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Chapter 28A.655 RCW

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY

RCW Sections

28A.655.005Findings.
28A.655.006Condensed compliance reports -- Second-class districts.
28A.655.010Washington commission on student learning -- Definitions.
28A.655.061High school assessment system -- Certificate of academic achievement -- Exemptions -- Options to retake high school assessment -- Objective alternative assessment -- Student learning plans.
28A.655.063Objective alternative assessments -- Reimbursement of costs -- Testing fee waivers.
28A.655.065Objective alternative assessment methods -- Appeals from assessment scores -- Waivers and appeals from assessment requirements -- Rules.
28A.655.066Statewide end-of-course assessments for high school mathematics.
28A.655.068Statewide high school assessment in science.
28A.655.070Essential academic learning requirements and assessments -- Duties of the superintendent of public instruction.
28A.655.071Revised essential academic learning requirements -- Legislative review -- Implementation.
28A.655.075Essential academic learning requirements and grade level expectations for educational technology literacy and technology fluency -- Assessments -- Reports.
28A.655.080Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills -- Implementation and administration -- Work group -- Reports -- Grants -- Waivers.
28A.655.090Washington assessment of student learning -- Reporting requirements.
28A.655.095Students with cognitive disabilities -- Alternative assessment system.
28A.655.100Performance goals -- Reporting requirements.
28A.655.110Annual school performance report -- Model report form.
28A.655.115Outreach and feedback -- Working group -- Model feedback tools and strategies.
28A.655.130Accountability implementation funds.
28A.655.140Technical assistance.
28A.655.150Consolidation of requirements for categorical grant programs -- Use of electronic applications and reporting.
28A.655.180Waivers for educational restructuring programs.
28A.655.185Intent -- Apple award program.
28A.655.200Norm-referenced assessments -- Diagnostic assessments.
28A.655.210K-12 education data improvement system.
28A.655.220Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills -- Fairness and bias review.
28A.655.230Reading skills -- Meeting for grade placement and strategies for student improvement -- Exemptions.
28A.655.235Reading skills -- Intensive reading and literacy improvement strategy -- Calculation of tested students at or below basic on third grade student assessment -- State menu of best practices.
28A.655.901Part headings and captions not law -- 1999 c 388.
28A.655.902Severability -- 1999 c 388.


28A.655.005
Findings.

The legislature finds that the purpose of Washington's accountability system is to improve student learning and student achievement of the essential academic learning requirement standards so that each individual student will be given the opportunity to become a responsible citizen and successfully live, learn, and work in the twenty-first century. To achieve this purpose, the accountability system should be based on student achievement and continuous improvement at all levels of Washington's education system and on a fundamental principle that all public school students have access to curriculum and instruction that is aligned to the standards.

     The legislature further finds that the accountability system should rely on local responsibility and leadership. Districts and schools should be expected to improve and be evaluated based on their improvement over time. Districts should recognize exceptional progress and work closely with schools needing assistance.

     The legislature further finds that the accountability system must be simple to use and understand. Consequences must be predictable and fair. Differences among students, schools, and districts should be recognized and respected as the system is implemented. There should be a balance of each student's right to privacy and the public's right to know the overall levels of learning and achievement at the school, district, and state levels. In addition, the accountability system should be continuously reviewed and improved as more is learned about how schools operate to meet the learning needs of Washington's students.

[1999 c 388 § 1.]




28A.655.006
Condensed compliance reports — Second-class districts.

Any compliance reporting requirements as a result of laws in this chapter that apply to second-class districts may be submitted in accordance with RCW 28A.330.250.

[2011 c 45 § 50.]

Notes:

     Conflict with federal requirements -- 2011 c 45: See note following RCW 28A.330.250.




28A.655.010
Washington commission on student learning — Definitions.

Unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the definitions in this section apply throughout RCW *28A.630.885 and 28A.300.130.

     (1) "Commission" means the commission on student learning created in *RCW 28A.630.885.

     (2) "Student learning goals" mean[s] the goals established in RCW 28A.150.210.

     (3) "Essential academic learning requirements" means more specific academic and technical skills and knowledge, based on the student learning goals, as determined under *RCW 28A.630.885(3)(a). Essential academic learning requirements shall not limit the instructional strategies used by schools or school districts or require the use of specific curriculum.

     (4) "Performance standards" or "standards" means the criteria used to determine if a student has successfully learned the specific knowledge or skill being assessed as determined under *RCW 28A.630.885(3)(b). The standards should be set at internationally competitive levels.

     (5) "Assessment system" or "student assessment system" means a series of assessments used to determine if students have successfully learned the essential academic learning requirements. The assessment system shall be developed under *RCW 28A.630.885(3)(b).

     (6) "Performance-based education system" means an education system in which a significantly greater emphasis is placed on how well students are learning, and significantly less emphasis is placed on state-level laws and rules that dictate how instruction is to be provided. The performance-based education system does not require that schools use an outcome-based instructional model. Decisions regarding how instruction is provided are to be made, to the greatest extent possible, by schools and school districts, not by the state.

[1993 c 336 § 201. Formerly RCW 28A.630.883.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: RCW 28A.630.885 was recodified as RCW 28A.655.060 pursuant to 1999 c 388 § 607. RCW 28A.655.060 was subsequently repealed by 2004 c 19 § 206.

     Findings -- Intent -- Part headings not law -- 1993 c 336: See notes following RCW 28A.150.210.

     Findings -- 1993 c 336: See note following RCW 28A.630.879.




28A.655.061
High school assessment system — Certificate of academic achievement — Exemptions — Options to retake high school assessment — Objective alternative assessment — Student learning plans.

(1) The high school assessment system shall include but need not be limited to the statewide student assessment, opportunities for a student to retake the content areas of the assessment in which the student was not successful, and, if approved by the legislature pursuant to subsection (10) of this section, one or more objective alternative assessments for a student to demonstrate achievement of state academic standards. The objective alternative assessments for each content area shall be comparable in rigor to the skills and knowledge that the student must demonstrate on the statewide student assessment for each content area.

     (2) Subject to the conditions in this section, a certificate of academic achievement shall be obtained and is evidence that the students have successfully met the state standard in the content areas included in the certificate. With the exception of students satisfying the provisions of RCW
28A.155.045 or *28A.655.0611, acquisition of the certificate is required for graduation from a public high school but is not the only requirement for graduation.

     (3)(a) Beginning with the graduating class of 2008 through the graduating class of 2015, with the exception of students satisfying the provisions of RCW 28A.155.045, a student who meets the state standards on the reading, writing, and mathematics high school statewide student assessment shall earn a certificate of academic achievement. The mathematics assessment shall be the end-of-course assessment for the first year of high school mathematics that assesses the standards common to algebra I and integrated mathematics I or the end-of-course assessment for the second year of high school mathematics that assesses standards common to geometry and integrated mathematics II.

     (b) As the state transitions from reading and writing assessments to an English language arts assessment and from end-of-course assessments to a comprehensive assessment for high school mathematics, a student in a graduating class of 2016 through 2018 shall earn a certificate of academic achievement if the student meets the state standard as follows:

     (i) Students in the graduating class of 2016 may use the results from:

     (A) The reading and writing assessment or the English language arts assessment developed with the multistate consortium; and

     (B) The end-of-course assessment for the first year of high school mathematics, the end-of-course assessment for the second year of high school mathematics, or the comprehensive mathematics assessment developed with the multistate consortium.

     (ii) Students in the graduating classes of 2017 and 2018 may use the results from:

     (A) The tenth grade English language arts assessment developed by the superintendent of public instruction using resources from the multistate consortium or the English language arts assessment developed with the multistate consortium; and

     (B) The end-of-course assessment for the first year of high school mathematics, the end-of-course assessment for the second year of high school mathematics, or the comprehensive mathematics assessment developed with the multistate consortium.

     (c) Beginning with the graduating class of 2019, a student who meets the state standards on the high school English language arts assessment developed with the multistate consortium and the comprehensive mathematics assessment developed with the multistate consortium shall earn a certificate of academic achievement.

     (d) If a student does not successfully meet the state standards in one or more content areas required for the certificate of academic achievement, then the student may retake the assessment in the content area at least twice a year at no cost to the student. If the student successfully meets the state standards on a retake of the assessment then the student shall earn a certificate of academic achievement. Once objective alternative assessments are authorized pursuant to subsection (10) of this section, a student may use the objective alternative assessments to demonstrate that the student successfully meets the state standards for that content area if the student has taken the statewide student assessment at least once. If the student successfully meets the state standards on the objective alternative assessments then the student shall earn a certificate of academic achievement.

