Prior: 1951 c 28 § 9; 1949 c 196 § 6, part; 1947 c 200 § 8, part; 1937 c 189 § 64, part; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-64, part; 1927 c 309 § 3, part; 1923 c 181 § 6, part; 1921 c 96 § 27, part; 1917 c 155 § 16, part; 1915 c 142 § 24, part; RRS § 6362-3, part; 1909 c 249 § 279, part; Rem. & Bal. § 2531, part. Formerly RCW 46.48.023.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2010 c 242: See note following RCW 46.61.275.

     Effective date -- 1996 c 114: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [March 20, 1996]." [1996 c 114 § 2.]

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.445
Due care required.

Compliance with speed requirements of this chapter under the circumstances hereinabove set forth shall not relieve the operator of any vehicle from the further exercise of due care and caution as further circumstances shall require.

[1961 c 12 § 46.48.025. Prior: 1951 c 28 § 11; 1949 c 196 § 6, part; 1947 c 200 § 8, part; 1937 c 189 § 64, part; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-64, part; 1927 c 309 § 3, part; 1923 c 181 § 6, part; 1921 c 96 § 27, part; 1917 c 155 § 16, part; 1915 c 142 § 24, part; RRS § 6362-3, part; 1909 c 249 § 279, part; Rem. & Bal. 2531, part. Formerly RCW 46.48.025.]

Notes:

Duty to use due care: RCW 46.61.400(1).



46.61.450
Maximum speed, weight, or size in traversing bridges, elevated structures, tunnels, underpasses — Posting limits.

It shall be unlawful for any person to operate a vehicle or any combination of vehicles over any bridge or other elevated structure or through any tunnel or underpass constituting a part of any public highway at a rate of speed or with a gross weight or of a size which is greater at any time than the maximum speed or maximum weight or size which can be maintained or carried with safety over any such bridge or structure or through any such tunnel or underpass when such bridge, structure, tunnel, or underpass is sign posted as hereinafter provided. The secretary of transportation, if it be a bridge, structure, tunnel, or underpass upon a state highway, or the governing body or authorities of any county, city, or town, if it be upon roads or streets under their jurisdiction, may restrict the speed which may be maintained or the gross weight or size which may be operated upon or over any such bridge or elevated structure or through any such tunnel or underpass with safety thereto. The secretary or the governing body or authorities of any county, city, or town having jurisdiction shall determine and declare the maximum speed or maximum gross weight or size which such bridge, elevated structure, tunnel, or underpass can withstand or accommodate and shall cause suitable signs stating such maximum speed or maximum gross weight, or size, or either, to be erected and maintained on the right hand side of such highway, road, or street and at a distance of not less than one hundred feet from each end of such bridge, structure, tunnel, or underpass and on the approach thereto: PROVIDED, That in the event that any such bridge, elevated structure, tunnel, or underpass is upon a city street designated by the department of transportation as forming a part of the route of any state highway through any such incorporated city or town the determination of any maximum speed or maximum gross weight or size which such bridge, elevated structure, tunnel, or underpass can withstand or accommodate shall not be enforceable at any speed, weight, or size less than the maximum allowed by law, unless with the approval in writing of the secretary. Upon the trial of any person charged with a violation of this section, proof of either violation of maximum speed or maximum weight, or size, or either, and the distance and location of such signs as are required, shall constitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed or maximum weight, or size, or either, which can be maintained or carried with safety over such bridge or elevated structure or through such tunnel or underpass.

[2006 c 334 § 20; 1977 ex.s. c 151 § 39; 1961 c 12 §46.48.080 . Prior: 1937 c 189 § 70; RRS § 6360-70. Formerly RCW 46.48.080.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2006 c 334: See note following RCW 47.01.051.

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.




46.61.455
Vehicles with solid or hollow cushion tires.

Except for vehicles equipped with temporary-use spare tires that meet federal standards, it shall be unlawful to operate any vehicle equipped or partly equipped with solid rubber tires or hollow center cushion tires, or to operate any combination of vehicles any part of which is equipped or partly equipped with solid rubber tires or hollow center cushion tires, so long as solid rubber tires or hollow center cushion tires may be used under the provisions of this title, upon any public highway of this state at a greater rate of speed than ten miles per hour: PROVIDED, That the temporary-use spare tires are installed and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

[1990 c 105 § 3; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.110. Prior: 1947 c 200 § 11; 1937 c 189 § 73; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-73. Formerly RCW 46.48.110.]




46.61.460
Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycle.

No person shall operate any motor-driven cycle at any time mentioned in RCW 46.37.020 at a speed greater than thirty-five miles per hour unless such motor-driven cycle is equipped with a head lamp or lamps which are adequate to reveal a person or vehicle at a distance of three hundred feet ahead.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 57.]




46.61.465
Exceeding speed limit evidence of reckless driving.

The unlawful operation of a vehicle in excess of the maximum lawful speeds provided in this chapter at the point of operation and under the circumstances described shall be prima facie evidence of the operation of a motor vehicle in a reckless manner by the operator thereof.

[1961 c 12 § 46.48.026. Prior: 1951 c 28 § 12; 1949 c 196 § 6, part; 1947 c 200 § 8, part; 1937 c 189 § 64, part; Rem. Supp. 1949 § 6360-64, part; 1927 c 309 § 3, part; 1923 c 181 § 6, part; 1921 c 96 § 27, part; 1917 c 155 § 16, part; 1915 c 142 § 24, part; RRS § 6362-3, part; 1909 c 249 § 279, part; Rem. & Bal. § 2531, part. Formerly RCW 46.48.026.]




46.61.470
Speed traps defined, certain types permitted — Measured courses, speed measuring devices, timing from aircraft.

(1) No evidence as to the speed of any vehicle operated upon a public highway by any person arrested for violation of any of the laws of this state regarding speed or of any orders, rules, or regulations of any city or town or other political subdivision relating thereto shall be admitted in evidence in any court at a subsequent trial of such person in case such evidence relates to or is based upon the maintenance or use of a speed trap except as provided in subsection (2) of this section. A "speed trap," within the meaning of this section, is a particular section of or distance on any public highway, the length of which has been or is measured off or otherwise designated or determined, and the limits of which are within the vision of any officer or officers who calculate the speed of a vehicle passing through such speed trap by using the lapsed time during which such vehicle travels between the entrance and exit of such speed trap.

     (2) Evidence shall be admissible against any person arrested or issued a notice of a traffic infraction for violation of any of the laws of this state or of any orders, rules, or regulations of any city or town or other political subdivision regarding speed if the same is determined by a particular section of or distance on a public highway, the length of which has been accurately measured off or otherwise designated or determined and either: (a) The limits of which are controlled by a mechanical, electrical, or other device capable of measuring or recording the speed of a vehicle passing within such limits; or (b) a timing device is operated from an aircraft, which timing device when used to measure the elapsed time of a vehicle passing over such a particular section of or distance upon a public highway indicates the speed of a vehicle.

     (3) The exceptions of subsection (2) of this section are limited to devices or observations with a maximum error of not to exceed five percent using the lapsed time during which such vehicle travels between such limits, and such limits shall not be closer than one-fourth mile.

[1981 c 105 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.120. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 74; RRS § 6360-74; 1927 c 309 § 7; RRS § 6362-7. Formerly RCW 46.48.120.]




46.61.480
Determination of maximum speed on nonlimited access state highways within tribal reservation boundaries.

(1) Tribal authorities, within their reservation boundaries, may determine based on an engineering and traffic investigation that the maximum speed permitted under RCW 46.61.400 or 46.61.405 is greater or less than is reasonable or safe under the conditions found to exist upon a nonlimited access state highway or part of a nonlimited access state highway. Then, the tribal authority may determine and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which:

     (a) Decreases the limit at intersections;

     (b) Increases the limit, not exceeding sixty miles per hour; or

     (c) Decreases the limit, not lower than twenty miles per hour.

     (2) Any alteration by tribal authorities of maximum limits on a nonlimited access state highway is not effective until the alteration has been approved by the secretary of transportation and appropriate signs giving notice of the alteration have been posted. In the case of an alteration by tribal authorities of maximum limits on a nonlimited access state highway that is also part of a city or town street or county road within tribal reservation boundaries, the alteration is not effective until that alteration has also been approved by the applicable local authority.

[2009 c 383 § 1.]




46.61.500
Reckless driving — Penalty.

(1) Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving. Violation of the provisions of this section is a gross misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for up to three hundred sixty-four days and by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars.

     (2)(a) Subject to (b) of this subsection, the license or permit to drive or any nonresident privilege of any person convicted of reckless driving shall be suspended by the department for not less than thirty days.

     (b) When a reckless driving conviction is a result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW
46.61.502 or 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance, the department shall grant credit on a day-for-day basis for any portion of a suspension, revocation, or denial already served under an administrative action arising out of the same incident. During any period of suspension, revocation, or denial due to a conviction for reckless driving as the result of a charge originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, any person who has obtained an ignition interlock driver's license under RCW 46.20.385 may continue to drive a motor vehicle pursuant to the provision of the ignition interlock driver's license without obtaining a separate temporary restricted driver's license under RCW 46.20.391.

     (3)(a) Except as provided under (b) of this subsection, a person convicted of reckless driving who has one or more prior offenses as defined in RCW 46.61.5055(14) within seven years shall be required, under RCW 46.20.720, to install an ignition interlock device on all vehicles operated by the person if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502, 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance.

     (b) A person convicted of reckless driving shall be required, under RCW 46.20.720, to install an ignition interlock device on all vehicles operated by the person if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.520 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or RCW 46.61.522 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug.

[2012 c 183 § 11. Prior: 2011 c 293 § 4; 2011 c 96 § 34; 1990 c 291 § 1; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 85; 1967 c 32 § 67; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 59.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Effective date -- 2012 c 183: See note following RCW 2.28.175.

     Effective date -- 2011 c 293 §§ 1-9: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2011 c 96: See note following RCW 9A.20.021.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

Arrest of person involved in reckless driving: RCW 10.31.100.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.

Embracing another while driving as reckless driving: RCW 46.61.665.

Excess speed as prima facie evidence of reckless driving: RCW 46.61.465.

Racing of vehicles on public highways, reckless driving: RCW 46.61.530.

Revocation of license, reckless driving: RCW 46.20.285.




46.61.502
Driving under the influence.

(1) A person is guilty of driving while under the influence of intoxicating liquor, marijuana, or any drug if the person drives a vehicle within this state:

     (a) And the person has, within two hours after driving, an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher as shown by analysis of the person's breath or blood made under RCW
46.61.506; or

     (b) The person has, within two hours after driving, a THC concentration of 5.00 or higher as shown by analysis of the person's blood made under RCW 46.61.506; or

     (c) While the person is under the influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor, marijuana, or any drug; or

     (d) While the person is under the combined influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor, marijuana, and any drug.

     (2) The fact that a person charged with a violation of this section is or has been entitled to use a drug under the laws of this state shall not constitute a defense against a charge of violating this section.

     (3)(a) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of subsection (1)(a) of this section, which the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence, that the defendant consumed a sufficient quantity of alcohol after the time of driving and before the administration of an analysis of the person's breath or blood to cause the defendant's alcohol concentration to be 0.08 or more within two hours after driving. The court shall not admit evidence of this defense unless the defendant notifies the prosecution prior to the omnibus or pretrial hearing in the case of the defendant's intent to assert the affirmative defense.

     (b) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of subsection (1)(b) of this section, which the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence, that the defendant consumed a sufficient quantity of marijuana after the time of driving and before the administration of an analysis of the person's blood to cause the defendant's THC concentration to be 5.00 or more within two hours after driving. The court shall not admit evidence of this defense unless the defendant notifies the prosecution prior to the omnibus or pretrial hearing in the case of the defendant's intent to assert the affirmative defense.

     (4)(a) Analyses of blood or breath samples obtained more than two hours after the alleged driving may be used as evidence that within two hours of the alleged driving, a person had an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more in violation of subsection (1)(a) of this section, and in any case in which the analysis shows an alcohol concentration above 0.00 may be used as evidence that a person was under the influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor or any drug in violation of subsection (1)(c) or (d) of this section.

     (b) Analyses of blood samples obtained more than two hours after the alleged driving may be used as evidence that within two hours of the alleged driving, a person had a THC concentration of 5.00 or more in violation of subsection (1)(b) of this section, and in any case in which the analysis shows a THC concentration above 0.00 may be used as evidence that a person was under the influence of or affected by marijuana in violation of subsection (1)(c) or (d) of this section.

     (5) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a violation of this section is a gross misdemeanor.

     (6) It is a class C felony punishable under chapter 9.94A RCW, or chapter 13.40 RCW if the person is a juvenile, if:

     (a) The person has four or more prior offenses within ten years as defined in RCW 46.61.5055; or

     (b) The person has ever previously been convicted of:

     (i) Vehicular homicide while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.520(1)(a);

     (ii) Vehicular assault while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.522(1)(b);

     (iii) An out-of-state offense comparable to the offense specified in (b)(i) or (ii) of this subsection; or

     (iv) A violation of this subsection (6) or RCW 46.61.504(6).

[2013 c 3 § 33 (Initiative Measure No. 502, approved November 6, 2012); 2011 c 293 § 2; 2008 c 282 § 20; 2006 c 73 § 1; 1998 c 213 § 3; 1994 c 275 § 2; 1993 c 328 § 1; 1987 c 373 § 2; 1986 c 153 § 2; 1979 ex.s. c 176 § 1.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Intent -- 2013 c 3 (Initiative Measure No. 502): See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Effective date -- 2011 c 293 §§ 1-9: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: "This act takes effect July 1, 2007." [2006 c 73 § 19.]

     Effective date -- 1998 c 213: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.

     Legislative finding, purpose -- 1987 c 373: "The legislature finds the existing statutes that establish the criteria for determining when a person is guilty of driving a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs are constitutional and do not require any additional criteria to ensure their legality. The purpose of this act is to provide an additional method of defining the crime of driving while intoxicated. This act is not an acknowledgment that the existing breath alcohol standard is legally improper or invalid." [1987 c 373 § 1.]

     Severability -- 1987 c 373: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1987 c 373 § 8.]

     Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 176: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1979 ex.s. c 176 § 8.]

Business operation of vessel or vehicle while intoxicated: RCW 9.91.020.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.

Operating aircraft recklessly or under influence of intoxicants or drugs: RCW 47.68.220.

Use of vessel in reckless manner or while under influence of alcohol or drugs prohibited: RCW 79A.60.040.




46.61.503
Driver under twenty-one consuming alcohol or marijuana — Penalties.

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a person is guilty of driving or being in physical control of a motor vehicle after consuming alcohol or marijuana if the person operates or is in physical control of a motor vehicle within this state and the person:

     (a) Is under the age of twenty-one; and

     (b) Has, within two hours after operating or being in physical control of the motor vehicle, either:

     (i) An alcohol concentration of at least 0.02 but less than the concentration specified in RCW
46.61.502, as shown by analysis of the person's breath or blood made under RCW 46.61.506; or

     (ii) A THC concentration above 0.00 but less than the concentration specified in RCW 46.61.502, as shown by analysis of the person's blood made under RCW 46.61.506.

     (2) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of subsection (1) of this section, which the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence, that the defendant consumed a sufficient quantity of alcohol or marijuana after the time of driving or being in physical control and before the administration of an analysis of the person's breath or blood to cause the defendant's alcohol or THC concentration to be in violation of subsection (1) of this section within two hours after driving or being in physical control. The court shall not admit evidence of this defense unless the defendant notifies the prosecution prior to the earlier of: (a) Seven days prior to trial; or (b) the omnibus or pretrial hearing in the case of the defendant's intent to assert the affirmative defense.

     (3) Analyses of blood or breath samples obtained more than two hours after the alleged driving or being in physical control may be used as evidence that within two hours of the alleged driving or being in physical control, a person had an alcohol or THC concentration in violation of subsection (1) of this section.

     (4) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

[2013 c 3 § 34 (Initiative Measure No. 502, approved November 6, 2012). Prior: 1998 c 213 § 4; 1998 c 207 § 5; 1998 c 41 § 8; 1995 c 332 § 2; 1994 c 275 § 10. Formerly RCW 46.20.309.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2013 c 3 (Initiative Measure No. 502): See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 213: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 207: See note following RCW 46.61.5055.

     Intent -- Construction -- Effective date -- 1998 c 41: See notes following RCW 46.20.265.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.




46.61.504
Physical control of vehicle under the influence.

(1) A person is guilty of being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug if the person has actual physical control of a vehicle within this state:

     (a) And the person has, within two hours after being in actual physical control of the vehicle, an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher as shown by analysis of the person's breath or blood made under RCW
46.61.506; or

     (b) The person has, within two hours after being in actual physical control of a vehicle, a THC concentration of 5.00 or higher as shown by analysis of the person's blood made under RCW 46.61.506; or

     (c) While the person is under the influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor or any drug; or

     (d) While the person is under the combined influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor and any drug.

     (2) The fact that a person charged with a violation of this section is or has been entitled to use a drug under the laws of this state does not constitute a defense against any charge of violating this section. No person may be convicted under this section if, prior to being pursued by a law enforcement officer, the person has moved the vehicle safely off the roadway.

     (3)(a) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of subsection (1)(a) of this section which the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant consumed a sufficient quantity of alcohol after the time of being in actual physical control of the vehicle and before the administration of an analysis of the person's breath or blood to cause the defendant's alcohol concentration to be 0.08 or more within two hours after being in such control. The court shall not admit evidence of this defense unless the defendant notifies the prosecution prior to the omnibus or pretrial hearing in the case of the defendant's intent to assert the affirmative defense.