     (4) Beginning with the graduating class of 2015, a student must meet the state standards in science in addition to the other content areas required under subsection (3) of this section on the statewide student assessment, a retake, or the objective alternative assessments in order to earn a certificate of academic achievement.

     (5) The state board of education may not require the acquisition of the certificate of academic achievement for students in home-based instruction under chapter 28A.200 RCW, for students enrolled in private schools under chapter 28A.195 RCW, or for students satisfying the provisions of RCW 28A.155.045.

     (6) A student may retain and use the highest result from each successfully completed content area of the high school assessment.

     (7) School districts must make available to students the following options:

     (a) To retake the statewide student assessment at least twice a year in the content areas in which the student did not meet the state standards if the student is enrolled in a public school; or

     (b) To retake the statewide student assessment at least twice a year in the content areas in which the student did not meet the state standards if the student is enrolled in a high school completion program at a community or technical college. The superintendent of public instruction and the state board for community and technical colleges shall jointly identify means by which students in these programs can be assessed.

     (8) Students who achieve the standard in a content area of the high school assessment but who wish to improve their results shall pay for retaking the assessment, using a uniform cost determined by the superintendent of public instruction.

     (9) Opportunities to retake the assessment at least twice a year shall be available to each school district.

     (10)(a) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall develop options for implementing objective alternative assessments, which may include an appeals process for students' scores, for students to demonstrate achievement of the state academic standards. The objective alternative assessments shall be comparable in rigor to the skills and knowledge that the student must demonstrate on the statewide student assessment and be objective in its determination of student achievement of the state standards. Before any objective alternative assessments in addition to those authorized in RCW 28A.655.065 or (b) of this subsection are used by a student to demonstrate that the student has met the state standards in a content area required to obtain a certificate, the legislature shall formally approve the use of any objective alternative assessments through the omnibus appropriations act or by statute or concurrent resolution.

     (b)(i) A student's score on the mathematics, reading or English, or writing portion of the SAT or the ACT may be used as an objective alternative assessment under this section for demonstrating that a student has met or exceeded the state standards for the certificate of academic achievement. The state board of education shall identify the scores students must achieve on the relevant portion of the SAT or ACT to meet or exceed the state standard in the relevant content area on the statewide student assessment. A student's score on the science portion of the ACT or the science subject area tests of the SAT may be used as an objective alternative assessment under this section as soon as the state board of education determines that sufficient data is available to identify reliable equivalent scores for the science content area of the statewide student assessment. After the first scores are established, the state board may increase but not decrease the scores required for students to meet or exceed the state standards.

     (ii) A student who scores at least a three on the grading scale of one to five for selected AP examinations may use the score as an objective alternative assessment under this section for demonstrating that a student has met or exceeded state standards for the certificate of academic achievement. A score of three on the AP examinations in calculus or statistics may be used as an alternative assessment for the mathematics portion of the statewide student assessment. A score of three on the AP examinations in English language and composition may be used as an alternative assessment for the writing portion of the statewide student assessment; and for the English language arts portion of the assessment developed with the multistate consortium, once established in the 2014-15 school year. A score of three on the AP examinations in English literature and composition, macroeconomics, microeconomics, psychology, United States history, world history, United States government and politics, or comparative government and politics may be used as an alternative assessment for the reading portion of the statewide student assessment; and for the English language arts portion of the assessment developed with the multistate consortium, once established in the 2014-15 school year. A score of three on the AP examination in biology, physics, chemistry, or environmental science may be used as an alternative assessment for the science portion of the statewide student assessment.

     (iii) A student who scores at least a four on selected externally administered international baccalaureate (IB) examinations may use the score as an objective alternative assessment under this section for demonstrating that the student has met or exceeded state standards for the certificate of academic achievement. A score of four on the higher level IB examinations for any of the IB English language and literature courses or for any of the IB individuals and societies courses may be used as an alternative assessment for the reading, writing, or English language arts portions of the statewide student assessment. A score of four on the higher level IB examinations for any of the IB mathematics courses may be used as an alternative assessment for the mathematics portion of the statewide student assessment. A score of four on the higher level IB examinations for IB biology, chemistry, or physics may be used as an alternative assessment for the science portion of the statewide student assessment.

     (11) To help assure continued progress in academic achievement as a foundation for high school graduation and to assure that students are on track for high school graduation, each school district shall prepare plans for and notify students and their parents or legal guardians as provided in this subsection. Student learning plans are required for eighth grade students who were not successful on any or all of the content areas of the state assessment during the previous school year or who may not be on track to graduate due to credit deficiencies or absences. The parent or legal guardian shall be notified about the information in the student learning plan, preferably through a parent conference and at least annually. To the extent feasible, schools serving English language learner students and their parents shall translate the plan into the primary language of the family. The plan shall include the following information as applicable:

     (a) The student's results on the state assessment;

     (b) If the student is in the transitional bilingual program, the score on his or her Washington language proficiency test II;

     (c) Any credit deficiencies;

     (d) The student's attendance rates over the previous two years;

     (e) The student's progress toward meeting state and local graduation requirements;

     (f) The courses, competencies, and other steps needed to be taken by the student to meet state academic standards and stay on track for graduation;

     (g) Remediation strategies and alternative education options available to students, including informing students of the option to continue to receive instructional services after grade twelve or until the age of twenty-one;

     (h) The alternative assessment options available to students under this section and RCW 28A.655.065;

     (i) School district programs, high school courses, and career and technical education options available for students to meet graduation requirements; and

     (j) Available programs offered through skill centers or community and technical colleges, including the college high school diploma options under RCW 28B.50.535.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 2; 2011 1st sp.s. c 22 § 2; 2010 c 244 § 1; 2009 c 524 § 5; 2008 c 321 § 2. Prior: 2007 c 355 § 5; 2007 c 354 § 2; 2006 c 115 § 4; 2004 c 19 § 101.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: RCW 28A.655.0611 expired August 31, 2013.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 22: "The legislature finds that the superintendent of public instruction was authorized to align the state essential academic learning requirements for mathematics, reading, writing, and communication with the common set of standards for students in grades kindergarten through twelve, known as the common core state standards, which were initiated by the governors and chief school officers of forty-five states, including Washington. The legislature further finds that Washington has joined one of two multistate consortia using a federal grant to develop new English language arts and mathematics assessments in grades three through eight and grade eleven that are, among other factors, aligned with the common core state standards and intended to demonstrate a student's career and college readiness. The legislature further finds that the assessments are required to be ready for use by the 2014-15 school year.

     The legislature intends to reduce the overall costs of the state assessment system by implementing the eleventh grade English language arts and mathematics assessments being developed by a multistate consortium in which Washington is participating, maximize use of the consortium assessments by developing a tenth grade high school English language arts assessment and modifying the algebra I and geometry end-of-course assessment to be used only during the transition to the consortium-developed assessments, and reduce to three the number of assessments that will be required for students to graduate beginning with the class of 2019.

     The legislature further intends that the eleventh grade consortium-developed assessments have two different student performance standards: One for the purposes of high school graduation that will be established by the state board of education and one that is intended to demonstrate a student's career and college readiness." [2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 1.]

     Finding -- Intent -- 2011 1st sp.s. c 22: "(1) The legislature continues to support end-of-course assessments as a fair and practical way to measure students' knowledge and skills in high school science, but the legislature also recognizes that there are important scientific concepts, principles, and content that are not able to be captured in a single course or a single assessment. The legislature also does not wish to narrow the high school science curriculum to a singular focus on biology.

     (2) However, the legislature finds that the financial resources for developing additional end-of-course assessments for high school science are not available in the 2011-2013 biennium. Nevertheless, the legislature intends to revisit this issue in the future and further intends at an appropriate time to direct the superintendent of public instruction to develop one or more end-of-course assessments in additional science subjects." [2011 1st sp.s. c 22 § 1.]

     Intent -- 2009 c 524: See note following RCW 28B.50.535.

     Findings -- 2008 c 321: "The legislature finds that high school students need to graduate with the skills necessary to be successful in college and work. The state graduation requirements help to ensure that Washington high school graduates have the basic skills to be competitive in a global economy. Under education reform started in 1993, time was to be the variable, obtaining the skills was to be the constant. Therefore, students who need additional time to gain the academic skills needed for college and the workplace should have the opportunities they need to reach high academic achievement, even if that takes more than the standard four years of high school.

     Different students face different challenges and barriers to their academic success. Some students struggle to meet the standard on a single portion of the Washington assessment of student learning while excelling in the other subject areas; other students struggle to complete the necessary state or local graduation credits; while still others have their knowledge tested on the assessments and have completed all the credit requirements but are struggling because English is not their first language. The legislature finds that many of these students need additional time and support to achieve academic proficiency and meet all graduation requirements." [2008 c 321 § 1.]

     Finding -- Intent -- 2007 c 355: See note following RCW 28B.50.534.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2007 c 354: "(1) The legislature maintains a strong commitment to high expectations and high academic achievement for all students. The legislature finds that Washington schools and students are making significant progress in improving achievement in reading and writing. Schools are adapting instruction and providing remediation for students who need additional assistance. Reading and writing are being taught across the curriculum. Therefore, the legislature does not intend to make changes to the Washington assessment of student learning or high school graduation requirements in reading and writing.

     (2) However, students are having difficulty improving their academic achievement in mathematics and science, particularly as measured by the high school Washington assessment of student learning. The legislature finds that corrections are needed in the state's high school assessment system that will improve alignment between learning standards, instruction, diagnosis, and assessment of students' knowledge and skills in high school mathematics and science. The legislature further finds there is a sense of urgency to make these corrections and intends to revise high school graduation requirements in mathematics and science only for the minimum period for corrections to be fully implemented." [2007 c 354 § 1.]

     Part headings and captions not law -- 2004 c 19: "Part headings and captions used in this act are not any part of the law." [2004 c 19 § 301.]

Severability -- 2004 c 19: "If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected." [2004 c 19 § 302.]

     Effective date -- 2004 c 19: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect immediately [March 18, 2004]." [2004 c 19 § 303.]




28A.655.063
Objective alternative assessments — Reimbursement of costs — Testing fee waivers.

Subject to the availability of funds appropriated for this purpose, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall provide funds to school districts to reimburse students for the cost of taking the tests in RCW 28A.655.061(10)(b) when the students take the tests for the purpose of using the results as an objective alternative assessment. The office of the superintendent of public instruction may, as an alternative to providing funds to school districts, arrange for students to receive a testing fee waiver or make other arrangements to compensate the students.

[2007 c 354 § 7; 2006 c 115 § 5.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2007 c 354: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.




28A.655.065
Objective alternative assessment methods — Appeals from assessment scores — Waivers and appeals from assessment requirements — Rules.

(1) The legislature has made a commitment to rigorous academic standards for receipt of a high school diploma. The primary way that students will demonstrate that they meet the standards in reading, writing, mathematics, and science is through the Washington assessment of student learning. Only objective assessments that are comparable in rigor to the state assessment are authorized as an alternative assessment. Before seeking an alternative assessment, the legislature expects students to make a genuine effort to meet state standards, through regular and consistent attendance at school and participation in extended learning and other assistance programs.

     (2) Under RCW
28A.655.061, beginning in the 2006-07 school year, the superintendent of public instruction shall implement objective alternative assessment methods as provided in this section for students to demonstrate achievement of the state standards in content areas in which the student has not yet met the standard on the high school Washington assessment of student learning. A student may access an alternative if the student meets applicable eligibility criteria in RCW 28A.655.061 and this section and other eligibility criteria established by the superintendent of public instruction, including but not limited to attendance criteria and participation in the remediation or supplemental instruction contained in the student learning plan developed under RCW 28A.655.061. A school district may waive attendance and/or remediation criteria for special, unavoidable circumstances.

     (3) For the purposes of this section, "applicant" means a student seeking to use one of the alternative assessment methods in this section.

     (4) One alternative assessment method shall be a combination of the applicant's grades in applicable courses and the applicant's highest score on the high school Washington assessment of student learning, as provided in this subsection. A student is eligible to apply for the alternative assessment method under this subsection (4) if the student has a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.2 on a four point grading scale. The superintendent of public instruction shall determine which high school courses are applicable to the alternative assessment method and shall issue guidelines to school districts.

     (a) Using guidelines prepared by the superintendent of public instruction, a school district shall identify the group of students in the same school as the applicant who took the same high school courses as the applicant in the applicable content area. From the group of students identified in this manner, the district shall select the comparison cohort that shall be those students who met or slightly exceeded the state standard on the Washington assessment of student learning.

     (b) The district shall compare the applicant's grades in high school courses in the applicable content area to the grades of students in the comparison cohort for the same high school courses. If the applicant's grades are equal to or above the mean grades of the comparison cohort, the applicant shall be deemed to have met the state standard on the alternative assessment.

     (c) An applicant may not use the alternative assessment under this subsection (4) if there are fewer than six students in the comparison cohort.

     (5) The superintendent of public instruction shall develop an alternative assessment method that shall be an evaluation of a collection of work samples prepared and submitted by the applicant. Effective September 1, 2009, collection of work samples may be submitted only in content areas where meeting the state standard on the high school assessment is required for purposes of graduation.

     (a) The superintendent of public instruction shall develop guidelines for the types and number of work samples in each content area that may be submitted as a collection of evidence that the applicant has met the state standard in that content area. Work samples may be collected from academic, career and technical, or remedial courses and may include performance tasks as well as written products. The superintendent shall submit the guidelines for approval by the state board of education.

     (b) The superintendent shall develop protocols for submission of the collection of work samples that include affidavits from the applicant's teachers and school district that the samples are the work of the applicant and a requirement that a portion of the samples be prepared under the direct supervision of a classroom teacher. The superintendent shall submit the protocols for approval by the state board of education.

     (c) The superintendent shall develop uniform scoring criteria for evaluating the collection of work samples and submit the scoring criteria for approval by the state board of education. Collections shall be scored at the state level or regionally by a panel of educators selected and trained by the superintendent to ensure objectivity, reliability, and rigor in the evaluation. An educator may not score work samples submitted by applicants from the educator's school district. If the panel awards an applicant's collection of work samples the minimum required score, the applicant shall be deemed to have met the state standard on the alternative assessment.

     (d) Using an open and public process that includes consultation with district superintendents, school principals, and other educators, the state board of education shall consider the guidelines, protocols, scoring criteria, and other information regarding the collection of work samples submitted by the superintendent of public instruction. The collection of work samples may be implemented as an alternative assessment after the state board of education has approved the guidelines, protocols, and scoring criteria and determined that the collection of work samples: (i) Will meet professionally accepted standards for a valid and reliable measure of the grade level expectations and the essential academic learning requirements; and (ii) is comparable to or exceeds the rigor of the skills and knowledge that a student must demonstrate on the Washington assessment of student learning in the applicable content area. The state board shall make an approval decision and determination no later than December 1, 2006, and thereafter may increase the required rigor of the collection of work samples.

     (e) By September of 2006, the superintendent of public instruction shall develop informational materials for parents, teachers, and students regarding the collection of work samples and the status of its development as an alternative assessment method. The materials shall provide specific guidance regarding the type and number of work samples likely to be required, include examples of work that meets the state learning standards, and describe the scoring criteria and process for the collection. The materials shall also encourage students in the graduating class of 2008 to begin creating a collection if they believe they may seek to use the collection once it is implemented as an alternative assessment.

     (6)(a) For students enrolled in a career and technical education program approved under RCW 28A.700.030, the superintendent of public instruction shall develop additional guidelines for collections of work samples that are tailored to different career and technical programs. The additional guidelines shall:

     (i) Provide multiple examples of work samples that are related to the particular career and technical program;

     (ii) Permit work samples based on completed activities or projects where demonstration of academic knowledge is inferred; and

     (iii) Provide multiple examples of work samples drawn from career and technical courses.

     (b) The purpose of the additional guidelines is to provide a clear pathway toward a certificate of academic achievement for career and technical students by showing them applied and relevant opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and skills, and to provide guidance to teachers in integrating academic and career and technical instruction and assessment and assisting career and technical students in compiling a collection. The superintendent of public instruction shall develop and disseminate additional guidelines for no fewer than ten career and technical education programs representing a variety of program offerings by no later than September 1, 2008. Guidelines for ten additional programs shall be developed and disseminated no later than June 1, 2009.

     (c) The superintendent shall consult with community and technical colleges, employers, the workforce training and education coordinating board, apprenticeship programs, and other regional and national experts in career and technical education to create appropriate guidelines and examples of work samples and other evidence of a career and technical student's knowledge and skills on the state academic standards.

     (7) The superintendent of public instruction shall study the feasibility of using existing mathematics assessments in languages other than English as an additional alternative assessment option. The study shall include an estimation of the cost of translating the tenth grade mathematics assessment into other languages and scoring the assessments should they be implemented.