     (b) It is an affirmative defense to a violation of subsection (1)(b) of this section, which the defendant must prove by a preponderance of the evidence, that the defendant consumed a sufficient quantity of marijuana after the time of being in actual physical control of the vehicle and before the administration of an analysis of the person's blood to cause the defendant's THC concentration to be 5.00 or more within two hours after being in control of the vehicle. The court shall not admit evidence of this defense unless the defendant notifies the prosecution prior to the omnibus or pretrial hearing in the case of the defendant's intent to assert the affirmative defense.

     (4)(a) Analyses of blood or breath samples obtained more than two hours after the alleged being in actual physical control of a vehicle may be used as evidence that within two hours of the alleged being in such control, a person had an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more in violation of subsection (1)(a) of this section, and in any case in which the analysis shows an alcohol concentration above 0.00 may be used as evidence that a person was under the influence of or affected by intoxicating liquor or any drug in violation of subsection (1)(c) or (d) of this section.

     (b) Analyses of blood samples obtained more than two hours after the alleged being in actual physical control of a vehicle may be used as evidence that within two hours of the alleged being in control of the vehicle, a person had a THC concentration of 5.00 or more in violation of subsection (1)(b) of this section, and in any case in which the analysis shows a THC concentration above 0.00 may be used as evidence that a person was under the influence of or affected by marijuana in violation of subsection (1)(c) or (d) of this section.

     (5) Except as provided in subsection (6) of this section, a violation of this section is a gross misdemeanor.

     (6) It is a class C felony punishable under chapter 9.94A RCW, or chapter 13.40 RCW if the person is a juvenile, if:

     (a) The person has four or more prior offenses within ten years as defined in RCW 46.61.5055; or

     (b) The person has ever previously been convicted of:

     (i) Vehicular homicide while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.520(1)(a);

     (ii) Vehicular assault while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, RCW 46.61.522(1)(b);

     (iii) An out-of-state offense comparable to the offense specified in (b)(i) or (ii) of this subsection; or

     (iv) A violation of this subsection (6) or RCW 46.61.502(6).

[2013 c 3 § 35 (Initiative Measure No. 502, approved November 6, 2012); 2011 c 293 § 3; 2008 c 282 § 21; 2006 c 73 § 2; 1998 c 213 § 5; 1994 c 275 § 3; 1993 c 328 § 2; 1987 c 373 § 3; 1986 c 153 § 3; 1979 ex.s. c 176 § 2.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Intent -- 2013 c 3 (Initiative Measure No. 502): See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Effective date -- 2011 c 293 §§ 1-9: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 213: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.

     Legislative finding, purpose -- Severability -- 1987 c 373: See notes following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 176: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.




46.61.5054
Alcohol violators — Additional fee — Distribution.

(1)(a) In addition to penalties set forth in *RCW 46.61.5051 through 46.61.5053 until September 1, 1995, and RCW 46.61.5055 thereafter, a two hundred dollar fee shall be assessed to a person who is either convicted, sentenced to a lesser charge, or given deferred prosecution, as a result of an arrest for violating RCW 46.61.502, 46.61.504, 46.61.520, or 46.61.522. This fee is for the purpose of funding the Washington state toxicology laboratory and the Washington state patrol for grants and activities to increase the conviction rate and decrease the incidence of persons driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

     (b) Upon a verified petition by the person assessed the fee, the court may suspend payment of all or part of the fee if it finds that the person does not have the ability to pay.

     (c) When a minor has been adjudicated a juvenile offender for an offense which, if committed by an adult, would constitute a violation of RCW 46.61.502, 46.61.504, 46.61.520, or 46.61.522, the court shall assess the two hundred dollar fee under (a) of this subsection. Upon a verified petition by a minor assessed the fee, the court may suspend payment of all or part of the fee if it finds that the minor does not have the ability to pay the fee.

     (2) The fee assessed under subsection (1) of this section shall be collected by the clerk of the court and, subject to subsection (4) of this section, one hundred seventy-five dollars of the fee must be distributed as follows:

     (a) Forty percent shall be subject to distribution under RCW **3.46.120, 3.50.100, 35.20.220, 3.62.020, 3.62.040, or10.82.070 .

     (b) The remainder of the fee shall be forwarded to the state treasurer who shall, through June 30, 1997, deposit: Fifty percent in the death investigations' account to be used solely for funding the state toxicology laboratory blood or breath testing programs; and fifty percent in the state patrol highway account to be used solely for funding activities to increase the conviction rate and decrease the incidence of persons driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Effective July 1, 1997, the remainder of the fee shall be forwarded to the state treasurer who shall deposit: Fifteen percent in the death investigations' account to be used solely for funding the state toxicology laboratory blood or breath testing programs; and eighty-five percent in the state patrol highway account to be used solely for funding activities to increase the conviction rate and decrease the incidence of persons driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

     (3) Twenty-five dollars of the fee assessed under subsection (1) of this section must be distributed to the highway safety account [fund] to be used solely for funding Washington traffic safety commission grants to reduce statewide collisions caused by persons driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Grants awarded under this subsection may be for projects that encourage collaboration with other community, governmental, and private organizations, and that utilize innovative approaches based on best practices or proven strategies supported by research or rigorous evaluation. Grants recipients may include, for example:

     (a) DUI courts; and

     (b) Jurisdictions implementing the victim impact panel registries under RCW 46.61.5152 and 10.01.230.

     (4) If the court has suspended payment of part of the fee pursuant to subsection (1)(b) or (c) of this section, amounts collected shall be distributed proportionately.

     (5) This section applies to any offense committed on or after July 1, 1993.

[2011 c 293 § 12. Prior: 1995 c 398 § 15; 1995 c 332 § 13; 1994 c 275 § 7.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: *(1) RCW 46.61.5051, 46.61.5052, and 46.61.5053 were repealed by 1995 c 332 § 21, effective September 1, 1995.

     **(2) RCW 3.46.120 was repealed by 2008 c 227 § 12, effective July 1, 2008.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.




46.61.5055
Alcohol and drug violators — Penalty schedule.


     *** CHANGE IN 2014 *** (SEE
6413.SL) ***

(1) Except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or46.61.504 (6), a person who is convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 and who has no prior offense within seven years shall be punished as follows:

     (a) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was less than 0.15, or for whom for reasons other than the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than one day nor more than three hundred sixty-four days. Twenty-four consecutive hours of the imprisonment may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment required under this subsection (1)(a)(i), the court may order not less than fifteen days of electronic home monitoring. The offender shall pay the cost of electronic home monitoring. The county or municipality in which the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device or other separate alcohol monitoring device to include an alcohol detection breathalyzer, and the court may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than three hundred fifty dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. Three hundred fifty dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent; or

     (b) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was at least 0.15, or for whom by reason of the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than two days nor more than three hundred sixty-four days. Forty-eight consecutive hours of the imprisonment may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment required under this subsection (1)(b)(i), the court may order not less than thirty days of electronic home monitoring. The offender shall pay the cost of electronic home monitoring. The county or municipality in which the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device to include an alcohol detection breathalyzer or other separate alcohol monitoring device, and the court may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. Five hundred dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent.

     (2) Except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or 46.61.504(6), a person who is convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 and who has one prior offense within seven years shall be punished as follows:

     (a) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was less than 0.15, or for whom for reasons other than the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than thirty days nor more than three hundred sixty-four days and sixty days of electronic home monitoring. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of sixty days electronic home monitoring, the court may order at least an additional four days in jail or, if available in that county or city, a six-month period of 24/7 sobriety program monitoring pursuant to RCW 36.28A.300 through 36.28A.390, and the court shall order an expanded alcohol assessment and treatment, if deemed appropriate by the assessment. The offender shall pay for the cost of the electronic monitoring. The county or municipality where the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device include an alcohol detection breathalyzer or other separate alcohol monitoring device, and may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring. Thirty days of imprisonment and sixty days of electronic home monitoring may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. Five hundred dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent; or

     (b) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was at least 0.15, or for whom by reason of the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than forty-five days nor more than three hundred sixty-four days and ninety days of electronic home monitoring. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of ninety days electronic home monitoring, the court may order at least an additional six days in jail or, if available in that county or city, a six-month period of 24/7 sobriety program monitoring pursuant to RCW 36.28A.300 through 36.28A.390, and the court shall order an expanded alcohol assessment and treatment, if deemed appropriate by the assessment. The offender shall pay for the cost of the electronic monitoring. The county or municipality where the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device include an alcohol detection breathalyzer or other separate alcohol monitoring device, and may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring. Forty-five days of imprisonment and ninety days of electronic home monitoring may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than seven hundred fifty dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. Seven hundred fifty dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent.

     (3) Except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or 46.61.504(6), a person who is convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 and who has two or three prior offenses within seven years shall be punished as follows:

     (a) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was less than 0.15, or for whom for reasons other than the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than ninety days nor more than three hundred sixty-four days, if available in that county or city, a six-month period of 24/7 sobriety program monitoring pursuant to RCW 36.28A.300 through 36.28A.390, and one hundred twenty days of electronic home monitoring. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of one hundred twenty days of electronic home monitoring, the court may order at least an additional eight days in jail. The court shall order an expanded alcohol assessment and treatment, if deemed appropriate by the assessment. The offender shall pay for the cost of the electronic monitoring. The county or municipality where the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device include an alcohol detection breathalyzer or other separate alcohol monitoring device, and may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring. Ninety days of imprisonment and one hundred twenty days of electronic home monitoring may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. One thousand dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent; or

     (b) In the case of a person whose alcohol concentration was at least 0.15, or for whom by reason of the person's refusal to take a test offered pursuant to RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) By imprisonment for not less than one hundred twenty days nor more than three hundred sixty-four days, if available in that county or city, a six-month period of 24/7 sobriety program monitoring pursuant to RCW 36.28A.300 through 36.28A.390, and one hundred fifty days of electronic home monitoring. In lieu of the mandatory minimum term of one hundred fifty days of electronic home monitoring, the court may order at least an additional ten days in jail. The offender shall pay for the cost of the electronic monitoring. The court shall order an expanded alcohol assessment and treatment, if deemed appropriate by the assessment. The county or municipality where the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost. The court may also require the offender's electronic home monitoring device include an alcohol detection breathalyzer or other separate alcohol monitoring device, and may restrict the amount of alcohol the offender may consume during the time the offender is on electronic home monitoring. One hundred twenty days of imprisonment and one hundred fifty days of electronic home monitoring may not be suspended unless the court finds that the imposition of this mandatory minimum sentence would impose a substantial risk to the offender's physical or mental well-being. Whenever the mandatory minimum sentence is suspended, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the suspension and the facts upon which the suspension is based; and

     (ii) By a fine of not less than one thousand five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. One thousand five hundred dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent.

     (4) A person who is convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 shall be punished under chapter 9.94A RCW if:

     (a) The person has four or more prior offenses within ten years; or

     (b) The person has ever previously been convicted of:

     (i) A violation of RCW 46.61.520 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug;

     (ii) A violation of RCW 46.61.522 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug;

     (iii) An out-of-state offense comparable to the offense specified in (b)(i) or (ii) of this subsection; or

     (iv) A violation of RCW 46.61.502(6) or 46.61.504(6).

     (5)(a) The court shall require any person convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance to comply with the rules and requirements of the department regarding the installation and use of a functioning ignition interlock device installed on all motor vehicles operated by the person.

     (b) If the court orders that a person refrain from consuming any alcohol, the court may order the person to submit to alcohol monitoring through an alcohol detection breathalyzer device, transdermal sensor device, or other technology designed to detect alcohol in a person's system. The person shall pay for the cost of the monitoring, unless the court specifies that the cost of monitoring will be paid with funds that are available from an alternative source identified by the court. The county or municipality where the penalty is being imposed shall determine the cost.

     (6) If a person who is convicted of a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 committed the offense while a passenger under the age of sixteen was in the vehicle, the court shall:

     (a) Order the use of an ignition interlock or other device for an additional six months;

     (b) In any case in which the person has no prior offenses within seven years, and except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or46.61.504 (6), order an additional twenty-four hours of imprisonment and a fine of not less than one thousand dollars and not more than five thousand dollars. One thousand dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent;

     (c) In any case in which the person has one prior offense within seven years, and except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or46.61.504 (6), order an additional five days of imprisonment and a fine of not less than two thousand dollars and not more than five thousand dollars. One thousand dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent;

     (d) In any case in which the person has two or three prior offenses within seven years, and except as provided in RCW 46.61.502(6) or 46.61.504(6), order an additional ten days of imprisonment and a fine of not less than three thousand dollars and not more than ten thousand dollars. One thousand dollars of the fine may not be suspended unless the court finds the offender to be indigent.

     (7) In exercising its discretion in setting penalties within the limits allowed by this section, the court shall particularly consider the following:

     (a) Whether the person's driving at the time of the offense was responsible for injury or damage to another or another's property;

     (b) Whether at the time of the offense the person was driving or in physical control of a vehicle with one or more passengers;

     (c) Whether the driver was driving in the opposite direction of the normal flow of traffic on a multiple lane highway, as defined by RCW 46.04.350, with a posted speed limit of forty-five miles per hour or greater; and

     (d) Whether a child passenger under the age of sixteen was an occupant in the driver's vehicle.

     (8) An offender punishable under this section is subject to the alcohol assessment and treatment provisions of RCW 46.61.5056.

     (9) The license, permit, or nonresident privilege of a person convicted of driving or being in physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs must:

     (a) If the person's alcohol concentration was less than 0.15, or if for reasons other than the person's refusal to take a test offered under RCW 46.20.308 there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) Where there has been no prior offense within seven years, be suspended or denied by the department for ninety days;

     (ii) Where there has been one prior offense within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for two years; or

     (iii) Where there have been two or more prior offenses within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for three years;

     (b) If the person's alcohol concentration was at least 0.15:

     (i) Where there has been no prior offense within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for one year;

     (ii) Where there has been one prior offense within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for nine hundred days; or

     (iii) Where there have been two or more prior offenses within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for four years; or

     (c) If by reason of the person's refusal to take a test offered under RCW 46.20.308, there is no test result indicating the person's alcohol concentration:

     (i) Where there have been no prior offenses within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for two years;

     (ii) Where there has been one prior offense within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for three years; or

     (iii) Where there have been two or more previous offenses within seven years, be revoked or denied by the department for four years.

     The department shall grant credit on a day-for-day basis for any portion of a suspension, revocation, or denial already served under this subsection for a suspension, revocation, or denial imposed under RCW 46.20.3101 arising out of the same incident.

     Upon its own motion or upon motion by a person, a court may find, on the record, that notice to the department under RCW 46.20.270 has been delayed for three years or more as a result of a clerical or court error. If so, the court may order that the person's license, permit, or nonresident privilege shall not be revoked, suspended, or denied for that offense. The court shall send notice of the finding and order to the department and to the person. Upon receipt of the notice from the court, the department shall not revoke, suspend, or deny the license, permit, or nonresident privilege of the person for that offense.

     For purposes of this subsection (9), the department shall refer to the driver's record maintained under RCW 46.52.120 when determining the existence of prior offenses.

     (10) After expiration of any period of suspension, revocation, or denial of the offender's license, permit, or privilege to drive required by this section, the department shall place the offender's driving privilege in probationary status pursuant to RCW 46.20.355.

     (11)(a) In addition to any nonsuspendable and nondeferrable jail sentence required by this section, whenever the court imposes up to three hundred sixty-four days in jail, the court shall also suspend but shall not defer a period of confinement for a period not exceeding five years. The court shall impose conditions of probation that include: (i) Not driving a motor vehicle within this state without a valid license to drive and proof of liability insurance or other financial responsibility for the future pursuant to RCW 46.30.020; (ii) not driving or being in physical control of a motor vehicle within this state while having an alcohol concentration of 0.08 or more or a THC concentration of 5.00 nanograms per milliliter of whole blood or higher, within two hours after driving; and (iii) not refusing to submit to a test of his or her breath or blood to determine alcohol or drug concentration upon request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable grounds to believe the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle within this state while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug. The court may impose conditions of probation that include nonrepetition, installation of an ignition interlock device on the probationer's motor vehicle, alcohol or drug treatment, supervised probation, or other conditions that may be appropriate. The sentence may be imposed in whole or in part upon violation of a condition of probation during the suspension period.

     (b) For each violation of mandatory conditions of probation under (a)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this subsection, the court shall order the convicted person to be confined for thirty days, which shall not be suspended or deferred.

     (c) For each incident involving a violation of a mandatory condition of probation imposed under this subsection, the license, permit, or privilege to drive of the person shall be suspended by the court for thirty days or, if such license, permit, or privilege to drive already is suspended, revoked, or denied at the time the finding of probation violation is made, the suspension, revocation, or denial then in effect shall be extended by thirty days. The court shall notify the department of any suspension, revocation, or denial or any extension of a suspension, revocation, or denial imposed under this subsection.

     (12) A court may waive the electronic home monitoring requirements of this chapter when:

     (a) The offender does not have a dwelling, telephone service, or any other necessity to operate an electronic home monitoring system. However, if a court determines that an alcohol monitoring device utilizing wireless reporting technology is reasonably available, the court may require the person to obtain such a device during the period of required electronic home monitoring;

     (b) The offender does not reside in the state of Washington; or

     (c) The court determines that there is reason to believe that the offender would violate the conditions of the electronic home monitoring penalty.

     Whenever the mandatory minimum term of electronic home monitoring is waived, the court shall state in writing the reason for granting the waiver and the facts upon which the waiver is based, and shall impose an alternative sentence with similar punitive consequences. The alternative sentence may include, but is not limited to, use of an ignition interlock device, the 24/7 sobriety program monitoring, additional jail time, work crew, or work camp.

     Whenever the combination of jail time and electronic home monitoring or alternative sentence would exceed three hundred sixty-four days, the offender shall serve the jail portion of the sentence first, and the electronic home monitoring or alternative portion of the sentence shall be reduced so that the combination does not exceed three hundred sixty-four days.

     (13) An offender serving a sentence under this section, whether or not a mandatory minimum term has expired, may be granted an extraordinary medical placement by the jail administrator subject to the standards and limitations set forth in RCW 9.94A.728(3).

     (14) For purposes of this section and RCW 46.61.502 and 46.61.504:

     (a) A "prior offense" means any of the following:

     (i) A conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or an equivalent local ordinance;

     (ii) A conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance;

     (iii) A conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.520 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or a conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.520 committed in a reckless manner or with the disregard for the safety of others if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.520 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug;

     (iv) A conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.522 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or a conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.522 committed in a reckless manner or with the disregard for the safety of others if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.522 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug;

     (v) A conviction for a violation of RCW 46.61.5249, 46.61.500, or 9A.36.050 or an equivalent local ordinance, if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance, or of RCW 46.61.520 or 46.61.522;

     (vi) An out-of-state conviction for a violation that would have been a violation of (a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) of this subsection if committed in this state;

     (vii) A deferred prosecution under chapter 10.05 RCW granted in a prosecution for a violation of RCW 46.61.502, 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance;

     (viii) A deferred prosecution under chapter 10.05 RCW granted in a prosecution for a violation of RCW 46.61.5249, or an equivalent local ordinance, if the charge under which the deferred prosecution was granted was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance, or of RCW 46.61.520 or 46.61.522;

     (ix) A deferred prosecution granted in another state for a violation of driving or having physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug if the out-of-state deferred prosecution is equivalent to the deferred prosecution under chapter 10.05 RCW, including a requirement that the defendant participate in a chemical dependency treatment program; or

     (x) A deferred sentence imposed in a prosecution for a violation of RCW 46.61.5249, 46.61.500, or 9A.36.050, or an equivalent local ordinance, if the charge under which the deferred sentence was imposed was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, or an equivalent local ordinance, or a violation of RCW 46.61.520 or 46.61.522;

     If a deferred prosecution is revoked based on a subsequent conviction for an offense listed in this subsection (14)(a), the subsequent conviction shall not be treated as a prior offense of the revoked deferred prosecution for the purposes of sentencing;

     (b) "Treatment" means alcohol or drug treatment approved by the department of social and health services;

     (c) "Within seven years" means that the arrest for a prior offense occurred within seven years before or after the arrest for the current offense; and

     (d) "Within ten years" means that the arrest for a prior offense occurred within ten years before or after the arrest for the current offense.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 35 § 13. Prior: 2012 c 183 § 12; 2012 c 42 § 2; 2012 c 28 § 1; prior: 2011 c 293 § 7; 2011 c 96 § 35; 2010 c 269 § 4; 2008 c 282 § 14; 2007 c 474 § 1; 2006 c 73 § 3; 2004 c 95 § 13; 2003 c 103 § 1. Prior: 1999 c 324 § 5; 1999 c 274 § 6; 1999 c 5 § 1; prior: 1998 c 215 § 1; 1998 c 214 §1; 1998 c 211 § 1; 1998 c 210 § 4; 1998 c 207 § 1; 1998 c 206 § 1; prior: 1997 c 229 § 11; 1997 c 66 § 14; 1996 c 307 § 3; 1995 1st sp.s. c 17 § 2; 1995 c 332 § 5.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2012 c 183: See note following RCW 2.28.175.

     Effective date -- 2011 c 293 §§ 1-9: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2011 c 96: See note following RCW 9A.20.021.

     Effective date -- 2010 c 269: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

     Effective date -- 2008 c 282: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Effective date -- 2007 c 474: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect July 1, 2007." [2007 c 474 § 2.]

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability -- 1999 c 5: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1999 c 5 § 2.]

     Effective date -- 1999 c 5: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [March 16, 1999]." [1999 c 5 § 3.]

     Effective date -- 1998 c 214: "This act takes effect January 1, 1999." [1998 c 214 § 6.]

     Effective date -- 1998 c 211: "This act takes effect January 1, 1999." [1998 c 211 § 7.]

     Short title -- Finding -- Intent -- Effective date--1998 c 210: See notes following RCW 46.20.720.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 207: "This act takes effect January 1, 1999." [1998 c 207 § 12.]

     Effective date -- 1997 c 229: See note following RCW 10.05.090.

     Effective date -- 1995 1st sp.s. c 17: See note following RCW 46.20.355.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.




46.61.5056
Alcohol violators — Information school — Evaluation and treatment.

(1) A person subject to alcohol assessment and treatment under RCW 46.61.5055 shall be required by the court to complete a course in an alcohol information school approved by the department of social and health services or to complete more intensive treatment in a program approved by the department of social and health services, as determined by the court. The court shall notify the department of licensing whenever it orders a person to complete a course or treatment program under this section.

     (2) A diagnostic evaluation and treatment recommendation shall be prepared under the direction of the court by an alcoholism agency approved by the department of social and health services or a qualified probation department approved by the department of social and health services. A copy of the report shall be forwarded to the court and the department of licensing. Based on the diagnostic evaluation, the court shall determine whether the person shall be required to complete a course in an alcohol information school approved by the department of social and health services or more intensive treatment in a program approved by the department of social and health services.

     (3) Standards for approval for alcohol treatment programs shall be prescribed by the department of social and health services. The department of social and health services shall periodically review the costs of alcohol information schools and treatment programs.

     (4) Any agency that provides treatment ordered under RCW 46.61.5055, shall immediately report to the appropriate probation department where applicable, otherwise to the court, and to the department of licensing any noncompliance by a person with the conditions of his or her ordered treatment. The court shall notify the department of licensing and the department of social and health services of any failure by an agency to so report noncompliance. Any agency with knowledge of noncompliance that fails to so report shall be fined two hundred fifty dollars by the department of social and health services. Upon three such failures by an agency within one year, the department of social and health services shall revoke the agency's approval under this section.

     (5) The department of licensing and the department of social and health services may adopt such rules as are necessary to carry out this section.

[2011 c 293 § 13; 1995 c 332 § 14; 1994 c 275 § 9.]

Notes:

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.




46.61.50571
Alcohol or marijuana violators — Mandatory appearances.

(1) A defendant who is charged with an offense involving driving while under the influence as defined in RCW 46.61.502, driving under age twenty-one after consuming alcohol or marijuana as defined in RCW 46.61.503, or being in physical control of a vehicle while under the influence as defined in RCW 46.61.504, shall be required to appear in person before a judicial officer within one judicial day after the arrest if the defendant is served with a citation or complaint at the time of the arrest. A court may by local court rule waive the requirement for appearance within one judicial day if it provides for the appearance at the earliest practicable day following arrest and establishes the method for identifying that day in the rule.

     (2) A defendant who is charged with an offense involving driving while under the influence as defined in RCW 46.61.502, driving under age twenty-one after consuming alcohol or marijuana as defined in RCW 46.61.503, or being in physical control of a vehicle while under the influence as defined in RCW 46.61.504, and who is not served with a citation or complaint at the time of the incident, shall appear in court for arraignment in person as soon as practicable, but in no event later than fourteen days after the next day on which court is in session following the issuance of the citation or the filing of the complaint or information.

     (3) At the time of an appearance required by this section, the court shall determine the necessity of imposing conditions of pretrial release according to the procedures established by court rule for a preliminary appearance or an arraignment.

     (4) Appearances required by this section are mandatory and may not be waived.

[2013 c 3 § 36 (Initiative Measure No. 502, approved November 6, 2012); 2000 c 52 § 1; 1999 c 114 § 1; 1998 c 214 § 5.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2013 c 3 (Initiative Measure No. 502): See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 214: See note following RCW 46.61.5055.




46.61.5058
Alcohol violators — Vehicle seizure and forfeiture.

(1) Upon the arrest of a person or upon the filing of a complaint, citation, or information in a court of competent jurisdiction, based upon probable cause to believe that a person has violated RCW 46.20.740, 46.61.502, or 46.61.504 or any similar municipal ordinance, if such person has a prior offense within seven years as defined in RCW 46.61.5055, and where the person has been provided written notice that any transfer, sale, or encumbrance of such person's interest in the vehicle over which that person was actually driving or had physical control when the violation occurred, is unlawful pending either acquittal, dismissal, sixty days after conviction, or other termination of the charge, such person shall be prohibited from encumbering, selling, or transferring his or her interest in such vehicle, except as otherwise provided in (a), (b), and (c) of this subsection, until either acquittal, dismissal, sixty days after conviction, or other termination of the charge. The prohibition against transfer of title shall not be stayed pending the determination of an appeal from the conviction.

     (a) A vehicle encumbered by a bona fide security interest may be transferred to the secured party or to a person designated by the secured party;

     (b) A leased or rented vehicle may be transferred to the lessor, rental agency, or to a person designated by the lessor or rental agency; and

     (c) A vehicle may be transferred to a third party or a vehicle dealer who is a bona fide purchaser or may be subject to a bona fide security interest in the vehicle unless it is established that (i) in the case of a purchase by a third party or vehicle dealer, such party or dealer had actual notice that the vehicle was subject to the prohibition prior to the purchase, or (ii) in the case of a security interest, the holder of the security interest had actual notice that the vehicle was subject to the prohibition prior to the encumbrance of title.

     (2) On conviction for a violation of either RCW 46.20.740, 46.61.502, or 46.61.504 or any similar municipal ordinance where the person convicted has a prior offense within seven years as defined in RCW 46.61.5055, the motor vehicle the person was driving or over which the person had actual physical control at the time of the offense, if the person has a financial interest in the vehicle, the court shall consider at sentencing whether the vehicle shall be seized and forfeited pursuant to this section if a seizure or forfeiture has not yet occurred.

     (3) A vehicle subject to forfeiture under this chapter may be seized by a law enforcement officer of this state upon process issued by a court of competent jurisdiction. Seizure of a vehicle may be made without process if the vehicle subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this section.

     (4) Seizure under subsection (3) of this section automatically commences proceedings for forfeiture. The law enforcement agency under whose authority the seizure was made shall cause notice of the seizure and intended forfeiture of the seized vehicle to be served within fifteen days after the seizure on the owner of the vehicle seized, on the person in charge of the vehicle, and on any person having a known right or interest in the vehicle, including a community property interest. The notice of seizure may be served by any method authorized by law or court rule, including but not limited to service by certified mail with return receipt requested. Service by mail is complete upon mailing within the fifteen-day period after the seizure. Notice of seizure in the case of property subject to a security interest that has been perfected on a certificate of title shall be made by service upon the secured party or the secured party's assignee at the address shown on the financing statement or the certificate of title.

     (5) If no person notifies the seizing law enforcement agency in writing of the person's claim of ownership or right to possession of the seized vehicle within forty-five days of the seizure, the vehicle is deemed forfeited.

     (6) If a person notifies the seizing law enforcement agency in writing of the person's claim of ownership or right to possession of the seized vehicle within forty-five days of the seizure, the law enforcement agency shall give the person or persons a reasonable opportunity to be heard as to the claim or right. The hearing shall be before the chief law enforcement officer of the seizing agency or the chief law enforcement officer's designee, except where the seizing agency is a state agency as defined in RCW 34.12.020, the hearing shall be before the chief law enforcement officer of the seizing agency or an administrative law judge appointed under chapter 34.12 RCW, except that any person asserting a claim or right may remove the matter to a court of competent jurisdiction. Removal may only be accomplished according to the rules of civil procedure. The person seeking removal of the matter must serve process against the state, county, political subdivision, or municipality that operates the seizing agency, and any other party of interest, in accordance with RCW 4.28.080 or 4.92.020, within forty-five days after the person seeking removal has notified the seizing law enforcement agency of the person's claim of ownership or right to possession. The court to which the matter is to be removed shall be the district court when the aggregate value of the vehicle is within the jurisdictional limit set forth in RCW 3.66.020. A hearing before the seizing agency and any appeal therefrom shall be under Title 34 RCW. In a court hearing between two or more claimants to the vehicle involved, the prevailing party shall be entitled to a judgment for costs and reasonable attorneys' fees. The burden of producing evidence shall be upon the person claiming to be the legal owner or the person claiming to have the lawful right to possession of the vehicle. The seizing law enforcement agency shall promptly return the vehicle to the claimant upon a determination by the administrative law judge or court that the claimant is the present legal owner under this title or is lawfully entitled to possession of the vehicle.

     (7) When a vehicle is forfeited under this chapter the seizing law enforcement agency may sell the vehicle, retain it for official use, or upon application by a law enforcement agency of this state release the vehicle to that agency for the exclusive use of enforcing this title; provided, however, that the agency shall first satisfy any bona fide security interest to which the vehicle is subject under subsection (1)(a) or (c) of this section.

     (8) When a vehicle is forfeited, the seizing agency shall keep a record indicating the identity of the prior owner, if known, a description of the vehicle, the disposition of the vehicle, the value of the vehicle at the time of seizure, and the amount of proceeds realized from disposition of the vehicle.

     (9) Each seizing agency shall retain records of forfeited vehicles for at least seven years.

     (10) Each seizing agency shall file a report including a copy of the records of forfeited vehicles with the state treasurer each calendar quarter.

     (11) The quarterly report need not include a record of a forfeited vehicle that is still being held for use as evidence during the investigation or prosecution of a case or during the appeal from a conviction.

     (12) By January 31st of each year, each seizing agency shall remit to the state treasurer an amount equal to ten percent of the net proceeds of vehicles forfeited during the preceding calendar year. Money remitted shall be deposited in the state general fund.

     (13) The net proceeds of a forfeited vehicle is the value of the forfeitable interest in the vehicle after deducting the cost of satisfying a bona fide security interest to which the vehicle is subject at the time of seizure; and in the case of a sold vehicle, after deducting the cost of sale, including reasonable fees or commissions paid to independent selling agents.

     (14) The value of a sold forfeited vehicle is the sale price. The value of a retained forfeited vehicle is the fair market value of the vehicle at the time of seizure, determined when possible by reference to an applicable commonly used index, such as the index used by the department of licensing. A seizing agency may, but need not, use an independent qualified appraiser to determine the value of retained vehicles. If an appraiser is used, the value of the vehicle appraised is net of the cost of the appraisal.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 35 § 18; 2009 c 479 § 38; 1998 c 207 § 2; 1995 c 332 § 6; 1994 c 139 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2009 c 479: See note following RCW 2.56.030.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 207: See note following RCW 46.61.5055.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.




46.61.506
Persons under influence of intoxicating liquor or drug — Evidence — Tests — Information concerning tests.

(1) Upon the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any person while driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, if the person's alcohol concentration is less than 0.08 or the person's THC concentration is less than 5.00, it is evidence that may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug.

     (2)(a) The breath analysis of the person's alcohol concentration shall be based upon grams of alcohol per two hundred ten liters of breath.

     (b) The blood analysis of the person's THC concentration shall be based upon nanograms per milliliter of whole blood.

     (c) The foregoing provisions of this section shall not be construed as limiting the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question whether the person was under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug.

     (3) Analysis of the person's blood or breath to be considered valid under the provisions of this section or RCW
46.61.502 or 46.61.504 shall have been performed according to methods approved by the state toxicologist and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the state toxicologist for this purpose. The state toxicologist is directed to approve satisfactory techniques or methods, to supervise the examination of individuals to ascertain their qualifications and competence to conduct such analyses, and to issue permits which shall be subject to termination or revocation at the discretion of the state toxicologist.

     (4)(a) A breath test performed by any instrument approved by the state toxicologist shall be admissible at trial or in an administrative proceeding if the prosecution or department produces prima facie evidence of the following:

     (i) The person who performed the test was authorized to perform such test by the state toxicologist;

     (ii) The person being tested did not vomit or have anything to eat, drink, or smoke for at least fifteen minutes prior to administration of the test;

     (iii) The person being tested did not have any foreign substances, not to include dental work, fixed or removable, in his or her mouth at the beginning of the fifteen-minute observation period;

     (iv) Prior to the start of the test, the temperature of any liquid simulator solution utilized as an external standard, as measured by a thermometer approved of by the state toxicologist was thirty-four degrees centigrade plus or minus 0.3 degrees centigrade;

     (v) The internal standard test resulted in the message "verified";

     (vi) The two breath samples agree to within plus or minus ten percent of their mean to be determined by the method approved by the state toxicologist;

     (vii) The result of the test of the liquid simulator solution external standard or dry gas external standard result did lie between .072 to .088 inclusive; and

     (viii) All blank tests gave results of .000.

     (b) For purposes of this section, "prima facie evidence" is evidence of sufficient circumstances that would support a logical and reasonable inference of the facts sought to be proved. In assessing whether there is sufficient evidence of the foundational facts, the court or administrative tribunal is to assume the truth of the prosecution's or department's evidence and all reasonable inferences from it in a light most favorable to the prosecution or department.