     (8) The superintendent of public instruction shall implement:

     (a) By June 1, 2006, a process for students to appeal the score they received on the high school assessments; and

     (b) By January 1, 2007, guidelines and appeal processes for waiving specific requirements in RCW 28A.655.061 pertaining to the certificate of academic achievement and to the certificate of individual achievement for students who: (i) Transfer to a Washington public school in their junior or senior year with the intent of obtaining a public high school diploma, or (ii) have special, unavoidable circumstances.

     (9) The state board of education shall examine opportunities for additional alternative assessments, including the possible use of one or more standardized norm-referenced student achievement tests and the possible use of the reading, writing, or mathematics portions of the ACT ASSET and ACT COMPASS test instruments as objective alternative assessments for demonstrating that a student has met the state standards for the certificate of academic achievement. The state board shall submit its findings and recommendations to the education committees of the legislature by January 10, 2008.

     (10) The superintendent of public instruction shall adopt rules to implement this section.

[2009 c 556 § 19; 2008 c 170 § 205; 2007 c 354 § 6; 2006 c 115 § 1.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- Part headings not law -- 2008 c 170: See RCW 28A.700.005 and 28A.700.901.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2007 c 354: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.




28A.655.066
Statewide end-of-course assessments for high school mathematics. (Effective until September 1, 2019.)

(1)(a) In consultation with the state board of education, the superintendent of public instruction shall develop statewide end-of-course assessments for high school mathematics that measure student achievement of the state mathematics standards. The superintendent shall take steps to ensure that the language of the assessments is responsive to a diverse student population. The assessments shall be implemented statewide in the 2010-11 school year.

     (b) The superintendent shall develop end-of-course assessments for the first year of high school mathematics that include the standards common to algebra I and integrated mathematics I and for the second year of high school mathematics that include the standards common to geometry and integrated mathematics II. The assessments under this subsection (1)(b) shall be used to demonstrate that a student meets the state standard on the mathematics content area of the high school statewide student assessment for purposes of RCW
28A.655.061.

     (c) The superintendent of public instruction shall also develop subtests for the end-of-course assessments that measure standards for the first two years of high school mathematics that are unique to algebra I, integrated mathematics I, geometry, and integrated mathematics II. The results of the subtests shall be reported at the student, teacher, school, and district level.

     (2) All of the objective alternative assessments available to students under RCW 28A.655.061 and 28A.655.065 shall be available to any student who has taken an end-of-course assessment once but does not meet the state mathematics standard on an end-of-course assessment.

     (3) The superintendent of public instruction shall report at least annually or more often if necessary to keep the education committees of the legislature informed on each step of the development and implementation process under this section.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 3; 2011 c 25 § 2; 2009 c 310 § 3; 2008 c 163 § 3.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 22: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2011 c 25: "The legislature finds that acquiring mathematical skills and knowledge is critical for the future financial and personal success of public school graduates. However, the legislature finds that requiring students in the classes of 2013 and 2014 to meet the standards on two high school mathematics end-of-course assessments to graduate would not be fair to students or a valid use of the new end-of-course assessments. Specifically, a majority of these students will have taken algebra I or integrated mathematics one or more years before taking the end-of-course assessments. In addition, teachers need more time to incorporate the new 2008 mathematics standards into their instruction to properly prepare students for the new assessment requirements. Instead, the legislature intends to provide a reasonable transition period and require students in the classes of 2013 and 2014 to meet the standard on only one assessment. Students in subsequent classes will be required to meet the standards on both assessments." [2011 c 25 § 1.]

     Findings -- 2008 c 163: "The legislature finds that, according to a recent report from a consultant retained by the state board of education, end-of-course assessments have certain advantages over comprehensive assessments such as the current form of the Washington assessment of student learning, and in most other areas end-of-course assessments are comparable to comprehensive assessments in meeting public policy objectives for a statewide assessment system. The legislature further finds that because the state's assessment contract will be renegotiated before the end of 2008, the 2008 legislature has an opportunity to provide policy direction in the design of the state assessment system and the design of the Washington assessment of student learning." [2008 c 163 § 1.]




28A.655.068
Statewide high school assessment in science.

(1) Beginning in the 2011-12 school year, the statewide high school assessment in science shall be an end-of-course assessment for biology that measures the state standards for life sciences, in addition to systems, inquiry, and application as they pertain to life sciences.

     (2)(a) The superintendent of public instruction may develop or adopt science end-of-course assessments or a comprehensive science assessment that includes subjects in addition to biology for purposes of RCW
28A.655.061, when so directed by the legislature. The legislature intends to transition from a biology end-of-course assessment to a more comprehensive science assessment in a manner consistent with the way in which the state transitioned to an English language arts assessment and a comprehensive mathematics assessment. The legislature further intends that the transition will include at least two years of using the student assessment results from either the biology end-of-course assessment or the more comprehensive assessment in order to provide students with reasonable opportunities to demonstrate high school competencies while being mindful of the increasing rigor of the new assessment.

     (b) The superintendent of public instruction shall develop or adopt a science assessment in accordance with RCW 28A.655.070(10) that is not biased toward persons with different learning styles, racial or ethnic backgrounds, or on the basis of gender.

     (c) Before the next subsequent school year after the legislature directs the superintendent to develop or adopt a new science assessment, the superintendent of public instruction shall review the objective alternative assessments for the science assessment and make recommendations to the legislature regarding additional objective alternatives, if any.

     (3) The superintendent of public instruction may participate with consortia of multiple states as common student learning standards and assessments in science are developed. The superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the state board of education, may modify the essential academic learning requirements and statewide student assessments in science, including the high school assessment, according to the multistate common student learning standards and assessments as long as the education committees of the legislature have opportunities for review before the modifications are adopted, as provided under RCW 28A.655.070.

     (4) The statewide high school assessment under this section shall be used to demonstrate that a student meets the state standards in the science content area of the statewide student assessment for purposes of RCW 28A.655.061.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 4; 2011 1st sp.s. c 22 § 3.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 22: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.

     Finding -- Intent -- 2011 1st sp.s. c 22: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.




28A.655.070
Essential academic learning requirements and assessments — Duties of the superintendent of public instruction.

(1) The superintendent of public instruction shall develop essential academic learning requirements that identify the knowledge and skills all public school students need to know and be able to do based on the student learning goals in RCW 28A.150.210, develop student assessments, and implement the accountability recommendations and requests regarding assistance, rewards, and recognition of the state board of education.

     (2) The superintendent of public instruction shall:

     (a) Periodically revise the essential academic learning requirements, as needed, based on the student learning goals in RCW 28A.150.210. Goals one and two shall be considered primary. To the maximum extent possible, the superintendent shall integrate goal four and the knowledge and skill areas in the other goals in the essential academic learning requirements; and

     (b) Review and prioritize the essential academic learning requirements and identify, with clear and concise descriptions, the grade level content expectations to be assessed on the statewide student assessment and used for state or federal accountability purposes. The review, prioritization, and identification shall result in more focus and targeting with an emphasis on depth over breadth in the number of grade level content expectations assessed at each grade level. Grade level content expectations shall be articulated over the grades as a sequence of expectations and performances that are logical, build with increasing depth after foundational knowledge and skills are acquired, and reflect, where appropriate, the sequential nature of the discipline. The office of the superintendent of public instruction, within seven working days, shall post on its web site any grade level content expectations provided to an assessment vendor for use in constructing the statewide student assessment.

     (3)(a) In consultation with the state board of education, the superintendent of public instruction shall maintain and continue to develop and revise a statewide academic assessment system in the content areas of reading, writing, mathematics, and science for use in the elementary, middle, and high school years designed to determine if each student has mastered the essential academic learning requirements identified in subsection (1) of this section. School districts shall administer the assessments under guidelines adopted by the superintendent of public instruction. The academic assessment system may include a variety of assessment methods, including criterion-referenced and performance-based measures.

     (b) Effective with the 2009 administration of the Washington assessment of student learning and continuing with the statewide student assessment, the superintendent shall redesign the assessment in the content areas of reading, mathematics, and science in all grades except high school by shortening test administration and reducing the number of short answer and extended response questions.

     (c) By the 2014-15 school year, the superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the state board of education, shall modify the statewide student assessment system to transition to assessments developed with a multistate consortium, as provided in this subsection:

     (i) The assessments developed with a multistate consortium to assess student proficiency in English language arts and mathematics shall be administered beginning in the 2014-15 school year. The reading and writing assessments shall not be administered by the superintendent of public instruction or schools after the 2013-14 school year.