     (c) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent the subject of the test from challenging the reliability or accuracy of the test, the reliability or functioning of the instrument, or any maintenance procedures. Such challenges, however, shall not preclude the admissibility of the test once the prosecution or department has made a prima facie showing of the requirements contained in (a) of this subsection. Instead, such challenges may be considered by the trier of fact in determining what weight to give to the test result.

     (5) When a blood test is administered under the provisions of RCW 46.20.308, the withdrawal of blood for the purpose of determining its alcoholic or drug content may be performed only by a physician, a registered nurse, a licensed practical nurse, a nursing assistant as defined in chapter 18.88A RCW, a physician assistant as defined in chapter 18.71A RCW, a first responder as defined in chapter 18.73 RCW, an emergency medical technician as defined in chapter 18.73 RCW, a health care assistant as defined in chapter 18.135 RCW, or any technician trained in withdrawing blood. This limitation shall not apply to the taking of breath specimens.

     (6) The person tested may have a physician, or a qualified technician, chemist, registered nurse, or other qualified person of his or her own choosing administer one or more tests in addition to any administered at the direction of a law enforcement officer. The test will be admissible if the person establishes the general acceptability of the testing technique or method. The failure or inability to obtain an additional test by a person shall not preclude the admission of evidence relating to the test or tests taken at the direction of a law enforcement officer.

     (7) Upon the request of the person who shall submit to a test or tests at the request of a law enforcement officer, full information concerning the test or tests shall be made available to him or her or his or her attorney.

[2013 c 3 § 37 (Initiative Measure No. 502, approved November 6, 2012); 2010 c 53 § 1; 2004 c 68 § 4; 1998 c 213 § 6; 1995 c 332 § 18; 1994 c 275 § 26; 1987 c 373 § 4; 1986 c 153 § 4; 1979 ex.s. c 176 § 5; 1975 1st ex.s. c 287 § 1; 1969 c 1 § 3 (Initiative Measure No. 242, approved November 5, 1968).]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Evidence of Breathalyzer, BAC Verifier, simulator solution tests -- CrRLJ 6.13.

     Intent -- 2013 c 3 (Initiative Measure No. 502): See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Finding -- Intent -- 2004 c 68: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Effective date -- 1998 c 213: See note following RCW 46.20.308.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.

     Legislative finding, purpose -- Severability -- 1987 c 373: See notes following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 176: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability, implied consent law -- 1969 c 1: See RCW 46.20.911.

Arrest of driver under influence of intoxicating liquor or drugs: RCW 10.31.100.




46.61.507
Arrest upon driving under the influence or being in physical control of vehicle under the influence, notation required if child is present — Arrest upon drug or alcohol-related driving offense, child protective services notified if child is present and operator is child's parent, guardian, or custodian.

(1) In every case where a person is arrested for a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, the law enforcement officer shall make a clear notation if a child under the age of sixteen was present in the vehicle.

     (2) A law enforcement officer shall promptly notify child protective services whenever a child is present in a vehicle being driven by his or her parent, guardian, legal custodian, or sibling or half-sibling and that person is being arrested for a drug or alcohol-related driving offense. This section does not require law enforcement to take custody of the child unless there is no other responsible person, or an agency having the right to physical custody of the child that can be contacted, or the officer has reasonable grounds to believe the child should be taken into custody pursuant to RCW 13.34.050 or 26.44.050.

     (3) For purposes of this section, "child" means any person under sixteen years of age.

[2012 c 42 § 1; 2010 c 214 § 1.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: The same language introduced by 2010 c 214 § 1 was codified under RCW 26.44.250 pursuant to 2010 c 214 § 2. However, the amendments made to this section pursuant to 2012 c 42 § 1 were not duplicated in RCW 26.44.250.




46.61.508
Liability of medical personnel withdrawing blood.

No physician, registered nurse, qualified technician, or hospital, or duly licensed clinical laboratory employing or utilizing services of such physician, registered nurse, or qualified technician, shall incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the act of withdrawing blood from any person when directed by a law enforcement officer to do so for the purpose of a blood test under the provisions of RCW 46.20.308, as now or hereafter amended: PROVIDED, That nothing in this section shall relieve any physician, registered nurse, qualified technician, or hospital or duly licensed clinical laboratory from civil liability arising from the use of improper procedures or failing to exercise the required standard of care.

[1977 ex.s. c 143 § 1.]




46.61.513
Criminal history and driving record.

(1) Immediately before the court defers prosecution under RCW 10.05.020, dismisses a charge, or orders a sentence for any offense listed in subsection (2) of this section, the court and prosecutor shall verify the defendant's criminal history and driving record. The order shall include specific findings as to the criminal history and driving record. For purposes of this section, the criminal history shall include all previous convictions and orders of deferred prosecution, as reported through the judicial information system or otherwise available to the court or prosecutor, current to within the period specified in subsection (3) of this section before the date of the order. For purposes of this section, the driving record shall include all information reported to the court by the department of licensing.

     (2) The offenses to which this section applies are violations of: (a) RCW 46.61.502 or an equivalent local ordinance; (b) RCW 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance; (c) RCW 46.61.520 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug; (d) RCW 46.61.522 committed while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug; and (e) RCW 46.61.5249, 46.61.500, or 9A.36.050, or an equivalent local ordinance, if the conviction is the result of a charge that was originally filed as a violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 or an equivalent local ordinance, or of RCW 46.61.520 or 46.61.522.

     (3) The periods applicable to previous convictions and orders of deferred prosecution are: (a) One working day, in the case of previous actions of courts that fully participate in the state judicial information system; and (b) seven calendar days, in the case of previous actions of courts that do not fully participate in the judicial information system. For purposes of this subsection, "fully participate" means regularly providing records to and receiving records from the system by electronic means on a daily basis.

[1998 c 211 § 5.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1998 c 211: See note following RCW 46.61.5055.




46.61.5151
Sentences — Intermittent fulfillment — Restrictions.

A sentencing court may allow a person convicted of a nonfelony violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 to fulfill the terms of the sentence provided in RCW 46.61.5055 in nonconsecutive or intermittent time periods. However, any mandatory minimum sentence under RCW 46.61.5055 shall be served consecutively unless suspended or deferred as otherwise provided by law.

[2006 c 73 § 18; 1995 c 332 § 15; 1994 c 275 § 39; 1983 c 165 § 33.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1995 c 332: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.

     Legislative finding, intent -- Effective dates -- Severability -- 1983 c 165: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.




46.61.5152
Attendance at program focusing on victims.

In addition to penalties that may be imposed under RCW 46.61.5055, the court may require a person who is convicted of a nonfelony violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504 or who enters a deferred prosecution program under RCW 10.05.020 based on a nonfelony violation of RCW 46.61.502 or 46.61.504, to attend an educational program, such as a victim impact panel, focusing on the emotional, physical, and financial suffering of victims who were injured by persons convicted of driving while under the influence of intoxicants. The victim impact panel program must meet the minimum standards established under RCW 10.01.230.

[2011 c 293 § 14; 2006 c 73 § 17; 1998 c 41 § 9; 1994 c 275 § 40; 1992 c 64 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Intent -- Construction -- Effective date -- 1998 c 41: See notes following RCW 46.20.265.

     Short title -- Effective date -- 1994 c 275: See notes following RCW 46.04.015.




46.61.516
Qualified probation department defined.

A qualified probation department means a probation department for a district or municipal court that has a sufficient number of qualified alcohol assessment officers who meet the requirements of a qualified alcoholism counselor as provided by rule of the department of social and health services, except that the required hours of supervised work experience in an alcoholism agency may be satisfied by completing an equivalent number of hours of supervised work doing alcohol assessments within a probation department.

[1983 c 150 § 2.]




46.61.517
Refusal of test — Admissibility as evidence.

The refusal of a person to submit to a test of the alcohol or drug concentration in the person's blood or breath under RCW 46.20.308 is admissible into evidence at a subsequent criminal trial.

[2001 c 142 § 1; 1987 c 373 § 5; 1986 c 64 § 2; 1985 c 352 § 21; 1983 c 165 § 27.]

Notes:

     Legislative finding, purpose -- Severability -- 1987 c 373: See notes following RCW 46.61.502.

     Severability -- 1985 c 352: See note following RCW 10.05.010.

     Legislative finding, intent -- Effective dates -- Severability -- 1983 c 165: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.




46.61.519
Alcoholic beverages — Drinking or open container in vehicle on highway — Exceptions.

(1) It is a traffic infraction to drink any alcoholic beverage in a motor vehicle when the vehicle is upon a highway.

     (2) It is a traffic infraction for a person to have in his or her possession while in a motor vehicle upon a highway, a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage if the container has been opened or a seal broken or the contents partially removed.

     (3) It is a traffic infraction for the registered owner of a motor vehicle, or the driver if the registered owner is not then present in the vehicle, to keep in a motor vehicle when the vehicle is upon a highway, a bottle, can, or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage which has been opened or a seal broken or the contents partially removed, unless the container is kept in the trunk of the vehicle or in some other area of the vehicle not normally occupied by the driver or passengers if the vehicle does not have a trunk. A utility compartment or glove compartment is deemed to be within the area occupied by the driver and passengers.

     (4) This section does not apply to a public conveyance that has been commercially chartered for group use or to the living quarters of a motor home or camper or, except as otherwise provided by RCW
66.44.250 or local law, to any passenger for compensation in a for-hire vehicle licensed under city, county, or state law, or to a privately owned vehicle operated by a person possessing a valid operator's license endorsed for the appropriate classification under chapter 46.25 RCW in the course of his or her usual employment transporting passengers at the employer's direction: PROVIDED, That nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize possession or consumption of an alcoholic beverage by the operator of any vehicle while upon a highway.

[2010 c 8 § 9071; 1989 c 178 § 26; 1984 c 274 § 1; 1983 c 165 § 28.]

Notes:

     Severability -- Effective dates -- 1989 c 178: See RCW 46.25.900 and 46.25.901.

     Legislative finding, intent -- Effective dates -- Severability -- 1983 c 165: See notes following RCW 46.20.308.

Ignition interlocks, biological, technical devices: RCW 46.20.710 through 46.20.750.




46.61.5191
Local ordinances not prohibited.

Nothing in RCW 46.61.519 or RCW 46.61.5191 prohibits any city or town from enacting a local ordinance that proscribes the acts proscribed by those sections and that provides penalties equal to or greater than the penalties provided in those sections.

[1984 c 274 § 2.]




46.61.5195
Disguising alcoholic beverage container.

(1) It is a traffic infraction to incorrectly label the original container of an alcoholic beverage and to then violate RCW 46.61.519.

     (2) It is a traffic infraction to place an alcoholic beverage in a container specifically labeled by the manufacturer of the container as containing a nonalcoholic beverage and to then violate RCW 46.61.519.

[1984 c 274 § 3.]

Notes:

Ignition interlocks, biological, technical devices: RCW 46.20.710 through 46.20.750.



46.61.520
Vehicular homicide — Penalty.

(1) When the death of any person ensues within three years as a proximate result of injury proximately caused by the driving of any vehicle by any person, the driver is guilty of vehicular homicide if the driver was operating a motor vehicle:

     (a) While under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, as defined by RCW
46.61.502; or

     (b) In a reckless manner; or

     (c) With disregard for the safety of others.

     (2) Vehicular homicide is a class A felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW, except that, for a conviction under subsection (1)(a) of this section, an additional two years shall be added to the sentence for each prior offense as defined in RCW 46.61.5055.

[1998 c 211 § 2; 1996 c 199 § 7; 1991 c 348 § 1; 1983 c 164 § 1; 1975 1st ex.s. c 287 § 3; 1973 2nd ex.s. c 38 § 2; 1970 ex.s. c 49 § 5; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 63; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.040. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 120; RRS § 6360-120. Formerly RCW 46.56.040.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1998 c 211: See note following RCW 46.61.5055.

     Severability -- 1996 c 199: See note following RCW 9.94A.505.

     Effective date -- 1991 c 348: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect July 1, 1991." [1991 c 348 § 5.]

     Severability -- 1973 2nd ex.s. c 38: See note following RCW 69.50.101.

     Severability -- 1970 ex.s. c 49: See note following RCW 9.69.100.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.

Ignition interlocks, biological, technical devices: RCW 46.20.710 through 46.20.750.

Suspension or revocation of license upon conviction of vehicular homicide or assault: RCW 46.20.285, 46.20.291.




46.61.522
Vehicular assault — Penalty.

(1) A person is guilty of vehicular assault if he or she operates or drives any vehicle:

     (a) In a reckless manner and causes substantial bodily harm to another; or

     (b) While under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, as defined by RCW
46.61.502, and causes substantial bodily harm to another; or

     (c) With disregard for the safety of others and causes substantial bodily harm to another.

     (2) Vehicular assault is a class B felony punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

     (3) As used in this section, "substantial bodily harm" has the same meaning as in RCW 9A.04.110.

[2001 c 300 § 1; 1996 c 199 § 8; 1983 c 164 § 2.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1996 c 199: See note following RCW 9.94A.505.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.

Ignition interlocks, biological, technical devices: RCW 46.20.710 through 46.20.750.




46.61.524
Vehicular homicide, assault — Revocation of driving privilege — Eligibility for reinstatement.

As provided for under RCW 46.20.285, the department shall revoke the license, permit to drive, or a nonresident privilege of a person convicted of vehicular homicide under RCW 46.61.520 or vehicular assault under RCW 46.61.522. The department shall determine the eligibility of a person convicted of vehicular homicide under RCW 46.61.520(1)(a) or vehicular assault under RCW 46.61.522(1)(b) to receive a license based upon the report provided by the designated alcoholism treatment facility or probation department designated pursuant to RCW 9.94A.703(4)(b), and shall deny reinstatement until satisfactory progress in an approved program has been established and the person is otherwise qualified.

[2008 c 231 § 46; 2006 c 73 § 16; 2001 c 64 § 7; 2000 c 28 § 40; 1991 c 348 § 2.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Application -- Application of repealers -- Effective date -- 2008 c 231: See notes following RCW 9.94A.701.

     Severability -- 2008 c 231: See note following RCW 9.94A.500.

     Effective date -- 2006 c 73: See note following RCW 46.61.502.

     Technical correction bill -- 2000 c 28: See note following RCW 9.94A.015.

     Headings and captions not law -- Effective date -- Severability -- 2000 c 28: See RCW 9.94A.920, 9.94A.921, and 9.94A.922.

     Effective date -- 1991 c 348: See note following RCW 46.61.520.




46.61.5249
Negligent driving — First degree.

(1)(a) A person is guilty of negligent driving in the first degree if he or she operates a motor vehicle in a manner that is both negligent and endangers or is likely to endanger any person or property, and exhibits the effects of having consumed liquor or marijuana or any drug or exhibits the effects of having inhaled or ingested any chemical, whether or not a legal substance, for its intoxicating or hallucinatory effects.

     (b) It is an affirmative defense to negligent driving in the first degree by means of exhibiting the effects of having consumed any drug that must be proved by the defendant by a preponderance of the evidence, that the driver has a valid prescription for the drug consumed, and has been consuming it according to the prescription directions and warnings.

     (c) Negligent driving in the first degree is a misdemeanor.

     (2) For the purposes of this section:

     (a) "Negligent" means the failure to exercise ordinary care, and is the doing of some act that a reasonably careful person would not do under the same or similar circumstances or the failure to do something that a reasonably careful person would do under the same or similar circumstances.

     (b) "Exhibiting the effects of having consumed liquor, marijuana, or any drug" means that a person has the odor of liquor, marijuana, or any drug on his or her breath, or that by speech, manner, appearance, behavior, lack of coordination, or otherwise exhibits that he or she has consumed liquor, marijuana, or any drug, and either:

     (i) Is in possession of or in close proximity to a container that has or recently had liquor, marijuana, or any drug in it; or

     (ii) Is shown by other evidence to have recently consumed liquor, marijuana, or any drug.

     (c) "Exhibiting the effects of having inhaled or ingested any chemical, whether or not a legal substance, for its intoxicating or hallucinatory effects" means that a person by speech, manner, appearance, behavior, or lack of coordination or otherwise exhibits that he or she has inhaled or ingested a chemical and either:

     (i) Is in possession of the canister or container from which the chemical came; or

     (ii) Is shown by other evidence to have recently inhaled or ingested a chemical for its intoxicating or hallucinatory effects.

     (3) Any act prohibited by this section that also constitutes a crime under any other law of this state may be the basis of prosecution under such other law notwithstanding that it may also be the basis for prosecution under this section.

     (4) A person convicted of negligent driving in the first degree who has one or more prior offenses as defined in RCW
46.61.5055(14) within seven years shall be required, under RCW 46.20.720, to install an ignition interlock device on all vehicles operated by the person.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 35 § 16; 2012 c 183 § 13; 2011 c 293 § 5; 1997 c 66 § 4.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2012 c 183: See note following RCW 2.28.175.

     Effective date -- 2011 c 293 §§ 1-9: See note following RCW 46.20.385.

Criminal history and driving record: RCW 46.61.513.




46.61.525
Negligent driving — Second degree.

(1)(a) A person is guilty of negligent driving in the second degree if, under circumstances not constituting negligent driving in the first degree, he or she operates a motor vehicle in a manner that is both negligent and endangers or is likely to endanger any person or property.

     (b) It is an affirmative defense to negligent driving in the second degree that must be proved by the defendant by a preponderance of the evidence, that the driver was operating the motor vehicle on private property with the consent of the owner in a manner consistent with the owner's consent.

     (c) Negligent driving in the second degree is a traffic infraction and is subject to a penalty of two hundred fifty dollars.

     (2) For the purposes of this section, "negligent" means the failure to exercise ordinary care, and is the doing of some act that a reasonably careful person would not do under the same or similar circumstances or the failure to do something that a reasonably careful person would do under the same or similar circumstances.

     (3) Any act prohibited by this section that also constitutes a crime under any other law of this state may be the basis of prosecution under such other law notwithstanding that it may also be the basis for prosecution under this section.

[1997 c 66 § 5; 1996 c 307 § 1; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 86; 1967 c 32 § 69; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.030. Prior: 1939 c 154 § 1; RRS § 6360-118 1/2. Formerly RCW 46.56.030.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Negligent driving cases -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

Arrest of person involved in negligent driving: RCW 10.31.100.

Use of vessel in reckless manner or while under influence of alcohol or drugs prohibited: RCW 79A.60.040.




46.61.526
Negligent driving — Second degree — Vulnerable user victim — Penalties — Definitions.

(1) A person commits negligent driving in the second degree with a vulnerable user victim if, under circumstances not constituting negligent driving in the first degree, he or she operates a vehicle, as defined in RCW 46.04.670, in a manner that is both negligent and endangers or is likely to endanger any person or property, and he or she proximately causes the death, great bodily harm, or substantial bodily harm of a vulnerable user of a public way.

     (2) The law enforcement officer or prosecuting authority issuing the notice of infraction for an offense under this section shall state on the notice of infraction that the offense was a proximate cause of death, great bodily harm, or substantial bodily harm, as defined in RCW 9A.04.110, of a vulnerable user of a public way.

     (3) Persons under the age of sixteen who commit an infraction under this section are subject to the provisions of RCW 13.40.250.

     (4) A person found to have committed negligent driving in the second degree with a vulnerable user victim shall be required to:

     (a) Pay a monetary penalty of five thousand dollars, which may not be reduced to an amount less than one thousand dollars; and

     (b) Have his or her driving privileges suspended for ninety days.

     (5) In lieu of the penalties imposed under subsection (4) of this section, a person found to have committed negligent driving in the second degree with a vulnerable user victim who requests and personally appears for a hearing pursuant to RCW 46.63.070 (1) or (2) may elect to:

     (a) Pay a penalty of two hundred fifty dollars;

     (b) Attend traffic school for a number of days to be determined by the court pursuant to chapter 46.83 RCW;

     (c) Perform community service for a number of hours to be determined by the court, which may not exceed one hundred hours, and which must include activities related to driver improvement and providing public education on traffic safety; and

     (d) Submit certification to the court establishing that the requirements of this subsection have been met within one year of the hearing.

     (6) If a person found to have committed a violation of this section elects the penalties imposed under subsection (5) of this section, the court may impose the penalties under subsection (5) of this section and the court may assess costs as the court deems appropriate for administrative processing.

     (7) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, if a person found to have committed a violation of this section elects the penalties under subsection (5) of this section but does not complete all requirements of subsection (5) of this section within one year of the hearing:

     (a)(i) The court shall impose a monetary penalty in the amount of five thousand dollars, which may not be reduced to an amount less than one thousand dollars; and

     (ii) The person's driving privileges shall be suspended for ninety days.

     (b) For good cause shown, the court may extend the period of time in which the person must complete the requirements of subsection (5) of this section before any of the penalties provided in this subsection are imposed.

     (8) An offense under this section is a traffic infraction. To the extent not inconsistent with this section, the provisions of chapter 46.63 RCW shall apply to infractions under this section. Procedures for the conduct of all hearings provided for in this section may be established by rule of the supreme court.

     (9) If a person is penalized under subsection (4) of this section, then the court shall notify the department, and the department shall suspend the person's driving privileges. If a person fails to meet the requirements of subsection (5) of this section, the court shall notify the department that the person has failed to meet the requirements of subsection (5) of this section and the department shall suspend the person's driving privileges. Notice provided by the court under this subsection must be in a form specified by the department.

     (10) Any act prohibited by this section that also constitutes a crime under any other law of this state may be the basis of prosecution under such other law notwithstanding that it may also be the basis for prosecution under this section.

     (11) For the purposes of this section:

     (a) "Great bodily harm" and "substantial bodily harm" have the same meaning as provided in RCW 9A.04.110.

     (b) "Negligent" has the same meaning as provided in RCW 46.61.525(2).

     (c) "Vulnerable user of a public way" means:

     (i) A pedestrian;

     (ii) A person riding an animal; or

     (iii) A person operating any of the following on a public way:

     (A) A farm tractor or implement of husbandry, without an enclosed shell;

     (B) A bicycle;

     (C) An electric-assisted bicycle;

     (D) An electric personal assistive mobility device;

     (E) A moped;

     (F) A motor-driven cycle;

     (G) A motorized foot scooter; or

     (H) A motorcycle.

[2011 c 372 § 1.]

Notes:

     Application -- 2011 c 372: "This act applies to infractions committed on or after July 1, 2012." [2011 c 372 § 4.]

     Effective date -- 2011 c 372: "This act takes effect July 1, 2012." [2011 c 372 § 5.]




46.61.527
Roadway construction zones.

(1) The secretary of transportation shall adopt standards and specifications for the use of traffic control devices in roadway construction zones on state highways. A roadway construction zone is an area where construction, repair, or maintenance work is being conducted by public employees or private contractors, on or adjacent to any public roadway. For the purpose of the pilot program referenced in section 218(2), chapter 470, Laws of 2009, during the 2009-2011 fiscal biennium, a roadway construction zone includes areas where public employees or private contractors are not present but where a driving condition exists that would make it unsafe to drive at higher speeds, such as, when the department is redirecting or realigning lanes on or adjacent to any public roadway pursuant to ongoing construction.

     (2) No person may drive a vehicle in a roadway construction zone at a speed greater than that allowed by traffic control devices.

     (3) A person found to have committed any infraction relating to speed restrictions in a roadway construction zone shall be assessed a monetary penalty equal to twice the penalty assessed under RCW
46.63.110. This penalty may not be waived, reduced, or suspended.

     (4) A person who drives a vehicle in a roadway construction zone in such a manner as to endanger or be likely to endanger any persons or property, or who removes, evades, or intentionally strikes a traffic safety or control device is guilty of reckless endangerment of roadway workers. A violation of this subsection is a gross misdemeanor punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

     (5) The department shall suspend for sixty days the license or permit to drive or a nonresident driving privilege of a person convicted of reckless endangerment of roadway workers.

[2009 c 470 § 713; 1994 c 141 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2009 c 470: See note following RCW 46.68.170.

     Effective date -- 1994 c 141: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and shall take effect immediately [March 28, 1994]." [1994 c 141 § 3.]




46.61.530
Racing of vehicles on highways — Reckless driving — Exception.

No person or persons may race any motor vehicle or motor vehicles upon any public highway of this state. Any person or persons who wilfully compare or contest relative speeds by operation of one or more motor vehicles shall be guilty of racing, which shall constitute reckless driving under RCW 46.61.500, whether or not such speed is in excess of the maximum speed prescribed by law: PROVIDED HOWEVER, That any comparison or contest of the accuracy with which motor vehicles may be operated in terms of relative speeds not in excess of the posted maximum speed does not constitute racing.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 87; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.050. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 67; RRS § 6360-67; 1921 c 96 § 32; 1915 c 142 § 25; RRS § 6344. Formerly RCW 46.48.050.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

Arrest of person involved in racing of vehicles: RCW 10.31.100.




46.61.535
Advertising of unlawful speed — Reckless driving.

It shall be unlawful for any manufacturer, dealer, distributor, or any person, firm, or corporation to publish or advertise or offer for publication or advertisement, or to consent or cause to be published or advertised, the time consumed or speed attained by a vehicle between given points or over given or designated distances upon any public highways of this state when such published or advertised time consumed or speed attained shall indicate an average rate of speed between given points or over a given or designated distance in excess of the maximum rate of speed allowed between such points or at a rate of speed which would constitute reckless driving between such points. Violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be prima facie evidence of reckless driving and shall subject such person, firm, or corporation to the penalties in such cases provided.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 88; 1961 c 12 § 46.48.060. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 68; RRS § 6360-68. Formerly RCW 46.48.060.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.61.540
"Drugs," what included.

The word "drugs," as used in RCW 46.61.500 through 46.61.535, shall include but not be limited to those drugs and substances regulated by chapters 69.41 and 69.50 RCW and any chemical inhaled or ingested for its intoxicating or hallucinatory effects.

[2012 c 183 § 14; 1975 1st ex.s. c 287 § 5.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2012 c 183: See note following RCW 2.28.175.




46.61.560
Stopping, standing, or parking outside business or residence districts.

(1) Outside of incorporated cities and towns no person may stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the roadway.

     (2) Subsection (1) of this section and RCW
46.61.570 and 46.61.575 do not apply to the driver of any vehicle that is disabled in such manner and to such extent that it is impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving the vehicle in such position. The driver shall nonetheless arrange for the prompt removal of the vehicle as required by RCW 46.61.590.

     (3) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to the driver of a public transit vehicle who temporarily stops the vehicle upon the roadway for the purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or discharging passengers at a marked transit vehicle stop zone approved by the state department of transportation or a county upon highways under their respective jurisdictions. However, public transportation service providers, including private, nonprofit transportation providers regulated under chapter 81.66 RCW, may allow the driver of a transit vehicle to stop upon the roadway momentarily to receive or discharge passengers at an unmarked stop zone only under the following circumstances: (a) The driver stops the vehicle in a safe and practicable position; (b) the driver activates four-way flashing lights; and (c) the driver stops at a portion of the highway with an unobstructed view, for an adequate distance so as to not create a hazard, for other drivers.

     (4) Subsection (1) of this section and RCW 46.61.570 and 46.61.575 do not apply to the driver of a solid waste collection company or recycling company vehicle who temporarily stops the vehicle as close as practical to the right edge of the right-hand shoulder of the roadway or right edge of the roadway if no shoulder exists for the purpose of and while actually engaged in the collection of solid waste or recyclables, or both, under chapters 81.77, 35.21, and 35A.21 RCW or by contract under RCW 36.58.040.

[2009 c 274 § 1; 1991 c 319 § 408; 1984 c 7 § 72; 1979 ex.s. c 178 § 20; 1977 c 24 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 64.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- Part headings not law -- 1991 c 319: See RCW 70.95F.900 and 70.95F.901.

     Severability -- 1984 c 7: See note following RCW 47.01.141.

     Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 178: See note following RCW 46.61.590.

Limited access highways: RCW 47.52.120.

Unattended motor vehicles: RCW 46.61.600.




46.61.570
Stopping, standing, or parking prohibited in specified places — Reserving portion of highway prohibited.

(1) Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic control device, no person shall:

     (a) Stop, stand, or park a vehicle:

     (i) On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street;

     (ii) On a sidewalk or street planting strip;

     (iii) Within an intersection;

     (iv) On a crosswalk;

     (v) Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within thirty feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone, unless official signs or markings indicate a different no-parking area opposite the ends of a safety zone;

     (vi) Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing, or parking would obstruct traffic;

     (vii) Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel;

     (viii) On any railroad tracks;

     (ix) In the area between roadways of a divided highway including crossovers; or

     (x) At any place where official signs prohibit stopping.

     (b) Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily to pick up or discharge a passenger or passengers:

     (i) In front of a public or private driveway or within five feet of the end of the curb radius leading thereto;

     (ii) Within fifteen feet of a fire hydrant;

     (iii) Within twenty feet of a crosswalk;

     (iv) Within thirty feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, stop sign, yield sign, or traffic control signal located at the side of a roadway;

     (v) Within twenty feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any fire station within seventy-five feet of said entrance when properly signposted; or

     (vi) At any place where official signs prohibit standing.

     (c) Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading property or passengers:

     (i) Within fifty feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing; or

     (ii) At any place where official signs prohibit parking.

     (2) Parking or standing shall be permitted in the manner provided by law at all other places except a time limit may be imposed or parking restricted at other places but such limitation and restriction shall be by city ordinance or county resolution or order of the secretary of transportation upon highways under their respective jurisdictions.

     (3) No person shall move a vehicle not lawfully under his or her control into any such prohibited area or away from a curb such a distance as is unlawful.

     (4) It shall be unlawful for any person to reserve or attempt to reserve any portion of a highway for the purpose of stopping, standing, or parking to the exclusion of any other like person, nor shall any person be granted such right.

[1977 ex.s. c 151 § 40; 1975 c 62 § 35; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 66.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule--IRLJ 6.2.

     Federal requirements--Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Limited access highways: RCW 47.52.120.




46.61.575
Additional parking regulations.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a two-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels parallel to and within twelve inches of the right-hand curb or as close as practicable to the right edge of the right-hand shoulder.

     (2) Except when otherwise provided by local ordinance, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a one-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked parallel to the curb or edge of the roadway, in the direction of authorized traffic movement, with its right-hand wheels within twelve inches of the right-hand curb or as close as practicable to the right edge of the right-hand shoulder, or with its left-hand wheels within twelve inches of the left-hand curb or as close as practicable to the left edge of the left-hand shoulder.

     (3) Local authorities may by ordinance or resolution permit angle parking on any roadway, except that angle parking shall not be permitted on any federal-aid or state highway unless the secretary of transportation has determined by order that the roadway is of sufficient width to permit angle parking without interfering with the free movement of traffic.

     (4) The secretary with respect to highways under his or her jurisdiction may place official traffic control devices prohibiting, limiting, or restricting the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles on any highway where the secretary has determined by order, such stopping, standing, or parking is dangerous to those using the highway or where the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles would unduly interfere with the free movement of traffic thereon. No person shall stop, stand, or park any vehicle in violation of the restrictions indicated by such devices.

[1977 ex.s. c 151 § 41; 1975 c 62 § 36; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 67.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Federal requirements -- Severability -- 1977 ex.s. c 151: See RCW 47.98.070 and 47.98.080.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.577
Regulations governing parking facilities.

The secretary of transportation may adopt regulations governing the use and control of park and ride lots and other parking facilities operated by the department of transportation, including time limits for the parking of vehicles.

[1981 c 185 § 1.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.581
Parking spaces for persons with disabilities — Indication, access — Failure, penalty.

A parking space or stall for a person with a disability shall be indicated by a vertical sign with the international symbol of access, whose colors are white on a blue background, described under RCW 70.92.120. The sign may include additional language such as, but not limited to, an indication of the amount of the monetary penalty defined in RCW 46.19.050 for parking in the space without a valid permit.

     Failure of the person owning or controlling the property where required parking spaces are located to erect and maintain the sign is a class 2 civil infraction under chapter 7.80 RCW for each parking space that should be so designated. The person owning or controlling the property where the required parking spaces are located shall ensure that the parking spaces are not blocked or made inaccessible, and failure to do so is a class 2 civil infraction.

[2010 c 161 § 1123; 2005 c 390 § 1; 1998 c 294 § 2; 1988 c 74 § 1; 1984 c 154 § 4.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Intent -- Legislation to reconcile chapter 161, Laws of 2010 and other amendments made during the 2010 legislative session -- 2010 c 161: See notes following RCW 46.04.013.

     Intent -- Application -- Severability -- 1984 c 154: See notes following RCW 46.55.113.

Accessible parking spaces required: RCW 70.92.140.

Special parking for persons with disabilities--Unauthorized use: RCW 46.19.050.




46.61.582
Free parking for persons with disabilities.


     *** CHANGE IN 2014 *** (SEE
2463-S.SL) ***

Any person who meets the criteria for special parking privileges under RCW 46.19.010 shall be allowed free of charge to park a vehicle being used to transport that person for unlimited periods of time in parking zones or areas including zones or areas with parking meters which are otherwise restricted as to the length of time parking is permitted. This section does not apply to those zones or areas in which the stopping, parking, or standing of all vehicles is prohibited or which are reserved for special types of vehicles. The person shall obtain and display a special placard or license plate under RCW 46.19.010 and 46.19.030 to be eligible for the privileges under this section.

[2011 c 171 § 80; 2010 c 161 § 1124; 1991 c 339 § 25; 1984 c 154 § 5.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2011 c 171: See notes following RCW 4.24.210.

     Effective date -- Intent -- Legislation to reconcile chapter 161, Laws of 2010 and other amendments made during the 2010 legislative session -- 2010 c 161: See notes following RCW 46.04.013.

     Intent -- Application -- Severability -- 1984 c 154: See notes following RCW 46.55.113.




46.61.583
Special plate or card issued by another jurisdiction.


     *** CHANGE IN 2014 *** (SEE
2463-S.SL) ***

A special license plate or card issued by another state or country that indicates an occupant of the vehicle is disabled, entitles the vehicle on or in which it is displayed and being used to transport the disabled person to the same overtime parking privileges granted under this chapter to a vehicle with a similar special license plate or card issued by this state.

[1991 c 339 § 26; 1984 c 51 § 2.]




46.61.585
Winter recreational parking areas — Special permit required.

Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic control device, no person shall park a vehicle in an area designated by an official sign that it is a winter recreational parking area unless such vehicle displays, in accordance with regulations adopted by the parks and recreation commission, a special winter recreational area parking permit or permits.

[1990 c 49 § 4; 1975 1st ex.s. c 209 § 5.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 1st ex.s. c 209: See note following RCW 79A.05.225.

Winter recreational parking areas: RCW 79A.05.225 through 79A.05.255.




46.61.587
Winter recreational parking areas — Penalty.

Any violation of RCW 79A.05.240 or 46.61.585 or any rule adopted by the parks and recreation commission to enforce the provisions thereof is a civil infraction as provided in chapter 7.84 RCW.