     (ii) The high school assessments in English language arts and mathematics in (c)(i) of this subsection shall be used for the purposes of earning a certificate of academic achievement for high school graduation under the timeline established in RCW 28A.655.061 and for assessing student career and college readiness.

     (iii) During the transition period specified in RCW 28A.655.061, the superintendent of public instruction shall use test items and other resources from the consortium assessment to develop and administer a tenth grade high school English language arts assessment, an end-of-course mathematics assessment to assess the standards common to algebra I and integrated mathematics I, and an end-of-course mathematics assessment to assess the standards common to geometry and integrated mathematics II.

     (4) If the superintendent proposes any modification to the essential academic learning requirements or the statewide assessments, then the superintendent shall, upon request, provide opportunities for the education committees of the house of representatives and the senate to review the assessments and proposed modifications to the essential academic learning requirements before the modifications are adopted.

     (5) The assessment system shall be designed so that the results under the assessment system are used by educators as tools to evaluate instructional practices, and to initiate appropriate educational support for students who have not mastered the essential academic learning requirements at the appropriate periods in the student's educational development.

     (6) By September 2007, the results for reading and mathematics shall be reported in a format that will allow parents and teachers to determine the academic gain a student has acquired in those content areas from one school year to the next.

     (7) To assist parents and teachers in their efforts to provide educational support to individual students, the superintendent of public instruction shall provide as much individual student performance information as possible within the constraints of the assessment system's item bank. The superintendent shall also provide to school districts:

     (a) Information on classroom-based and other assessments that may provide additional achievement information for individual students; and

     (b) A collection of diagnostic tools that educators may use to evaluate the academic status of individual students. The tools shall be designed to be inexpensive, easily administered, and quickly and easily scored, with results provided in a format that may be easily shared with parents and students.

     (8) To the maximum extent possible, the superintendent shall integrate knowledge and skill areas in development of the assessments.

     (9) Assessments for goals three and four of RCW 28A.150.210 shall be integrated in the essential academic learning requirements and assessments for goals one and two.

     (10) The superintendent shall develop assessments that are directly related to the essential academic learning requirements, and are not biased toward persons with different learning styles, racial or ethnic backgrounds, or on the basis of gender.

     (11) The superintendent shall consider methods to address the unique needs of special education students when developing the assessments under this section.

     (12) The superintendent shall consider methods to address the unique needs of highly capable students when developing the assessments under this section.

     (13) The superintendent shall post on the superintendent's web site lists of resources and model assessments in social studies, the arts, and health and fitness.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 5; 2008 c 163 § 2; 2007 c 354 § 5; 2005 c 497 § 106; 2004 c 19 § 204; 1999 c 388 § 501.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 22: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.

     Findings -- 2008 c 163: See note following RCW 28A.655.066.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2007 c 354: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.

     Intent -- Part headings not law -- Effective date -- 2005 c 497: See notes following RCW 28A.305.011.

     Part headings and captions not law -- Severability -- Effective date -- 2004 c 19: See notes following RCW 28A.655.061.




28A.655.071
Revised essential academic learning requirements — Legislative review — Implementation.

(1) By August 2, 2010, the superintendent of public instruction may revise the state essential academic learning requirements authorized under RCW 28A.655.070 for mathematics, reading, writing, and communication by provisionally adopting a common set of standards for students in grades kindergarten through twelve. The revised state essential academic learning requirements may be substantially identical with the standards developed by a multistate consortium in which Washington participated, must be consistent with the requirements of RCW 28A.655.070, and may include additional standards if the additional standards do not exceed fifteen percent of the standards for each content area. However, the superintendent of public instruction shall not take steps to implement the provisionally adopted standards until the education committees of the house of representatives and the senate have an opportunity to review the standards.

     (2) By January 1, 2011, the superintendent of public instruction shall submit to the education committees of the house of representatives and the senate:

     (a) A detailed comparison of the provisionally adopted standards and the state essential academic learning requirements as of June 10, 2010, including the comparative level of rigor and specificity of the standards and the implications of any identified differences; and

     (b) An estimated timeline and costs to the state and to school districts to implement the provisionally adopted standards, including providing necessary training, realignment of curriculum, adjustment of state assessments, and other actions.

     (3) The superintendent may implement the revisions to the essential academic learning requirements under this section after the 2011 legislative session unless otherwise directed by the legislature.

[2010 c 235 § 601.]

Notes:

     Finding -- 2010 c 235: See note following RCW 28A.405.245.




28A.655.075
Essential academic learning requirements and grade level expectations for educational technology literacy and technology fluency — Assessments — Reports.

(1) Within funds specifically appropriated therefor, by December 1, 2008, the superintendent of public instruction shall develop essential academic learning requirements and grade level expectations for educational technology literacy and technology fluency that identify the knowledge and skills that all public school students need to know and be able to do in the areas of technology and technology literacy. The development process shall include a review of current standards that have been developed or are used by other states and national and international technology associations. To the maximum extent possible, the superintendent shall integrate goal four and the knowledge and skill areas in the other goals in the technology essential academic learning requirements.

     (a) As used in this section, "technology literacy" means the ability to responsibly, creatively, and effectively use appropriate technology to communicate; access, collect, manage, integrate, and evaluate information; solve problems and create solutions; build and share knowledge; and improve and enhance learning in all subject areas and experiences.

     (b) Technology fluency builds upon technology literacy and is demonstrated when students: Apply technology to real-world experiences; adapt to changing technologies; modify current and create new technologies; and personalize technology to meet personal needs, interests, and learning styles.

     (2)(a) Within funds specifically appropriated therefor, the superintendent shall obtain or develop education technology assessments that may be administered in the elementary, middle, and high school grades to assess the essential academic learning requirements for technology. The assessments shall be designed to be classroom or project-based so that they can be embedded in classroom instruction and be administered and scored by school staff throughout the regular school year using consistent scoring criteria and procedures. By the 2010-11 school year, these assessments shall be made available to school districts for the districts' voluntary use. If a school district uses the assessments created under this section, then the school district shall notify the superintendent of public instruction of the use. The superintendent shall report annually to the legislature on the number of school districts that use the assessments each school year.

     (b) Beginning December 1, 2010, and annually thereafter, the superintendent of public instruction shall provide a report to the relevant legislative committees regarding the use of the assessments.

[2007 c 396 § 16; (2009 c 556 § 15 expired July 1, 2011).]

Notes:

     Expiration date -- 2009 c 556 §§ 11, 13, and 15: See note following RCW 28A.300.525.

     Captions not law -- 2007 c 396: See note following RCW 28A.305.215.

     Finding -- Intent -- 2007 c 396: See note following RCW 28A.300.515.

Essential academic learning requirements and grade level expectations -- Revised standards and curricula for mathematics and science -- Duties of the state board of education and the superintendent of public instruction: RCW 28A.305.215.




28A.655.080
Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills — Implementation and administration — Work group — Reports — Grants — Waivers.

(1) To the extent funds are available, beginning in the 2012-13 school year, the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills shall be administered at the beginning of the school year to all students enrolled in state-funded full-day kindergarten programs under RCW 28A.150.315 with the exception of students who have been excused from participation by their parents or guardians.

     (2)(a) The superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the department of early learning, shall convene a work group to provide:

     (i) Input and recommendations with respect to implementation of the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills;

     (ii) Recommendations regarding the optimum way to administer the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills to children in half-day kindergarten while ensuring that they receive the maximum instruction as required in *RCW 28A.150.205; and

     (iii) Recommendations with respect to achieving the goal of replacing assessments currently required by school districts with the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills.

     (b) The work group shall include:

     (i) One representative from the office of the superintendent of public instruction;

     (ii) One representative from the department of early learning;

     (iii) One representative from the nongovernmental private-public partnership defined in RCW 43.215.010;

     (iv) Five representatives, including both teachers and principals, from school districts that participated in the pilot project, with every effort made to make sure that there is representation from across the state;

     (v) Two parents who are familiar with and participated in the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills pilot during the 2010-11 school year; and

     (vi) A representative from an independent, nonprofit children and family services organization with a main campus in North Bend, Washington.

     (c) The work group may solicit input from people who are recent implementers of the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills.

     (d) A preliminary report and recommendations shall be submitted to the education committees of the senate and the house of representatives by December 1, 2012. A subsequent report and recommendations shall be submitted to the education committees of the senate and the house of representatives by December 1, 2013, and annually by December 1st thereafter.

     (e) The work group shall terminate upon full statewide implementation of all-day kindergarten.