[1999 c 249 § 501; 1984 c 258 § 329; 1977 c 57 § 1; 1975 1st ex.s. c 209 § 6.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1999 c 249: See note following RCW 79A.05.010.

     Court Improvement Act of 1984 -- Effective dates -- Severability -- Short title -- 1984 c 258: See notes following RCW 3.30.010.

     Intent -- 1984 c 258: See note following RCW 3.34.130.

     Severability -- 1975 1st ex.s. c 209: See note following RCW 79A.05.225.




46.61.590
Unattended motor vehicle — Removal from highway.

It is unlawful for the operator of a vehicle to leave the vehicle unattended within the limits of any highway unless the operator of the vehicle arranges for the prompt removal of the vehicle.

[1979 ex.s. c 178 § 1.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 178: "If any provision of this 1979 act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1979 ex.s. c 178 § 23.]

Towing and impoundment: Chapter 46.55 RCW.




46.61.600
Unattended motor vehicle.

(1) No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, locking the ignition, removing the key and effectively setting the brake thereon and, when standing upon any perceptible grade, turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the highway.

     (2) The most recent driver of a motor vehicle which the driver has left standing unattended, who learns that the vehicle has become set in motion and has struck another vehicle or property, or has caused injury to any person, shall comply with the requirements of:

     (a) RCW
46.52.010 if his or her vehicle strikes an unattended vehicle or property adjacent to a public highway; or

     (b) RCW 46.52.020 if his or her vehicle causes damage to an attended vehicle or other property or injury to any person.

     (3) Any person failing to comply with subsection (2)(b) of this section shall be subject to the sanctions set forth in RCW 46.52.020.

[2010 c 8 § 9072; 1980 c 97 § 2; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 68.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 1980 c 97: See note following RCW 46.52.020.




46.61.605
Limitations on backing.

(1) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless such movement can be made with safety and without interfering with other traffic.

     (2) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same upon any shoulder or roadway of any limited access highway.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 69.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.606
Driving on sidewalk prohibited — Exception.

No person shall drive any vehicle upon a sidewalk or sidewalk area except upon a permanent or duly authorized temporary driveway.

[1975 c 62 § 45.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.608
Operating motorcycles on roadways laned for traffic.

(1) All motorcycles are entitled to full use of a lane and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any motorcycle of the full use of a lane. This subsection shall not apply to motorcycles operated two abreast in a single lane.

     (2) The operator of a motorcycle shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken. However, this subsection shall not apply when the operator of a motorcycle overtakes and passes a pedestrian or bicyclist while maintaining a safe passing distance of at least three feet.

     (3) No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.

     (4) Motorcycles shall not be operated more than two abreast in a single lane.

     (5) Subsections (2) and (3) of this section shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties.

[2013 c 139 § 1; 1975 c 62 § 46.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.610
Riding on motorcycles.

A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle unless such motorcycle is designed to carry more than one person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle at the rear or side of the operator. However, the motorcycle must contain foot pegs or be equipped with an additional bucket seat and seat belt meeting standards prescribed under 49 C.F.R. Part 571 for each person such motorcycle is designed to carry.

[2009 c 275 § 7; 1975 c 62 § 37; 1967 c 232 § 5; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 70.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.

Equipment regulations for motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, mopeds, or electric-assisted bicycles: RCW 46.37.530, 46.37.535.

Mopeds: RCW 46.16A.405, 46.61.710, 46.61.720.




46.61.611
Motorcycles — Maximum height for handlebars.

No person shall operate on a public highway a motorcycle in which the handlebars or grips are more than thirty inches higher than the seat or saddle for the operator.

[1999 c 275 § 1; 1967 c 232 § 6.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.612
Riding on motorcycles — Position of feet.

No person shall ride a motorcycle in a position where both feet are placed on the same side of the motorcycle.

[1967 c 232 § 7.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.613
Motorcycles — Temporary suspension of restrictions for parades or public demonstrations.

The provisions of RCW 46.37.530 and 46.61.610 through 46.61.612 are temporarily suspended with respect to the operation of motorcycles on a closed road during a parade or public demonstration that has been permitted by a local jurisdiction.

[2011 c 332 § 1; 2010 c 8 § 9073; 1967 c 232 § 8.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.614
Riding on motorcycles — Clinging to other vehicles.

No person riding upon a motorcycle shall attach himself or herself or the motorcycle to any other vehicle on a roadway.

[2010 c 8 § 9074; 1975 c 62 § 47.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.615
Obstructions to driver's view or driving mechanism.

(1) No person shall drive a vehicle when it is so loaded, or when there are in the front seat such a number of persons, exceeding three, as to obstruct the view of the driver to the front or sides of the vehicle or as to interfere with the driver's control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle.

     (2) No passenger in a vehicle shall ride in such position as to interfere with the driver's view ahead or to the sides, or to interfere with his or her control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle.

[2010 c 8 § 9075; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 71.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.620
Opening and closing vehicle doors.

No person shall open the door of a motor vehicle on the side adjacent to moving traffic unless and until it is reasonably safe to do so, and can be done without interfering with the movement of other traffic, nor shall any person leave a door open on the side of a vehicle adjacent to moving traffic for a period of time longer than necessary to load or unload passengers.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 72.]




46.61.625
Riding in trailers or towed vehicles.

(1) No person or persons shall occupy any trailer while it is being moved upon a public highway, except a person occupying a proper position for steering a trailer designed to be steered from a rear-end position.

     (2) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, no person or persons may occupy a vehicle while it is being towed by a tow truck as defined in RCW
46.55.010.

     (3)(a) A tow truck operator may allow passengers to ride in a vehicle that is carried on the deck of a flatbed tow truck only when the following conditions are met:

     (i) The number of people that need to be transported exceeds the seating capacity of the tow truck or a person needing to be transported has a disability that limits that person's ability to enter the tow truck;

     (ii) All passengers in the carried vehicle and in the tow truck comply with RCW 46.61.687 and 46.61.688;

     (iii) Any passenger under sixteen years of age is accompanied by an adult riding in the same vehicle; and

     (iv) There is a way for the passengers in the carried vehicle to immediately communicate, either verbally, audibly, or visually, with the tow truck operator in case of an emergency.

     (b) No passenger of such a carried vehicle may exit the carried vehicle, ride outside of the passenger compartment of the carried vehicle, or exhibit dangerous or distracting behaviors while in the carried vehicle.

[2013 c 155 § 1; 1999 c 398 § 9; 1995 c 360 § 10; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 73.]




46.61.630
Coasting prohibited.

(1) The driver of any motor vehicle when traveling upon a down grade shall not coast with the gears of such vehicle in neutral.

     (2) The driver of a commercial motor vehicle when traveling upon a down grade shall not coast with the clutch disengaged.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 74.]




46.61.635
Following fire apparatus prohibited.

The driver of any vehicle other than one on official business shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a fire alarm closer than five hundred feet or stop such vehicle within five hundred feet of any fire apparatus stopped in answer to a fire alarm.

[1975 c 62 § 38; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 75.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.640
Crossing fire hose.

No vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a fire department when laid down on any street, or private driveway, to be used at any fire or alarm of fire, without the consent of the fire department official in command.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 76.]




46.61.645
Throwing materials on highway prohibited — Removal.

(1) Any person who drops, or permits to be dropped or thrown, upon any highway any material shall immediately remove the same or cause it to be removed.

     (2) Any person removing a wrecked or damaged vehicle from a highway shall remove any glass or other injurious substance dropped upon the highway from such vehicle.

[2003 c 337 § 5; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 77.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Findings -- 2003 c 337: See note following RCW 70.93.060.

Lighted material, disposal of: RCW 76.04.455.

Littering: Chapter 70.93 RCW.




46.61.655
Dropping load, other materials — Covering.

(1) No vehicle shall be driven or moved on any public highway unless such vehicle is so constructed or loaded as to prevent any of its load from dropping, sifting, leaking, or otherwise escaping therefrom, except that sand may be dropped for the purpose of securing traction.

     (2) No person may operate on any public highway any vehicle with any load unless the load and such covering as required thereon by subsection (3) of this section is securely fastened to prevent the covering or load from becoming loose, detached, or in any manner a hazard to other users of the highway.

     (3) Any vehicle operating on a paved public highway with a load of dirt, sand, or gravel susceptible to being dropped, spilled, leaked, or otherwise escaping therefrom shall be covered so as to prevent spillage. Covering of such loads is not required if six inches of freeboard is maintained within the bed.

     (4)(a) Any person operating a vehicle from which any glass or objects have fallen or escaped, which would constitute an obstruction or injure a vehicle or otherwise endanger travel upon such public highway shall immediately cause the public highway to be cleaned of all such glass or objects and shall pay any costs therefor.

     (b) Any vehicle with deposits of mud, rocks, or other debris on the vehicle's body, fenders, frame, undercarriage, wheels, or tires shall be cleaned of such material before the operation of the vehicle on a paved public highway.

     (5) The state patrol may make necessary rules to carry into effect the provisions of this section, applying such provisions to specific conditions and loads and prescribing means, methods, and practices to effectuate such provisions.

     (6) Nothing in this section may be construed to prohibit a public maintenance vehicle from dropping sand on a highway to enhance traction, or sprinkling water or other substances to clean or maintain a highway.

     (7)(a)(i) A person is guilty of failure to secure a load in the first degree if he or she, with criminal negligence, fails to secure a load or part of a load to his or her vehicle in compliance with subsection (1), (2), or (3) of this section and causes substantial bodily harm to another.

     (ii) Failure to secure a load in the first degree is a gross misdemeanor.

     (b)(i) A person is guilty of failure to secure a load in the second degree if he or she, with criminal negligence, fails to secure a load or part of a load to his or her vehicle in compliance with subsection (1) or (2) of this section and causes damage to property of another.

     (ii) Failure to secure a load in the second degree is a misdemeanor.

     (c) A person who fails to secure a load or part of a load to his or her vehicle in compliance with subsection (1), (2), or (3) of this section is guilty of an infraction if such failure does not amount to a violation of (a) or (b) of this subsection.

[2005 c 431 § 1; 1990 c 250 § 56; 1986 c 89 § 1; 1971 ex.s. c 307 § 22; 1965 ex.s. c 52 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.135. Prior: 1947 c 200 § 3, part; 1937 c 189 § 44, part; Rem. Supp. 1947 § 6360-44, part. Formerly RCW 46.56.135.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Severability -- 1990 c 250: See note following RCW 46.18.215.

     Severability -- 1971 ex.s. c 307: See RCW 70.93.900.

Littering: Chapter 70.93 RCW.

Transporting waste to landfills: RCW 70.93.097.




46.61.660
Carrying persons or animals on outside part of vehicle.

It shall be unlawful for any person to transport any living animal on the running board, fenders, hood, or other outside part of any vehicle unless suitable harness, cage or enclosure be provided and so attached as to protect such animal from falling or being thrown therefrom. It shall be unlawful for any person to transport any persons upon the running board, fenders, hood or other outside part of any vehicle, except that this provision shall not apply to authorized emergency vehicles or to solid waste collection vehicles that are engaged in collecting solid waste or recyclables on route at speeds of twenty miles per hour or less.

[1997 c 190 § 1; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.070. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 115; RRS § 6360-115. Formerly RCW 46.56.070.]




46.61.665
Embracing another while driving.

It shall be unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle upon the highways of this state when such person has in his or her embrace another person which prevents the free and unhampered operation of such vehicle. Operation of a motor vehicle in violation of this section is prima facie evidence of reckless driving.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 89; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.100. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 117; RRS § 6360-117; 1927 c 309 § 49; RRS § 6362-49. Formerly RCW 46.56.100.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.61.667
Using a wireless communications device or hand-held mobile telephone while driving.

(1)(a) Except as provided in subsections (2)(a) and (3)(a) of this section, a person operating a moving motor vehicle while holding a wireless communications device to his or her ear is guilty of a traffic infraction.

     (b) Except as provided in subsection (2)(b) and (3)(b) of this section, a person driving a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in RCW
46.25.010, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or other momentary delays, while using a hand-held mobile telephone is guilty of a traffic infraction. For purposes of this subsection, "driving" does not include operating a commercial motor vehicle with or without the motor running when the driver has moved the vehicle to the side of, or off, a highway and has stopped in a location where the vehicle can safely remain stationary.

     (2)(a) Subsection (1)(a) of this section does not apply to a person operating:

     (i) An authorized emergency vehicle, or a tow truck responding to a disabled vehicle;

     (ii) A moving motor vehicle using a wireless communications device in hands-free mode;

     (iii) A moving motor vehicle using a hand-held wireless communications device to:

     (A) Report illegal activity;

     (B) Summon medical or other emergency help;

     (C) Prevent injury to a person or property; or

     (D) Relay information that is time sensitive between a transit or for-hire operator and that operator's dispatcher, in which the device is permanently affixed to the vehicle; or

     (iv) A moving motor vehicle while using a hearing aid.

     (b) Subsection (1)(b) of this section does not apply to a person operating a commercial motor vehicle:

     (i) When necessary to communicate with law enforcement officials or other emergency services; or

     (ii) Using a mobile telephone in hands-free mode.

     (3)(a) Subsection (1)(a) of this section does not restrict the operation of an amateur radio station by a person who holds a valid amateur radio operator license issued by the federal communications commission.

     (b) Subsection (1)(b) of this section does not restrict the operation of two-way or citizens band radio services.

     (4) For purposes of this section, "hands-free mode" means the use of a wireless communications device with a speaker phone, headset, or earpiece.

     (5) The state preempts the field of regulating the use of wireless communications devices in motor vehicles, and this section supersedes any local laws, ordinances, orders, rules, or regulations enacted by a political subdivision or municipality to regulate the use of wireless communications devices by the operator of a motor vehicle.

     (6) Infractions that result from the use of a wireless communications device while operating a motor vehicle under subsection (1)(a) of this section shall not become part of the driver's record under RCW 46.52.101 and 46.52.120. Additionally, a finding that a person has committed a traffic infraction under subsection (1)(a) of this section shall not be made available to insurance companies or employers.

[2013 c 224 § 15; 2010 c 223 § 3; 2007 c 417 § 2.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2007 c 417: "The use of wireless communications devices by motorists has increased in recent years. While wireless communications devices have assisted with quick reporting of road emergencies, their use has also contributed to accidents and other mishaps on Washington state roadways. When motorists hold a wireless communications device in one hand and drive with the other, their chances of becoming involved in a traffic mishap increase. It is the legislature's intent to phase out the use of hand-held wireless communications devices by motorists while operating a vehicle." [2007 c 417 § 1.]

     Effective date -- 2007 c 417: "This act takes effect July 1, 2008." [2007 c 417 § 3.]




46.61.668
Sending, reading, or writing a text message while driving.

(1)(a) Except as provided in subsection (2)(a) of this section, a person operating a moving noncommercial motor vehicle who, by means of an electronic wireless communications device, sends, reads, or writes a text message, is guilty of a traffic infraction.

     (b) Except as provided in subsection (2)(b) of this section, a person driving a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in RCW
46.25.010, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or other momentary delays, who, by means of an electronic wireless communications device, sends, reads, or writes a text message, is guilty of a traffic infraction. For purposes of this subsection, "driving" does not include operating a commercial motor vehicle with or without the motor running when the driver has moved the vehicle to the side of, or off, a highway and has stopped in a location where the vehicle can safely remain stationary.

     (c) A person does not send, read, or write a text message when he or she reads, selects, or enters a phone number or name in a wireless communications device for the purpose of making a phone call.

     (2)(a) Subsection (1)(a) of this section does not apply to a person operating:

     (i) An authorized emergency vehicle;

     (ii) A voice-operated global positioning or navigation system that is affixed to the vehicle and that allows the user to send or receive messages without diverting visual attention from the road or engaging the use of either hand; or

     (iii) A moving motor vehicle while using an electronic wireless communications device to:

     (A) Report illegal activity;

     (B) Summon medical or other emergency help;

     (C) Prevent injury to a person or property; or

     (D) Relay information that is time sensitive between a transit or for-hire operator and that operator's dispatcher, in which the device is permanently affixed to the vehicle.

     (b) Subsection (1)(b) of this section does not apply to a person operating a commercial motor vehicle when necessary to communicate with law enforcement officials or other emergency services.

     (3) Infractions under subsection (1)(a) of this section shall not become part of the driver's record under RCW 46.52.101 and 46.52.120. Additionally, a finding that a person has committed a traffic infraction under subsection (1)(a) of this section shall not be made available to insurance companies or employers.

[2013 c 224 § 16; 2010 c 223 § 4; 2007 c 416 § 1.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2007 c 416: "This act takes effect January 1, 2008." [2007 c 416 § 2.]




46.61.670
Driving with wheels off roadway.

It shall be unlawful to operate or drive any vehicle or combination of vehicles over or along any pavement or gravel or crushed rock surface on a public highway with one wheel or all of the wheels off the roadway thereof, except as permitted by RCW 46.61.428 or for the purpose of stopping off such roadway, or having stopped thereat, for proceeding back onto the pavement, gravel or crushed rock surface thereof.

[1977 ex.s. c 39 § 2; 1961 c 12 § 46.56.130. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 96; RRS § 6360-96. Formerly RCW 46.56.130.]




46.61.675
Causing or permitting vehicle to be unlawfully operated.

It shall be unlawful for the owner, or any other person, in employing or otherwise directing the operator of any vehicle to require or knowingly to permit the operation of such vehicle upon any public highway in any manner contrary to the law.