     (3) To the extent funds are available, additional support in the form of implementation grants shall be offered to schools on a schedule to be determined by the office of [the] superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the department of early learning.

     (4) Until full statewide implementation of all-day kindergarten programs, the superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with the director of the department of early learning, may grant annual, renewable waivers from the requirement of subsection (1) of this section to administer the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills. A school district seeking a waiver for one or more of its schools must submit an application to the office of the superintendent of public instruction that includes:

     (a) A description of the kindergarten readiness assessment and transition processes that it proposes to administer instead of the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills;

     (b) An explanation of why the administration of the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills would be unduly burdensome; and

     (c) An explanation of how administration of the alternative kindergarten readiness assessment will support social-emotional, physical, and cognitive growth and development of individual children; support early learning provider and parent involvement; and inform instruction.

[2012 c 51 § 2.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: The reference to RCW 28A.150.205, which contains the definition of "instructional hours," appears to be erroneous.




28A.655.090
Washington assessment of student learning — Reporting requirements.

(1) By September 10, 1998, and by September 10th each year thereafter, the superintendent of public instruction shall report to schools, school districts, and the legislature on the results of the Washington assessment of student learning and state-mandated norm-referenced standardized tests.

     (2) The reports shall include the assessment results by school and school district, and include changes over time. For the Washington assessment of student learning, results shall be reported as follows:

     (a) The percentage of students meeting the standards;

     (b) The percentage of students performing at each level of the assessment;

     (c) Disaggregation of results by at least the following subgroups of students: White, Black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Pacific Islander/Hawaiian Native, low income, transitional bilingual, migrant, special education, and, beginning with the 2009-10 school year, students covered by section 504 of the federal rehabilitation act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. Sec. 794); and

     (d) A learning improvement index that shows changes in student performance within the different levels of student learning reported on the Washington assessment of student learning.

     (3) The reports shall contain data regarding the different characteristics of schools, such as poverty levels, percent of English as a second language students, dropout rates, attendance, percent of students in special education, and student mobility so that districts and schools can learn from the improvement efforts of other schools and districts with similar characteristics.

     (4) The reports shall contain student scores on mandated tests by comparable Washington schools of similar characteristics.

     (5) The reports shall contain information on public school choice options available to students, including vocational education.

     (6) The reports shall be posted on the superintendent of public instruction's internet web site.

     (7) To protect the privacy of students, the results of schools and districts that test fewer than ten students in a grade level shall not be reported. In addition, in order to ensure that results are reported accurately, the superintendent of public instruction shall maintain the confidentiality of statewide data files until the superintendent determines that the data are complete and accurate.

     (8) The superintendent of public instruction shall monitor the percentage and number of special education and limited English-proficient students exempted from taking the assessments by schools and school districts to ensure the exemptions are in compliance with exemption guidelines.

[2008 c 165 § 3; 1999 c 388 § 301; 1998 c 319 § 301. Formerly RCW 28A.630.889.]

Notes:

     Part headings not law -- 1998 c 319: See note following RCW 28A.300.320.




28A.655.095
Students with cognitive disabilities — Alternative assessment system.

The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall continue to actively collaborate with teachers and directors of special education programs in the development and implementation of a process to transition from the current portfolio system of assessment of students with significant cognitive challenges to a performance task-based alternative assessment system based on state standards. Before such time as a new assessment becomes available, and within existing resources, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall coordinate efforts to: Align academic goals in a student's individualized education program with the current statewide assessment system by identifying detailed statewide alternate achievement benchmarks for use by teachers in the current portfolio system; develop a transparent and reliable scoring process; efficiently use technology; and develop a sensible approval process to shorten the time involved in developing and collecting current assessment data for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

[2011 c 75 § 2.]

Notes:

     Findings -- 2011 c 75: "The legislature finds that:

     (1) One of the difficult issues facing states and school districts throughout the country is the meaningful inclusion of students with significant cognitive challenges in their current state assessment and accountability systems.

     (2) Assessment and accountability systems provide valuable information to parents and educators, and all students deserve a system that encourages them to meaningfully access and make progress in the general education curriculum. Nevertheless, assessing the academic knowledge and skills of students with unique and significant cognitive disabilities can be challenging concerning the student's access to and progress in the general education curriculum. Furthermore, the development of meaningful assessment portfolios in the current system can be extremely time-consuming for both teachers and students, provide limited information for parents, and include questionable test and measurement practices." [2011 c 75 § 1.]




28A.655.100
Performance goals — Reporting requirements.

Each school district board of directors shall:

     (1)(a) Annually report to parents and to the community in a public meeting and annually report in writing the following information:

     (i) District-wide and school-level performance improvement goals;

     (ii) Student performance relative to the goals; and

     (iii) District-wide and school-level plans to achieve the goals, including curriculum and instruction, parental or guardian involvement, and resources available to parents and guardians to help students meet the state standards;

     (b) Report annually in a news release to the local media the district's progress toward meeting the district-wide and school-level goals; and

     (c) Include the school-level goals, student performance relative to the goals, and a summary of school-level plans to achieve the goals in each school's annual school performance report under RCW
28A.655.110.

     (2) School districts in which ten or fewer students in the district or in a school in the district are eligible to be assessed in a grade level are not required to report numerical improvement goals and performance relative to the goals, but are required to report to parents and the community their plans to improve student achievement.

[1999 c 388 § 302.]




28A.655.110
Annual school performance report — Model report form.

(1) Beginning with the 1994-95 school year, to provide the local community and electorate with access to information on the educational programs in the schools in the district, each school shall publish annually a school performance report and deliver the report to each parent with children enrolled in the school and make the report available to the community served by the school. The annual performance report shall be in a form that can be easily understood and be used by parents, guardians, and other members of the community who are not professional educators to make informed educational decisions. As data from the assessments in *RCW 28A.655.060 becomes available, the annual performance report should enable parents, educators, and school board members to determine whether students in the district's schools are attaining mastery of the student learning goals under RCW 28A.150.210, and other important facts about the schools' performance in assisting students to learn. The annual report shall make comparisons to a school's performance in preceding years, student performance relative to the goals and the percentage of students performing at each level of the assessment, a comparison of student performance at each level of the assessment to the previous year's performance, and information regarding school-level plans to achieve the goals.

     (2) The annual performance report shall include, but not be limited to: (a) A brief statement of the mission of the school and the school district; (b) enrollment statistics including student demographics; (c) expenditures per pupil for the school year; (d) a summary of student scores on all mandated tests; (e) a concise annual budget report; (f) student attendance, graduation, and dropout rates; (g) information regarding the use and condition of the school building or buildings; (h) a brief description of the learning improvement plans for the school; (i) a summary of the feedback from parents and community members obtained under RCW 28A.655.115; and (j) an invitation to all parents and citizens to participate in school activities.

     (3) The superintendent of public instruction shall develop by June 30, 1994, and update periodically, a model report form, which shall also be adapted for computers, that schools may use to meet the requirements of subsections (1) and (2) of this section. In order to make school performance reports broadly accessible to the public, the superintendent of public instruction, to the extent feasible, shall make information on each school's report available on or through the superintendent's internet web site.

[2010 c 235 § 703; 1999 c 388 § 303; 1993 c 336 § 1006. Formerly RCW 28A.320.205.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: RCW 28A.655.060 was repealed by 2004 c 19 § 206.

     Finding -- 2010 c 235: See note following RCW 28A.405.245.

     Findings -- Intent -- Part headings not law -- 1993 c 336: See notes following RCW 28A.150.210.

     Findings -- 1993 c 336: See note following RCW 28A.150.210.




28A.655.115
Outreach and feedback — Working group — Model feedback tools and strategies.

(1) Beginning with the 2010-11 school year, each school shall conduct outreach and seek feedback from a broad and diverse range of parents, other individuals, and organizations in the community regarding their experiences with the school. The school shall summarize the responses in its annual report under RCW 28A.655.110.

     (2) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall create a working group with representatives of organizations representing parents, teachers, and principals as well as diverse communities. The working group shall also include a representative from the *achievement gap oversight and accountability committee. By September 1, 2010, the working group shall develop model feedback tools and strategies that school districts may use to facilitate the feedback process required in subsection (1) of this section. The model tools and strategies are intended to provide assistance to school districts. School districts are encouraged to adapt the models or develop unique tools and strategies that best fit the circumstances in their communities.

[2010 c 235 § 702.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: The "achievement gap oversight and accountability committee" was renamed the "educational opportunity gap oversight and accountability committee" by 2011 1st sp.s. c 21 § 33.

     Finding -- 2010 c 235: See note following RCW 28A.405.245.




28A.655.130
Accountability implementation funds.

(1) To the extent funds are appropriated, the office of the superintendent of public instruction annually shall allocate accountability implementation funds to school districts. The purposes of the funds are to: Develop and update student learning improvement plans; implement curriculum materials and instructional strategies; provide staff professional development to implement the selected curricula and instruction; develop and implement assessment strategies and training in assessment scoring; and fund other activities intended to improve student learning for all students, including students with diverse needs. Activities funded by the allocations must be consistent with the school or district improvement plan, designed to improve the ability of teachers and other instructional certificated and classified staff to assist students in meeting the essential academic learning requirements, and designed to achieve state and local accountability goals. Activities funded by the allocations shall be designed to protect the teachers' instructional time with students and minimize the use of substitute teachers.

     (2) Schools receiving funds shall develop, update as needed, and keep on file a school student learning improvement plan to achieve the student learning goals and essential academic learning requirements and to implement the assessment system as it is developed. The plan shall delineate how the accountability implementation funds will be used to accomplish the requirements of this section. The plan shall be made available to the public and to others upon request.

     (3) The amount of allocations shall be determined in the omnibus appropriations act.

     (4) The state schools for the deaf and blind are eligible to receive allocations under this section.

     (5) The superintendent of public instruction may adopt timelines and rules as necessary under chapter
34.05 RCW to administer the program, and require that schools and districts submit reports regarding the use of the funds.

[1999 c 388 § 402.]




28A.655.140
Technical assistance.

(1) In order to increase the availability and quality of technical assistance statewide, the superintendent of public instruction, subject to available funding, may employ school improvement coordinators and school improvement specialists to provide assistance to schools and districts. The improvement specialists shall serve on a rotating basis and shall not be permanent employees.

     (2) The types of assistance provided by the improvement coordinators and specialists may include, but need not be limited to:

     (a) Assistance to schools to use student performance data and develop improvement plans based on those data;

     (b) Consultation with schools and districts concerning their performance on the Washington assessment of student learning and other assessments;

     (c) Consultation concerning curricula that aligns with the essential academic learning requirements and the Washington assessment of student learning and that meets the needs of diverse learners;

     (d) Assistance in the identification and implementation of research-based instructional practices;

     (e) Staff training that emphasizes effective instructional strategies and classroom-based assessment;

     (f) Assistance in developing and implementing family and community involvement programs; and

     (g) Other assistance to schools and school districts intended to improve student learning.

[1999 c 388 § 403.]




28A.655.150
Consolidation of requirements for categorical grant programs — Use of electronic applications and reporting.

The superintendent of public instruction, in consultation with school district personnel, shall consolidate and streamline the planning, application, and reporting requirements for major state and federal categorical and grant programs. The superintendent also shall take actions to increase the use of online electronic applications and reporting.

[1999 c 388 § 602.]




28A.655.180
Waivers for educational restructuring programs. (Effective until June 30, 2019.)

(1) The state board of education, where appropriate, or the superintendent of public instruction, where appropriate, may grant waivers to districts from the provisions of statutes or rules relating to: The length of the school year; student-to-teacher ratios; and other administrative rules that in the opinion of the state board of education or the opinion of the superintendent of public instruction may need to be waived in order for a district to implement a plan for restructuring its educational program or the educational program of individual schools within the district or to implement an innovation school or innovation zone designated under RCW 28A.630.081 or to implement a collaborative schools for innovation and success pilot project approved under RCW 28A.630.104.

     (2) School districts may use the application process in RCW 28A.305.140 to apply for the waivers under this section.

[2012 c 53 § 9; 2011 c 260 § 9; 2009 c 543 § 3; 1995 c 208 § 1; (1997 c 431 § 23 expired June 30, 1999). Formerly RCW 28A.630.945.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- Expiration date -- 2012 c 53: See RCW 28A.630.101 and 28A.630.109.

     Findings -- Intent -- 2011 c 260: See note following RCW 28A.630.080.

     Expiration date -- 2011 c 260: See RCW 28A.630.089.

     Finding -- Intent -- 2009 c 543: See note following RCW 28A.305.141.

     

28A.655.180
Waivers for educational restructuring programs. (Effective June 30, 2019.)

(1) The state board of education, where appropriate, or the superintendent of public instruction, where appropriate, may grant waivers to districts from the provisions of statutes or rules relating to: The length of the school year; student-to-teacher ratios; and other administrative rules that in the opinion of the state board of education or the opinion of the superintendent of public instruction may need to be waived in order for a district to implement a plan for restructuring its educational program or the educational program of individual schools within the district.

     (2) School districts may use the application process in RCW 28A.305.140 to apply for the waivers under this section.

[2009 c 543 § 3; 1995 c 208 § 1; (1997 c 431 § 23 expired June 30, 1999). Formerly RCW 28A.630.945.]

Notes:

     Finding -- Intent -- 2009 c 543: See note following RCW 28A.305.141.




28A.655.185
Intent — Apple award program.

(1) It is the intent of the legislature, through the creation of the apple award, to honor and reward students in Washington's public elementary schools who have shown significant improvement in their school's results on the statewide student assessment.

     (2) The apple award program is created to honor and reward public elementary schools that have the greatest combined average increase in the percentage of students meeting the fourth grade reading, mathematics, and writing standards on the statewide student assessment each school year. Beginning in the 2014-15 school year, the award shall be based on the percentage of students meeting the fourth grade English language arts and mathematics standards. The program shall be administered by the superintendent of public instruction.

     (3) Within the amounts appropriated for this purpose, each school that receives an apple award shall be provided with a twenty-five thousand dollar grant to be used for capital construction purposes that have been selected by students in the school and approved by the district's school directors. The funds may be used exclusively for capital construction projects on school property or on other public property in the community, city, or county in which the school is located.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 22 § 9; 2005 c 495 § 1.]

Notes:

     Findings -- Intent -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 22: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.




28A.655.200
Norm-referenced assessments — Diagnostic assessments.

(1) The legislature intends to permit school districts to offer norm-referenced assessments, make diagnostic tools available to school districts, and provide funding for diagnostic assessments to enhance student learning at all grade levels and provide early intervention before the high school Washington assessment of student learning.

     (2) In addition to the diagnostic assessments provided under this section, school districts may, at their own expense, administer norm-referenced assessments to students.

     (3) Subject to the availability of amounts appropriated for this purpose, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall post on its web site for voluntary use by school districts, a guide of diagnostic assessments. The assessments in the guide, to the extent possible, shall include the characteristics listed in subsection (4) of this section.

     (4) Subject to the availability of amounts appropriated for this purpose, beginning September 1, 2007, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall make diagnostic assessments in reading, writing, mathematics, and science in elementary, middle, and high school grades available to school districts. Subject to funds appropriated for this purpose, the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall also provide funding to school districts for administration of diagnostic assessments to help improve student learning, identify academic weaknesses, enhance student planning and guidance, and develop targeted instructional strategies to assist students before the high school Washington assessment of student learning. To the greatest extent possible, the assessments shall be:

     (a) Aligned to the state's grade level expectations;

     (b) Individualized to each student's performance level;

     (c) Administered efficiently to provide results either immediately or within two weeks;

     (d) Capable of measuring individual student growth over time and allowing student progress to be compared to other students across the country;

     (e) Readily available to parents; and

     (f) Cost-effective.

     (5) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall offer training at statewide and regional staff development activities in:

     (a) The interpretation of diagnostic assessments; and

     (b) Application of instructional strategies that will increase student learning based on diagnostic assessment data.

[2009 c 539 § 1; 2007 c 354 § 8; 2006 c 117 § 4; 2005 c 217 § 2.]

Notes:

     Effective date -- 2009 c 539: "This act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, or support of the state government and its existing public institutions, and takes effect July 1, 2009." [2009 c 539 § 7.]

     Findings -- Intent -- 2007 c 354: See note following RCW 28A.655.061.

     Intent -- 2006 c 117: See note following RCW 28A.600.045.




28A.655.210
K-12 education data improvement system.

(1) It is the legislature's intent to establish a comprehensive K-12 education data improvement system for financial, student, and educator data. The objective of the system is to monitor student progress, have information on the quality of the educator workforce, monitor and analyze the costs of programs, provide for financial integrity and accountability, and have the capability to link across these various data components by student, by class, by teacher, by school, by district, and statewide. Education data systems must be flexible and able to adapt to evolving needs for information, but there must be an objective and orderly data governance process for determining when changes are needed and how to implement them. It is the further intent of the legislature to provide independent review and evaluation of a comprehensive K-12 education data improvement system by assigning the review and monitoring responsibilities to the education data center and the legislative evaluation and accountability program committee.