[1961 c 12 § 46.56.200. Prior: 1937 c 189 § 148; RRS § 6360-148. Formerly RCW 46.56.200.]




46.61.680
Lowering passenger vehicle below legal clearance — Penalty.

It is unlawful to operate any passenger motor vehicle which has been modified from the original design so that any portion of such passenger vehicle other than the wheels has less clearance from the surface of a level roadway than the clearance between the roadway and the lowermost portion of any rim of any wheel the tire on which is in contact with such roadway.

     Violation of the provisions of this section is a traffic infraction.

[1979 ex.s. c 136 § 90; 1961 c 151 § 1. Formerly RCW 46.56.220.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.




46.61.685
Leaving children unattended in standing vehicle with motor running — Penalty.

(1) It is unlawful for any person, while operating or in charge of a vehicle, to park or willfully allow such vehicle to stand upon a public highway or in a public place with its motor running, leaving a minor child or children under the age of sixteen years unattended in the vehicle.

     (2) Any person violating this section is guilty of a misdemeanor. Upon a second or subsequent conviction for a violation of this section, the department shall revoke the operator's license of such person.

[2003 c 53 § 246; 1990 c 250 § 57; 1961 c 151 § 2. Formerly RCW 46.56.230.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Bail in criminal traffic offense cases -- Mandatory appearance -- CrRLJ 3.2.

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.

     Severability -- 1990 c 250: See note following RCW 46.18.215.

Leaving children unattended in parked automobile while entering tavern, etc.: RCW 9.91.060.




46.61.687
Child passenger restraint required — Conditions — Exceptions — Penalty for violation — Dismissal — Noncompliance not negligence — Immunity.

(1) Whenever a child who is less than sixteen years of age is being transported in a motor vehicle that is in operation and that is required by RCW 46.37.510 to be equipped with a safety belt system in a passenger seating position, or is being transported in a neighborhood electric vehicle or medium-speed electric vehicle that is in operation, the driver of the vehicle shall keep the child properly restrained as follows:

     (a) A child must be restrained in a child restraint system, if the passenger seating position equipped with a safety belt system allows sufficient space for installation, until the child is eight years old, unless the child is four feet nine inches or taller. The child restraint system must comply with standards of the United States department of transportation and must be secured in the vehicle in accordance with instructions of the vehicle manufacturer and the child restraint system manufacturer.

     (b) A child who is eight years of age or older or four feet nine inches or taller shall be properly restrained with the motor vehicle's safety belt properly adjusted and fastened around the child's body or an appropriately fitting child restraint system.

     (c) The driver of a vehicle transporting a child who is under thirteen years old shall transport the child in the back seat positions in the vehicle where it is practical to do so.

     (2) Enforcement of subsection (1) of this section is subject to a visual inspection by law enforcement to determine if the child restraint system in use is appropriate for the child's individual height, weight, and age. The visual inspection for usage of a child restraint system must ensure that the child restraint system is being used in accordance with the instruction of the vehicle and the child restraint system manufacturers. The driver of a vehicle transporting a child who is under thirteen years old shall transport the child in the back seat positions in the vehicle where it is practical to do so.

     (3) A person violating subsection (1) of this section may be issued a notice of traffic infraction under chapter 46.63 RCW. If the person to whom the notice was issued presents proof of acquisition of an approved child passenger restraint system or a child booster seat, as appropriate, within seven days to the jurisdiction issuing the notice and the person has not previously had a violation of this section dismissed, the jurisdiction shall dismiss the notice of traffic infraction.

     (4) Failure to comply with the requirements of this section shall not constitute negligence by a parent or legal guardian. Failure to use a child restraint system shall not be admissible as evidence of negligence in any civil action.

     (5) This section does not apply to: (a) For hire vehicles, (b) vehicles designed to transport sixteen or less passengers, including the driver, operated by auto transportation companies, as defined in RCW 81.68.010, (c) vehicles providing customer shuttle service between parking, convention, and hotel facilities, and airport terminals, and (d) school buses.

     (6) As used in this section, "child restraint system" means a child passenger restraint system that meets the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards set forth in 49 C.F.R. 571.213.

     (7) The requirements of subsection (1) of this section do not apply in any seating position where there is only a lap belt available and the child weighs more than forty pounds.

     (8)(a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, a person who has a current national certification as a child passenger safety technician and who in good faith provides inspection, adjustment, or educational services regarding child passenger restraint systems is not liable for civil damages resulting from any act or omission in providing the services, other than acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.

     (b) The immunity provided in this subsection does not apply to a certified child passenger safety technician who is employed by a retailer of child passenger restraint systems and who, during his or her hours of employment and while being compensated, provides inspection, adjustment, or educational services regarding child passenger restraint systems.

[2007 c 510 § 4. Prior: 2005 c 415 § 1; 2005 c 132 § 1; 2003 c 353 § 5; 2000 c 190 § 2; 1994 c 100 § 1; 1993 c 274 § 1; 1987 c 330 § 745; 1983 c 215 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2007 c 510: See note following RCW 46.04.320.

     Effective date -- 2005 c 132 § 1: "Section 1 of this act takes effect June 1, 2007." [2005 c 132 § 3.]

     Effective date -- 2003 c 353: See note following RCW 46.04.320.

     Intent -- 2000 c 190: "The legislature recognizes that fewer than five percent of all drivers use child booster seats for children over the age of four years. The legislature also recognizes that seventy-one percent of deaths resulting from car accidents could be eliminated if every child under the age of sixteen used an appropriate child safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt. The legislature further recognizes the National Transportation Safety Board's recommendations that promote the use of booster seats to increase the safety of children under eight years of age. Therefore, it is the legislature's intent to decrease deaths and injuries to children by promoting safety education and injury prevention measures, as well as increasing public awareness on ways to maximize the protection of children in vehicles." [2000 c 190 § 1.]

     Short title -- 2000 c 190: "This act may be known and cited as the Anton Skeen Act." [2000 c 190 § 5.]

     Effective date -- 2000 c 190: "This act takes effect July 1, 2002." [2000 c 190 § 6.]

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1983 c 215: See note following RCW 46.37.505.

Standards for child passenger restraint systems: RCW 46.37.505.




46.61.6871
Child passenger safety technician — Immunity.

A person who has a current national certification as a child passenger safety technician and who in good faith provides inspection, adjustment, or educational services regarding child passenger restraint systems is not liable for civil damages resulting from any act or omission in providing the services, other than acts or omissions constituting gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.

[2005 c 132 § 2.]




46.61.688
Safety belts, use required — Penalties — Exemptions.

(1) For the purposes of this section, "motor vehicle" includes:

     (a) "Buses," meaning motor vehicles with motive power, except trailers, designed to carry more than ten passengers;

     (b) "Medium-speed electric vehicle" meaning a self-propelled, electrically powered four-wheeled motor vehicle, equipped with a roll cage or crush-proof body design, whose speed attainable in one mile is more than thirty miles per hour but not more than thirty-five miles per hour and otherwise meets or exceeds the federal regulations set forth in 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.500;

     (c) "Motorcycle," meaning a three-wheeled motor vehicle that is designed (i) so that the driver rides on a seat in a partially or completely enclosed seating area that is equipped with safety belts and (ii) to be steered with a steering wheel;

     (d) "Multipurpose passenger vehicles," meaning motor vehicles with motive power, except trailers, designed to carry ten persons or less that are constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation;

     (e) "Neighborhood electric vehicle," meaning a self-propelled, electrically powered four-wheeled motor vehicle whose speed attainable in one mile is more than twenty miles per hour and not more than twenty-five miles per hour and conforms to federal regulations under 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.500;

     (f) "Passenger cars," meaning motor vehicles with motive power, except multipurpose passenger vehicles, motorcycles, or trailers, designed for carrying ten passengers or less; and

     (g) "Trucks," meaning motor vehicles with motive power, except trailers, designed primarily for the transportation of property.

     (2)(a) This section only applies to:

     (i) Motor vehicles that meet the manual seat belt safety standards as set forth in 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.208;

     (ii) Motorcycles, when equipped with safety belts that meet the standards set forth in 49 C.F.R. Part 571; and

     (iii) Neighborhood electric vehicles and medium-speed electric vehicles that meet the seat belt standards as set forth in 49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.500.

     (b) This section does not apply to a vehicle occupant for whom no safety belt is available when all designated seating positions as required under 49 C.F.R. Part 571 are occupied.

     (3) Every person sixteen years of age or older operating or riding in a motor vehicle shall wear the safety belt assembly in a properly adjusted and securely fastened manner.

     (4) No person may operate a motor vehicle unless all child passengers under the age of sixteen years are either: (a) Wearing a safety belt assembly or (b) are securely fastened into an approved child restraint device.

     (5) A person violating this section shall be issued a notice of traffic infraction under chapter
46.63 RCW. A finding that a person has committed a traffic infraction under this section shall be contained in the driver's abstract but shall not be available to insurance companies or employers.

     (6) Failure to comply with the requirements of this section does not constitute negligence, nor may failure to wear a safety belt assembly be admissible as evidence of negligence in any civil action.

     (7) This section does not apply to an operator or passenger who possesses written verification from a licensed physician that the operator or passenger is unable to wear a safety belt for physical or medical reasons.

     (8) The state patrol may adopt rules exempting operators or occupants of farm vehicles, construction equipment, and vehicles that are required to make frequent stops from the requirement of wearing safety belts.

[2009 c 275 § 8; 2007 c 510 § 5; 2003 c 353 § 4; 2002 c 328 § 2; (2002 c 328 § 1 expired July 1, 2002); 2000 c 190 § 3; 1990 c 250 § 58; 1986 c 152 § 1.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: The definitions in this section have been alphabetized pursuant to RCW 1.08.015(2)(k).

     Effective date -- 2007 c 510: See note following RCW 46.04.320.

     Effective date -- 2003 c 353: See note following RCW 46.04.320.

     Expiration date -- 2002 c 328 § 1: "Section 1 of this act expires July 1, 2002." [2002 c 328 § 3.]

     Effective date -- 2002 c 328 § 2: "Section 2 of this act takes effect July 1, 2002." [2002 c 328 § 4.]

     Intent -- Short title -- Effective date -- 2000 c 190: See notes following RCW 46.61.687.

     Severability -- 1990 c 250: See note following RCW 46.18.215.

     Study of effectiveness -- 1986 c 152: "The traffic safety commission shall undertake a study of the effectiveness of section 1 of this act and shall report its finding to the legislative transportation committee by January 1, 1989." [1986 c 152 § 3.]

Physicians -- Immunity from liability regarding safety belts: RCW 4.24.235.

Seat belts and shoulder harnesses, required equipment: RCW 46.37.510.




46.61.6885
Child restraints, seatbelts — Educational campaign.

The traffic safety commission shall conduct an educational campaign using all available methods to raise public awareness of the importance of properly restraining child passengers and the value of seatbelts to adult motorists. The traffic safety commission shall report to the transportation committees of the legislature on the campaign and results observed on the highways. The first report is due December 1, 2000, and annually thereafter.

[2000 c 190 § 4.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Short title -- Effective date -- 2000 c 190: See notes following RCW 46.61.687.




46.61.690
Violations relating to toll facilities — Exception.

(1) Any person who uses a toll bridge, toll tunnel, toll road, or toll ferry, and the approaches thereto, operated by the state of Washington, the department of transportation, a political subdivision or municipal corporation empowered to operate toll facilities, or an entity operating a toll facility under a contract with the department of transportation, a political subdivision, or municipal corporation, at the entrance to which appropriate signs have been erected to notify both pedestrian and vehicular traffic that it is entering a toll facility or its approaches and is subject to the payment of tolls at the designated station for collecting tolls, commits a traffic infraction if:

     (a) The person does not pay, refuses to pay, evades, or attempts to evade the payment of such tolls, or uses or attempts to use any spurious, counterfeit, or stolen ticket, coupon, token, or electronic device for payment of any such tolls;

     (b) The person turns, or attempts to turn, the vehicle around in the bridge, tunnel, loading terminal, approach, or toll plaza where signs have been erected forbidding such turns;

     (c) The person refuses to move a vehicle through the toll facility after having come within the area where signs have been erected notifying traffic that it is entering the area where toll is collectible or where vehicles may not turn around and where vehicles are required to pass through the toll facility for the purpose of collecting tolls; or

     (d) The driver of the vehicle displays any vehicle license number plate or plates that have been, in any manner, changed, altered, obscured, or disfigured, or have become illegible.

     (2) Subsection (1)(a) of this section does not apply to toll nonpayment detected through the use of photo toll systems under RCW
46.63.160.

[2010 c 249 § 9; 2004 c 231 § 1; 1983 c 247 § 1; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 91; 1961 c 259 § 1. Formerly RCW 46.56.240.]

Notes:

     Contingent effective date -- 2010 c 249: See note following RCW 47.56.795.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

     Severability -- 1961 c 259: "If any provision of this act, or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act, or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [1961 c 259 § 2.]




46.61.700
Parent or guardian shall not authorize or permit violation by a child or ward.

The parent of any child and the guardian of any ward shall not authorize or knowingly permit any such child or ward to violate any of the provisions of this chapter.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 78.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: This section was enacted just before sections about the operation of bicycles and play vehicles and was accordingly so codified in 1965. Other sections enacted later have been codified under the numbers remaining between RCW 46.61.700 and 46.61.750. The section appears in the Uniform Vehicle Code (1962) as part of the first section of Article XII -- Operation of Bicycles and Play Vehicles.

Captions used herein, not part of the law: RCW 46.61.990.

Unlawful to allow unauthorized child or ward to drive: RCW 46.20.024.




46.61.705
Off-road motorcycles.

(1) A person may operate an off-road motorcycle upon a public road, street, or highway of this state if the person:

     (a) Files a motorcycle highway use declaration, as provided under RCW
46.16A.435, with the department certifying conformance with all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards and state standards;

     (b) Obtains and has in full force and effect a current and proper ORV registration or temporary ORV use permit under chapter 46.09 RCW; and

     (c) Obtains a valid driver's license and motorcycle endorsement issued to Washington residents in compliance with chapter 46.20 RCW for a motorcycle.

     (2) Any off-road motorcycle operated under this section must have:

     (a) A head lamp meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.523 and 46.37.524, and used in accordance with RCW 46.37.522;

     (b) A tail lamp meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.525;

     (c) A stop lamp meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.525;

     (d) Reflectors meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.525;

     (e) Brakes meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.527, 46.37.528, and 46.37.529;

     (f) A mirror on both the left and right handlebar meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.530;

     (g) A windshield meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.530, unless the driver wears glasses, goggles, or a face shield while operating the motorcycle, of a type conforming to rules adopted by the state patrol;

     (h) A horn or warning device meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.380;

     (i) Tires meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.420 and 46.37.425;

     (j) Turn signals meeting the requirements of RCW 46.37.200; and

     (k) Fenders adequate for minimizing the spray or splash of water, rocks, or mud from the roadway. Fenders must be as wide as the tires behind which they are mounted and extend downward at least half way to the center of the axle.

     (3) Every person operating an off-road motorcycle under this section is granted all rights and is subject to all duties applicable to the driver of a motorcycle under RCW 46.37.530 and chapter 46.61 RCW.

     (4) Any person who violates this section commits a traffic infraction.

     (5) Accidents must be recorded and tracked in compliance with chapter 46.52 RCW. An accident report must indicate and be tracked separately when any of the vehicles involved are an off-road motorcycle.

[2011 c 121 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2011 c 121: See note following RCW 46.04.363.




46.61.710
Mopeds, EPAMDs, electric-assisted bicycles, motorized foot scooters — General requirements and operation.

(1) No person shall operate a moped upon the highways of this state unless the moped has been assigned a moped registration number and displays a moped permit in accordance with RCW 46.16A.405(2).

     (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a moped may not be operated on a bicycle path or trail, bikeway, equestrian trail, or hiking or recreational trail.

     (3) Operation of a moped, electric personal assistive mobility device, motorized foot scooter, or an electric-assisted bicycle on a fully controlled limited access highway is unlawful. Operation of a moped, motorized foot scooter, or an electric-assisted bicycle on a sidewalk is unlawful.

     (4) Removal of any muffling device or pollution control device from a moped is unlawful.

     (5) Subsections (1), (2), and (4) of this section do not apply to electric-assisted bicycles. Electric-assisted bicycles and motorized foot scooters may have access to highways, other than limited access highways, of the state to the same extent as bicycles. Subject to subsection (6) of this section, electric-assisted bicycles and motorized foot scooters may be operated on a multipurpose trail or bicycle lane, but local jurisdictions may restrict or otherwise limit the access of electric-assisted bicycles and motorized foot scooters, and state agencies may regulate the use of motorized foot scooters on facilities and properties under their jurisdiction and control.

     (6) Subsections (1) and (4) of this section do not apply to motorized foot scooters. Subsection (2) of this section applies to motorized foot scooters when the bicycle path, trail, bikeway, equestrian trail, or hiking or recreational trail was built or is maintained with federal highway transportation funds. Additionally, any new trail or bicycle path or readily identifiable existing trail or bicycle path not built or maintained with federal highway transportation funds may be used by persons operating motorized foot scooters only when appropriately signed.

     (7) A person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device (EPAMD) shall obey all speed limits and shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and human-powered devices at all times. An operator must also give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a pedestrian. Except for the limitations of this subsection, persons operating an EPAMD have all the rights and duties of a pedestrian.