     (2) It is the intent that the data system specifically service reporting requirements for teachers, parents, superintendents, school boards, the legislature, the office of the superintendent of public instruction, and the public.

     (3) It is the legislature's intent that the K-12 education data improvement system used by school districts and the state include but not be limited to the following information and functionality:

     (a) Comprehensive educator information, including grade level and courses taught, building or location, program, job assignment, years of experience, the institution of higher education from which the educator obtained his or her degree, compensation, class size, mobility of class population, socioeconomic data of class, number of languages and which languages are spoken by students, general resources available for curriculum and other classroom needs, and number and type of instructional support staff in the building;

     (b) The capacity to link educator assignment information with educator certification information such as certification number, type of certification, route to certification, certification program, and certification assessment or evaluation scores;

     (c) Common coding of secondary courses and major areas of study at the elementary level or standard coding of course content;

     (d) Robust student information, including but not limited to student characteristics, course and program enrollment, performance on statewide and district summative and formative assessments to the extent district assessments are used, and performance on college readiness tests;

     (e) A subset of student information elements to serve as a dropout early warning system;

     (f) The capacity to link educator information with student information;

     (g) A common, standardized structure for reporting the costs of programs at the school and district level with a focus on the cost of services delivered to students;

     (h) Separate accounting of state, federal, and local revenues and costs;

     (i) Information linking state funding formulas to school district budgeting and accounting, including procedures:

     (i) To support the accuracy and auditing of financial data; and

     (ii) Using the prototypical school model for school district financial accounting reporting;

     (j) The capacity to link program cost information with student performance information to gauge the cost-effectiveness of programs;

     (k) Information that is centrally accessible and updated regularly; and

     (l) An anonymous, nonidentifiable replicated copy of data that is updated at least quarterly, and made available to the public by the state.

     (4) It is the legislature's goal that all school districts have the capability to collect state-identified common data and export it in a standard format to support a statewide K-12 education data improvement system under this section.

     (5) It is the legislature's intent that the K-12 education data improvement system be developed to provide the capability to make reports as required under RCW
28A.300.507 available.

     (6) It is the legislature's intent that school districts collect and report new data elements to satisfy the requirements of RCW 43.41.400, this section, and RCW 28A.300.507, only to the extent funds are available for this purpose.

[2009 c 548 § 202.]

Notes:

     Intent -- 2009 c 548: See RCW 28A.150.1981.

     Finding -- 2009 c 548: See note following RCW 28A.410.270.

     Intent -- Finding -- 2009 c 548: See note following RCW 28A.305.130.




28A.655.220
Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills — Fairness and bias review.

Before implementing the Washington kindergarten inventory of developing skills as provided under RCW 28A.150.315, the superintendent of public instruction and the department of early learning must assure that a fairness and bias review of the assessment process has been conducted, including providing an opportunity for input from the *achievement gap oversight and accountability committee under RCW 28A.300.136 and from an additional diverse group of community representatives, parents, and educators to be convened by the superintendent and the director of the department.

[2011 c 340 § 2.]

Notes:

     *Reviser's note: The achievement gap oversight and accountability committee was renamed the educational opportunity gap oversight and accountability committee by 2011 1st sp.s. c 21 § 33.




28A.655.230
Reading skills — Meeting for grade placement and strategies for student improvement — Exemptions.

(1) The definitions in this subsection apply throughout this section and RCW 28A.655.235 unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

     (a) "Basic" means a score on the statewide student assessment at a level two in a four-level scoring system.

     (b) "Below basic" means a score on the statewide student assessment at a level one in a four-level scoring system.

     (c) "Not meet the state standard" means a score on the statewide student assessment at either a level one or a level two in a four-level scoring system.

     (2) Beginning in the 2014-15 school year, for any student who receives a score of below basic on the third grade statewide student assessment in English language arts, a meeting must be scheduled before the end of the school year between the student's parent or guardian, teacher, and the principal of the school the student attends or the principal's designee to discuss appropriate grade placement and recommended intensive strategies to improve the student's reading skills. For students to be placed in fourth grade, the strategies discussed must include an intensive improvement strategy provided, supported, or contracted by the school district that includes a summer program or other option identified by the parents, teacher, principal, or principal's designee as appropriately meeting the student's need to prepare for fourth grade. The parents or guardians must be fully informed about the strategies and the parent's or guardian's consent must be obtained regarding the appropriate grade placement and the intensive improvement strategy to be implemented. The school district must implement the strategy selected in consultation with the student's parents or guardians.

     (3) If a student does not have a score in English language arts on the third grade statewide student assessment but the district determines, using district or classroom-based diagnostic assessments or another standardized assessment, that the student's performance is equivalent to below basic in English language arts, the policy in subsection (2) of this section applies.

     (4) Students participating in the transitional bilingual instruction program are exempt from the policy in subsection (2) of this section, unless the student has participated in the transitional bilingual instruction program for three school years and receives a score of below basic on the third grade statewide student assessment in English language arts.

     (5) Students with disabilities whose individualized education program includes specially designed instruction in reading or English language arts are exempt from subsections (2), (3), and (4) of this section. Communication and consultation with parents or guardians of such students shall occur through the individualized education program process required under chapter 28A.155 RCW and associated administrative rules.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 18 § 105.]

Notes:

     Application -- Enforcement of laws protecting health and safety -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 18: See note following RCW 28A.600.022.




28A.655.235
Reading skills — Intensive reading and literacy improvement strategy — Calculation of tested students at or below basic on third grade student assessment — State menu of best practices.

(1)(a) Beginning in the 2015-16 school year, except as otherwise provided in this subsection (1), for any student who received a score of basic or below basic on the third grade statewide student assessment in English language arts in the previous school year, the school district must implement an intensive reading and literacy improvement strategy from a state menu of best practices established in accordance with subsection (3) of this section or an alternative strategy in accordance with subsection (4) of this section.

     (b) Reading and literacy improvement strategies for students with disabilities whose individualized education program includes specially designed instruction in reading or English language arts shall be as provided in the individualized education program.

     (2)(a) Also beginning in the 2015-16 school year, in any school where more than forty percent of the tested students received a score of basic or below basic on the third grade statewide student assessment in English language arts in the previous school year, as calculated under this subsection (2), the school district must implement an intensive reading and literacy improvement strategy from a state menu of best practices established in accordance with subsection (3) of this section or an alternative strategy in accordance with subsection (4) of this section for all students in grades kindergarten through four at the school.

     (b) For the purposes of this subsection (2), the office of the superintendent of public instruction shall exclude the following from the calculation of a school's percentage of tested students receiving a score of basic or below basic on the third grade statewide student assessment:

     (i) Students enrolled in the transitional bilingual instruction program unless the student has participated in the transitional bilingual instruction program for three school years;

     (ii) Students with disabilities whose individualized education program specifies a different standard to measure reading performance than is required for the statewide student assessment; and

     (iii) Schools with fewer than ten students in third grade.

     (3) The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall convene a panel of experts, including the Washington state institute for public policy, to develop a state menu of best practices and strategies for intensive reading and literacy improvement designed to assist struggling students in reaching grade level in reading by the end of fourth grade. The state menu must also include best practices and strategies to improve the reading and literacy of students who are English language learners and for system improvements that schools and school districts can implement to improve reading instruction for all students. The office of the superintendent of public instruction shall publish the state menu by July 1, 2014, and update the state menu by each July 1st thereafter.

     (4) School districts may use an alternative practice or strategy that is not on a state menu developed under subsection (3) of this section for two school years initially. If the district is able to demonstrate improved outcomes for participating students over the previous two school years at a level commensurate with the best practices and strategies on the state menu, the office of the superintendent of public instruction must approve use of the alternative practice or strategy by the district for one additional school year. Subsequent annual approval by the superintendent of public instruction to use the alternative practice or strategy is dependent on the district continuing to demonstrate an increase in improved outcomes for participating students.

[2013 2nd sp.s. c 18 § 106.]

Notes:

     Application -- Enforcement of laws protecting health and safety -- 2013 2nd sp.s. c 18: See note following RCW 28A.600.022.




28A.655.901
Part headings and captions not law — 1999 c 388.

Part headings and section captions used in this act are not any part of the law.

[1999 c 388 § 605.]




28A.655.902
Severability — 1999 c 388.

If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected.

[1999 c 388 § 609.]