     (8) The use of an EPAMD may be regulated in the following circumstances:

     (a) A municipality and the department of transportation may prohibit the operation of an EPAMD on public highways within their respective jurisdictions where the speed limit is greater than twenty-five miles per hour;

     (b) A municipality may restrict the speed of an EPAMD in locations with congested pedestrian or nonmotorized traffic and where there is significant speed differential between pedestrians or nonmotorized traffic and EPAMD operators. The areas in this subsection must be designated by the city engineer or designee of the municipality. Municipalities shall not restrict the speed of an EPAMD in the entire community or in areas in which there is infrequent pedestrian traffic;

     (c) A state agency or local government may regulate the operation of an EPAMD within the boundaries of any area used for recreation, open space, habitat, trails, or conservation purposes.

[2011 c 171 § 81; 2009 c 275 § 9; 2003 c 353 § 10; 2002 c 247 § 7; 1997 c 328 § 5; 1979 ex.s. c 213 § 8.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2011 c 171: See notes following RCW 4.24.210.

     Effective date -- 2003 c 353: See note following RCW 46.04.320.

     Legislative review -- 2002 c 247: See note following RCW 46.04.1695.




46.61.720
Mopeds — Safety standards.

Mopeds shall comply with those federal motor vehicle safety standards established under the national traffic vehicle safety act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1381, et seq.) which are applicable to a motor-driven cycle, as that term is defined in such federal standards.

[1979 ex.s. c 213 § 9.]

Notes:

Mopeds
   drivers' licenses, motorcycle endorsement, moped exemption: RCW 46.20.500.
   registration: RCW 46.16A.405(2).



46.61.723
Medium-speed electric vehicles.

(1) Except as provided in subsection (3) of this section, a person may operate a medium-speed electric vehicle upon a highway of this state having a speed limit of thirty-five miles per hour or less, or forty-five miles per hour or less as provided in subsection (4) of this section, if:

     (a) The person does not operate a medium-speed electric vehicle upon state highways that are listed in chapter
47.17 RCW;

     (b) The person does not operate a medium-speed electric vehicle upon a highway of this state without first having obtained and having in full force and effect a current and proper vehicle license and display vehicle license number plates in compliance with chapter 46.16A RCW. The department must track medium-speed electric vehicles in a separate registration category for reporting purposes;

     (c) The person does not operate a medium-speed electric vehicle upon a highway of this state without first obtaining a valid driver's license issued to Washington residents in compliance with chapter 46.20 RCW;

     (d) The person does not operate a medium-speed electric vehicle subject to registration under chapter 46.16A RCW on a highway of this state unless the person is insured under a motor vehicle liability policy in compliance with chapter 46.30 RCW; and

     (e) The person operating a medium-speed electric vehicle does not cross a roadway with a speed limit in excess of thirty-five miles per hour, or forty-five miles per hour as provided in subsection (4) of this section, unless the crossing begins and ends on a roadway with a speed limit of thirty-five miles per hour or less, or forty-five miles per hour or less as provided in subsection (4) of this section, and occurs at an intersection of approximately ninety degrees, except that the operator of a medium-speed electric vehicle must not cross an uncontrolled intersection of streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to Title 47 RCW unless that intersection has been authorized by local authorities under subsection (3) of this section.

     (2) Any person who violates this section commits a traffic infraction.

     (3) This section does not prevent local authorities, with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of their police power, from regulating the operation of medium-speed electric vehicles on streets and highways under their jurisdiction by resolution or ordinance of the governing body, if the regulation is consistent with this title, except that:

     (a) Local authorities may not authorize the operation of medium-speed electric vehicles on streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to Title 47 RCW;

     (b) Local authorities may not prohibit the operation of medium-speed electric vehicles upon highways of this state having a speed limit of thirty-five miles per hour or less; and

     (c) Local authorities may not establish requirements for the registration and licensing of medium-speed electric vehicles.

     (4) In counties consisting of islands whose only connection to the mainland are ferry routes, a person may operate a medium-speed electric vehicle upon a highway of this state having a speed limit of forty-five miles per hour or less. A person operating a medium-speed electric vehicle as authorized under this subsection must not cross a roadway with a speed limit in excess of forty-five miles per hour, unless the crossing begins and ends on a roadway with a speed limit of forty-five miles per hour or less and occurs at an intersection of approximately ninety degrees, except that the operator of a medium-speed electric vehicle must not cross an uncontrolled intersection of streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to Title 47 RCW unless that intersection has been authorized by local authorities under subsection (3) of this section.

     (5) Accidents must be recorded and tracked in compliance with chapter 46.52 RCW. An accident report must indicate and be tracked separately when any of the vehicles involved are a medium-speed electric vehicle.

[2011 c 171 § 82; 2010 c 144 § 2; 2007 c 510 § 3.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2011 c 171: See notes following RCW 4.24.210.

     Effective date -- 2007 c 510: See note following RCW 46.04.320.




46.61.725
Neighborhood electric vehicles.

(1) Absent prohibition by local authorities authorized under this section and except as prohibited elsewhere in this section, a person may operate a neighborhood electric vehicle upon a highway of this state having a speed limit of thirty-five miles per hour or less, or forty-five miles per hour or less as provided in subsection (4) of this section, if:

     (a) The person does not operate a neighborhood electric vehicle upon state highways that are listed in chapter
47.17 RCW;

     (b) The person does not operate a neighborhood electric vehicle upon a highway of this state without first having obtained and having in full force and effect a current and proper vehicle license and display vehicle license number plates in compliance with chapter 46.16A RCW. The department must track neighborhood electric vehicles in a separate registration category for reporting purposes;

     (c) The person does not operate a neighborhood electric vehicle upon a highway of this state without first obtaining a valid driver's license issued to Washington residents in compliance with chapter 46.20 RCW;

     (d) The person does not operate a neighborhood electric vehicle subject to registration under chapter 46.16A RCW on a highway of this state unless the person is insured under a motor vehicle liability policy in compliance with chapter 46.30 RCW; and

     (e) The person operating a neighborhood electric vehicle does not cross a roadway with a speed limit in excess of thirty-five miles per hour, or forty-five miles per hour as provided in subsection (4) of this section, unless the crossing begins and ends on a roadway with a speed limit of thirty-five miles per hour or less, or forty-five miles per hour or less as provided in subsection (4) of this section, and occurs at an intersection of approximately ninety degrees, except that the operator of a neighborhood electric vehicle must not cross an uncontrolled intersection of streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to Title 47 RCW unless that intersection has been authorized by local authorities provided elsewhere in this section.

     (2) Any person who violates this section commits a traffic infraction.

     (3) This section does not prevent local authorities, with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of their police power, from regulating the operation of neighborhood electric vehicles on streets and highways under their jurisdiction by resolution or ordinance of the governing body, if the regulation is consistent with the provisions of this title, except that:

     (a) Local authorities may not authorize the operation of neighborhood electric vehicles on streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to the provisions of Title 47 RCW;

     (b) Local authorities may not prohibit the operation of neighborhood electric vehicles upon highways of this state having a speed limit of twenty-five miles per hour or less; and

     (c) Local authorities are prohibited from establishing any requirements for the registration and licensing of neighborhood electric vehicles.

     (4) In counties consisting of islands whose only connection to the mainland are ferry routes, a person may operate a neighborhood electric vehicle upon a highway of this state having a speed limit of forty-five miles per hour or less. A person operating a neighborhood electric vehicle as authorized under this subsection must not cross a roadway with a speed limit in excess of forty-five miles per hour, unless the crossing begins and ends on a roadway with a speed limit of forty-five miles per hour or less and occurs at an intersection of approximately ninety degrees, except that the operator of a neighborhood electric vehicle must not cross an uncontrolled intersection of streets and highways that are part of the state highway system subject to Title 47 RCW unless that intersection has been authorized by local authorities under subsection (3) of this section.

     (5) Accidents must be recorded and tracked in compliance with chapter 46.52 RCW. An accident report must indicate and be tracked separately when any of the vehicles involved are a neighborhood electric vehicle.

[2011 c 171 § 83; 2010 c 144 § 3; 2003 c 353 § 3.]

Notes:

     Intent -- Effective date -- 2011 c 171: See notes following RCW 4.24.210.

     Effective date -- 2003 c 353: See note following RCW 46.04.320.




46.61.730
Wheelchair conveyances.

(1) No person may operate a wheelchair conveyance on any public roadway with a posted speed limit in excess of thirty-five miles per hour.

     (2) No person other than a wheelchair-bound person may operate a wheelchair conveyance on a public roadway.

     (3) Every wheelchair-bound person operating a wheelchair conveyance upon a roadway is granted all the rights and is subject to all the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter, except those provisions that by their nature can have no application.

     (4) A violation of this section is a traffic infraction.

[1983 c 200 § 5.]

Notes:

     Severability -- 1983 c 200: See note following RCW 46.04.710.

Wheelchair conveyances
   definitions: RCW 46.04.710.
   operator's license: RCW 46.20.109.
   registration: RCW 46.16A.405(3).
   safety standards: RCW 46.37.610.




46.61.735
Ferry queues — Violations — Exemptions.

(1) It is a traffic infraction for a driver of a motor vehicle intending to board a Washington state ferry, to: (a) Block a residential driveway while waiting to board the ferry; or (b) move in front of another vehicle in a queue already waiting to board the ferry, without the authorization of a state ferry system employee. Vehicles qualifying for preferential loading privileges under rules adopted by the department of transportation are exempt from this section. In addition to any other penalty imposed for a violation of this section, the driver will be directed to immediately move the motor vehicle to the end of the queue of vehicles waiting to board the ferry. Violations of this section are not part of the vehicle driver's driving record under RCW 46.52.101 and 46.52.120.

     (2) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to a driver of a motor vehicle intending to board the Keller Ferry on state route No. 21.

[2007 c 423 § 1.]




46.61.740
Theft of motor vehicle fuel.

(1) Any person who refuses to pay or evades payment for motor vehicle fuel that is pumped into a motor vehicle is guilty of theft of motor vehicle fuel. A violation of this subsection is a gross misdemeanor punishable under chapter 9A.20 RCW.

     (2) The court shall order the department to suspend the person's license, permit, or nonresident privilege to drive for a period specified by the court of up to six months.

[2001 c 325 § 1.]




46.61.750
Effect of regulations — Penalty.

(1) It is a traffic infraction for any person to do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required in RCW 46.61.750 through 46.61.780.

     (2) These regulations applicable to bicycles apply whenever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any bicycle path, subject to those exceptions stated herein.

[1982 c 55 § 6; 1979 ex.s. c 136 § 92; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 79.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Effective date -- Severability -- 1979 ex.s. c 136: See notes following RCW 46.63.010.

Bicycle awareness program: RCW 43.43.390.

"Bicycle" defined: RCW 46.04.071.




46.61.755
Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles.

(1) Every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter, except as to special regulations in RCW 46.61.750 through 46.61.780 and except as to those provisions of this chapter which by their nature can have no application.

     (2) Every person riding a bicycle upon a sidewalk or crosswalk must be granted all of the rights and is subject to all of the duties applicable to a pedestrian by this chapter.

[2000 c 85 § 3; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 80.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.758
Hand signals.

All hand signals required of persons operating bicycles shall be given in the following manner:

     (1) Left turn. Left hand and arm extended horizontally beyond the side of the bicycle;

     (2) Right turn. Left hand and arm extended upward beyond the side of the bicycle, or right hand and arm extended horizontally to the right side of the bicycle;

     (3) Stop or decrease speed. Left hand and arm extended downward beyond the side of the bicycle.

     The hand signals required by this section shall be given before initiation of a turn.

[1982 c 55 § 8.]




46.61.760
Riding on bicycles.

(1) A person propelling a bicycle shall not ride other than upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached thereto.

     (2) No bicycle shall be used to carry more persons at one time than the number for which it is designed and equipped.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 81.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.765
Clinging to vehicles.

No person riding upon any bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled, or toy vehicle shall attach the same or himself or herself to any vehicle upon a roadway.

[2010 c 8 § 9076; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 82.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.770
Riding on roadways and bicycle paths.

(1) Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway at a rate of speed less than the normal flow of traffic at the particular time and place shall ride as near to the right side of the right through lane as is safe except as may be appropriate while preparing to make or while making turning movements, or while overtaking and passing another bicycle or vehicle proceeding in the same direction. A person operating a bicycle upon a roadway or highway other than a limited-access highway, which roadway or highway carries traffic in one direction only and has two or more marked traffic lanes, may ride as near to the left side of the left through lane as is safe. A person operating a bicycle upon a roadway may use the shoulder of the roadway or any specially designated bicycle lane if such exists.

     (2) Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles.

[1982 c 55 § 7; 1974 ex.s. c 141 § 14; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 83.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

Use of bicycles on limited-access highways: RCW 46.61.160.




46.61.775
Carrying articles.

No person operating a bicycle shall carry any package, bundle or article which prevents the driver from keeping at least one hand upon the handlebars.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 84.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.




46.61.780
Lamps and other equipment on bicycles.

(1) Every bicycle when in use during the hours of darkness as defined in RCW 46.37.020 shall be equipped with a lamp on the front which shall emit a white light visible from a distance of at least five hundred feet to the front and with a red reflector on the rear of a type approved by the state patrol which shall be visible from all distances up to six hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear may be used in addition to the red reflector. A light-emitting diode flashing taillight visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear may also be used in addition to the red reflector.

     (2) Every bicycle shall be equipped with a brake which will enable the operator to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, clean pavement.

[1998 c 165 § 17; 1987 c 330 § 746; 1975 c 62 § 39; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 85.]

Notes:

Rules of court:  Monetary penalty schedule -- IRLJ 6.2.

     Short title -- 1998 c 165: See note following RCW 43.59.010.

     Construction -- Application of rules -- Severability -- 1987 c 330: See notes following RCW 28B.12.050.

     Severability -- 1975 c 62: See note following RCW 36.75.010.




46.61.790
Intoxicated bicyclists.

(1) A law enforcement officer may offer to transport a bicycle rider who appears to be under the influence of alcohol or any drug and who is walking or moving along or within the right-of-way of a public roadway, unless the bicycle rider is to be taken into protective custody under RCW 70.96A.120. The law enforcement officer offering to transport an intoxicated bicycle rider under this section shall:

     (a) Transport the intoxicated bicycle rider to a safe place; or

     (b) Release the intoxicated bicycle rider to a competent person.

     (2) The law enforcement officer shall not provide the assistance offered if the bicycle rider refuses to accept it. No suit or action may be commenced or prosecuted against the law enforcement officer, law enforcement agency, the state of Washington, or any political subdivision of the state for any act resulting from the refusal of the bicycle rider to accept this assistance.

     (3) The law enforcement officer may impound the bicycle operated by an intoxicated bicycle rider if the officer determines that impoundment is necessary to reduce a threat to public safety, and there are no reasonable alternatives to impoundment. The bicyclist will be given a written notice of when and where the impounded bicycle may be reclaimed. The bicycle may be reclaimed by the bicycle rider when the bicycle rider no longer appears to be intoxicated, or by an individual who can establish ownership of the bicycle. The bicycle must be returned without payment of a fee. If the bicycle is not reclaimed within thirty days, it will be subject to sale or disposal consistent with agency procedures.

[2000 c 85 § 4.]




46.61.990
Recodification of sections — Organization of chapter — Construction.

Sections 1 through 52 and 54 through 86 of chapter 155, Laws of 1965 ex. sess. are added to chapter 12, Laws of 1961 and shall constitute a new chapter in Title 46 of the Revised Code of Washington and sections 54, 55, and 63 as herein amended and RCW 46.48.012, 46.48.014, 46.48.015, 46.48.016, 46.48.023, 46.48.025, 46.48.026, 46.48.041, 46.48.046, 46.48.050, 46.48.060, 46.48.080, 46.48.110, 46.48.120, 46.48.150, 46.48.160, 46.48.340, 46.56.030, 46.56.070, 46.56.100, 46.56.130, 46.56.135, 46.56.190, 46.56.200, 46.56.210, 46.56.220, 46.56.230, 46.56.240, 46.60.260, 46.60.270, 46.60.330, and 46.60.340 shall be recodified as and be a part of said chapter. The sections of the new chapter shall be organized under the following captions: "OBEDIENCE TO AND EFFECT OF TRAFFIC LAWS", "TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS AND MARKINGS", "DRIVING ON RIGHT SIDE OF ROADWAY -- OVERTAKING AND PASSING -- USE OF ROADWAY", "RIGHT-OF-WAY", "PEDESTRIANS' RIGHTS AND DUTIES", "TURNING AND STARTING AND SIGNALS ON STOPPING AND TURNING", "SPECIAL STOPS REQUIRED", "SPEED RESTRICTIONS", "RECKLESS DRIVING, DRIVING WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF INTOXICATING LIQUOR OR ANY DRUG, AND NEGLIGENT HOMICIDE BY VEHICLE", "STOPPING, STANDING AND PARKING", "MISCELLANEOUS RULES", and "OPERATION OF NONMOTORIZED VEHICLES". Such captions shall not constitute any part of the law.

[1991 c 290 § 5; 1991 c 214 § 3; 1965 ex.s. c 155 § 92.]

Notes:

     Reviser's note: This section was amended by 1991 c 214 § 3 and by 1991 c 290 § 5, each without reference to the other. Both amendments are incorporated in the publication of this section pursuant to RCW 1.12.025(2). For rule of construction, see RCW 1.12.025(1).




46.61.991
Severability — 1965 ex.s. c 155.

If any provision of this amendatory act, or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act, or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected.

[1965 ex.s. c 155 § 93.]